| On a 10 September:
2002 Switzerland becomes the 190th member of the
United Nations, following approval by its voters in a March 2002 referendum.
2002 Read at ALL 4
2DAY how all India takes the day off to celebrate an elephant-headed
2001 Parliamentary elections in Norway. Though
it still has more seats than any other party, the ruling Labor Party suffered
its worst election showing since 1924.
2000 The Antarctic
ozone hole has grown to 30 million square kilometers and, this day and the
preceding one, extends over Punta Arenas, Chile, exposing its 120'000 inhabitants
to harmful ultraviolet radiation.
| 2000 Fictional date in Looking
backward from 2000 to 1887 ^top^
It is the day on which the narrator
wakes up from the long sleep into which he fell on 30 May 1887. The
novel is by Edward Bellamy, published in 1888.
was born 26 March 1850, in Chicopee Falls, USA, and died there on
22 May, 1898. Other books of his are Six to One (1878), The
Duke of Stockbridge (1879), Dr. Heidenhoff's Process
(1880), Miss Ludington's Sister: a romance of immortality
(1884), Equality (1897), Other Stories (1898)
Backward From 2000 to 1887 (at another site)
1996 Time Warner starts its cable-modem service, Road Runner,
in Akron, Ohio. A host of new companies entered the race to provide high-speed
Internet access through television cable.
|1998 Microsoft subpoenas competitors ^top^
Microsoft serves subpoenas on its competitors,
including Netscape, Sun Microsystems, Novell, Oracle, and IBM. Microsoft
claimed the companies had colluded against Microsoft. The company
argued it was being held to a double standard by the government, because
most software companies cooperate with each other to gain an advantage
US Senate dealt a double defeat to gay-rights activists, voting to reject
same-sex marriage in federal law and killing a separate bill that would
have barred job discrimination against gays.
Ross Perot picks economist Pat Choate to share the Reform Party presidential
1996 Female giant panda Bai Yun is loaned by
China to the San Diego Zoo for a 12-year research project.
President George Bush, campaigning for re-election, proposes a 1% tax cut.
It would not stop Democratic challenger Bill Clinton from winning the election.
1992 Lanzado al espacio, desde la Guayana francesa, el
Hispasat, primer satélite español de comunicaciones.
1990 Iran agrees to resume diplomatic ties with Iraq
Irak e Irán acuerdan restablecer relaciones diplomáticas en medio
de la crisis por Kuwait y tras haber librado una guerra de ocho años.
|1992 Free DOS Quattro Pro to buyers of Windows
Quattro Pro spreadsheet ^top^
Newspapers report that Borland International,
maker of spreadsheets and databases, would hand out a free copy of
its older spreadsheet to consumers who bought the new version of Quattro
Pro. The new version was the first to run on the Windows operating
system, but it required more computing power to run than the earlier
version. The company offered both versions so that buyers who had
both a desktop machine and a less powerful laptop would be able to
use the program on either one.
|1989 Hungary allows East Germans refugees
to leave ^top^
East Germans begin their large~scale
flight to the west (via Hungary and Czechoslovakia).
In a dramatic break with the eastern European communist bloc, Hungary
gives permission for thousands of East German refugees to leave Hungary
for West Germany. It was the first time one of the Warsaw Pact nations-who
were joined in the defensive alliance between Russia and its eastern
Europe satellites broke from the practice of blocking citizens
of the communist nations from going to the West.
1989, the Soviet Union was entering a period of accelerating collapse.
Economic problems were foremost in the factors causing this collapse,
but political turmoil in the Soviet Union, the various Soviet Socialist
Republics, and the satellite nations in eastern Europe were also responsible
for the decay of what President Ronald Reagan once termed the "evil
empire." In Hungary, a movement for greater democracy and economic
freedom was gaining strength. Such forces were also alive in East
Germany, but the communist government of that nation proved inflexible
in dealing with the demands for change. In response, thousands of
East Germans traveling as "tourists" began pouring into
Hungary. As soon as they arrived, they declared that they would not
The East German refugees
hoped to cross from Hungary into Austria and then into West Germany
where, by law, they would be granted nearly instant citizenship. In
the past, Hungary had refused to allow East Germans to proceed to
Austria. Hungarian leaders now saw a danger, however. As Hungary moved
toward a more democratic political system and free market economics,
more and more refugees from other communist nations not just
East Germany might pour into the country seeking refuge. Foreign
Minister Gyula Horn declared, "We cannot become a country of refugee
camps." He announced that Hungary would allow the nearly 8000 East
Germans in Hungary to leave for West Germany.
East German government responded angrily, but there was little it
could do to stop the flow of its people into neighboring communist
nations and hence into Hungary en route to West Germany. Tens of thousands
of East Germans raced across their nation's borders into Poland and
Czechoslovakia, seeking asylum and permission to travel to West Germany.
Pro-democracy forces in East Germany took heart from these actions,
and the communist government began to crumble. In November 1989, the
East German government announced that the Berlin Wall separating East
and West Berlin would be torn down and the country would soon be united
under a democratic government.
1981 Picasso's Guernica goes to Basque town of
Guernica, martyred on 26 April 1937 when, with the authorization of Francisco
Franco, the German Luftwaffe bombed its non-belligerent 5000 inhabitants.
Pablo Picasso reacted by creating the famous
painting, which, now that democracy is restored in Spain, goes there,
as Picasso, who died eight years earlier, willed it. READ
ALL ABOUT IT AND SEE HIGH-RESOLUTION IMAGES AT ART 4 SEPtember
|1984 Mondale's debt reduction plan.
After a decade of inflation and fiscal mismanagement, including 3
years of Reagan presidency, the American economy was wallowing in
debt. So Walter Mondale, the Democratic nominee for President, unveils
a plan to reduce the deficit by $175 million. But that would require
an increase in taxes. Although the increases would only impact the
wealthy and corporations, a strong backlash against Mondale's brand
of "tax and spend" liberalism would develop. Come November, President
Reagan is elected to a second term, winning every state in the nation
except for Mondale's home state, Minnesota. And Reagan presides over
a further increase in the US national debt.
1979 Four Puerto Rican nationalists imprisoned for
a 1954 attack on the US House of Representatives and a 1950 attempt on the
life of President Truman were granted clemency by President Carter.
1976 El Gobierno español aprueba el proyecto de ley de
reforma política, que abrió el camino de la democracia.
Guinea-Bissau gains independence from Portugal
1967 Gibraltar votes 12'138 to 44 to remain British
LBJ orders aid to South Viet morale
Following the Tonkin Gulf incidents,
in which North Vietnamese torpedo boats attacked US destroyers, and
the subsequent passage of the Tonkin Gulf Resolution empowering him
to react to armed attacks, President Lyndon Johnson authorizes a series
of measures “to assist morale in South Vietnam and show the Communists
[in North Vietnam] we still mean business.” These measures included
covert action such as the resumption of the DeSoto intelligence patrols
and South Vietnamese coastal raids to harass the North Vietnamese.
Premier Souvanna Phouma of Laos was also asked to allow the South
Vietnamese to make air and ground raids into southeastern Laos, along
with air strikes by Laotian planes and US armed aerial reconnaissance
to cut off the North Vietnamese infiltration along the route that
became known as the Ho Chi Minh Trail. Eventually, US warplanes would
drop over 2 million tons of bombs on Laos as part of Operations Steel
Tiger and Tiger Hound between 1965 and 1973.
|1963 Desegregation despite Wallace
At the end of a standoff between Alabama governor George C. Wallace
and federal authorities, twenty Black students enter public schools
in Tuskegee, Mobile, and Birmingham, Alabama. A week earlier, Wallace
had surrounded Tuskegee High School with state troopers in an attempt
to block integration of the public school. US President John F. Kennedy
sends federalized Alabama National Guardsmen to the area, Wallace
is forced to yield.
one of the most controversial politicians in US history, was elected
governor of Alabama in 1962 under an ultra-segregationist platform.
In his 1963 inaugural address, Wallace promised his white followers:
"Segregation now! Segregation tomorrow! Segregation forever!" However,
the promise lasted only six months. In June of the same year, under
federal pressure, he was forced to end his blockade of the University
of Alabama and allow the enrollment of Black students.
Despite his failures in slowing the accelerating civil-rights movement
in the South, Wallace became a national spokesman for resistance to
racial change, and in 1964 entered the race for the US presidency.
Although defeated in most Democratic presidential primaries he entered,
his modest successes demonstrated the extent of popular backlash against
segregation. In 1968, he made another strong run as the candidate
of the American Independent party, and managed to get on the ballot
in all fifty states. On election day, he drew ten million votes from
all across the country.
Governor Wallace returned to the Democratic party for his third presidential
campaign, and under a slightly more moderate platform was showing
promising returns when he was shot by Arthur Bremer on 15 May 1972.
Three others were wounded, and Wallace was permanently paralyzed from
the waist down. The next day, while fighting for his life in a hospital,
he won major primary victories in Michigan and Maryland. However,
Wallace remained in the hospital for several months, bringing his
third presidential campaign to an irrevocable end.
After his recovery, he faded from national prominence and made a poor
showing in his fourth and final presidential campaign in 1979. During
the 1980s, Wallace's politics shifted dramatically, especially in
regard to race. In 1983, he was elected Alabama governor for the last
time with the overwhelming support of Black voters. Over the next
four years, the man who had promised segregation forever made more
political appointments of Blacks than any other figure in Alabama
history. He died in 1998.
1961 Jomo Kenyatta returns to Kenya from exile, during
which he had been elected president of the Kenya National African Union.
Kennedy gets confusing report ^top^
Maj. Gen. Victor Krulak, USMC, Special
Assistant for Counterinsurgency and Special Activities to the Joint
Chiefs of Staff, and Joseph Mendenhall of the State Department report
to President John F. Kennedy on their fact-finding mission to Vietnam.
The president had sent them to make a firsthand assessment of the
situation in Vietnam with regard to the viability of the government
there and the progress of the war. Having just returned from a whirlwind
four-day visit, their perceptions differed greatly. Krulak concluded
that progress was being made in the war against the Viet Cong, but
Mendenhall perceived from talks with bureaucrats and politicians that
the Diem regime in Saigon was near collapse and lacking popular support
among the South Vietnamese people. A frustrated Kennedy responded,
“You two did visit the same country, didn’t you?” This was emblematic
of the problem that faced the American president as he tried to determine
what to do about the situation in Vietnam.
Two months later, the Kennedy administration
would decided that the Diem government was too far gone to save and
told opposition South Vietnamese generals that they would not oppose
a coup. The coup began on November 1, 1963, and Diem and his brother
were murdered in the early morning hours of the following day. President
Kennedy was assassinated shortly thereafter on November 22. His successor,
President Lyndon B. Johnson oversaw a steady escalation of the war
that ultimately involved the commitment of more than half a million
1958 Kornelius Isaak a Mennonite missionary is wounded
in Paraguay by a Morro Indian arrow, and dies the next day.
Primera sesión plenaria de los 77 diputados de la Asamblea de la Comunidad
Europea del Carbón y del Acero, antecesora del actual Parlamento Europeo.
1945 Vidkun Quisling sentenced to death in Norway for
collaborating with the Nazis.
|1948 Axis Sally indicted
Mildred Gillars, a Nazi radio propagandist during World War II, is
indicted for treason in Washington, D.C. Born in Portland, Maine,
Gillars moved to Europe in the 1920s, changed her name, and by 1934
began working as an English-language radio broadcaster in Berlin.
During the war she broadcast Nazi propaganda with the intent of demoralizing
US troops, who nicknamed her "Axis Sally." Gillars was convicted of
treason, and spent twelve years in prison.
|1942 Wartime gasoline rationing in US
Following the example of several European nations, President Franklin
D. Roosevelt mandates gasoline rationing in the US as part of the
country’s wartime efforts. Gasoline rationing was just one of the
many measures taken during these years, as the entire nation was transformed
into a unified war machine: women took to the factories, households
tried to conserve energy, and American automobile manufacturers began
producing tanks and planes. The gasoline ration was lifted in 1945,
at the end of World War II.
1939 Canada declares war on Nazi Germany.
|1940 Orders: bomb target or, if not, anywhere
in Germany ^top^
In light of the destruction and terror
inflicted on Londoners by a succession of German bombing raids, called
"the Blitz," the British War Cabinet instructs British bombers over
Germany to drop their bombs "anywhere" if unable to reach their targets.
The prior two nights of bombing had
wrought extraordinary damage, especially in the London slum area,
the East End. King George VI even visited the devastated area to reassure
the inhabitants that their fellow countrymen were with them in heart
and mind. Each night since the seventh, sirens had sounded to announce
the approach of incoming German planes, which had begun dropping bombs
indiscriminately in the London vicinity, even though the docks had
been their primary target on Day One of the Blitz.
As British bombers set out for Germany to retaliate, they are instructed
not to return home with their bombs, even if they fail to locate their
original targets. Instead, they are to release their loads where and
when they could. On the night of the 10th, a night when British Home
Intelligence had been alerted of how panicked Londoners were becoming
at the sound of those air-raid sirens, Berlin is paid in kind, with
a cascade of British bombs—one of which lands in the garden of Joseph
Goebbels, the Nazi Party's minister of propaganda.
La BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) pone en marcha la primera emisión
televisiva, que en principio sólo tenía media hora de duración diaria.
1923 In response to a dispute with Yugoslavia, Mussolini
mobilizes Italian troops on Serb front.
1919 Tras la I Guerra Mundial, se firma el Tratado de Saint-Germain,
por el que quedan definidas las fronteras de Austria, Checoslovaquia y Yugoslavia.
|1921 The first superhighway
The Ayus Autobahn, the world’s first controlled-access highway and
part of Germany’s Bundesautobahn system, opens near Berlin. Once regarded
as a symbol of modernity and a model of German engineering, the autobahn
system was nearly destroyed during World War II. At the start of the
postwar era, the newly formed nations of East and West Germany set
about repairing the superhighway network. The system was greatly extended
and improved in West Germany, which had a higher growth rate of motor
traffic than its eastern neighbor, although repairs and extensions
were also made to the system in East Germany. Over the years, the
autobahn has regained its status as a model expressway, famed for
its nonexistent speed limit.
1914 The six-day Battle of the Marne ends, halting the
German advance into France.
1913 Lincoln Highway
opens as 1st paved coast-to-coast US highway
J. Vedrines becomes the first pilot to fly faster than 100 m.p.h.
1910 Great Idaho Fire destroys 1.2 million hectares of
1882 1st international conference to promote anti-semitism
meets in Dresden Germany (Congress for Safeguarding of Non-Jewish Interests)
|1897 First DWI ^top^
Long before breathalyzers, George Smith’s
swerving is enough to alert British police and make him the first
person arrested for drunken driving. Unfortunately many other drunk
drivers have taken to the road since. Although drunk driving is illegal
in most countries, punished by heavy fines and mandatory jail sentences,
it continues to be one of the leading causes of automobile accidents
throughout the world. Alcohol-related automobile accidents are responsible
for approximately one-third of the traffic fatalities in the United
States – 16'000 deaths each year, and also account for over half a
million injuries and $1 billion of property damage annually.
M.A.D.D. (Mothers Against Drunk Driving)
is an organisation that fights this scourge by educational campaigns
and by lobbying for legislation.
1863 Little Rock, Arkansas captured
Confederates at Carnifex Ferry, Virginia, fall back after being attacked
by Union troops. The action is instrumental in helping preserve western
Virginia for the Union.
1855 Sevastopol, under siege
for nearly a year, capitulates to the Allies during the Crimean War.
1846 Elias Howe patents the first practical sewing machine
in the United States.
|1833 President announces withdrawal from
Bank of US ^top^
Fearful that the nation's fiscal policies
were encroaching on states' rights, President Andrew Jackson declares
his intention to remove government deposits from the Bank of the United
States. The decision, which took effect a few weeks later, proved
to be one of the more controversial decisions of "Old Hickory's" political
career. Jackson's rival Henry Clay guided two resolutions through
the Senate that censured the President for overstepping his Constitutional
bounds, as well as failing to provide adequate explanation for the
move. On top of these political consequences, the removal also stirred
up financial troubles. Jackson inadvertently triggered a "currency
crisis" and the bank-fueled Panic of 1837.
1823 Simon Bolivar named president of Peru
|1832 Lamennais submits to the Pope's doctrinal
"He who has stopped to calculate what
liberty will cost has renounced liberty in his heart." "If there be
upon earth anything truly great, it is the resolute firmness of a
people who march on, under the eye of God, to the conquest of those
rights which they hold from Him, without flagging for a moment. .
These words came from the
pen of Hughes
Félicité Robert de Lamennais, a man of strong opinions which he
completely changed several times in his life. As a young man Lamennais
joined the left in the French Revolution. In 1804 he renounced revolution
and became a priest, urging unity of religion and state. A few years
more brought him to demand separation of church and state. In later
life, after the church had humiliated him, he became an embittered
During his years as a
priest, Lamennais was an Ultramontanist, a strong adherent of the
pope's prerogatives and infallibility. Since religion in one form
or another is the driving principle of society, society cannot ignore
what people believe, taught Lamennais during this phase of his thinking.
Therefore atheists, deists and heretics must be crushed. Within a
dozen years he had moved to advocating complete separation of church
and state. Priests should not accept state pay. The church should
instead identify itself with the movement of political liberalism
and allow everyone the right to do anything he or she liked as long
as it was not opposed to right itself. Such ideas fostered the Catholic
Liberal and Christian Socialist movements.
The bishops of France turned on Lamennais and his magazine, L'Avenir.
Lamennais appealed to the pope and left him a statement of his belief.
Gregory XVI felt Lamennais had gone too far. He rebuked his work on
four grounds: that it dealt publicly with delicate issues which should
be handled higher in the church hierarchy; that his theories would
foment revolt; that many of his views were contrary to church doctrine;
and that there could not be collaboration between the church and all
who worked for liberty.
50, accepts Gregory's decision with good grace, drafting his own submission
on this date, 10 September 1832. However, overzealous bishops forced
him to repeat his submission four times more. This was too much for
the sensitive priest. He broke with the church and abandoned his priestly
vocation. From now on he fought his battles independently. By his
death he had mixed pantheistic and naturalistic ideas with what remained
of his faith. Christ, the essence of Christianity, fell aside. Lamennais'
importance lies in the fact he forced Catholics to move toward Democracy,
created a new apologetic, and turned French Catholicism away from
Gallicanism. He had great influence on the Church in France and, one
might suspect, on modern Liberation Theology. Through him sociological
ideas entered religious thinking. He was a founder of the Second French
Republic. He died, estranged from the Church, on 27 February 1854.
du Journal L'Avenir
la Religion considérée dans ses Rapports avec l'Ordre politique
De la Religion
considérée dans ses Rapports avec l'Ordre politique et civil
1798 British Honduras beats Spain in battle of St George
|1813 The Battle of Lake Erie ^top^
In the first unqualified defeat of
a British naval squadron in history, US Captain Oliver Hazard Perry
leads a fleet of nine American ships to victory over a squadron of
six British warships at the Battle of Lake Erie during the War of
1812. All six English vessels are destroyed or captured. After the
British struck their colors, Perry sent a famous message to US General
William Henry Harrison, "We have met the enemy, and they are ours."
1776 George Washington asks for a spy volunteer,
Nathan Hale volunteers
1721 Treaty of Nystad signed
in Finland between Sweden and Russia, ends the Great Northern War (1700-21).
Sweden is forced to cede Livonia, Estonia and Ingria, part of Karelia.
1623 Lumber and furs are the first cargo to leave New Plymouth
in North America for England.
1588 Thomas Cavendish returns to England, becoming the
third man to circumnavigate the globe.
|1608 Smith elected to lead Jamestown
Captain John Smith, an English adventurer, explorer, writer, and cartographer,
council president of Jamestown, Virginia the first permanent
English settlement in North America. Smith, a colorful figure, had
won popularity in the colony because of his effectiveness in dealing
with local Native American groups.
On 13 May 1607, some one hundred English colonists had settled
along the west bank of the James River in Virginia to found Jamestown,
the first permanent English settlement in North America. Dispatched
from England by the London Company, the colonists had sailed across
the Atlantic aboard the Sarah Constant, Goodspeed, and Discovery.
Upon landing at Jamestown, the first colonial council was held by
seven settlers whose names had been chosen and placed in a sealed
box by King James I. The council, which included John Smith, chose
Edward Wingfield as its first president.
After only two weeks, Jamestown came under attack from warriors from
the local Algonquian Native-American confederacy, but the Indians
were repulsed by the armed settlers. In December of the same year
1607, John Smith and two other colonists were captured by Algonquians
while searching for provisions in the Virginia wilderness. They were
brought before Algonquin Chief Powhatan, and his companions were killed.
But, according to his Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the
Summer Isles (1624), Pocahontas, the chief's young daughter,
saved his life by throwing herself between him and the warriors ordered
to execute him.
Over the next
two years, disease, starvation, and more Native American attacks wiped
out most of the colony, but the London Company continually sent more
settlers and supplies. The severe winter of 1609 to 1610, which the
colonists referred to as the "starving time," killed most of the Jamestown
colonists, leading the survivors to plan a return to England in the
spring. However, on 10 June 1610, Thomas West De La Warr, the
newly appointed governor of Virginia, arrived with supplies and convinced
the settlers to remain at Jamestown.
In 1612, John Rolfe cultivated the first tobacco at Jamestown, introducing
a successful source of livelihood, and, on 05 April 1614, he
married Pocahontas, thus assuring a temporary peace with Chief Powhatan.
However, the death of Powhatan in 1618 brought about a resumption
of conflict with the Algonquians, including an attack led by Chief
Opechancanough in 1622 that nearly wiped out the settlements surrounding
Jamestown, although the heavily fortified town was saved. The English
engaged in violent reprisals against the Algonquians, but there was
no further large-scale fighting until 1644, when Opechancanough led
his last uprising, and was captured and executed at Jamestown. In
1646, the Algonquian Confederacy agreed to give up much of its territory
to the rapidly expanding colony, and, beginning in 1665, its chiefs
were appointed by the governor of Virginia.
1547 The Duke
of Somerset leads the English to a resounding victory over the Scots at
1224 The Franciscans (founded in
1209 by St. Francis of Assisi) first arrived in England. They were originally
called "Grey Friars" because of their gray habits. (The habit worn by the
main branch of modern Franciscans is brown.). The Franciscans first arrive
in England where their austerity and love have a great influence, including
on Bishop Robert Grosseteste, who becomes their leader and who undertakes
reform in light of their thinking.
0422 St Celestine
I is elected pope. He would convoke the Council of Ephesus to combat the
Nestorian "heresy" (the belief that Christ had two natures and two persons)
and may have sent Patrick to Ireland as a missionary.