| On a 27 October:
2003 Mars is closer to Earth than at any time in several thousand years: 55.76 million km (beating the 22 Aug 1924 record of 55.78 million km).
2002 Runoff presidential election in Brazil. Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, 56, of the Workers' Party, wins 61% to 39% over José Serra, 60, of the Brazilian Social Democratic Party which has been in power since 1994. In the first round on 06 October, da Silva won 46% of the vote, Serra 23%, and just over 30% went to two other candidates who have since thrown their support to da Silva.
2002 Polish voters choose mayors directly for the first time since the end of Communism. 21 parties are competing, and thousands of independent candidates. Voters vote for mayors in 2500 cities, towns and villages previously elected by local councils. The election is also for a total of 46'830 seats in nearly 2900 councils at provincial, district and county levels.
1985 Thieves steal 9 paintings, including 5 Monet's and 2 Renoir's
1982 IBM ROM is capable of EGA graphics
1982 China announces its population at 1 billion people plus
1979 St Vincent and the Grenadines becomes an independent member of the Commonwealth (Nat'l Day) [flag >]
1978 The Norwegian Nobel Committee announces that it will award the Peace Prize for 1978 to Mohamed Anwar al-Sadat (25 Dec 1918 06 Oct 1981), President of Egypt (1970-1981), and Menachem Begin (16 Aug 1913 ), Prime Minister of Israel, for their contribution to the two frame agreements on peace in the Middle East, and on peace between Egypt and Israel, which were signed at Camp David on 17 September 1978. MORE
1978 President Carter signs Hawkins-Humphrey full employment bill
1971 Republic of the Congo becomes Republic of Za‹re
1969 Ralph Nader sets up a consumer organization known as Nader's Raiders
| 1961 Outer Mongolia and Mauritania become the 102nd
and 103rd members of UN
1948 Israel recaptures Nizzanim in the Negev
| 1941 Chicago Daily Tribune editorializes dismissing
the possibility of war between US and Japan: "She cannot attack us. That
is a military impossibility. Even our base at Hawaii is beyond the effective
striking power of her fleet."
1904 World's 1st subway, the IRT (Interborough Rapid Transit), opens in NYC, subway/bus fare is set at one nickel
1896 1st Pali Road completed in Hawaii (winds so strong streams flow UP!)
1858 RH Macy & Co opens 1st store, (6th Ave-NYC) Gross receipts $1106
1810 US annexes West Florida from Spain
1806, suite à ses victoires de Iéna et Auerstaedt, l'empereur Napoléon 1er entre à Berlin, capitale de la Prusse. La quatrième coalition, qui réunit l'Angleterre, la Russie et la Prusse, va définitivement s'effondrer l'année suivante après la défaite du tsar.
1795 Treaty of San Lorenzo, provides free navigation of Mississippi
1775 US Navy established
which occurred on an October 27:|
2003 Four innocent civilians, in Fallujah, Iraq, when US troops fire at bystanders after a roadside bomb explodes as their convoy was passing.
2003 (1424 Ramadan 01) Some 39 persons in Baghdad, Iraq, including 4 suicide drivers of car bombs which explode at the security barriers of : 1) at 08:30 (05:30 UT) the al-Baya'a police station in southern Baghdad, a police car driven by a man in police uniform; killing 15 Iraqis and one US soldier. — 2) at 08:35 the Red Crescent headquarters, in central Baghdad, an ambulance, killing two security guards and 10 passers-by. — 3) at 08:55 a police station near a marketplace in north Baghdad. — 4) at 09:15 the al-Khudra police station. Some 220 persons are wounded in the four attacks, including 65 policemen. At 10:15 another car bombing attempt is stopped at a police station in the eastern district of New Baghdad.
2002 (Sunday) Israelis Maj. (res.) Tamir Masad, 41, of Ben Shemen; Lt. Matan Zagron, 22, of Itamar; and Sgt.-Maj. Amihud Hasid, 32, of Tapuah; and Mohammed al-Kashir, 19, suicide bomber of the al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades, whose explosive belt detonates as he falls shot in the head by Israeli troops, at 11:30, in the parking lot of the Sonol gasoline station outside the West Bank's largest enclave settlement, Ariel, which has 20'000 inhabitants. When the bomber had arrived at the gas station, he was spotted by a worker at the nearby cafeteria, who informed her boss that the man looked suspicious. The owner of the cafeteria and an attendant at the gas station wrestled the terrorist to the ground and shouted Suicide terrorist! Suicide terrorist!. Soldiers fired at the bomber, hitting him three times. 18 persons are injured, including some of the soldiers who were there, on the first day of the Israeli work week, to hitchhike back to their bases. This is the 80th suicide bombing of the al-Aqsa intifada; they have killed almost 300 persons. The Reuters total body count of the intifada is now at least 1630 Palestinians and 620 Israelis.
2002 Ahmad Jawad Allah, a senior Islamic Jihad activist, and Tanzim activists Allah Muflah and Ayad al-Kutub, in Nablus, West Bank, shot by undercover Israeli troops driving a car with Palestinian license plates shot. Three persons, including a child, are wounded.
2002 Nineteen rebels of the Ejercito de Liberación Nacional, in attack by the Colombian army, near Bosconia, Cesar state, Colombia.
2002:: 22 men of village Dadgiri, Assam, called out of their homes just after midnight, lined up and shot by NDFD separatist rebels of the ethnic Bodo tribe. 12 villagers survive wounded.
2001 Feras Shehde Alsalahat, 28, by Israeli gunshot in Bethlehem, 7 days before his scheduled marriage, already several times postponed in mourning for other Palestinians killed by Israel.
2001 Firas Jaber, 24, Fatah activist, killed after three Israeli tanks drove about a kilometer into Tul Karm, prompting a fierce gunbattle with local gunmen.
2001 Nine Afghan civilians bombed by US warplanes in three villages near the front line in the plains north of Kabul, at about 10:00. The first village hit was Nikhahil on the Taliban side of the front line. Then two villages on the Northern Alliance (anti-Taliban, pro-US) side: Ghanikheil and then Raqi. Many others are injured.
1988 S.B. Fuller, 83, founder of Fuller products
1987 Jean Hélion , 83, artist/author.
1944 Léon Marie Gaussson, French artist born on 14 February 1860.
1921 Henry Woods, British artist born on 22 April 1846.
1921 Carl Kronberger, Austrian artist born on 07 March 1841.
1765 Micho Théobald Michau (or Micho), Flemish artist born in 1676.
1675 Roberval, mathematician
1599 Gillis Congnet (or Coignet), Aegidius Quinetus, Dutch artist born in 1538.
| Births which occurred
on an October 27:
1950 Fran Lebowitz, author.
1938 Nylon: DuPont announces this name for its new synthetic fiber.
1932 Sylvia Plath American poet (Bell Jar)
1925 Warren M. Christopher, would be US Secretary of State.
1925 Water skis patented by Fred Waller
1924 The Uzbek SSR forms
1923 Roy Lichtenstein, US Pop art painter; painted comic book panels. He died on 29 September 1997.
1917 Oliver Tambo, Sauth African, president of the African National Congress. He died on 24 April 1993.
1914 Dylan Marials Thomas, Swansea, Wales, poet (Child's Christmas in Wales). Thomas established himself in 1934 with Eighteen Poems, a collection of emotionally and sexually charged pieces. His writing was celebrated for its forceful sound and rhythm, and the poet was acclaimed for readings of his own work. In 1953, he was on a reading tour of the United States when he died of an alcohol overdose in New York City. His most famous work, Under Milk Wood, which evokes the lives of the inhabitants of a Welsh seaside town, was published after his 09 November 1953 death.
1880 Maurice Sys (or Sijs), Belgian artist who died in 1972.
1877 Walt Kuhn, US painter who died in 1949. MORE ON KUHN AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images.
1859 Elizabeth Nourse, US painter who died in 1938. MORE ON NOURSE AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images.
1856 Ernest Hobson, mathematician
1844 Klas Pontus Arnoldson, Swedish writer, politician, pacifist, formerly member of the Swedish Parliament and founder of the Swedish Peace and Arbitration League, 1908 Nobel Peace Prize co-laureate. MORE
1827 Marcellin Berthelot, 10/27/1827 - 3/18/1907 French chemist who died on 18 March 1907.
1811 Issac Merrit Singer inventor (first practical home sewing machine). He died on 23 July 1875.
1787 The first of the Federalist Papers, a series of essays by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay calling for ratification of the US Constitution, is published in a New York newspaper. FEDERALIST PAPERS ONLINE: at site 1 at site 2 at site 3
1782 Niccolo Paganini, Genoa, Italy, composer/violin virtuoso (Princess Lucca). He died on 27 May 1840.
1744 Mrs Mary Lloyd Moser, British artist who died on 02 May 1819.
1728 James Cook, captain / explorer, discovered Sandwich Islands (now called Hawaiian). He died on 14 February 1779 [but not of eating a sandwich of uncooked meat]. COOK ONLINE: (all in page images) Directions for Navigating on Part of the South Coast of Newfoundland (1766) The Three Voyages of Captain James Cook Around the World: volume I _ volume II _ volume III _ volume IV _ volume V _ volume VI _ volume VII (1821) / Co-author of: The Original Astronomical Observations Made in the Course of a Voyage to the Northern Pacific Ocean (from the Cook expeditions of 1776-1780) A Voyage to the Pacific Ocean: volume I _ volume II _ volume III _ volume IV (1784) A Voyage Towards the South Pole and Round the World: Performed in His Majesty's Ships the Resolution and Adventure, in the Years 1772, 1773, 1774 and 1775: volume I _ volume II (1777).
1678 Pierre Rémond Montmort, Parisian mathematician who died on 07 October 1719. Author of Essay d'analyse sur les jeux de hazard (1708).
1631 Johann Heinrich Roos, German painter who died on 03 October 1685. — more with links to images.
1466 Desiderius Erasmus, Dutch scholar who died on 12 July 1536.
1156 Raimond VI comte de Toulouse, héros malheureux de la croisade contre les Albigeois.