| 1983 Yitzhak Shamir (Herut) endorsed by Menachem Begin
for Israelli PM
|1969 Unions want wage and price controls. Sensing
a slide in the nation's economy, long-standing AFL-CIO leader George
Meany calls on the government in 1969 to implement wage and price
controls. It wasn't until two years later that President Nixon heeded
his advice and installed a wage and price freeze. However, the move
did little to revive the slumping economy.
1962 The Soviet Union agrees to send arms to Cuba to help
it meet "threats from aggressive imperialist elements".
|1963 Alabama troopers prevent desegregation.
. . for 8 days ^top^
Governor George C. Wallace, 44, prevents
the racial integration of Tuskegee High School in Tuskegee, Alabama,
by encircling the building with state troopers. Eight days later,
President John F. Kennedy federalized the Alabama National Guard and
called them to the area, forcing Wallace to abandon his attempt to
block the desegregation of Alabama public schools.
George Wallace, one of the most controversial politicians in US history,
was elected governor of Alabama in 1962 under an ultra-segregationist
platform. In his 1963 inaugural address, Wallace promised his white
followers: "Segregation now! Segregation tomorrow! Segregation forever!"
However, the promise lasted only six months. In June of the same year,
under federal pressure, he was forced to end his blockade of the University
of Alabama and allow the enrollment of African-American students.
Despite his failures in slowing the
accelerating civil-rights movement in the South, Wallace became a
national spokesman for resistance to racial change, and in 1964 entered
the race for the US presidency. Although defeated in most Democratic
presidential primaries he entered, his modest successes demonstrated
the extent of popular backlash against segregation. In 1968, he made
another strong run as the candidate of the American Independent party,
and managed to get on the ballot in all fifty states. On election
day, he drew ten million votes from all across the country.
In 1972, Governor Wallace returned
to the Democratic party for his third presidential campaign, and under
a slightly more moderate platform was showing promising returns when
he was shot by Arthur Bremer on 15 May 1972. Three others were wounded,
and Wallace was permanently paralyzed from the waist down. The next
day, while fighting for his life in a hospital, he won major primary
victories in Michigan and Maryland. However, Wallace remained in the
hospital for several months, bringing his third presidential campaign
to an irrevocable end. After his recovery, he faded from national
prominence and made a poor showing in his fourth and final presidential
campaign in 1979.
1980s, Wallace's politics shifted dramatically, especially in regard
to race. In 1983, he was elected Alabama governor for the last time
with the overwhelming support of African-American voters. Over the
next four years, the man who had promised segregation forever made
more African-American political appointments than any other figure
in Alabama history. He died on 13 September 1998.
Tennessee National Guardsmen halt rioters protesting the admission of 12
African-Americans to schools in Clinton.
|1946 O'Neill's The Iceman Cometh
opens on Broadway ^top^
Hailed by many critics as Eugene O’Neill’s
finest work, The Iceman Cometh opens at the Martin Beck Theater.
The play, about desperate tavern bums clinging to illusion as a remedy
for despair, would be the last O’Neill play to be produced on Broadway
before the author’s death in 1953. Like many of his other works, the
play drew on O’Neill’s firsthand experiences with all-night dive bars
and desperate characters.
his actor father sent him to top prep schools and to Princeton, O’Neill
dropped out of college after a year. He went to sea, searched for
gold in South America, haunted the waterfront bars in Buenos Aires,
Liverpool, and New York, and married briefly. He drank heavily. In
1912, when O’Neill was nearly 30, he came down with tuberculosis and
was sent to a sanitarium in Connecticut. While recovering, he wrote
his first play and decided to devote himself to drama. He began churning
out gritty, realistic plays about lives on the margins of society.
He wrote nine plays from 1913 to 1914, six from 1916 to 1917, and
four in 1918. In 1917, a Greenwich Village theater group, the Provincetown
Players, performed his one-act play Thirst. The group became
closely associated with O’Neill’s future work. In 1920, his first
full-length play, Beyond the Horizon, was produced on Broadway.
Between 1920 and 1943, O’Neill wrote
20 long plays and several short ones. His work was groundbreaking
in its use of slangy, everyday dialogue, its dingy, run-down settings,
and his experimental use of light, sound, and casting to set an emotional
O’Neill’s family life had
been very unhappy. His father became rich playing just one theater
role, the Count of Monte Cristo, for many years and never succeeded
in becoming a more serious actor. His mother used morphine, and his
beloved older brother became an alcoholic. All three died between
1920 and 1923. O’Neill wrote several autobiographical plays about
his family after they died, including A Moon for the Misbegotten
(produced in 1957) and Long Day’s Journey Into Night (produced
in 1956). Other major works include The Hairy Ape (1923)
and Mourning Becomes Electra (1931).
Although O’Neill was an outgoing host with an active social life during
his second marriage, he became reclusive during his third. In the
1940s, he developed a degenerative nervous disease, and he died in
Boston in 1953. Many critics call O’Neill America’s first major playwright.
|1945 Ho Chi Minh declares Vietnamese Independence
Hours after the unconditional Japanese surrender in World War II,
Ho Chi Minh, 65, the veteran Vietnamese Communist, proclaims the independent
Democratic Republic of Vietnam. Near the end of World War I, Ho Chi
Minh emigrated to France where, in 1920, he became a founding member
of the French Communist Party. He later traveled to the Soviet Union,
where he became a Comitern member and studied revolutionary tactics.
Returning to East Asia in the mid-1920s,
he set about organizing revolutionaries in China, and with the outbreak
of World War II, returned to his Vietnamese homeland. He organized
a Vietnamese independence movement the Viet Minh and
raised a guerilla army to oppose the Japanese occupation of Vietnam.
On 02 September 1945, Ho proclaims
the independent Democratic Republic of Vietnam, hoping to prevent
the French from reclaiming their former colonial possession. In 1946,
he would be elected president of Vietnam, but in the same year, grudgingly
accept the French demand that Vietnam exist as an autonomous state
within the French Union.
fighting between Vietnamese nationalists and the French broke out
soon afterwards, and in 1949, the French named Bao Dai their puppet
emperor of all Vietnam. In the same year, with military and economic
assistance of newly Communist China, Ho Chi Minh began a war of resistance
against French and Southern Vietnamese forces, who were armed largely
by the US
In 1954, the French
suffered, from the forces of general Giap, a major defeat at Dien
Bien Phu in northwest Vietnam, prompting the division of Vietnam along
the seventeenth parallel at the conference of Geneva. Ho Chi Minh
became president of North Vietnam and set about organizing a Communist
guerrilla movement in the South, the "National Liberation Front,"
also known as the Viet Cong. Ho and the Viet Cong successfully opposed
a series of ineffectual US-backed South Vietnam regimes and beginning
in 1963, withstood a decade-long military intervention by the United
States. Ho Chi Minh died in 1969, the day after the 14th anniversary
of his declaration of independence, and six years later Vietnam was
reunited as an independent Communist nation.
declares its independence and Nationalist leader Ho Chi Minh proclaims
himself first president.
proclamation paraphrased the US Declaration of Independence in declaring,
"All men are born equal: the Creator has given us inviolable rights,
life, liberty, and happiness!" and was cheered by an enormous crowd
gathered in Hanoi's Ba Dinh Square. It would be 30 years, however,
before Ho's dream of a united, communist Vietnam became reality. Born
in 1890, Ho Chi Minh left Vietnam as a cook on a French steamer in
1911. After several years as a seaman, he lived in London and then
moved to France, where he became a founding member of the French Communist
Party in 1920. He later traveled to the Soviet Union, where he studied
revolutionary tactics and took an active role in the Communist International.
In 1924, he went to China, where he set about organizing exiled Vietnamese
communists. Expelled by China in 1927, he traveled extensively before
returning to Vietnam in 1941. There, he organized a Vietnamese guerrilla
organization the Viet Minh to fight for Vietnamese independence.
Japan occupied French Indochina in 1940 and collaborated with French
officials loyal to France's Vichy regime. Ho, meanwhile, made contact
with the Allies and aided operations against the Japanese in South
China. In early 1945, Japan ousted the French administration in Vietnam
and executed numerous French officials.
When Japan formally surrendered to the Allies on 02 September 1945,
Ho Chi Minh felt emboldened enough to proclaim the independent Democratic
Republic of Vietnam. French forces seized southern Vietnam and opened
talks with the Vietnamese communists. These talks collapsed in 1946,
and French warships bombarded the northern Vietnamese city of Haiphong,
killing thousands. In response, the Viet Minh launched an attack against
the French in Hanoi on 19 December 1945 the beginning of the
First Indochina War.
the eight-year war, Mao Zedong's Chinese Communists supported the
Viet Minh, while the United States aided the French and anti-communist
Vietnamese forces. In 1954, the French suffered a major defeat at
Dien Bien Phu, in northwest Vietnam, prompting peace negotiations
and the division of Vietnam along the 17th parallel at a conference
in Geneva. Vietnam was divided into northern and southern regions,
with Ho in command of North Vietnam and Emperor Bao Dai in control
of South Vietnam.
In the late
1950s, Ho Chi Minh organized a Communist guerrilla movement in the
South, called the Viet Cong. North Vietnam and the Viet Cong successfully
opposed a series of ineffectual US-backed South Vietnam regimes and
beginning in 1964 withstood a decade-long military intervention by
the United States. Ho Chi Minh died on 02 September 1969, 25 years
after declaring Vietnam's independence from France and nearly six
years before his forces succeeded in reuniting North and South Vietnam
under communist rule. Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam, was renamed
Ho Chi Minh City after it fell to the communists in 1975.
1944 Troops of the US First Army enter Nazi-occupied Belgium.
|1945 Japan signs unconditional surrender
ending WW II. ^top^
It is still 01 September in the US when
USS Missouri hosts formal surrender of Japanese government
to Allies. Representing the Allied victors are Gen. Douglas MacArthur,
commander of the US Army forces in the Pacific, and Adm. Chester Nimitz,
commander of the US Pacific Fleet, now promoted to the newest and
highest Navy rank, fleet admiral. Among Allied officers from all of
the participating countries, present was Lt. Gen. Jonathan Wainwright,
who had taken command of the forces in the Philippines upon MacArthur's
departure and had been recently freed from a Japanese POW camp in
Shigemitsu would be
found guilty of war crimes and sentenced to seven years in prison
subsequent to the surrender. The grand irony is that he had fought
for concessions on the Japanese side in order to secure an early peace.
He was paroled in 1950 and went on to become chairman of Japan's Progressive
By the summer of 1945,
the defeat of Japan was a foregone conclusion. The Japanese navy and
air force were destroyed. The Allied naval blockade of Japan and intensive
bombing of Japanese cities had left the country and its economy devastated.
At the end of June, the Americans captured Okinawa, a Japanese island
from which the Allies could launch an invasion of the main Japanese
home islands. US General Douglas MacArthur was put in charge of the
invasion, which was code-named "Operation Olympic" and set for November
1945. The invasion of Japan promised to be the bloodiest seaborne
attack of all time, conceivably 10 times as costly as the Normandy
invasion in terms of Allied casualties.
On 16 July, a new option became available when the United States secretly
detonated the world's first atomic bomb in the New Mexico desert.
Ten days later, the Allies issued the Potsdam Declaration, demanding
the "unconditional surrender of all the Japanese armed forces." Failure
to comply would mean "the inevitable and complete destruction of the
Japanese armed forces and just as inevitable the utter devastation
of the Japanese homeland." On 28 July, Japanese Prime Minister Kantaro
Suzuki responded by telling the press that his government was "paying
no attention" to the Allied ultimatum. US President Harry Truman ordered
the devastation to proceed, and on 06 August, the US B-29 bomber Enola
Gay dropped an atomic bomb on the Japanese city of Hiroshima, killing
an estimated 80'000 and fatally wounding thousands more. After the
Hiroshima attack, a faction of Japan's supreme war council favored
acceptance of the Potsdam Declaration, but the majority resisted unconditional
surrender. On 08 August, Japan's desperate situation took another
turn for the worse when the USSR declared war against Japan. The next
day, Soviet forces attacked in Manchuria, rapidly overwhelming Japanese
positions there, and a second US atomic bomb was dropped on the Japanese
coastal city of Nagasaki.
before midnight on 09 August, Japanese Emperor Hirohito convened the
supreme war council. After a long, emotional debate, he backed a proposal
by Prime Minister Suzuki in which Japan would accept the Potsdam Declaration
"with the understanding that said Declaration does not compromise
any demand that prejudices the prerogatives of His Majesty as the
sovereign ruler." The council obeyed Hirohito's acceptance of peace,
and on 10 August the message was relayed to the United States. Early
on 12 August, the United States answered that "the authority of the
emperor and the Japanese government to rule the state shall be subject
to the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers." After two days of
debate about what this statement implied, Emperor Hirohito brushed
the nuances in the text aside and declared that peace was preferable
to destruction. He ordered the Japanese government to prepare a text
In the early
hours of 15 August, a military coup was attempted by a faction led
by Major Kenji Hatanaka. The rebels seized control of the imperial
palace and burned Prime Minister Suzuki's residence, but shortly after
dawn the coup was crushed. At noon that day, Emperor Hirohito went
on national radio for the first time to announce the Japanese surrender.
In his unfamiliar court language, he told his subjects, "we have resolved
to pave the way for a grand peace for all the generations to come
by enduring the unendurable and suffering what is insufferable." The
United States immediately accepted Japan's surrender. President Truman
appointed MacArthur to head the Allied occupation of Japan as Supreme
Commander of the Allied Powers.
For the site of Japan's formal surrender, Truman chose the USS
Missouri, a battleship that had seen considerable action in the
Pacific and was named after Truman's native state. MacArthur, instructed
to preside over the surrender, held off the ceremony until 02 September
in order to allow time for representatives of all the major Allied
powers to arrive. On Sunday, 02 September more than 250 Allied warships
lay at anchor in Tokyo Bay. The flags of the United States, Britain,
the Soviet Union, and China fluttered above the deck of the Missouri.
Just after 09:00 Tokyo time, Japanese Foreign Minister Mamoru Shigemitsu
signed on behalf of the Japanese government. General Yoshijiro Umezu
then signed for the Japanese armed forces, and his aides wept as he
made his signature. Supreme Commander MacArthur next signed on behalf
of the United Nations, declaring, "It is my earnest hope and indeed
the hope of all mankind that from this solemn occasion a better world
shall emerge out the blood and carnage of the past." Ten more signatures
were made, by the United States, China, Britain, the USSR, Australia,
Canada, France, the Netherlands, and New Zealand, respectively. Admiral
Chester W. Nimitz signed for the United States. As the 20-minute ceremony
ended, the sun burst through low-hanging clouds. The most devastating
war in human history was over.
1944 During WW II, George Bush (Sr.) ejects from a burning
1936 1st transatlantic round-trip air flight
Anne Frank is sent to Auschwitz ^top^
In Nazi-occupied Holland,
thirteen-year-old Jewish diarist Anne Frank and her family were forced
to take refuge in a secret sealed-off area of an Amsterdam warehouse
on 6 July 1942. The day before, Anne's older sister, Margot, had received
a call-up notice to be deported to a Nazi "work camp.
Born in Germany on 12 June, 1929, Anne
Frank fled to Amsterdam with her family in 1933 to escape Nazi persecution.
In the summer of 1942, with the German occupation of Holland underway,
twelve-year-old Anne began a diary relating her everyday experiences,
her relationship with her family and friends, and observations about
the increasingly dangerous world around her.
Just a few months later, under threat
of deportation to Nazi concentration camps, the Frank family was forced
into hiding in a secret sealed-off area of an Amsterdam warehouse.
Over the next two years, under the threat of murder by the Nazi officers
patrolling just outside the warehouse, Anne kept a diary that is marked
by poignancy, humor, and insight.
On 04 August 1944, just two months
after the successful Allied landing at Normandy, the Nazi Gestapo
discovers the Frank’s "Secret Annex. Along with another Jewish
family with whom they had shared the hiding place, and two of the
Christians who had helped shelter them, the Franks were sent to the
Nazi death camps. Anne, on 02 September 1944, and most of the others
ended up at the Auschwitz concentration camp in Poland, although her
diary was left behind, undiscovered by the Nazis. On 30 October 1944,
Anne was moved to Belsen.
In early 1945, with the Soviet liberation
of Poland underway, Anne was moved with her sister, Margot, to the
Bergen-Belsen concentration camp in Germany. Suffering under the deplorable
conditions of the camp, the two sisters caught typhus and died in
early March, probably on 12 March in the case of Anne.
After the war, Anne’s diary was discovered
undisturbed in the Amsterdam hiding place, and in 1947, was translated
into English and published. An instant bestseller which was eventually
translated into over thirty languages, The Diary of Anne Frank
has served as a literary testament to the six million Jews, including
Anne herself, who were silenced in the Holocaust.
The first non-stop airplane flight from Europe to the US is completed
in 37 hours as Capt. Dieudonné Coste and Maurice Bellonte of France
arrived in Valley Stream, N.Y., aboard the Point d'Interrogation.
1915 Austro-German armies take Grodno, Poland.
Le gouvernement français se réfugie à Bordeaux. Les troupes allemandes ont
appliqué le plan Schlieffen en contournant les défenses françaises après
avoir envahi la Belgique neutre. Elles sont à Senlis. Le gouvernement et
le président de la République Poincaré quittent par un train spécial Paris
menacé pour Bordeaux.
1901 US Vice President Theodore
Roosevelt advises, "Speak softly and carry a big stick," in a speech at
the Minnesota State Fair. It was neither the first nor the last time
he would say that. During TR's term as Governor of NY State he fought with
the party bosses, particularly Boss Tom Platt regarding a political appointment.
Roosevelt held out, although the boss threatened, to "ruin" him. In the
end the boss gave in. Looking back upon his handling of the incident, Roosevelt
thought he 'never saw a bluff carried more resolutely through to the final
limit.' And writing to a friend a few days later, he observed: 'I have always
been fond of the West African proverb: "Speak softly and carry a
big stick; you will go far." The proverb and the policy followed
him into numerous instances in his career, including his policies abroad
during his presidency.
1898 Battle of Omdurman: Sir
Herbert Kitchner leads the British to victory over the Mahdists, and takes
1890 The Property Tax Party At a meeting
on 02 September 1890, delegates of the Single Tax National League stuck
to their ideological guns and passed the main and only plank
of their party platform: a single tax that would be assessed on all property.
1870 At Sedan, having surrendered the previous evening,
Napoléon and 83'000 French soldiers are taken prisoner by the Prussians.
1864 The forces of Union General William T. Sherman march
into Atlanta, Georgia—one day after the Confederates evacuate the city.
1863 Siege of Fort Wagner, Charleston Harbor, South Carolina
1798 The Maltese people revolt against the French occupation,
forcing the French troops to take refuge in the citadel of Valetta in Malta.
|1862 McClellan is restored to full command
President Lincoln reluctantly restores Union General George B. McClellan
to full command after General John Pope's disaster at Second Bull
Run on 29 August and 30 August. McClellan, commander of the Army of
the Potomac, saw much of his army transferred to Pope's Army of Virginia
after his failure to capture Richmond during the Seven Days' Battles
in June 1862.
Pope, who had one
chance to prove his leadership at Second Bull Run against Confederate
General Robert E. Lee, failed miserably and retreated to Washington.
He had not received any help from McClellan, who sat nearby in Alexandria
and refused to go to Pope's aid. After a summer of defeats, the Union
forces in the east were now in desperate need of a boost in morale.
Even though McClellan was, in part, the architect of those losses,
Lincoln felt he was the best available general to raise the sagging
spirits of the men in blue. The president recognized McClellan's talent
for preparing an army to fight, even if he had proven to be a poor
field commander. Lincoln wrote to his secretary John Hay: "We must
use the tools we have. There is no man in the Army who can man these
fortifications and lick these troops into shape half as well as he.
If he can't fight himself, he excels in making others ready to fight.
There was little time for the
Union to dawdle after Second Bull Run. Lee's army lurked just 40 km
from Washington, and had tried to cut off the Union retreat at Chantilly
on 01 September. Even as Lincoln restored McClellan's command, the
Confederates were starting to move northward. McClellan was soon on
the road in pursuit of Lee's army.
1792 Verdun, France, surrenders to the Prussian Army.
1784 English clergyman Thomas Coke, 37, is consecrated,
the first "bishop" of the Methodist Episcopal Church, by founder John Wesley.
Coke afterward journeyed to America, where he and Francis Asbury oversaw
Methodism in the Colonies.
1752 Last day of Julian
calendar in Britain, British colonies
1636 Jean de Brébeuf, Jesuit missionary, baptizes
the first Iroquois ever to become a Christian. The man, a Seneca chief,
is later tortured to death.
|1715 Début de la régence de Philippe d'Orléans.
Le roi Louis XIV est mort, il y a seulement
un jour. Un testament fait de Philippe d'Orléans le régent du royaume.
Louis XIV a écrit : "Mon neveu, je vous fait régent du royaume. Vous
allez voir un roi dans le tombeau et un autre dans le berceau. Souvenez-vous
toujours de la mémoire de l'un et des intérêts de l'autre. Mais
il a subordonné son pouvoir à celui du duc du Maine. Philippe s'élève
lors de la lecture du testament contre cette clause. Le Parlement
consent à le casser, en échange de la restitution du droit de remontrance,
supprimé soixante ans plus tôt. Pour qu'aucune contestation soit possible,
le Régent demande au nouveau roi, qui n'a que cinq ans, de le désigner
pour seul régent lors d'un lit de justice devant le Parlement le 12
1415 Bohemian and Moravian
nobles send a document to the Council of Constance upholding Hus and saying
they will fight
1192 Richard I ("The Lionhearted,"
who will become king of England) negotiates a treaty with Muslim general
Saladin to allow access of Christians to the Holy City, ending the third
0909 A French Duke offers Berno of Blaume
the land for a monastery at Cluny. Cluny becomes a center of reform for
490 -BC- Phidippides runs 1st marathon, seeking
aid from Sparta vs Persia.
| 31 B.C. Battle of Actium: Octavian's
victory at sea. ^top^
At the naval battle of Actium in the
Ionian Sea, Roman leader Octavian defeated the alliance of Roman Mark
Antony and Cleopatra, queen of Egypt. Antony's fleet was burned and
five thousand of his men were killed. The Roman world, previously
divided between Mark Antony and Octavian, was now solely in the hands
of Octavian, who as Augustus Caesar becomes the first Roman emperor.
Mark Antony and Cleopatra would commit suicide in the following year.
With the assassination of Roman dictator
Julius Caesar in 44 B.C., Rome fell into civil war. To end the fighting,
a coalition the Second Triumvirate was formed by three
of the strongest belligerents. The triumvirate was made up of Octavian,
Caesar's great-nephew and chosen heir; Mark Antony, a powerful general;
and Lepidus, a Roman statesman. The empire was divided among the three,
and Antony took up the administration of the eastern provinces. Upon
arriving in Asia Minor, he summoned Queen Cleopatra to answer charges
that she had aided his enemies. Cleopatra, ruler of Egypt since 51
B.C., had once been Julius Caesar's lover and had borne him a child,
who she named Caesarion, meaning "little Caesar." Cleopatra sought
to seduce Antony as she had Caesar before him, and in 41 B.C. arrived
at Tarsus on a magnificent river barge, dressed as Venus, the Roman
goddess of love. Successful in her efforts, Antony returned with her
to Alexandria, where they spent the winter in debauchery.
In 40 B.C., Antony returned to Rome and married Octavian's sister
Octavia in an effort to mend his increasingly strained relationship
with Octavian. The triumvirate, however, continued to deteriorate.
In 37 B.C. Antony separated from Octavia and traveled to the East,
arranging for Cleopatra to join him in Syria. In their time apart,
Cleopatra had borne him twins, a son and a daughter. According to
Octavian's propagandists, the lovers were then married, which violated
the Roman law restricting Romans from marrying foreigners. Antony's
disastrous military campaign against Parthia in 36 B.C. further reduced
his prestige, but in 34 B.C. he was more successful against Armenia.
To celebrate the victory, he staged a triumphal procession through
the streets of Alexandria, in which Antony and Cleopatra sat on golden
thrones, and their children were given imposing royal titles. Many
in Rome, spurred on by Octavian, interpreted the spectacle as a sign
that Antony intended to deliver the Roman Empire into alien hands.
After several more years of tension and propaganda attacks, Octavian
declared war against Cleopatra, and therefore Antony, in 31 B.C. Enemies
of Octavian rallied to Antony's side, but Octavian's brilliant military
commanders gained early successes against his forces.
On 02 September 31 B.C., their fleets clashed at Actium in Greece.
After heavy fighting, Cleopatra broke from the engagement and set
course for Egypt with 60 of her ships. Antony then broke through the
enemy line and followed her. The disheartened fleet that remained
surrendered to Octavian. One week later, Antony's land forces surrendered.
Although they had suffered a decisive defeat, it was nearly a year
before Octavian reached Alexandria and again defeated Antony. In the
aftermath of the battle, Cleopatra took refuge in the mausoleum she
had had built for herself. Antony, informed that Cleopatra was dead,
stabbed himself with his sword. Before he died, another messenger
arrived, saying Cleopatra still lived. Antony was carried to Cleopatra's
retreat, where he died after bidding her to make her peace with Octavian.
When the triumphant Roman arrived, she attempted to seduce him, but
he resisted her charms. Rather than fall under Octavian's domination,
Cleopatra committed suicide on 30 August 31 B.C., possibly by means
of an asp, a poisonous Egyptian serpent and symbol of divine royalty.
Octavian then executed Cleopatra's son, Caesarion, annexed Egypt into
the Roman Empire, and used Cleopatra's treasure to pay off his veterans.
In 27 B.C., Octavian became Augustus, the first and arguably most
successful of all Roman emperors. He ruled a peaceful, prosperous,
and expanding Roman Empire until his death in 14 A.D. at the age of