Deaths which occurred on a September
2003 Khader al-Husari, 36, and Munsar
Knita, by missiles from Israeli helicopters fired at the car in
which they were on a crowded Gaza City street. Some 30 other Palestinians
are wounded. Al-Husari was a high-ranking member of the Izz el-Deen al-Qassam
Brigades, the militia of Hamas, of which Knita was a member, as well as
the third man in the car, Mundar Damita, who is seriously wounded.
2002 Giovanni Greco,
63, in Lascari, Sicily, falls from a ladder he had climbed to examine the
top of the mausoleum he is having built for himself at the cemetery, hits
his head on a marble step, and ends up dead in his own tomb. [saves on funeral
2002 Abdel Kareem Sadi, 16, shot in the
back by Israeli troops in Jenin, West Bank. The boy was the son of Bassam
Sadi, Islamic Jihad's Jenin district leader.
2001 Abeer Al-Samra,
22, by explosion in a taxi in Tulkarem, West Bank. She was the wife of gunman
Ahmed Tabok, currently held in a Palestinian jail. Four others are injured.
2001 Tayser Khattab, 52, as his car explodes while he was
driving toward his office at Palestinian intelligence headquarters north
of Gaza City, where he was a top aide to the Palestinian intelligence chief,
Amin al-Hindi. It follows the pattern of Israel's proclaimed policy of targeted
assassinations, but in this case Israel denies any involvement.
32 men and 12 women in fire from explosion an 01:00 in mah-jongg
parlor in Kabukicho nightlife area in northwest Tokyo, with no fire exit.
Three survive by jumping several stories to the ground.
Henry "Scoop" Jackson , 71, (Sen-D-Wash)
Georg Elias Moses Bieberbach, German Nazi, persecutor of Jews,
mathematician born on 01 September 1982. In 1914 he studied Bieberbach polynomials,
which approximate a function that conformally maps a given simply-connected
domain onto a disc. In 1916 he made the Bieberbach
|1983 Larry McDonald and the
other 268 aboard KAL Flight 007, shot down by Soviets.
Airlines Flight 007 was flying from New York to Seoul when it strayed
into restricted Soviet airspace over Sakhalin Island in the Sea of
Japan. Soviet authorities attempted to first contact and then intercept
the aircraft, and failing in this, a Soviet fighter was ordered to
shoot it down. All 269 people aboard the South Korean jumbo jet were
killed, including sixty-one US nationals, among them Georgia Representative
A request for
an official explanation from the Soviets was initially denied, and
on 05 September, US President Ronald Reagan appeared before his nation,
calling the Soviet action "barbarous," and asking for sanctions against
the USSR. The next day, Soviet authorities held an uncharacteristic
press conference to discuss the incident, and they put forth the claim
that the airliner was on a US spy mission. On 15 September, the US
Senate unanimously backed the House in condemning the incident. Despite
the outrage publicly expressed by American officials, the measures
taken against the USSR were largely token, such as the suspension
of negotiations for a US consulate in Kiev, the Ukrainian capital.
Soviet jet fighters intercept a Korean
Airlines passenger flight in Russian airspace and shoot the plane
down, killing 269 passengers and crewmembers. The incident dramatically
increased tensions between the Soviet Union and the United States.
On 01 September 1983, Korean Airlines (KAL) flight 007 was on the
last leg of a flight from New York City to Seoul, with a stopover
in Anchorage, Alaska. As it approached its final destination, the
plane began to veer far off its normal course. In just a short time,
the plane flew into Russian airspace and crossed over the Kamchatka
Peninsula, where some top-secret Soviet military installations were
known to be located. The Soviets sent two fighters to intercept the
plane. According to tapes of the conversations between the fighter
pilots and Soviet ground control, the fighters quickly located the
KAL flight and tried to make contact with the passenger jet. Failing
to receive a response, one of the fighters fired a heat-seeking missile.
KAL 007 was hit and plummeted into the Sea of Japan. All 269 people
on board were killed.
not the first time a South Korean flight had run into trouble over
Russia. In 1978, the Soviets forced a passenger jet down over Murmansk;
two passengers were killed during the emergency landing. In its first
public statement concerning the September 1983 incident, the Soviet
government merely noted that an unidentified aircraft had been shot
down flying over Russian territory. The United States government reacted
with horror to the disaster. The Department of State suggested that
the Soviets knew the plane was an unarmed civilian passenger aircraft.
President Ronald Reagan called the incident a "massacre" and issued
a statement in which he declared that the Soviets had turned "against
the world and the moral precepts which guide human relations among
people everywhere." Five days after the incident, the Soviets admitted
that the plane had indeed been a passenger jet, but that Russian pilots
had no way of knowing this. A high ranking Soviet military official
stated that the KAL flight had been involved in espionage activities.
The Reagan administration responded by suspending all Soviet passenger
air service to the United States, and dropped several agreements being
negotiated with the Soviets.
Despite the heated public rhetoric, many Soviets and US officials
and analysts privately agreed that the incident was simply a tragic
misunderstanding. The KAL flight had veered into a course that was
close to one being simultaneously flown by a US spy plane; perhaps
Soviet radar operators mistook the two. In the Soviet Union, several
of the military officials responsible for air defense in the Far East
were fired or demoted. It has never been determined how the KAL flight
ended up some 300 km off course.
Brooks Curry, US mathematician born on 12 September 1900. Curry's
main work was in mathematical logic with particular interest in the theory
of formal systems and processes. He formulated a logical calculus using
inferential rules. His works include Foundations of Mathematical Logic
1981 Albert Speer, 76, at a London hospital,
close associate of Adolf Hitler who ran the Nazi war industries.
François Mauriac (Nobel 1952)
Sassoon, author. SASSOON ONLINE: Counter-Attack,
and Other Poems, The
Old Huntsman, and Other Poems, Picture-Show
1951 Otto Alfred Wolfgang Schultze-Battmann Wols,
German artist born on 27 May 1913.
1922 Edmund Blair Leighton, British Pre-Raphaelite
historical genre painter, born on 21 September 1853. MORE
ON BLAIR~LEIGHTON AT ART 4 2~DAY
to Arms Alain
the Standard The
King and the Beggar-maid Till
Death Us Do Part :: Pounds, Shillings and pence — Off
Speed — Tristan
and Isolde — Olivia
of the Song — Knighted
| 1923 The great Kanto earthquake
and fire ^top^
The greatest Japanese earthquake of
all time devastates the Kanto region of southeastern Japan, in particular
Tokyo (population about 3 million) and Yokohama (population 423'000.
The city and harbor of Yokohama, and 70% of Tokyo collapse or burn.
Over 100'000 people die. Property damage would be estimated to exceed
one billion US dollars at the time.
The morning of Saturday 01 September 1923 was very hot with strong
gusts of wind that followed rain. The earthquake struck at 11:58:44,
just as people were about to eat lunch. A survivor describes the event:
There came the first rumbling jar of
an earthquake, a sickening sway, the vicious grinding of timbers and,
in a few seconds, a crescendo of turmoil as the floor began to heave
and the building to lurch drunkenly.... The ground could scarcely
be said to shake; it heaved, tossed and leapt under one. The walls
bulged as if made of cardboard and the din became awful...For perhaps
half a minute the fabric of our surroundings held; then came disintegration.
Slabs of plaster left the ceilings and fell about our ears, filling
the air with a blinding, smothering fog of dust. Walls bulged, spread
and sagged, pictures danced on their wires, flew out and crashed to
splinters. ... How long it lasted, I don't know. It seemed an eternity;
but the official record says four minutes...
Perhaps one official record said four. Others said 10 minutes of felt
vibration, and up to two and a half hours of constant motion.More
than 200 aftershocks followed the 7.9 main event on Sept. 1st. On
Sept. 2nd, an excess of 300 shocks were recorded, including a major
event at 11:47 a.m. More than 300 additional shocks would follow from
The general area
of upheaval was the Boso Peninsula (Awa-Kazusa provinces) and the
Shonan district (Sagami Peninsula). The epicenters of the numerous
shocks that followed the main event originated in a scattered pattern
between the southern section of the Boso Peninsula and the coast of
Sagami Bay. The epicenter of the main shock on Sept. 1st was in the
neighborhood of the Miura peninsula, while that of Sept. 2nd was offshore,
in the vicinity of Katsuura. Ground upheavals was approximately 3
m near Mera, at the southern end of the Boso Peninsula and 2.5 m in
the neighborhood of Oiso.
A survey the sea floor in the area of the quake at a depth of
600 to 800 fathoms showed that two distinct earthquakes occurred in
Sagami Bay. One was centered east of Hatshshima Island and to the
north of Oshima Island. The other originated to the south-east of
Manazuru point. The explorations also revealed new ridges 50 to 100
m in height on the ocean floor. These ridges are in line with a volcanic
chain which extends for hundreds of kilometers in a south-southeasterly
direction. It appears that a collapse into a rift occurred along the
line of this volcanic chain.
all, seven prefectures were affected by the quake. These were Tokyo,
Kanagawa, Shizuoka, Chiba, Saitama, Yamanashi and Ibaraki. The greatest
destruction occurred at Yokohama, which at the time was the premier
commercial port of Japan.
degree of shaking felt in the affected regions varied greatly based
on soil structure. The epicenter of the quake was close to Oshima
Island, but the island, consisting mostly of lava and scoria, experienced
comparatively little shaking or ground level changes. This is attributed
to its volcanic origin consisting mostly of lava and scoria. Both
the cities of Tokyo and Yokohama, however, are located on alluvium
or river deposits. The cities were thus on the worst ground, and suffered
heavier shaking than the Izu peninsula, although farther away from
the seismic centers.
characteristic of the Great Kanto earthquake was the dramatic upheaval
and depression of the ground. The earth was lifted as high as 7 m
at Misaki, substantially changing the shape of the shoreline. This
uplift lasted only about 72 hours, however, before the ground began
to sink, at first by as much as 60 cm per day. When the settling had
ceased, an offset of some 1.5 m remained.
Even worse than the earthquake itself was the resulting fire. At the
moment the earthquake struck, coal or charcoal cooking stoves were
in use throughout Tokyo and Yokohama in preparation for lunch so that
fires sprang up everywhere. Improper storage of chemicals and fuel
further contributed to the holocaust. In Yokohama alone, 88 separate
fires began to burn simultaneously and the city was quickly engulfed
in flames that raged for two days. Although the recorded wind speed
was lower in Yokohama than in Tokyo, there was a fire storm. In Tokyo,
the wind reached speeds of 29 km/h. Temperatures soared to 30ºC
late into the night.
from the fires are a horrifying combination of people who were trapped
in collapsed buildings and those who took refuge in areas that were
later surrounded and consumed by fire. The greatest loss of life occurred
at the Military Clothing Depot in Honjo Ward, where many of the refugees
had gathered. Most of them carried clothing, bedrolls, and furniture
rescued from their homes. These materials served as a ready fuel source,
and the engulfing flames suffocated an estimated 40'000 people.
By nightfall Yokohama harbor was full
of refugees on board ships both foreign and local. Unfortunately,
oil, which had been seeping into the water, caught fire the following
morning, and there was a mad scramble to get the ships out to open
sea before they were engulfed. Many people were injured when they
were caught at the end of a burning pier.
Days passed as the smoldering embers slowly cooled and the aftershocks
diminished and finally stopped. In the desolate ruins left behind,
it was difficult to distinguish earthquake from fire damage. In Yokohama,
it is estimated that 80% of the total destruction was due to fire.
A tsunami did follow the earthquake,
but did relatively little damage. There was no large wave inside Tokyo
Bay. A substantial wave up to 12 m did strike along
the north shore of Oshima Island. Waves 1 to 6 m in height were recorded
along Izu peninsula and the Bosshu coastline.
The dramatic heaving of the ground resulted in thousands of landslides,
the worst of which occurred in Idu province. Here the entire village
of Nebukawa was buried by a massive mudflow, killing hundreds. Landslides
were also observed on the Miura Peninsula, the southern part of Bo-so
Peninsula, and the mountainous district of southwestern Sagami.
The total number of houses partially
or completely destroyed exceeded 694'000. Of these, some 381'000 were
burnt, 83'000 collapsed, and 91'000 partially collapsed. These numbers
clearly show the devastating effects of the fire. In housing damage,
much blame came to be placed on tile roofs, which were very popular
in Japanese construction. Not only did these prove to be an extreme
hazard when they fell during the shaking, but they left the wooden
structures exposed to fire.
The initial earthquake severed water mains. Water shortages became
tremendous problem to the survivors, and there was no possibility
of fighting the fire.
in the quake were telephone and telegraph systems, leaving the people
of Yokohama and Tokyo completely cut off from the outside world. There
was no way for them to know if the entire country was in ruins or
if their own circumstances were among the best or the worst. Travel
was made impossible due to the destruction of railroad track, loss
of power to electric tramways, and streets choked with rubble making
them impassible by automobile.
All major newspapers had their offices destroyed by fire and so organized
dissemination of information became impossible. Signs were posted
informing people of everything from relief efforts and where to contact
relatives, to the dire consequences of looting. On the evening of
September 2nd, the Army Aviation Headquarters ordered aviators to
Osaka, Yamada, and Shibata to convey news of the disaster. In the
first week, more than 500 messages were also dispatched to various
cities by carrier pigeon.
staggering as were the initial losses of life and property, there
were more hard times to come. With a huge number of industries destroyed,
some forever, unemployment was an immediate and lasting problem. 45.04%
lost their jobs, throwing the region into an economic tailspin. In
general, the early 20s were good times for Japan. While most of Europe
was staggering under the effects of WWI, Japan, having remained neutral,
was enjoying relative economic prosperity. Prior to the earthquake,
Yokohama was a booming international port. Afterwards, recovery was
painfully slow, as foreign investors were hesitant to rebuild there.
On Sept. 2, the government proclaimed
an emergency requisition ordinance, which allowed the issue of orders
for any type of goods considered necessary to the relief effort. On
Sept. 4, the Emperor of Japan allocated 10 million yen to be spent
to aid in the relief effort.
The news vacuum gave rise to rumors, the most sinister of which was
that the Koreans were planning some form of takeover in the aftermath
of the disaster. On Sept. 5th the Prime Minister issued a warning
to the public that these rumors were without basis and were contradictory
to the spirit of assimilation that Japan wished to achieve with Korea.
Nonetheless, the rumors led to groups of vigilantes who patrolled
the streets, and there were accounts of attacks on Korean citizens.
This prompted the government to open a shelter where as many as 3075
Koreans were lodged for their own safety. By Sept. 8, the city of
Tokyo was placed under martial law, and the army distributed food
and began the long reconstruction process. Martial law allowed the
government to disperse people, prohibit or suppress newspapers or
advertisements, seize property, enter buildings, or take any action
it deemed necessary to maintain order. Citizens caught in the act
of looting were hung or shot.
Electric lighting was first provided to Tokyo in the form of a search
light and 40 other lamps which belonged to the 1st Telegraph Regiment.
Yokohama remained in darkness for several nights. After electricity
was restored in Tokyo, the Army lights were transferred to Yokohama.
Engineering corps were dispatched to begin repairs on railways, telegraphs,
roads, and bridges, while medical corps worked among the thousands
of injured refugees.
Korea, which was anchored in Yokohama harbor at the time of the quake,
was the first to send out messages seeking help. The first distress
signal via the ship's wireless was sent to the Governor of Tokyo.
This received no reply, as Tokyo was in the same predicament. A second
message was sent to Osaka, where it was converted to a high-power
general broadcast. This was picked up by the American Asiatic Squadron
located off the coast of South China. Immediate relief in the form
of 2'500'000 yen worth of goods was sent to Yokohama. Similar help
came from a number of other ships who happened to pick up the message,
including an American steamer loaded with cargo intended for Hankow,
which changed course and joined in the relief effort.
News of the earthquake reached the United States on the evening of
01 September, and a relief effort was immediately launched. A sum
exceeding ten million dollars was raised in just a few days. Similar
efforts were mounted by a number of foreign countries.
Records of earthquake activity have been kept in Japan for centuries.
Prior to 1923, the most serious in terms of loss of life was the 10
February 1792 Hizen earthquake, which coincided with the eruption
of Unzendake. 15'000 people were killed. Other major events include
the Shinano, Echigo quake of 08 May 1844, in which 12'000 people perished,
and the 31 December 1703 quake which struck Mushashi, Sagami, Awa,
and Kazusa and generated a tsunami. 5233 died.
The Great Kanto earthquake ushered in the modern age of earthquake
engineering. Immediate changes in building codes followed the 1923
earthquake and were in effect in the rebuilding of Tokyo and Yokohama.
Despite the wealth of knowledge gained
in the aftermath of the Great Kanto earthquake, there was still much
to learn. Japanese building codes would undergo several major overhauls
in the coming decades as new theories were explored. The learning
continues today worldwide.
is little that remains of the old Tokyo and Yokohama that existed
before the Great Kanto earthquake. But to gaze at the modern skylines
of these two rebuilt cities is to look upon the embodiment of engineering
progress. The ruins of the world that was lost on September 1st, 1923,
proved to be fertile ground indeed for the growth of knowledge and
understanding that followed.
last known passenger pigeon, dies at Cincinnati Zoo.
In the early 1800 there were billions
of these birds (Ectopistes migratorius) in the Eastern US, but they
were hunted to extinction. . A monument to the passenger pigeon, in
Wisconsin's Wyalusing State Park, declares:
"This species became extinct through the avarice and thoughtlessness
|1870 French general Margueritte
and the other victims of the Battle of Sedan. ^top^
It is the last battle of the Franco-Prussian
War, as the Prussian army crushes the French and captures Napoléon
Le 30 août le général
Mac-Mahon a gagné Sedan, où il s'est laissé encercler par les troupes
prussiennes. Malgré les charges des chasseurs d'Afrique vêtus de pantalons
rouge bien voyants, que commandent les généraux Margueritte et Galliffet,
l'étau se resserre. Un violent tir d'artillerie repousse les charges
françaises en faisant de nombreux mort. Cinq cents canons pilonnent
Sedan. Mac-Mahon est blessé, Margueritte est tué. Pour mettre fin
au massacre, à 17 heures, le dernier empereur français Napoléon III
donne l'ordre de hisser le drapeau blanc de la reddition. C'est le
début de l'ère de la IIIème république.
wounding of Mac-Mahon early on September 1 caused extreme confusion
in the French command, allowing the Germans to carry on their encirclement
without serious opposition. Thereafter, the desperate French efforts
to break out, including massive cavalry charges, led to nothing but
high casualties. After the German artillery had pounded the French
position in an all-day bombardment, the Germans launched their main
attack in the afternoon. Emperor Napoleon III realized that the position
was hopeless. He surrendered, and the next morning he and 83'000 French
soldiers became prisoners of war. The French had lost 3000 men killed,
14'000 wounded, and 21'000 missing or captured. German losses totaled
9000 men killed and wounded. As the victorious Germans marched toward
Paris, a popular uprising there on September 4 toppled the government
of the Second Empire and set up a provisional republican government.
1838 William Clark, 68, 1729 Richard Steele,
author. STEELE ONLINE: Isaac
Bickerstaff, Physician and Astrologer
|1862 Hundreds of Yanks and Rebs
at Battle of Chantilly (Ox Hill). ^top^
1862 Battle of Chantilly Following
his brilliant victory at the Second Battle of Bull Run two days earlier,
Confederate General Robert E. Lee strikes retreating Union forces
at Chantilly, Virginia, and drives them away in the middle of an intense
thunderstorm. Although his army routed the Yankee forces of General
John Pope at Bull Run, Lee was not satisfied. By attacking the retreating
Federals, Lee hoped to push them back into Washington DC, and achieve
a decisive victory by destroying the Union army. The Bull Run battlefield
lay 40 km east of the capital, allowing Lee room to send General Thomas
J. "Stonewall" Jackson's corps on a quick march to cut off part of
the Union retreat before reaching the defenses of the capital. Jackson
departed with his corps on 31 August. Using General J.E.B. Stuart's
Rebel cavalry as a screen, he swung north and then east toward Washington.
Under orders of Union General-in-Chief Henry Halleck, Pope tried to
hold the town of Centerville from the advancing Confederates. Jackson
moved north around Centerville, placing the bulk of Pope's force in
grave danger as the Southerners moved towards Fairfax. By the afternoon
of 01 September Pope evacuated Centerville and Jackson pressed to
the north of the main Yankee army. Late in the afternoon, a Union
division commanded by General Isaac Stevens attacked Jackson near
Chantilly. In a driving rainstorm punctuated by thunder and lightning,
Stevens's men drove into the Confederates and scattered a Louisiana
brigade. But after Stevens was struck in the head by a Rebel bullet
and killed, Jackson's men drove the Union troops back. Another Yankee
general, Philip Kearney, was killed when he accidentally rode behind
the Confederate line in the storm. The battle was over within 90 minutes,
although the storm persisted. Confederate casualties numbered about
500, while the Union lost 700. Lee could not flank Pope's army, so
he turned his army northward for an invasion of Maryland. The result
was the Battle of Antietam on 17 September.
Fedorovitch Shchedrin, Russian landscape painter born in 1745.
ON SHCHEDRIN AT ART 4 2~DAY
of the Large Pond Island in the Tsarskoselsky Gardens a different
of the Large Pond in the Tsarskoselsky Gardens View
of the Farmyard in the Tsarskoye Selo The
Mill and the Bell Tower at Pavlovsk View
of the Gatchina Palace from the Silver Lake View
of the Gatchina Palace from Long Island The
Stone Bridge at Gatchina View
of the Kamennoostrov Palace through Bolshaya Nevka from the Stroganov Seashore
Eagle Column at Gatchina A
Cascade in the Gatchina Park The
Stone Bridge by Connetable Square at Gatchina. Landscape
1729 Bonaventure de Bar, French artist
born in 1700.
1678 Jan Brueghel Jr., Flemish painter born on 13 September
ON BRUEGHEL AT ART 4 2~DAY
Christ in the House of Martha and Mary Noli
me tangere Landscape
with Allegories of the Four Elements Landscape
with Ceres (Allegory of Earth) Allegory
Louis XIV, 76 ans, le Roi-Soleil (1643-1715) ^top^
[portrait de 1701 par Rigaud >]
La gangrène sénile qui a atteint sa jambe gauche tachée n'a cessé
de progresser. Louis le XIVème, qui, le 25, a reçu Mme de Maintenon,
son épouse morganatique, lui a dit: "Quoi madame, vous vous affligez
de me voir en l'état de bientôt mourir ? N'ai-je pas assez vécu ?
M'avez-vous cru immortel?". Le lendemain, c'est son arrière-petit-fils
le Dauphin qu'il a reçu : "Mon cher enfant, vous allez être le plus
grand roi du monde... Tachez de soulager vos peuples, ce que je suis
assez malheureux de n'avoir pu faire." A des courtisans il a dit encore,
ce même jour: "Je m'en vais messieurs, mais l'Etat demeurera toujours
" Le 28 août, il confia à Mme de Maintenon: "J'ai toujours ouï dire
qu'il est difficile de mourir ; pour moi qui suis sur le point de
ce moment si redoutable aux hommes, je ne trouve pas que cela soit
difficile." Le 31 août, le roi a récité le Pater d'une voix si forte
qu'on l'a entendu de la pièce voisine. Puis il a perdu connaissance.
En ce matin, à 08h15, le Roi-Soleil vient de s'éteindre, 4 jours avant
son 77ème anniversaire.
Poor Richard's Almanack ON LOUIS THE XIV OF FRANCE.
Louis ('tis true, I own to you) / Paid learned men for writing, /
And valiant men for fighting; / Himself could neither write nor fight,
/ Nor make his people happy; / Yet fools will prate, and call him
great, / Shame on their noddles sappy.
1666 Frans I. Hals, Dutch portraitist
born between 1581 and 1585. MORE
ON HALS AT ART 4 2~DAY
of a Gentleman in White Company
of Captain Reinier Reael (The Meagre Company) Marriage
Portrait of Isaac Massa and Beatrix van der Laen Portrait
of a man, possibly Nicolaes Hasselaer Portrait
of a woman, possibly Sara Wolphaerts van Diemen The
Merry Drinker Gypsy
Laughing Cavalier Pieter
van den Broecke Willem
Boy with a Flute A Family Group
in a Landscape
Mersenne, French Minim friar, mathematician, musician, Cartesian
philosopher, born on 08 September 1588. He is best known for his role as
a clearinghouse for correspondence between eminent philosophers and scientists
and for his work in number theory. Mersenne
numbers are of the form 2p – 1, where p is prime. He
made a few mistakes in identifying which of them are prime for p < 248,
which are now known to be exactly those for which p = 2, 3, 5, 7, 13, 17,
19, 31, 61, 89, 107, 127. This last one is 170'141'183'460'469'231'731'687'303'715'884'105'727.
More of those Mersenne primes have been discovered using computers, including
those for which p = 521, 607, 1279, 2203, 2281, 3217, 4253, 4423, 9689,
9941, 11'213, 19'937, 21'701, 23'209, 44'497, 86'243, 110'503, 132'049,
216'091, 756'839, 859'433, 1'257'787,
1557 Jacques Cartier French explorer
Adrian IV only English pope (1154-59) 1159 Death of Pope Adrian
IV, the only English pope, a firm but kindly man who suffered many things
from Arnold of Brescia and Frederick of Barbarossa.
|0256 Carthage synod (wrongly)
declares heretics' baptism invalid.. ^top^
What happens if a Christian is baptized
by an unworthy or improperly ordained minister? Is that baptism valid?
Under the prodding of the dynamic bishop and martyr Cyprian,
the issue was faced in the North African city of Carthage in the third
century. During the Decian Persecutions, which broke out in 250, many
Christians poured libations to the emperor rather than suffer torture.
Others bribed the authorities to obtain certificates saying they had
sacrificed even when they had not. Later some of these, who were sometimes
called lapsi, felt remorse for their betrayal of Christ who had suffered
torture for them. They asked to be readmitted to the church.
Schism developed over the issue. Led
by Novatian, many Christians broke off from Rome, saying no lapsed
person should be readmitted. The Novatians ordained their own priests
who baptized new Christians. Later some Novatian Christians wanted
to unite with the Catholic church. Cyprian said this was only possible
if they were rebaptized within the Catholic church by "legitimate"
priests. Another group wanted to let the lapsed return on easier terms
than Cyprian. They also broke away and elected their own bishop, Cecilianus,
who baptized converts.
that church unity was at stake, Cyprian took a tough stand against
accepting baptism by schismatics, arguing that no sacrament administered
outside the church had validity. Since there can be only one church,
he considered the breakaway groups to be without the Holy Spirit.
He wrote letters and summoned councils. These councils met in Carthage
in 251, 252, 253, 255 and 256 to address the issues raised by the
lapsi and Novatians.
On 01 September
256, the North African synod votes unanimously with Cyprian. Baptized
"heretics" who entered the Catholic fold must be baptized again. This
vote did not stand. Stephen, bishop of Rome, ordered Cyprian to accept
the lapsed into the church without a second baptism. Cyprian refused.
"[H]ow can he who lacks the spirit confer the spirit?" he asked. For
a long time he resisted, but eventually yielded under threat
of excommunication. Rome uses this concession by Cyprian to prove
that at that early time the bishop's of Roman word had authority.
died a martyr on 14 September 258 at age 58. He had been accused of
cowardice for hiding during the Decian Persecutions. In 258 he vindicated
himself, boldly testifying to his faith as he went to his beheading.
Stephen, too was martyred a year before Cyprian.
The Council of Arles in 314 upheld Stephen's decision. As long as
a person was baptized in the name of the Father, the Son and the Holy
Spirit, he or she was truly baptized, regardless of who conferred