an October 16:
2002 Nautilus Group (NLS) is downgraded by Wells Fargo
Securities and by UBS Warburg from Buy to Hold, by Adams Harkness from
Strong Buy to Market Perform, by CIBC World Markets from Sector Outperform
to Sector Perform, by USB Piper Jaffray from Outperform to Underperform.
On the New York Stock Exchange, 9 million of the 35 million NLS shares
are traded, dropping from their previous close of $23.85 (also the intraday
high, after a rise from an 08 October intraday low of $17.31) to an intraday
low of $13.55 and closing at $13.65. They had traded as high as $45.89
as recently as 02 May 2002. They had started trading on 05 May 1999 at
4.23. [4~year price chart >] The Nautilus Group is a
fitness concern offering in-the-home equipment under brand names such
as Bowflex, StairMaster, and Schwinn, as well as Nautilus. On 15 October,
NLS announced third-quarter earnings of 71 cents per share, 1 cent above
analysts' estimates and 49% above the 2001 third-quarter. But the company
expressed some uncertainty for 2003, hence the downgrades.
2002 On 15 October AMERCO (UHAL) announced default on
a $100 million debt due that day. Fitch Ratings lowers AMERCO's senior
unsecured debt and preferred stock ratings to 'DD' and 'D' from 'B+' and
'B-' (to which, one day earlier, it had reduced them from 'BB+' and 'BB-').
the NASDAQ, 415 thousand of the 26 million UHAL shares are traded, dropping
from their previous close of $7.20 to an intraday low of $3.10 and closes
at $7.20. It had trended downward for at least the last 5 years ($35.88
on 20 October 1997) and traded as high as $18.20 as recently as 15 May
2002. [< 5~year price chart]. AMERCO is a holding company
whose principal subsidiaries are U-Haul International, Inc. (U-Haul),
Republic Western Insurance Co., Oxford Life Insurance Co., and AMERCO
Real Estate Co. U-Haul is the leading consumer truck and trailer rental
company in North America and maintains a strong market position in the
2002 On the 24th anniversary of John Paul II`s election
to the papacy, he puts out the apostolic letter Rosarium Virginis
Mariae, a part of which adds these mysteries of light
(of the ministry of Jesus) to the Rosary: the Baptism of Jesus [Mt 3:17],
the miracle of Cana [Jn 2:1-12], the call to conversion and promise of
forgiveness [Mk 1:15, 2:3-13; Lk 7:47-48; Jn 20:22-23], the Transfiguration
[Lk 9:35], and the Eucharist [Jn 13:1]. [I cannot find the
text in Latin!] translations: English
2002 The Netherlands' Prime Minister Jan Peter Balkenende,
a Christian Democrat, resigns. He will stay on as the head of a caretaker
government until new elections in about two months. In the government
three-party coalition, the Christian Democrats and the Liberals grew exasperated
with the infighting among their coalition partners, the right-wing List
Pim Fortuyn (LPF), created in February, which came in second in the 15
May 2002 general elections, just nine days after Fortuyn, its populist
founder, was killed by a lone gunman, an animal rights activist. The government
had already adopted some of the LPF's proposals, including a stricter
immigration policy, a crackdown on crime and some reforms of the inefficient
public health system. But the LPF's 26 seats in Parliament and its four
ministerial posts were occupied by newcomers who lacked political experience,
party discipline, and a coherent program. They contradicted each other,
changing leaders, forcing some members to resign and expelling two deputies.
One faction now wants to replace the latest party leader, Harry Wijnschenk,
the publisher of a motorcycle magazine. Two LPF cabinet members were constantly
fighting to control the party: Herman Heinsbroek, a wealthy owner of a
record company who was the economy minister, and deputy prime minister
Eduard Bomhoff, who had been an economist and an iconoclastic newspaper
columnist. It is questionable whether the LPF can survive at all. A recent
opinion poll said that it could win just 4 of its present 26 seats in
2002 At a ceremony at the statue of Sherlock Holmes outside
Baker Street subway station in London, he becomes the first fictional
character to be made an honorary fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry.
Fellow fellow John Watson (no, not the fictional Dr. Watson) says: Sherlock
Holmes was way beyond his time in using chemistry and chemical sciences
as a means of cracking crime. Many years ago Holmes was using what would
one day be forensic science in detection. Thanks to this science today,
more crimes are solved than ever before. This year is the centenary
of Holmes' most celebrated case, The
Hound of the Baskervilles.
2001 The Times of London reveals that, recently,
Scottish charity worker Lady Morton, 100, hit a traffic island while driving
her 100th birthday present, a new car. It is her first accident since
she bought her first car in 1927. She intends to continue driving, as
her license goes on until 2004.
2001 Best-selling British novelist Ken Follett bids 2200
pounds ($3185) at a London charity auction to appear in another author's
next book. The millionaire thriller writer is taking part in the 'Immortality
Auction' a charity event which allows members of the public to
pay to star in a bestseller. Follett won the right to appear in the next
book by British cult fantasy writer Terry Pratchett. "I want to appear
as a giant but Terry is making no promises," Follett said in a statement.
"All he asked me is how I want to die, which is a little disconcerting."
Pratchett's "Discworld" series dominated a recent survey of Britain's
best-selling books of all time. The auction raised 5000 pounds for the
Medical Foundation for the Care of Victims of Torture, which supports
refugees and asylum seekers. Follett was also one of nine authors selling
a place in their next novel. Organizers did not name the other successful
bidders, but said the amount raised by each author was: Raymond Benson
180 pounds, Margaret Atwood 200 pounds, Pat Barker 200 pounds, Robert
Harris 220 pounds, Ian McEwan 280 pounds, David Lodge 300 pounds, Zadie
Smith 300 pounds and Follett 350 pounds. In last year's inaugural auction,
Australian satirical writer Kathy Lette received the highest bid of 6200
pounds ($9090) and pledged to give Sherlaine Green a major part in her
next comic romp. The charity raised nearly 25'000 pounds from last year's
2000 As the al-Aqsa intifada heats up, US President Clinton
initiates a fresh effort to try to cool Middle East tensions at an emergency
summit in Egypt that includes Israeli and Palestinian leaders, as well
as the leaders of Egypt and Jordan and UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan.
2000 Million Family March, organized by Louis Farrakhan.
1999 Russia pursues Chechen Islamist campaign (CNN)
1998 The Norwegian Nobel Committee announces that it
has decided to award the Nobel Peace Prize for 1998 to John Hume and David
Trimble for their efforts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict
in Northern Ireland. MORE
1998 Hackers break into America Online and altered the
online service's Internet address. Millions of e-mail messages were misdirected
as a result.
1995 The Million
Man March for 'A Day of Atonement' takes place in Washington, D.C.,
organized by Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan.
1995 Primer juicio con jurado, de carácter experimental,
que se celebra en España desde la aprobación de la Ley que lo establece.
Siete hombres y dos mujeres juzgaron y condenaron en la Audiencia de Palma
de Mallorca a un hombre acusado de asesinato.
1994 Finlandia ratifica en referéndum su integración
en la Unión Europea (UE) con el 57% de los votos.
1994 La coalición gobernante del canciller Helmut Kohl
vence en las elecciones legislativas en Alemania.
1991 Levon Ter Petrosian, hasta entonces presidente del
Soviet Supremo de Ereván, resulta elegido presidente de Armenia en las
primeras elecciones presidenciales y democráticas.
1990 US forces reach 200'000 in the Persian Gulf
1987 175-kph winds cause blackout in London, much of
1987 At 20:30 in Midland, Texas, Jessica McClure, 19
months old, is rescued 59 hours (58 of digging and of intensive TV and
other news media coverage) after falling 6.7 m into a narrow well shaft
on 14 October 1987. Jessica would remember nothing though she lost her
right little toe and would be left with a minor scar from a cosmetic surgery
skin graft on her forehead, performed at Midland's Memorial Hospital,
from which she was released on 20 November 1987. But the intense publicity
affected the other people involved. Robert O’Donnell, the paramedic who
freed Jessica from the well, suffered from depression and post traumatic
stress syndrome after the incident and the controversy surrounding a movie
made about it; he shot himself dead in 1995. Jessica's mother, Reba Cissy,
18 at the time, and teenaged father, Chip, would divorce and marry others.
Chip would also divorce his second wife. Odessa American photographer
Scott Shaw, 24, would win a Pulitzer Prize for his photo of the newly
rescued infant surrounded by weary-eyed rescuers. The ABC TV movie Everybody's
Baby: The Rescue of Jessica McClure would be first shown on 21 May
1986 Se decreta el estado de excepción en Nicaragua.
1986 The Nobel Prize in literature goes to Wole
Soyinka from Nigeria, in his early fifties. Among his writings are
the collection of essays Myth, Literature and the African World
and some of he finest poetical plays that have written in English, such
as A Dance of the Forests and Death and The King's Horseman.
1986 The Royal
Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the1986 Alfred Nobel
Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences to Professor James McGill Buchanan,
of George Mason University, Virginia, for his development of the contractual
and constitutional bases for the theory of economic and political decision-making.
1986 US government closes down due to budget problems
1985 The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided
to award the Nobel Prize in Physics for 1985 to Professor Klaus von Klitzing,
Max-Planck-Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart, Federal Republic
of Germany, for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect. MORE
1984 The Norwegian
Nobel Committee has chosen to award the Nobel Peace Prize for 1984
to Black Bishop
Desmond Tutu, General Secretary of the South African Council of Churches,
for his role as a unifying leader figure in the campaign to resolve the
problem of apartheid in South Africa. MORE
Mt Palomar Observatory 1st to detect Halley's comet on 13th return
|1984 First Baboon Heart Transplant
At Loma Linda University Medical
Center in California, Dr. Leonard L. Bailey performs the first baboon
heart transplant, an operation in which a diseased human heart is
replaced by a healthy baboon heart. The patient is a fifteen-day-old
baby girl known as "Baby Fae," whose plight attracts national attention.
After a month-long struggle, the infant's immune system finally rejects
the baboon heart, and Baby Fae dies on 15 November.
1982 Shultz warns US will withdraw from UN if it
votes to exclude Israel.
1981 Una delegación del
PCE (Partido Comunista de España) entrega en el Ministerio de la
Presidencia 500'000 firmas contra el ingreso de España en la OTAN.
1978 The college of cardinals elects the Archbishop of
Kracow, Poland, Karol Cardinal Karol Wojtyla, 58, the first non-Italian
Pope since 1523, he takes the name of John Paul II. [Cardinal Wojtyla
greeted a few weeks earlier by his immediate predecessor, the 33-day pope
John Paul I >]
1978 Juan Marsé
gana el premio Planeta de novela con su obra La muchacha de las bragas
1975 María Estela Martínez de Perón
retoma la presidencia de Argentina.
1973 The Nobel
Committee of the Norwegian Storting decides to award the Peace Prize for
1973 to Henry
Kissinger and Le Duc Tho, the two chief negotiators who succeeded in
arranging the Vietnam ceasefire after negotiating for nearly four years.
Kissinger would accept, but Tho decline the award until such time as "peace
is truly established.
1970 Anwar Sadat elected president of
Egypt, succeeding Gamal Abdel Nasser.
1967 Ángel María de Lera García obtiene el premio
Planeta, con la novela Las últimas banderas.
Bombing halt discussed ^top^
In a series of meetings with US Ambassador
Ellsworth Bunker, South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu insists
that North Vietnam assent to three conditions prior to a bombing halt.
He said the North Vietnamese had to (1) agree to respect the neutrality
of the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ), (2) stop shelling South Vietnamese
cities and towns, and (3) agree to South Vietnamese participation
in the Paris talks. He also demanded that the National Liberation
Front, the Communist political organization in South Vietnam, be excluded
from the negotiations. Thieu seemed to soften during his discussions
with Bunker: on October 22, he announced that he would not oppose
a bombing halt.
1964 Brezhnev and Kosygin replace Krushchev as head of
China becomes world's 4th nuclear power
People's Republic of China detonates its first nuclear bomb at the
Lop Nor test site in the western province of Xin Jiang. The successful
explosion of the twenty-two-kiloton fission bomb makes China the world's
fourth nuclear power, after the United States, the Soviet Union, and
Great Britain. Nuclear testing at the Lop Nor site continues well
into the 1990s, with China detonating an average of one nuclear weapon
every year within the extremely radioactive area of Lop Nor. In 1980,
exactly sixteen years after the detonation of their first bomb, China
moved its nuclear testing out of the atmosphere and underground.
The People's Republic of China joins
the rank of nations with atomic bomb capability, after a successful
nuclear test on this day in 1964. China is the fifth member of this
exclusive club, joining the United States, the Soviet Union, Great
Britain, and France.
were not terribly surprised by the test; intelligence reports since
the 1950s indicated that China was working to develop an atomic bomb,
possibly aided by Soviet technicians and scientists. Nevertheless,
the successful test did cause concern in the US government. During
the early 1960s, China took a particularly radical stance that advocated
worldwide revolution against the forces of capitalism, working strenuously
to extend its influence in Asia and the new nations of Africa. The
test, coming just two months after the Tonkin Gulf Resolution (a congressional
resolution giving President Lyndon B. Johnson the power to respond
to communist aggression in Vietnam) created a frightening specter
of nuclear confrontation and conflict in Southeast Asia.
The test also concerned the Soviet Union; the split between the USSR
and Communist China over ideological and strategic issues had widened
considerably by 1964. The Chinese acquisition of nuclear capabilities
only heightened the tensions between the two nations. Indeed, the
test might have been a spur to the Soviets to pursue greater efforts
to stop the proliferation of nuclear weapons; in 1968, the United
States and the Soviet Union signed the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation
of Nuclear Weapons. Little wonder that the Soviets would wish to see
China's nuclear force limited, since the first Chinese intermediate-range
missiles were pointedly aimed at Russia. The Cold War nuclear arms
race had just become a good deal more complicated.
1964 James Harold Wilson, primer ministro
británico tras el triunfo laborista en las elecciones.
El comité de descolonización de la ONU pide al Reino Unido y a España que
inicien negociaciones sobre Gibraltar.
R White becomes a Supreme Court Justice
1956 William J Brennan Jr becomes a Supreme Court Justice
|1962 Kennedy awakes to the Cuban
AStill in his pajamas, US President Kennedy
is informed during his breakfast that photoanalysts have the previous
day detected offensive Soviet missile bases in Cuba. It is now clear
that for months the Soviets had purposely been deceiving the US by
claiming that they only have purely defensive missiles in Cuba. Kennedy
immediately schedules two meetings for that morning. First, he wants
to see the
photographs himself. Kennedy remarks, "They look like footballs
on a football field." Those missiles have a range of 2000 km, they
could reach New York, Washington DC, Philadelphia, Houston. The missiles
are not yet operational but they soon can be.
For the second meeting Kennedy picks a group of trusted government
officials, later referred to as the Executive Committee of the National
Security Council (EX-COMM).
Secretary of Defense Robert
McNamara outlines three possible courses of action for the US
to take against Cuba and the Soviet Union.
1. Diplomacy with Castro and Khrushchev an option which most
members of EX-COMM deem unlikely to succeed.
2. Surveillance combined with a blockade against offensive weapons
3. Military action against Cuba, starting with an air attack against
the missiles, followed by an invasion.
EX-COMM works from the premise that the missile warheads were not
yet in Cuba. Therefore, the goal is to stop the warheads from reaching
Cuba or to prevent the missiles from becoming fully operational. Most
of the discussion is of the military option and how the Soviets would
What EX-COMM dosn't
know was that the Soviets do have nuclear warheads in Cuba. They had
also installed battlefield nuclear weapons in Cuba to stop an invasion.
Kennedy wants to appear tough
yet avoid a military confrontation. No matter what action the US takes,
EX-COMM expects Khrushchev to retaliate.
1973 Israeli General Ariel Sharon crosses the
Suez Canal and begins to encircle two Egyptian armies.
President Harry Truman lifts price controls on meat.
El " maquis", una fuerza expedicionaria de 4000 hombres armados organizada
por los comunistas, se introduce en España.
Tropas soviéticas penetran en Prusia Oriental.
German invading troops advances to within 100 km of Moscow
Lottery for 1st US WW II draftees held; #158 drawn 1st
1940 Warsaw Ghetto established
1931 Las Cortes españolas establecen el divorcio por mutuo
disenso o a petición de cualquiera de las partes; este último supuesto sólo
es aplicable bajo ciertas condiciones.
|1934 Mao's Long March begins.
Mao Tse-tung decides to abandon his base
in Kiangsi due to attacks from Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalists. With
his pregnant wife and about 30'000 Red Army troops, he sets out on
the "Long March.
Chinese Communists break through Nationalist enemy lines and begin
an epic flight from their encircled headquarters in southwest China.
Known as Ch'ang Cheng the "Long March" the retreat lasted
368 days and covered 6,000 miles, nearly twice the distance from New
York to San Francisco. Civil war in China between the Nationalists
and the Communists broke out in 1927. In 1931, Communist leader Mao
Zedong was elected chairman of the newly established Soviet Republic
of China, based in Kiangsi province in the southwest. Between 1930
and 1934, the Nationalists under Chiang Kai-shek launched a series
of five encirclement campaigns against the Soviet Republic.
Under the leadership of Mao, the Communists
employed guerrilla tactics to resist successfully the first four campaigns,
but in the fifth, Chiang raised 700'000 soldiers and built fortifications
around the Communist positions. Hundreds of thousands of peasants
were killed or died of starvation in the siege, and Mao was removed
as chairman by the Communist Central Committee. The new Communist
leadership employed more conventional warfare tactics, and its Red
Army was decimated. With defeat imminent, the Communists decided to
break out of the encirclement at its weakest points. The Long March
began at 5:00 p.m. on October 16, 1934. Secrecy and rear-guard actions
confused the Nationalists, and it was several weeks before they realized
that the main body of the Red Army had fled. The retreating force
initially consisted of 86'000 soldiers, 15'000 civilian men, and 35
women. Weapons and supplies were borne on men's backs or in horse-drawn
carts, and the line of marchers stretched for 80 km. The Communists
generally marched at night, and when the enemy was not near, a long
column of torches could be seen snaking over valleys and hills into
The first disaster
came in November, when Nationalist forces blocked the Communists'
route across the Hsiang River. It took a week for the Communists to
break through the fortifications and cost them 50'000 men more
than half their number. After that debacle, Mao steadily regained
his influence, and in January he was again made chairman during a
meeting of the party leaders in the captured city of Tsuni. Mao changed
strategy, breaking his force into several columns that would take
varying paths to confuse the enemy. There would be no more direct
assaults on enemy positions. And the destination would now be Shensi
Province, in the far northwest, where the Communists hoped to fight
the Japanese invaders and earn the respect of China's masses. After
enduring starvation, aerial bombardment, and almost daily skirmishes
with Nationalist forces, Mao halted his columns at the foot of the
Great Wall of China on 20 October 1935. Waiting for them were
five machine-gun- and red-flag-bearing horsemen. "Welcome, Chairman
Mao," one said. "We represent the Provincial Soviet of Northern Shensi.
We have been waiting for you anxiously. All that we have is at your
disposal!" The Long March was over. The Communist marchers crossed
24 rivers and 18 mountain ranges, mostly snow-capped. Only 4000 soldiers
completed the journey. The majority of those who did not, perished.
It was the longest continuous march in the history of warfare and
contributed to the emergence of Mao Zedong as the undisputed leader
of the Chinese Communists. Learning of the Communists' heroism and
determination in the Long March, thousands of young Chinese traveled
to Shensi to enlist in Mao's Red Army. After fighting the Japanese
for a decade, the Chinese Civil War resumed in 1945. Four years later,
the Nationalists were defeated, and Mao proclaimed the People's Republic
of China. He served as chairman until his death in 1976.
School Board prohibits teaching of evolution
Fin de la conferencia de Locarno.
Sanger opens 1st birth control clinic (46 Amboy St, Brooklyn)
Los alemanes utilizan por primera vez un arma nueva, el lanzallamas, en
la batalla de Iser.
1911 Se descubre un complot para asesinar al presidente
de EE.UU. William Howard Taft, que pretendía hacer saltar la vía férrea
al paso del tren presidencial.
|1911 Progressive Party nominates
LaFollette for President
The Progressive Party was searching for a presidential candidate to
help them wage war against the ever-expanding corporations that they
felt were engulfing the nation. The party had once nominated Teddy
Roosevelt, but the former president, who had allowed the United States
Steel Corporation to grow into an industry-dominating giant, was hardly
a model trust-buster. So, on this day, the Progressives gave the nod
to Republican reformer Robert LaFollette. However, fatigue prevented
LaFollette from carrying the nomination through to the convention
and he was quickly replaced by the more trust-friendly Roosevelt.
Despite his populist appeal and previous experience in the Oval Office,
Roosevelt went on to lose the general election to William Howard Taft.
1902 Alphonse Bertillon
utiliza por primera vez las huellas digitales para solucionar un caso judicial.
1902 Guerra civil en Venezuela, donde los combates
1901 President Theodore Roosevelt
causes controversy by inviting black leader Booker T. Washington to the
1869 Hotel in Boston becomes the 1st
to have indoor plumbing
1867 Alaska adopts the
Gregorian calendar, crosses intl date line
US Grant named to command Union Military Division of the Mississippi
1861 Confederacy starts selling postage stamps
1849 British seize Tigre Island in Gulf of Fonseca from
|1859 Abolitionists led by John
Brown raid Harpers Ferry
At midnight, the radical abolitionist John Brown leads a group of
twenty-one followers, calling themselves the "Provisional Army of
the United States," on a raid of the Federal arsenal of Harpers Ferry,
located in present-day West Virginia.
Brown, born in Connecticut on 9 May 1800, first became militant during
the mid-1850s, when as a leader of the Free State forces in the territory
of Kansas he fought pro-slavery settlers, contributing to the sharply
divided territory's popular designation as "Bleeding Kansas.
For example on 24 May 1856 he led the "Pottawatomie Massacre"
by John Brown's gang In retaliation for the sacking of the abolitionist
town of Lawrence, Kansas, by pro-slavery forces, militant abolitionist
John Brown led a raid against a pro-slavery settlement along Pottawatomie
Creek. Brown’s small force, which included four of his sons, fell
on the settlement at night and massacred five men, including two teenage
Although they owned no
slaves, Brown deemed the Pottawatomie settlers deserving of capital
punishment because they had supported the Missouri faction in the
dispute over the Kansas territorial government. Trouble in the territory
began with the signing of the 1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act by President
Franklin Pierce. The act stipulated that settlers in the newly created
territories of Nebraska and Kansas would decide by popular vote whether
their territory would be free or slave. In early 1855, Kansas’ first
election proved a violent affair as over 5000 so-called "Border Ruffians"
invaded the territory from western Missouri and forced the election
of a pro-slavery legislature.
To prevent further bloodshed, Andrew H. Reeder, appointed territorial
governor by President Pierce, reluctantly approved the election. A
few months later, the Kansas Free State forces were formed, armed
by supporters in the North and featuring the leadership of John Brown.
In 1859, Brown left "Bleeding Kansas," as it had become popularly
known, and settled on a more ambitious plan.
only moderate success against slavery on the Kansas frontier, Brown
settled on a more ambitious plan in 1859. With a group of racially
mixed followers, Brown set out to Harpers Ferry, intending to seize
the arsenal of weapons and retreat to the Appalachian Mountains of
Maryland and Virginia, where they would establish an abolitionist
republic of liberated slaves and abolitionist whites. Their republic
would form a guerilla army to fight slaveholders and ignite slave
insurrections, and its population would grow exponentially with the
influx of liberated and fugitive slaves.
At Harpers Ferry, Brown's well-trained unit is initially successful
in the space of two hours, the raiders seize the Shenandoah
Bridge, Hall's Rifle Works, and the Federal arsenal, barricade the
bridge across the Potomac, cut telegraph wires, and take several prisoners.
But at 1:20 A.M., Brown's plans begin to deteriorate when his raiders
stop a Baltimore-bound train, and then allow it to pass through.
News of the raid spreads quickly and
militia companies from Maryland and Virginia arrive the next day,
killing or capturing several raiders. On October 18, US Marines commanded
by Colonel Robert E. Lee and Lieutenant J. E. B. Stuart, both of whom
are destined to become famous Confederate generals, recapture the
Federal arsenal, taking John Brown and several other raiders alive.
John Brown was tried by the Commonwealth
of Virginia for treason, murder and inciting slaves to rebellion.
On November 2, Brown is sentenced to death by hanging, and on the
day of his execution, 2 December 1859, ten months before the outbreak
of the Civil War, he prophetically writes, "The crimes of this guilty
land will never be purged away but with blood.
Thoreau wrote A
Plea for Captain John Brown , A
Plea for Captain John Brown
Hawkins wrote Old
John Brown: The Man Whose Soul is Marching On
Vincent Benet wrote John Brown's Body
1846 A demonstration of anesthesia (by
ether) is made at the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston by dentist
Dr. William Thomas Green Morton during an operation performed by Dr. John
1829 George Stephenson gana el primer
concurso mundial de velocidad de locomotoras, celebrado en un tramo de la
línea Liverpool-Manchester, al alcanzar los 50 km/h.
Comienza la batalla de Leipzig. Se saldará con la derrota de Napoleón por
parte de las fuerza aliadas de Prusia, Austria y Rusia.
Los habitantes de Moscú prenden fuego a la ciudad en un acto desesperado
por vencer al ejército de Napoleón.
1775 Portland, Maine burned by
1765 Se autoriza el libre comercio con territorios
de las Antillas desde los puertos españoles de Santander, Gijón, La Coruña,
Cádiz, Sevilla, Málaga, Cartagena y Barcelona. Esta medida refuerza el papel
de España en el comercio de América con Europa.
The American colony of Maine passed legislation granting religious freedom,
sort of, to all its citizens, on condition that those of contrary religious
persuasions behave "acceptably".
capitula ante las tropas de Juan II rey de Aragon y I de Navarra.
1311 Council of Vienne (15th ecumenical council) opens,
called by Clement V. During its three sessions, the council would suppress
the Knights Templars (the principal military-religious order of the Middle
Ages, whose wealth was coveted by kings and others).