| On a 12 October:
2001 Fighting with mortars, anti-aircraft guns, and assault rifles breaks out in Mogadishu between government troops and a militia loyal to factional leader Muse Sude Yalahow. Somalia's transitional government was chosen in 2000 at a peace conference in Djibouti. Somalia had been without a central government for a decade. It descended into chaos after opposition leaders who ousted dictator Mohamed Siad Barre in 1991 turned on each other. Clan-based factional fighting reduced the country of 7 million into battling fiefdoms ruled by heavily armed militias.
2000 Israel bombardea ciudades palestinas en represalia por el linchamiento de tres soldados israelíes el día anterior. Vease ( Guerras Arabe-Israelies).
1999 Pakistan's General Pervez Musharraf [photo >]
overthrows the democratically elected, but unpopular, ineffective, and corrupt
government of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif. The takeover comes after Sharif
tried to fire Musharraf this afternoon and replace him with General Khawaja
Ziauddin, head of the military intelligence. Instead, Musharraf orders his
troops to arrest Sharif, closes down the Islamabad airport and secures the
1999 Ahmed H. Zewail of the California Institute of Technology wins the Nobel Prize for chemistry. El Premio Nobel de Química fue para el egipcio Ahmed H. Zewail por haber desarrollado una poderosa técnica de láser para observar cómo los átomos recombinan los enlaces para formar moléculas.
1999 Dutch scientists Gerardus 't Hooft and Martinus J.G. Veltman win the Nobel Prize for physics "por haber dado a la física teórica de partículas una base matemática firme".
1999 Report: Russian troops corner Chechen leader in arms-length campaign (CNN)
1998 Los farmacólogos estadounidenses Robert F. Furchgott, Louis J. Ignarro y Ferid Murad reciben el Premio Nobel de Medicina por sus descubrimientos, que desembocaron en la identificación del óxido nítrico como la molécula clave que regula la presión sanguínea.
1998 El Gobierno colombiano de Andrés Pastrana Arango reconoce públicamente la representatividad política del Ejército de Liberación Nacional.
1998 US Congress passes Internet copyright law.
The US House of Representatives passes the Senate-approved Digital Millenium Copyright Act imposing new safeguards for copyrighted material on the Internet and barring technologies that could crack copyright protection devices. The legislation was introduced after treaties about digital information and copyrights were signed at the World Intellectual Property Organization's conference in Geneva in 1996. President Clinton signed the bill into law in late October 1998.
1998 Newspapers report that Hayes Corp., once a leading maker of modems, has filed for bankruptcy protection. Hayes, founded in 1978, quickly became the dominant maker of modems, but the company lost its dominance in the face of competition from US Robotics.
1996: US President Clinton signed into law the Water Resources Development Act, which authorized federal water projects across the country.
1996 Thousands of Hispanic-Americans march in Washington DC to push for simplified citizenship procedures and a $7 minimum wage.
1995 After a 48-hour delay, the US-brokered cease-fire in Bosnia-Herzegovina went into effect.
1995 It is announced that producer prices have climbed by 3/10 of 1 percent during the month of September. One analyst remarks, "inflation fundamentals look as good as they have in 30 years.
1994 Bertram N. Brockhouse (Canadá) y Clifford G. Shull (EEUU), Premios Nobel de Física, y George A. Olah (EEUU), Premio Nobel de Quimica.
1993 Toyota's 1'000'000th Camry
The Camry was first introduced by the Toyota Motor Company in 1983 as a replacement for its Corona Sedan. Hoping to follow in the path of the popular Toyota flagship, the Cressida, the roomy and durable Camry immediately proved a bestseller, fairing well against the likes of the Honda Accord and domestic US compacts. In the late eighties the Camry, now Toyota's most popular model, saw an upsized redesign, boasting a new twin-cam 2.0 liter 4-cylinder engine with 16 valves and a much greater horsepower potential than the previous model. In 1992 the Camry was again stylishly redesigned, approaching mid-size while maintaining its original efficiency. On this day, a decade after it was first introduced, the one-millionth Camry rolled off a Toyota assembly line. Four years later, in 1997, the Toyota Camry became the bestselling car in America.
1990 The UN Security Council votes unanimously to condemn Israel's security forces for killing 17 Palestinian demonstrators on the Temple Mount.
| 1988 Israel and China sign trade deal, plan diplomatic
1985 Internationall Physicians for Prevention of Nuclear War receives Nobel Prize.
1982 38.6 cm of rainfall, Angoon, Alaska (state record)
1979 Dimite el gobierno de Islandia, presidido por Olafur Johannesson, que convoca nuevas elecciones.
1978 Representatives of Israel and Egypt open talks in Washington
1977 Psychic Romark attempts to drive blindfolded, smashed into cop van
1977 US Supreme Court heard arguments in "reverse discrimination" case of Allan Bakke, white student denied admission to U of Calif Med School
1977 General Electric announces record earnings during the third quarter, up 18%: $268.5.
1976 It is announced in China that Hua Guo-feng had been named to succeed the late Mao Tse-tung as chairman of the Communist Party.
1975 Archbishop Oliver Plunkett became 1st Irish-born saint in 7 centuries.
1973 Juan Domingo Perón Sosa es investido presidente de Argentina.
1973 US President Nixon names House minority leader Gerald R. Ford (R) of Michigan to succeed Spiro T. Agnew as vice president.
1969 Las tropas de Vietnam del sur se hacen cargo de la defensa de Saigón.
| 1968 Equatorial Guinea gains independence from Spain
(National Day) Independencia de Guinea Ecuatorial tras 180 años de
soberanía española. Su primer presidente es Francisco Macías.
1964 USS.R. launches Voskhod 1 into orbit around the Earth, with cosmonauts Vladamir Komarov, Konstantin Feoktistov, and Boris Yegorov aboard. The Voskhod 1 is the first spacecraft to carry a multi-person crew, and the two-day mission is also the first flight performed without space suits.
1963 Archaeological digs begin at Masada, Israel
1962 US and USSR sign joint space effort in telecommunications and meteorology
1943 The US Fifth Army begins an assault crossing of the Volturno River in Italy.
1943 Portugal concede bases militares en las Azores a los aliados.
1942 US navy defeats Japanese in WW II Battle of Cape Esperance
1941 La " División Azul" de la España Franquista recibe su bautismo de fuego al lado de los Nazis en el frente ruso..
1941 Russian government moves from Moscow to Volga as Nazis close in on Moscow
1939 Chamberlain rejette le plan de paix de Hitler du 6 octobre.
1931 1st International Conference on Calendar Reform
1927 Hermann Gorner of Germany raises 24 men weighing 1870 kg on a plank with the soles of his feet
1925 Lyautey quitte le Maroc. Le général Lyautey est maréchal de France depuis 1921. La gauche portée au pouvoir en 1924 lui reproche son attitude de proconsul dans les fonctions de résident général de France au Maroc. Lorsqu'il apprend que Painlevé lui retire le commandement des troupes contre Abd el-Krim pour les confier au maréchal Pétain, Lyautey démissionne. Et rentre en France.
1920 Se firma el Tratado de Riga entre Polonia y Rusia, tras la Primera Guerra Mundial.
1918 1st use of iron lung (Boston's Children Hospital)
1915 EE.UU. reconoce a Carranza como presidente de México.
1915 Theodore Roosevelt criticizes US citizens with dual nationalities
1911 Se proclama la república de China del Sur.
| 1907 El ex diputado español Alejandro Lerroux
García es condenado a dos años, cuatro meses y un día de prisión
1907 El socialdemócrata alemán Karl Liebknecht es condenado a año y medio de cárcel por publicar Militarismo y antimilitarismo.
1899 The Anglo-Boer War begins. Zulu mountain trap sprung in the Anglo-Zulu War.
1886 Start of Sherlock Holmes The Adventure of The Second Stain
1872 Apache leader Cochise signs a peace treaty with General Howard in Arizona Territory.
1868 Jesuits are expelled from Spain.
1862 JEB Stuart completes his "2nd ride around McClellan"
1862 Maj Gen Earl Van Dorn assumes command of Confederate troops in Missisippi
1861 Confederate ironclad Manassas attacks Union's Richmond on Mississippi
1861 First ironclad in the US Navy, USS St. Louis, launched at Carondelet, Maryland
1860 British and French troops capture Peking
1822 2nd eruption of Galunggung (Java) destroys summit of mountain
1815 Argentina, tras el fracaso de las campañas militares en la zona, no tiene más remedio que reconocer la segregación de la provincia paraguaya.
1813 Se proclama la independencia total de Paraguay.
1761 Manuel de Amat y Junyent es nombrado virrey del Perú.
1722 Shah Sultan Husayn surrenders the Persian capital of Isfahan to Afghan rebels after a seven month siege.
1702 Admiral Sir George Rooke defeats the French fleet off Vigo.
1609 The song "Three Blind Mice" is published in London, believed to be the earliest printed secular song.
| 1576 Rudolf II, the king of Hungary and Bohemia, succeeds
his father, Maximillian II, as Holy Roman Emperor.
1518 Summoned before Cardinal Thomas Cajetan, German reformer Martin Luther, 35, refuses to recant the 95 theses he had posted the previous October on the chapel door at Wittenberg Castle.
which occurred on a 12 October:
2003 Six Iraqi security guards and a suicide car bomber, in 12:50 explosion just past the security barrier, 50 meters from the Baghdad Hotel, Saadun Street, Bahgdad, Iraq, as guards fire at the suicide car. Some 35 persons are injured.
2003 Fathur Rahman al-Ghozi, 32, after soldiers, at 19:15, flagged down a vehicle traveling on a highway in the town of Pigkawayan in the province of North Cotabato, Philippines, the small car did not stop, and a man later determined to be al-Ghozi grabbed his companion's firearm and began shooting, Al-Ghozi was shot and wounded. He was taken to a hospital but died before arriving there. Al-Ghozi, a graduate of an Indonesian religious school founded by the spiritual leader of the terrorist organization Jemaah Islamiah, also studied in Pakistan and was trained in the use of weapons and explosives. He entered the Philippines in 1996 and trained Jemaah Islamiah recruits at a camp of the Moro Islamic Liberation Front. Al-Ghozi was arrested in January 2002 in Manila. He was sentenced to a 10- to 12-year sentence for illegally possessing one ton of TNT, which was intended for attacks on Western targets in Singapore, including the U.S. Embassy. He was also accused of involvement in the bombing of the Philippine ambassador's home in Jakarta in August 2000, which seriously injured the ambassador and killed two bystanders, and of engineering the bombings that killed 22 people in Manila in December 2000. On 14 July 2003, al-Ghozi and two other inmates walked out of their cell after learning that the latch on the door could be pried open enough to let them slip through. He became the target of a major manhunt involving 67 special police tracker teams.
2003 At least 12 policemen and 16 of the Maoist rebels who attack a police training center in Bhaluwang, in the west of Nepal.
2002 Seven Filipino marines fighting a faction of the Abu Sayyaf Islamic bandits on the Philippines island of Jolo. 25 marines are wounded. The bandits are believed to be holding hostage four female Jehovah's Witnesses, who were kidnapped on 20 August 2002 while selling Avon cosmetics in a remote village. Three Indonesian tugboat crewmen are also being held hostage.
2002:: 188 persons by terrorist car bomb which, at 23:30 (15:30 UT), explodes in front of the Sari nightclub at Kuta Beach, a popular tourist resort in Bali, and starts a huge fire, fed by exploding gas cylinders. This happens moments after a small explosion in front of the discotheque at Paddy's Irish Pub 30 meters away. About 20 other buildings on the same block and 20 cars are destroyed or badly damaged. Some 300 persons are injured, 90 of them critically. The dead and missing (of which 7 must be alive if all numbers are correct, which is unlikely as many of the bodies are burned beyond recognition) are 66 Australians, 7 US nationals, 9 Indonesians, 1 Canadian, 40 Britons, 10 Swedes, 8 foreign residents of Singapore, 1 French person, 1 Dutch, 14 Germans, 1 Ecuatorian, 1 Greek, 3 Danes, several Japanese (my guess: 4), 3 New Zealanders, 1 Portuguese, 19 South Africans, 2 South Koreans, 1 Swiss, 1 Taiwanese, and 2 Brazilians. Some of the most critically injured survivors would die during the next few days, including one Australian on an evacuation flight to Darwin, another Australian after reaching a Darwin hospital, and on 22 October Australian Jodie Cearns. Names of 66 Australians, 25 Britons, and 2 US nationals dead or missing MORE at The Sydney Morning Herald
[later in the night, the fire is burning down]
[the sight at the site, the next morning]
17 US sailors aboard destroyer, and the 2 suicide boat-bomb attackers
The destroyer USS Cole, en route to the Persian Gulf with a crew of about 350, is in port at Aden, Yemen, for a refueling. After completing mooring at 09:30 (06:30 UT), the refueling begins at 10:30. A little later the destroyer is approached by a small rubber craft manned by two men, who wave to the sailors, and then at 11:18 the small boat explodes, tearing a 6 by 12 m hole at midhull in the port side (where the armor plate is over 1 cm thick), killing 17 sailors (some initially listed as missing), another 39 are injured, 5 of them gravely.
The ship was listing four degrees to its port side after the explosion. The Cole is an 8600-ton ship of the Burke destroyer class, 154 m long, and carries sophisticated Aegis weaponry. Its home port is Norfolk, Va.
Pro-Palestinian, anti-Israel, anti-US demonstrations had been held daily in Yemen in sympathy with the current Aqsa intifadah.
For the next 8 days, the US Navy puts out a false version of the facts, making the Cole seem less lax in security. It is only after the Navy Times investigates the mis-statements, that, on 21 October, the Navy changes its story.
1984 Five persons by an IRA (Irish Republican Army) terrorist bomb in the hotel where British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher is staying.
1984 Suvorov, mathematician.
1972 Álvaro Cepeda Samudio, escritor y periodista colombiano.
1952 Marceliano Santamaría Sedano, pintor español.
1969 Serge Poliakoff, Russian-born (08 January 1900) French School of Paris abstract painter. more with links to images.
1933, Sheriff of Allen County, Ohio, killed by the gang of bank robber John Dillinger, as they help him escape from the jail.
1926 Edwin Abbott Abbott, author of Flatland, Flatland.
1918: 559 die in forest fire which destroys Cloquet, Minn, and 25 other communities
1915 Ferdinand Hart Nibbrig, Dutch artist born on 05 April 1866.
1869 Julián Sanz del Río, filósofo español.
1869 François Joseph Navez, French Neoclassical painter, specialized in History Painting, active in Brussels, born on 16 November 1787 . MORE ON NAVEZ AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images.
1866 Antonie Waldorp, Dutch painter born on 22 March 1803. The River Meuse at Dordrecht
1864 Roger Brooke Taney, 87, US Supreme Court Chief Justice
1860 Sir Henry G W Smith, 73, leader of British-Indian forces.
1840 Jeanne-Philiberte Ledoux, French artist born in 1767. links to two images
1837 Louis Dupré, French artist born on 09 January 1789.
1809 Meriwether Lewis, of the Lewis and Clark expedition, dies under mysterious circumstances in St. Louis.
1772 Samuel Scott, British painter born in 1703. more with links to images.
1694 Matsuo Basho greatest Japanese haiku poet
1682 Jean Picard, mathematician
1678 Willem Schellinks (or Schellings), Dutch artist born on 02 February 1627.
1678 Pieter-Jacobs Codde (or Kodde, Codden), Baptized as an infant on 11 December 1599, Dutch genre painter of small but spirited drinking scenes and conversation pieces. He was also a poet. MORE ON CODDE AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images.
1303 Bonifacio VIII, Papa.
1285: 180 Jews set on fire in Munich Germany, for refusing baptism.
0642 John IV Pope
0638 Honorius I Pope
| Births which occurred
on a 12 October:
1971 The rock musical Jesus Christ, Superstar opens at the Mark Hellinger Theatre on Broadway, creating an uproar when it seems to declare Christ is just a man.. (Twenty years later, the actor who played the part of Jesus, Jeff Fenholt would become a born-again Christian.)
1952 Gonzalo Santonja, filólogo español, escritor y profesor.
1950 Ronald E. McNair (would grow up to be a physicist, astronaut:, and die 860128 with 6 others as mission specialist aboard the exploding Challenger 10 Space Shuttle)
1937 Robert Mangold, US minimalist artist. MORE ON MANGOLD AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images.
1932 Dick Gregory comedian/political activist/dietician (Bahamian Diet)
1929 Robert Coles, child psychologist and author (The Moral Intelligence of Children) (Pulitzer 1973 General Non-Fiction for Children Of Crisis)
1927 Mariana Pineda, de Federico García Lorca, se estrena en el teatro Fontalba.
1923 Jean Nidetch (diet mogul: founder of Weight Watchers)
1894 Dr Charles Hodge Calif, NYU professor (Answers for Americans)
1896 Eugenio Montale, Italian poet, prose writer, editor, and translator, who won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1975. He died on 12 September 1981. MORE
1891 Perle Mesta (Skirvin) (socialite)
1875 Edward Alexander "Aleister" Crowley, author of The Book of Lies, The Book of the Law, Magick in Theory and Practice, Magick Without Tears
1874 Abraham Arden Brill, translator of these works of Freud: The History of the Psychoanalytic Movement, The Interpretation of Dreams, The Interpretation of Dreams, Psychopathology of Everyday Life.
1873 George Cabot Lodge, author of Herakles, Poems (1899-1902), The Song of the Wave, and Other Poems, The Soul's Inheritance, and Other Poems
1872 Ralph Vaughan Williams Down Amp England, composer (Hugh the Drover)
1866 Ramsay MacDonald (L) British PM (1924, 1929-35)
1862 Louis Marie de Schryver, French artist who died on 06 December 1942.
1860 Elmer Ambrose Sperry [image >], inventor of applications of gyroscope (gyrocompass in 1908: patent #1242065 Sperry Automatic Pilot ship steerer ship stabilizer); founder of 8 corporations, from which arose the Sperry-Rand Corp. Among his inventions, for which he received 360 patents, are also new systems of street lighting, new machinery for mining, electric devices for trolley cars, an electric automobile, a lighting system for movie projection, an electric arc light, a high-power searchlight, and electrochemical processes. Sperry died on 16 June 1930.
1844 George Washington Cable American writer (Northampton Years) and reformer, author of The Grandisimmes: A Story of Creole Life, John March, Southerner, Old Creole Days, Old Creole Days
1812 Eduard Schleich Sr., German painter who died on 08 January 1874. more with link to an image.
1798 Pedro I 1st emperor of Brazil (1822-31), king of Portugal .
1753 Lié-Louis Perin-Salbreux, French artist who died on 20 December 1817.
1745 Félix María de Samaniego, fabulista español.
1637 Cesare Gennari, Italian artist who died on 11 February 1688.
1537 Edward VI king of England (1547-53), the only son of Henry VIII, by Jane Seymour, the third of his six wives.