| On a 24 September:
2003 General Dan Halutz, Commander of the Israeli Air Force, receives the following letter (reminiscent of a similar declaration by a group of Israeli soldiers on 25 January 2003):
"We, Air Force pilots who were raised on the values of Zionism, sacrifice, and contributing to the state of Israel, have always served on the front lines, willing to carry out any mission, whether small or large, to defend and strengthen the state of Israel.
"We, veteran and active pilots alike, who served and still serve the state of Israel for long weeks every year, are opposed to carrying out attack orders that are illegal and immoral of the type the state of Israel has been conducting in the territories.
"We, who were raised to love the state of Israel and contribute to the Zionist enterprise, refuse to take part in Air Force attacks on civilian population centers. We, for whom the Israel Defense Forces and the Air Force are an inalienable part of ourselves, refuse to continue to harm innocent civilians.
"These actions are illegal and immoral, and are a direct result of the ongoing occupation which is corrupting all of Israeli society. Perpetuation of the occupation is fatally harming the security of the state of Israel and its moral strength.
"We who serve as active pilots — fighters, leaders, and instructors of the next generation of pilots — hereby declare that we shall continue to serve in the Israel Defense Forces and the Air Force for every mission in defense of the state of Israel."
Signed: Brigadier General Yiftah Spector, Colonel Yigal Shohat, Colonel Ran, Lieutenant Colonel Yoel Piterberg, Lieutenant Colonel David Yisraeli, Lieutenant Colonel Adam Netzer, Lieutenant Colonel Avner Ra'anan, Lieutenant Colonel Gideon Shaham, Major Haggai Tamir, Major Amir Massad, Major Gideon Dror, Major David Marcus, Major Professor Motti Peri, Major Yotam, Major Zeev Reshef, Major Reuven, Captain Assaf, Captain Tomer, Captain Ron, Captain Yonatan, Captain Allon, Captain Amnon.
2002 Parliamentary elections in one sector of Indian-occupied Kashmir (Jammu-Kashmir state). Heading the call from moderate independentists for voting abstention and a general strike, and fearful of violence from the extremists, almost no one votes in Srinagar (11% of voters) and the other Moslem-majority areas. The dates of the elections in the other three sectors are 16 September, 01 October, 08 October.
2002 < Not such a close cousin after all. Roy Britten, 83, a biologist at the California Institute of Technology [it is NOT his photo at the left, but at the right >], publishes in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences a study according to which there is a 5% difference between human and chimpanzee genes, rather than the 1.5% believed until now. Britten based this on a computer program that compared 780'000 of the 3 billion base pairs in the human DNA with those of the chimp. The study does not resolve the question of which species is superior, or even whether such a question is meaningful.
2002 The top ten most beautiful experiments in physics voted by over 200 responding readers and listed in the September 2002 issue of Physics World [link is to current issue] are: 1. Young's double-slit experiment applied to the interference of single electrons 2. Galileo's experiment on falling bodies (1600s) 3. Millikan's oil-drop experiment (1910s) 4. Newton's decomposition of sunlight with a prism (1665-1666) 5. Young's light-interference experiment (1801) 6. Cavendish's torsion-bar experiment (1798) 7. Eratosthenes' measurement of the Earth's circumference (3rd century BC) 8. Galileo's experiments with rolling balls down inclined planes (1600s) 9. Rutherford's discovery of the nucleus (1911) 10. Foucault's pendulum (1851)
Others experiments that were cited included: 11. Archimedes' experiment on hydrostatics 12. Roemer's observations of the speed of light 13. Joule's paddle-wheel heat experiments 14. Reynolds's pipe flow experiment 15. Mach & Salcher's acoustic shock wave 16. Michelson-Morley measurement of the null effect of the ether 17. Röntgen's detection of Maxwell's displacement current 18. Oersted's discovery of electromagnetism 19. The Braggs' X-ray diffraction of salt crystals 20. Eddington's measurement of the bending of starlight 21. Stern-Gerlach demonstration of space quantization 22. Schrödinger's cat thought experiment 23. Trinity test of nuclear chain reaction 24. Wu et al.'s measurement of parity violation 25. Goldhaber's study of neutrino helicity 26. Feynman dipping an O-ring in water.
|2002 Administaff claims improved prospects, depressed
Administaff, the US's leading Professional Employer Organization, announces (in this their press release) that three key measurements of the company's performance have improved in the first two months of the third quarter. The metrics include growth in worksite employees paid per month and gross profit per worksite employee per month, both of which were higher than expected; and operating expenses, which were lower than forecast. The turnaround from the second quarter and first half of 2002 is ahead of schedule, and is expected to cause a favorable impact on third quarter results.
On 01 August 2002, Administaff had said that, for the third quarter, it expected the addition of an average of 1000 worksite employees per month, a range for gross profit per worksite employee of $187 to $197 per month, and a range for operating expenses of $42.5 million to $43.5 million for the quarter. For July and August, net unit growth exceeded 1000 worksite employees per month, gross profit per employee was ahead of expectations, and operating expenses were lower than forecast. As a result, earnings for the first two months of the quarter were substantially ahead of the turnaround plan at $0.08 per share.
Administaff experienced a significant gross profit margin squeeze in the first half of 2002, resulting primarily from a revenue shortfall related to a decline in the average payroll cost per worksite employee and the rapid rise in health insurance costs. In response, the company implemented its aggressive turnaround plan focused on four priorities: (1) recalibrating pricing for clients that experienced a decline in average payroll cost per worksite employee; (2) matching price and cost for health insurance on new and renewing client contracts; (3) reducing operating expenses and capital expenditures; and (4) improving liquidity.
Administaff successfully recalibrated pricing on over 800 accounts in June and renewed over 950 accounts in June, July, and August, eliminating the potential for a gross markup shortfall attributable to a decline in payroll average in the third quarter. As a result, the company made significant progress in matching the price and cost of benefits. The allocation for benefits included in Administaff's service fees to clients was previously reported to be $461 per covered employee per month as of July 1, 2002, and was conservatively expected to increase at a rate of $8 per covered employee per month. This pricing metric has stepped up to over $490 per covered employee per month as of August 31, 2002, more than $13 per covered employee per month ahead of expectations. Because approximately 72% of total worksite employees are covered under the company's health insurance plan, this $29 increase per covered worksite employee equates to a $21 increase in gross markup per worksite employee per month.
Administaff also moved aggressively to improve liquidity during the period. The company has engaged JPMorgan Chase and L.J. Melody & Company to secure a real estate mortgage on its corporate headquarters, which was recently appraised at approximately $56 million. Proceeds from any mortgage will be used to pay off the existing short-term credit facility with any excess being added to cash balances. Administaff is also in the process of securing commitments for additional financing related to other corporate assets.
In addition, the company has implemented a plan to reduce operating expenses for the balance of the year and throughout 2003. The plan includes a company-wide focus on cost containment, deferring new sales office openings until at least mid-year 2003, eliminating non-essential initiatives and corresponding job functions, and aggressively limiting capital spending.
Final third quarter results will primarily depend on the following key metrics for the month of September: (1) the number of worksite employees paid; (2) the average payroll cost per worksite employee; (3) gross markup per worksite employee; (4) direct costs, including payroll taxes, benefits cost and workers' compensation insurance costs; and (5) operating expenses.
Administaff is scheduled to report full third quarter results on Monday 04 November 2002 prior to the open of the New York Stock Exchange.
With 2001 revenues of $4.4 billion, Administaff is a leading personnel management company that serves as a full-service human resources department for small and medium-sized businesses throughout the United States. The company currently operates 38 sales offices in 21 major markets: Atlanta, Austin, Baltimore, Boston, Charlotte, Chicago, Cleveland, Dallas, Denver, Houston, Los Angeles, Minneapolis/St. Paul, New Jersey, New York City, Orlando, Phoenix, San Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, St. Louis and Washington, D.C.
On the New York Stock Exchange, the stock of Administaff (ASF) rises from its previous close of $2.17 to an intraday high of $4.24 and closes at $4.03. It had traded as high as $36.48 as recently as 10 December 2001, and as $44.50 on 18 September 2000. [5~year price chart >]
|2001 Le Président Bush congèle les
avoirs de groupes qu'il dit terrorristes.
Le Président américain George W. Bush émet un ordre executif pour le gel des avoirs des personnes, associations, ONG et sociétés suivantes:
El Qaïda/Armée islamique pour la libération des Lieux Saints
Groupe Abou Sayyaf (Philippines)
Groupe islamique armé (GIA, Algérie)
Harakat ul Moudjahidine (Pakistan)
Al Djihad (Djihad égyptien)
Mouvement islamique d'Ouzbékistan
Asbat El Ansar
Groupe salafiste pour la prédication et le combat (GSPC, Algérie)
Groupe de combat islamique libyen
Al Ittihad Al Islamiya
Armée islamique d'Aden
Oussama Ben Laden
Mohammed Atif (alias Soubhi Abou Sitta, Abou Hafs Al Masri), chef présumé de l'Armée islamique pour la libération des Lieux Saints
Seïf El Adl
Cheikh Saïd (alias Mustapha Mohammed Ahmad)
Abou Hafs le Mauritanien (alias Mahfouz Ould Al Walid, Khalid Al Shankiti
Ibn Al Cheikh Al Libi
Abou Zoubaïdeh (alias Zeïn Al Abidine Mohammed Hassan, Tarik), un lieutenant de Ben Laden
Abd El Hadi El Iraqi (alias Abou Abdallah)
Ayman El Zawahri, bras droit de Ben Laden
Thirwat Salah Shihata
Tarik Anouar Al Sayed Ahmad (alias Fathi, Amr Al Fatih)
Mohammed Salah (alias Nasr Fahmi Nasr Hassanein)
Makhtab Al Khidamat/Al Kifah
Organisation humanitaire Wafa
Fonds Al Rachid (Pakistan)
Société d'import-export Mamoun Darkazanli.
| 2000 For the first time, citizens of the Yugoslav federation
Serbia and Montenegro vote directly for president. Supporters
of opposition candidate Vojislav Kostunica would declare victory the next
day, but the election commission would say that a runoff is needed, prompting
massive protests that would topple President Slobodan Milosevic.
1999 Thousands flee as Russia bombs Chechnya for second day (CNN)
1998 Barnes and Noble’s Web site, barnesandnoble.com, filed for an Initial Public Offering worth $100 million. The site had launched in May 1997 and immediately engaged in a fierce battle with Amazon.com, which the company later sued for claiming to be the world's largest bookstore.
1996 After years of success as a private company, Avis Rent-A-Car goes public. HFS (formerly Hospitality Franchise Systems), a hospitality franchiser, as well as the owner of Avis, sells 75% of the rental car company's shares. The stock opened at $17 a share, and climbed to $22 by midday.
1993 Sihanouk is reinstalled as king of Cambodia. Norodom Sihanuk firma la nueva Constitución de Camboya, que le convierte en rey por tercera vez.
1990 Supreme Soviet of USSR gives approval to switch to free market
1990 Sony Digital Audio Tape players Sony Corp. announces that it will begin selling two digital audio tape players, one a car version and the other a walkman version, in December. Sony became the first company to offer an extensive line of DAT products. Although industry experts had long praised the clarity of DAT sound, the technology caught on slowly, partly because the recording industry feared piracy.
1989 El RPR (Rassemblement du Peuple Français) gana las elecciones senatoriales francesas y se convierte en la fuerza mayoritaria.
1989 Los electores de Níger ratifican en referéndum la nueva Constitución del país.
1988 The Episcopal Diocese of Massachusetts elected Barbara C. Harris, 58, as a suffragan (assistant) bishop, making her the first woman to be so ordained in the Anglican communion.
1981 Four Armenian gunmen seized the Turkish consulate in Paris, holding 60 hostages for 15 hours before surrendering.
1979 CompuServe system started
1976 Newspaper heiress Patricia Hearst sentenced to 7 years for her part in a 1974 bank robbery. Released after 22 months by President Carter.
1971 Ninety Russian diplomats are expelled from Britain for spying following revelations made by a Soviet defector.
1957 US President Dwight D. Eisenhower sends federal troops into Little Rock, Arkansas, to protect nine black students entering its newly integrated high school.
1955 US President Eisenhower suffers a heart attack on vacation in Denver
1950 "Operation Magic Carpet"All Jews from Yemen move to Israel
1948 Mildred Gillars (Axis Sally) pleads innocent in Wash DC
| 1941 9 Allied governments pledge adherence to the
1929 Lt James H Doolittle guides a Consolidated N-Y-2 Biplane over Mitchell Field in NY in the 1st all-instrument flight
1920 Après la démission de Paul Deschamel, par 695 voix contre 69, Alexandre Millerand, est élu comme nouveau président de la République Française.
1915 Bulgaria mobilizes troops on the Serbian border. Bulgaria se moviliza contra Serbia.
1914 In the Alsace-Lorraine area between France and Germany, the German Army captures St. Mihiel.
1902 Start of Sherlock Holmes The Adventure of The Red Circle
1895 First round-the-world trip by a woman on a bicycle (took 15 months)
1862 President Abraham Lincoln suspends the writ of habeas corpus against anyone suspected of being a Southern sympathizer.
1838 Anti-Corn-Law League forms to repeal English Corn Law
1833 Entrada en Lisboa del emperador Pedro I de Brasil, que reinó en Portugal un año como Pedro IV.
1829 Russia and the Ottoman Empire sign the Peace Treaty of Adrianople
1810 Comienzan sus trabajos las Cortes de Cádiz, reunidas en la isla de León.
1789 Congress creates the Post Office
1789 Congress' 1st Judiciary Act, Attorney General & Supreme Court
1788 After having been dissolved, the French Parliament of Paris reassembles in triumph.
1782 Inglaterra reconoce la independencia de EE.UU.
1683 Jews are expelled from all French possessions in America
1625 Dutch attack San Juan, Puerto Rico.
1493 Columbus' 2nd expedition to the New World
0787 The Second Nicene Council opened under Pope Hadrian I. The empress reads an address to open the council. 7th of the Church's 21 ecumenical councils, Nicea II condemned iconoclasm (belief that the veneration of Christian images and relics is idolatry). The Eastern Orthodox churches considered this the last of the ecumenical councils.
0673 Synod of Hertford opens; canons made for English Church
which occurred on a 24 September:
2002:: 27 civilians, two policemen, one commando, and two attackers, armed with grenades and AK-47 guns at the Akshardham Hindu temple in Gandhinagar (new city built after the 1960 creation of Gujarat state to be its capital), India. The attack ends the next morning when the attackers are killed. 74 persons are injured, including 23 policemen. Akshardham Temple is a 9-hectare Hindu religious and cultural complex visited by some two million people annually, according to the Web Site of the Swaminarayan sect which runs it. The imposing 10-story temple was inaugurated on 30 October 1992. It houses a 2-meter-tall goldleafed idol of Lord Swaminarayan, an 18th century Hindu monk who started the sect. Swaminarayan's followers believe him to be an incarnation of Lord Vishnu, the Hindu god of preservation. The 33 m high, 73 m long, 40 m wide temple [photo >] is made entirely of 6000 tons of pink sandstone, with no steel or cement used at all, to ensure it will last for a thousand years. In it are three exhibitions on Indian Culture with light and sound shows, a multimedia show and an animatronic show. Games, rides, and food refreshments are other attractions of Akshardham. The sect has 450 temples in 45 countries.
Following is the rough sequence of events of the siege of the temple that ended at 07:10 on 25 September after a standoff that began at about 16.55 on 24 September.
Theodore Geisel (Dr. Seuss), 87.
Dr. Seuss dies in La Jolla, California. He was born Theodor Geisel in Springfield, Massachusetts on 02 March 1904. After attending Dartmouth College and Oxford University, he began a career in advertising. His advertising cartoons, featuring Quick, Henry, the Flit!, appeared in several leading US magazines.Dr. Seuss's first children's book, And To Think That I Saw It On Mulberry Street, hit the market in 1937, and the world of children's literature was changed forever! In 1957, Seuss's The Cat in the Hat became the prototype for one of Random House's best-selling series, Beginner Books. This popular series combined engaging stories with outrageous illustrations and playful sounds to teach basic reading skills.
Brilliant, playful, and always respectful of children, Dr. Seuss charmed his way into the consciousness of four generations of youngsters and parents. In the process, he helped kids learn to read. Winner of the Pulitzer Prize in 1984 and three Academy Awards, Seuss was the author and illustrator of 44 children's books, some of which have been made into audiocassettes, animated television specials, and videos for children of all ages. Even after his death in 1991, Dr. Seuss continues to be the best-selling author of children's books in the world. He was the author of Land Before Time, The Cat in the Hat, The Cat in the Hat Comes Back, Dr. Seuss's ABC, Fox in Socks, Green Eggs and Ham, Hop on Pop, I Am NOT Going to Get Up Today!, I Can Read with My Eyes Shut!, I Wish That I Had Duck Feet, Oh Say Can You Say?, Oh, the Thinks You Can Think!, One Fish Two Fish Red Fish Blue Fish, Ten Apples Up on Top!, And to Think That I Saw It on Mulberry Street, Bartholomew and the Oobleck, The Butter Battle Book, Did I Ever Tell You How Lucky You Are?, Dr. Seuss's Sleep Book, The 500 Hats of Bartholomew Cubbins, Happy Birthday to You, Hooray for Diffendoofer Day!, Horton Hatches the Egg, Horton Hears a Who!, How the Grinch Stole Christmas!, Hunches in Bunches, I Can Lick 30 Tigers Today! and Other Stories, I Had Trouble in Getting to Solla Sollew, If I Ran the Circus, If I Ran the Zoo, The King's Stilts, The Lorax, McElligot's Pool, My Book About Me, My Many Colored Days, Oh, the Places You'll Go!, On Beyond Zebra!, Scrambled Eggs Super!, The Sneetches and Other Stories, Thidwick the BigHearted Moose, Yertle the Turtle and Other Stories, You're Only Old Once!, Great Day for Up I, Myself Marvin K. Mooney Will You Please Go Now!, Mr. Brown Can Moo! Can You?, The Shape of Me and Other Stuff, There's a Wocket in My Pocket, Did I Ever Tell You How High You Can Count?: Learn About Counting Beyond 100.
| 1944 Aristide Joseph Bonaventure Maillol,
French Art Nouveau / Nabi sculptor born on 08 December 1861 LINKS
1938 Lev Genrikhovich Shnirelman, Belarussian mathematician born on 02 January 1905.
1930 Otto Müller, German artist born on 16 October 1874. — Badende Frauen (Sommer)
1928 Carl Wilhelm Wilhelmson, Swedish painter and lithographer born on 12 November 1866. — Two Farm Girls — Swedish Girls
1924 Manuel Estrada Cabrera, político y abogado guatemalteco.
1895 Ernest Meisel (or Meissel), German artist born on 08 March 1838.
1892 Jan Willem van Borselen, Dutch artist born on 20 September 1825.
1871 Thomas Roscoe, translator of Pellico's My Ten Years' Imprisonment
1868 Henry Hart Milman, editor of Gibbon's The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Volume I, Volume II, Volume III, Volume IV, Volume V, Volume VI
1852 Francisco Javier Castaños y Aragoni, general español, vencedor de los franceses en la batalla de Bailén.
1848 Patrick Branwell Brontë, 31, of tuberculosis. He was the author of The Poems of Patrick Branwell Brontë. He also was a painter. He became addicted to alcohol and to opium. He was the brother of the Brontë sisters and the model for Hindley Earnshaw in Emily's novel Wuthering Heights. Emily (30 July 1818 19 December 1848) and Anne (17 January 1820 18490528) also died of tuberculosis, within less than a year. Charlotte (18160421 18550331) lived six more years and, pregnant, died of pneumonia, after nine months of marriage. The two older sisters, Maria and Elizabeth, had died of tuberculosis aged 10 and 9, in 1824. The mother of the six, Maria (Branwell) Brontë, had died in 1821.
1822 Achille Etna Michallon, French artist born on 22 October 1796. MORE ON MICHALLON AT ART 4 SEPTEMBER with links to images.
1651 Étienne Pascal, French lawyer, government official, mathematician, who died on 24 September 1651. Discover of Limaçon de Pascal. Father of Blaise Pascal [19 Jun 1623 – 19 Aug 1662].
1541 Phillippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim "Paracelsus", 48, German-Swiss physician and alchemist who established the role of chemistry in medicine. He published Der grossen Wundartzney in 1536 and a clinical description of syphilis in 1530.
1180 Manuel I Comnenus Byzantine emperor (1143-1180)
1143 Pope Innocent II. During his troubled papacy a rival pope ruled Rome more often than he. He excommuniated Roger of Sicily but was forced to rescind it and invest Roger with additional privileges.
1054 Hermann of Reichenau “the Lame”, Altshausen German Benedictine Abbot of Reichenau, mathematician and scholar.
0768 Pépin le Bref. Avant de mourir il avait partagé ses États entre ses deux fils. A Charles vont l'Austrasie, la Neustrie, la Gascogne, la Frise et la Thuringe. Carloman reçoit le Languedoc, la Provence, l'Alsace, l'Alémanie, l'Ile-de-France et le centre de la France. Il est inhumé à Saint-Denis.
0366 Liberius Pope
which occurred on a 24 September:
1960 The Enterprise, the first nuclear powered aircraft carrier, is launched at Newport News, Virginia.
1955 US President Eisenhower suffered a heart attack while on vacation in Denver.
1934 John Brunner Britain, sci-fi author (Sheep Look Up)
1929 Lt. James H. Doolittle guided a Consolidated NY2 Biplane over Mitchel Field in New York in the first all-instrument flight.
1919 Francisco García Pavón, escritor español.
1911 Konstantin Chernenko, Soviet politician. He took over as Soviet president for Yuri Andropov in 1984 and died the following year, to be succeeded by Mikhail Gorbachev.
1904 Evan Tom Davies, Welsh mathematician who died on 08 October 1973.
1898 Baron Florey Aust, pathologist; purified penicillin (Nobel '45)
1896 Tadeusz Wazewski, Polish mathematician who died on 05 September 1972. He made important contributions to the theory of ordinary differential equations, partial differential equations, control theory and the theory of analytic spaces. He is most famous for applying the topological notion of retract (introduced by K Borsuk [08 May 1905 – 24 Jan 1982]) to the study of the solutions of differential equations.
1896 Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald, in St. Paul, Minnesota, author. (The Great Gatsby, Tender is the Night). Fitzgerald died on December 21, 1940, leaving his final novel, The Last Tycoon, unfinished. FITZGERALD ONLINE: This Side of Paradise
1890 Sir Alan Herbert England, journalist/writer (Punch, Helen)
1870 Georges Claude , French engineer, inventor of the neon light.
1869 Thousands of businessmen were ruined in a Wall Street panic after financiers Jay Gould and James Fisk attempted to corner the gold market.
1852 The dirigible is demonstrated
1844 Max Noether, German mathematician who died on 13 December 1921. He was one of the leaders of nineteenth century algebraic geometry. Although himself a very distinguished mathematician, his daughter Emmy Noether [23 Mar 1882 – 14 Apr 1935] was to bring greater innovation to mathematics than did her father.
1843 Samuel Augustus Duffield, DUFFIELD ONLINE: A Farewell Sermon Delivered in the First Presbyterian Church, Ann Arbor, Michigan
1836 Pablo Arosemena, político panameño.
1807 Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Theodor Hosemann, German genre painter and lithographer who died on 15 October 1875. — more — Sandfuhrmann in der Mark (print) — Bildnis einer jungen Frau aus adligen Kreisen, Ehrendame des bayerischen Theresienordens.
1801 Mikhail Vasilevich Ostrogradski, Ukrainian mathematician who died on 01 January 1862.
1756 Bénigne Gagnereaux, French artist who died on 18 August 1795 [on the guillotine?] — more — L'Entrevue de Gustave III avec le Pape Pie VI dans le Musée Pio Clementino (a copy)
1755 Robert Jacques François Faust Lefèvre, French painter who died on 03 October 1830. LINKS — Letitia Bonaparte Woman with a Lyre Jean-Baptiste-Claude Odiot
1755 John Marshall, Virginia attorney, 4th US Supreme Court Chief Justice (1801-1835) and US Secretary of State.
1717 Horace Walpole, 4th earl of Oxford, England, writer, creator of the Gothic novel genre. WALPOLE ONLINE: The Castle of Otranto
1625 John de Witt, mathematician + A Dordrecht, naissance de Jean de Witt . Homme de loi à La Haye, puis plus tard "Grand Pensionnaire" de Hollande, il sera souverain virtuel des Provinces Unies. Promoteur de solides alliance entre l'Angleterre et la Hollande, il combat la France. Son opposition à l'accession de Guillaume III au trône provoquera des émeutes au cours dequelles il sera tué, le 20 Aug 1672.
1623 Joris van Son, Dutch artist who died on 25 June 1667. — Still-Life with Cheese
1501 Girolamo Cardano, Italy, mathematician/astrologer (Ars Magna, 1545), author of Games of Chance, the first systematic computation of probabilities. He died on 21 September 1576.