a 22 September:
2002 Parliamentary election in Germany. The Social Democrats of Chancellor Gerdard Schroeder, 58 [< photo] (in power since unseating Helmut Kohl in 1998) in coalition with the Greens get a reduced majority, 306 seats of the 603 in the new Bundestag. The opposition Christian Democrat Free Democrat potential coalition, led by Edmund Stoiber (governor of Bavaria since 1993) gets 295 seats. Neo-Communists get the other two seats. Voters cast two votes: one for a local candidate and one for a party. In the outgoing 669-seat parliament, Schroeder's Social Democrats hold 298 seats, the Christian Democrats/CSU 245, the Greens 47, the Free Democrats 43 and the ex-Communists 36.
2001 Under pressure from the US in the wake of the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon (11 September), the United Arab Emirates cuts diplomatic relations with the Taliban government of Afghanistan. Of the other two countries which recognize the Taliban, Pakistan withdraws it diplomats from Kabul (but leaves open the Afghan embassy in Islamabad) and, on 25 September 2001, Saudi Arabia cuts all diplomatic relations.
2000 US President Clinton directed the release of 30 million barrels of oil from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, the government's emergency stockpile.
2000 Kraft Foods recalls all taco shells sold nationwide in supermarkets under the Taco Bell brand after tests confirmed they were made with StarLink, a genetically engineered corn not approved for human consumption.
1997 IBM announces that it will make computer chips smaller and 40% faster by using copper instead of aluminum. IBM's shares go up 5-7/16 to 104-11/16.
1995 Turner sells broadcasting company ^top^
Ted Turner sells his broadcasting company to Time Warner Inc. The deal calls for Time Warner to hand over $7.5 billion to create one of the world's largest media concerns, with roughly $20 billion in assets. But US West, which holds a $2.55 billion ownership stake in Time Warner Enterprises, starts a lawsuit to halt the deal. To further complicate matters, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) begins a lengthy anti-trust investigation. It would take Time and Turner a full year of negotiating to overcome these obstacles. Finally, after sifting through over a million pages of documents and holding months of deliberations, the FTC approved the deal in September of 1996. The various delays depressed Time Warner's stock so that the value of the deal shrank to $6.5 billion.
1995 Flaw found in Netscape A member of the Cypherpunk news group, an online forum where mathematicians and hackers discussed cryptography, discovered a serious flaw in Netscape's Internet browser. The flaw would allow intruders to severely damage a user's computer, destroying files or causing crashes. The flaw was the third in a month identified by Cypherpunk members.
1993 Russian President Boris Yeltsin dissolves parliament and calls elections after the defiant Duma sought to strip him of his powers and swore in Alexander Rutskoi as acting president.
1991 The London newspaper The Mail publishes an interview with former intelligence agent John Cairncross, who admits being the "fifth man" in the Soviet Union's notorious British spy ring.
1990 Saudi Arabia expells many Jordanian and Yemeni envoys
| 1961 Antonio Albertondo (Argentina) at 42, completes
the 1st "double" crossing swim of the English Channel in 43 hrs. 10 min
1958 Sherman Adams, assistant to US President Eisenhower, resigns amid charges of improperly using his influence to help an industrialist.
1955 Commercial TV begins in England
1950 Omar N. Bradley is promoted to the rank of five-star general (already held by Dwight D. Eisenhower, Douglas MacArthur, George C. Marshall and Henry H. "Hap" Arnold).
1949 USSR explodes its first nuclear bomb.
1947 A Douglas C-54 Skymaster makes the first automatic pilot flight over the Atlantic.
| 1944 Boulogne reoccupied by Allies
1929 Communist and Nazi factions clash in Berlin.
1919 President Woodrow Wilson abandons his national tour to support the League of Nations when he suffers a case of nervous exhaustion.
1919 Steel strike begins in US
1918 General Allenby leads the British army against the Turks, taking Haifa and Nazareth, Palestine.
1903 Italo Marchiony granted patent for the ice cream cone
1893 Bicycle makers Charles and Frank Duryea show off the first American automobile produced for sale to the public by taking it on a maiden run through the streets of Springfield, Massachusetts.
1868 Race riots in New Orleans La
1864 Battle of Fisher's Hill, in Virginia: Union General Philip Sheridan defeats Confederate General Jubal Early's troops.
1863 Union troops abandon Missionary Ridge and retreat into Chattanooga, Tennessee
1862 President Lincoln issues a proclamation calling for all slaves within the rebel states to be freed on January 1, a political move that helps keep the British from intervening on the side of the South.
| 1827 The angel Moroni reportedly revealed the golden
tablets (containing the "Book
of Mormon") to Joseph Smith. They were hidden near the family farm,
in Palmyra, NY. Smith's English translation of their strange hieroglyphics
became the literary foundation for the new Mormon religion.
1817 John Quincy Adams becomes secretary of State
1792 (1 vendémiaire an I) Origin of French Republican Era, being the Fall Equinox (calendar not established until later).
1789 A Russian-Austrian army of 25'000 under Count Aleksandr Suvorov drive the Turkish army under Yusuf Pasha from the Rymnik River, upsetting the Turkish invasion of Russia.
1789 Office of Postmaster General of the US established by Congress
1784 Russian trappers established a colony on Kodiak Island, AK
1656 The General Provincial Court in session at Patuxent, Maryland, impanels the first all-woman jury in the Colonies to hear evidence against Judith Catchpole, who is accused of murdering her child. The jury acquits her after hearing her defense of never having been pregnant.
1601 The first (Catholic) priests of the newly established Christian Church in Japan Sebastian Chimura and Aloysius Niabara are ordained in their hometown of Nagasaki.
| Deaths which
occurred on a 22 September:
2003 Hugo Young, of cancer, British center-left, pro-Europe, anti-Iraq-war political columnist, chairman of the Scott Trust, which owns The Guardian and The Observer. His final column, published on 16 September 2003, was headlined, "Under Blair, Britain has ceased to be a sovereign state," and concludes, "At last we see the consequences of our country's abject thrall to the U.S." Author of One of Us (1989, political biography of Margaret Thatcher), This Blessed Plot: Britain and Europe From Churchill to Blair (1998).
1979 Charles Ehresmann, Alsatian mathematician born on 19 April 1905.
1970 Vojtech Jarnik, Czech mathematician born on 22 December 1897. He worked mainly on number theory.
1923 Marquess of Ripon, game hunter, dies after shooting 52nd grouse
1920 Herbert James Draper, born in 1864, British painter of historical and imaginative subjects and portraits of his contemporaries. MORE ON DRAPER AT ART 4 SEPTEMBER LINKS Day and the Dawn Star Lancelot and Guinevere Naiad's Pool The Sea Maiden (1894) Calypso's Isle (1897) The Lament for Icarus The Water Nixie A Water Baby (1900) Tristram and Iseult This painting was destroyed in WW II. Sea Melodies The Golden Fleece Lamia (1909) Ulysses and the Sirens Flying Fish Clyties of the Mist (The Mountain Mists). Study for Clyties of the Mist The Kelpie Halcyone
1914 Five civilians as the German cruiser Emden shells Madras, India, destroying 1'200'000 liters of fuel.
1890 Auguste Etienne François Mayer, French artist born on 03 July 1805.
1837 William George Horner, English one-shot mathematician born in 1786.
1832 Philibert-Louis Debucourt, French painter and printmaker born on 13 February 1755. LINKS — La Promenade Publique (full-size or half-size)
Nathan Hale, 21, hanged
as a spy by the British in
New York City. ^top^
Hale was born in Connecticut on 06 June 1755. He joined the Patriot army on 06 July 1755 and rapidly rose to captain. He volunteered for the mission requested by General George Washington to cross behind British lines on Long Island and report on their activity.
Disguised as a Dutch schoolmaster, Nathan Hale set out on his mission on 12 September 1776. For over a week he gathered information on the position of British troops but was captured os 21 September while returning, near the American lines. Before being hanged he is reported to have said: "I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country."
Photo of statue of Hale by MacMonnies
| 1711 North Carolina settlers massacred as the Tuscarora
Indian War begins, following white encroachment that included the enslaving
of Indian children.
1703 Vincenzo Viviani, Florentine engineer and mathematician born on 05 April 1622.
1692 During the famous Salem Witch Trials, the last 8 "witches" are hanged in Massachusetts. When the turmoil finally settled, 13 women and 7 men had been executed, and over 150 others remained in jail through the next summer. Last hanging for witchcraft in US
1660 Pieter de Ring, Dutch still-life painter born in 1615. LINKS — Still Life with a Golden Goblet — Still-Life of Musical Instruments
1658 Georg Philipp Harsdörfer, 50, poet (Poetischer Trichter)
1607 Alessandro Bronzino Allori, Italian Mannerist painter born on 03 May 1535. LINKS — Francesco I de'Medici (full size or half-size) — Charity
1572 François Clouet, French Mannerist portraitist born before 1522 (perhaps in 1510). LINKS — The Bath of Diana — Une Dame dans son Bain — Charles IX, tête et épaules — Charles IX, mi-corps — Charles IX, de pied 1ère version _ Charles IX, de pied 2ème version — Henri II — Henri II with Catharine de Medici, surrounded by the portraits of 13 other French royals — (Mme) Claude de Beaune — Pierre Forget, Seigneur de Fresne — Pierre Quthe — Elisabeth of Austria, Queen of France
1566 Johann Agricola, German theologian and reformer. A friend of Martin Luther, the relationship deteriorated over the issue of the authority of Mosaic Law in believers' and nonbelievers' lives.
0530 St Felix IV Pope
| Births which
occurred on a 22 September:
2001 The Air Transportation Stabilization Board is estalblished as US President “Dubya” Bush signs the Air Transportation Safety and System Stabilization Act (Public Law 107-42). The Board may issue up to $10 billion in Federal loan guarantees to airlines.
1961 The Peace Corps. President John F. Kennedy signs a congressional act establishing the Peace Corps, a government-funded volunteer organization created to fight hunger, disease, illiteracy, poverty, and lack of opportunity around the world
1953 The world's first four-level freeway interchange, connecting the freeways of Hollywood, Harbor, Santa Ana, and Arroyo Seco.
1933 Fay Weldon, author (The Life and Loves of a She-Devil).
1922 Chen Ning Yang China, physicist/disproved parity (Nobel 1957)
1909 David Reisman, sociologist, author of The Lonely Crowd.
1908 Esphyr Slobodkina~Urquhart, Siberian-born US abstract artist better known for her illustrated children's books, especially Caps for Sale, (1938). She died on 21 July 2002. MORE ON SLOBODKINA AT ART 4 SEPTEMBER Crossroad #2
1905 Fritz Winter, German artist who died in 1975. — Roter Vertikaler Klang
1901 Charles Huggins, Canadian-born US Nobel Prize-winning surgeon and urologist (1966). He died on 12 January 1997.
1895 Babette Deutsch, US poet, critic, translator and novelist, who died on 13 November 1982.
1886 (1888?) Roger Bissière, French artist who died on 02 December 1964. — more LINKS — Composition 187
1880 Dame Christabel Pankhurst, English women's suffragist who died on 13 February 1958.
1878 Shigeru Yoshida Japanese PM (most of 1946-54)
1866 Helmer Osslund, Swedish artist who died in 1938.
1859 Paul Baum, German Pointillist painter who died in 1932. [He almost always included trees in his paintings.] — Weiden am Bach
1838 Karl Jutz, German artist who died in 1916.
1791 Michael Faraday, English physicist and chemist, inventor of the dynamo, the transformer, and the electric motor. He died on 25 August 1867. Faraday's Law of Induction states that the magnitude of the electromotive force induced in a circuit is proportional to the rate of change of the magnetic flux that cuts across the circuit. Faraday's Laws of Electrolysis: (1) the chemical change produced by current at an elecrode-electrolyte boundary is proportional to the quantity of electricity. (2) the amount of a chemical produced by 1 faraday of electricity in any substance is its gram formula weight. The faraday is the unit of electricity (= 96'085.309 coulombs = 6.0221367 x 10^23 electrons) hdah liberates 1 gram formula weight of any ion from an electrolytic solution. The farad is the capacitance of a capacitor in which 1 coulomb of electricity changes the potential between the plates by 1 volt (the microfarad and picofarad are more practically sized. N.B. pico means 1 trillionth = 10^12) Author of Chemical Manipulation (1827), Experimental Researches in Electricity (1855), Experimental Researches in Chemistry and Physics (1859), A Course of Six Lectures on the Chemical History of a Candle (1861), On the Various Forces of Nature (1873).
1788 Theodore Hook, English novelist best known for Impromptu at Fulham.
1769 Louis Puissant, French mathematical geographer who died on 10 January 1843. He invented a new map projection and he wrote on geodesy, the shape of the Earth, and spherical trigonometry.
1765 Paolo Ruffini, Italian mathematician and philosopher who died on 10 May 1822.
1738 Johann Ludwig Ernst Morgenstern, German artist who died on 13 November 1819. — more — Inneres einer gotischen Kirche (ZOOM) — Cornelia Goethe [1750-1777]
1725 Joseph-Siffrède Duplessis, French artist who died on 01 April 1802. MORE ON DUPLESSIS AT ART 4 SEPTEMBER LINKS Portrait of a Gentleman Benjamin Franklin Portrait of a Woman Madame Lenoir the Sculptor Christophe Gabriel Allegrain Madame Freret-Déricour Portrait of Gluck — La Révolution Française sous le Règne de Louis XVI (engraving)
1694 Philip Dormer Stanhope, statesman of letters.
1694 Lord Chesterfield letter writer; introduced Gregorian calendar (1752)
1515 Anne of Cleeves, in Cleeves, Germany, fourth wife of Henry the VIII.