ART 4 2-DAY 14 AUGUST
International Day of Left-Handers (they include Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Pablo Picasso, ...)
Born on 14 August 1502: Pieter
I Coecke van Aelst (or Cock, Coecke, Koeck van Aelst, Aalst,
Alsloot, Allost), Flemish painter.
Netherlandish painter, architect, sculptor, designer of tapestries and stained glass, writer, and publisher. A pupil of Bernard van Orley, he entered the Antwerp Guild in 1527. Some time before then he had been to Rome and in 1533 he visited Constantinople. His mission to gain business there for the Brussels tapestry works was unsuccessful, but the drawings he made on his journey were later published by his widow Mayken Verhulst as woodcut illustrations in Les Moeurs et Fachons de Faire des Turz (The Manners and Customs of the Turks, 1553). He ran a large workshop and was regarded as one of the leading Antwerp painters of his day, but his work is fairly run-of-the-mill and he is generally more important for his publishing activities. Like his paintings, his books are saturated in Italian influence, and the translation of the architectural treatise of Sebastiano Serlio that he issued from 1539 played a large part in spreading Renaissance ideas in the Netherlands (it was from the Dutch edition, too, rather than from the Italian original, that the English translation of 1611 was made). Pieter Bruegel the Elder was his son-in-law, and, according to van Mander, his pupil, but there is no trace of Coecke's influence in his work.
Design for a pane of glass depicting the Triumph of Fame (1550)
Pane of glass with the Triumph of Faith (1550)
Stained glass with Triumph of Time (1550)
Mary Magdalen and Joseph of Arimathaea (left and right wings of closed triptych) _ detail both (864x1152pix) _ detail Magdalen head and shoulders (864x1152pix) _ detail Joseph head and shoulders (864x1152pix)
Holy Trinity (98x84cm)
14 August 1603 (alternate
date: 09 November 1605): Lodewyk (or
Lodewijk) Toeput (or Pozzoserrato,
da Treviso), Flemish painter and draftsman active in Italy, born in 1550.
— He was apparently a pupil of Marten de Vos and went to Italy probably after 1573. In Venice he presumably joined Tintoretto’s workshop. Toeput may have witnessed the event he commemorated in his Fire in the Doge’s Palace (1577). Either before or after this commission, he made six landscape frescoes (1575 or 1577–1579) for the abbey of Praglia, which reveal a strong adherence to Flemish conventions. Some years later he painted three frescoes in the church of Santa Giustina in Padua. He was in Florence in the late 1570s and visited Rome in 1581; by February 1582 he is documented in Treviso, near Venice, where he settled. He remained in close contact with Venetian masters, particularly through another Flemish artist active there, Pauwels Franck [1540–1596], whose influence is evident in Toeput’s representation of The Four Seasons (1584), of which two tondi versions exist, which are attributed to Toeput.
About 1585 he painted a friezelike series: two canvases, each with two biblical scenes, for the chapel of the Rettori in the church of the Monte di Pietà in Treviso. These compositions were inspired by Netherlandish engravings and works by Tintoretto and Jacopo and Leandro Bassano. Probably dating from the same time is Susanna and the Elders. One of Toeput’s favorite motifs was a formal Mannerist garden containing trellises and sculptures, which he included in Dives and Lazarus. It also appears in his versions of the Banquet in the Open Air and in his Outdoor Concert.
Only a few of Toeput’s church paintings mentioned in early literature survive in Treviso, in the churches of San Leonardo, Santa Maria Maggiore and San Agostino; similarly the surviving frescoes are scarce and in a poor state of preservation. About 1590 Toeput painted six landscapes representing The Months for the Villa Chiericati-Magna, Vicenza, and in 1593 he decorated the interior of the Scuola dei Battuti in nearby Conegliano with figures of sibyls and prophets and Old Testament scenes.
L'artista, sulla cui formazione, avvenuta probabilmente gia' in patria, siamo poco informati, rappresenta un importante tramite per la conoscenza della cultura nordica nel Veneto. A partire dal 1582 egli e' documentato a Treviso, e nell'entroterra veneto si esplichera' la sua attivita' di garbato frescante di villa nella tradizione instaurata da Paolo Veronese. Le decorazioni della Stanza dell'Abate a Praglia, della Villa Chiericati Mugna di Schiavon, della Sagrestia di Santa Giustina a Padova, della Villa Soranzo sul Brenta rivelano un piacevole gusto narrativo che declina la cultura veneziana di fine secolo entro la tradizione del paesaggio nordico.
— View of Mainz — View of an Italian town from on high
— The Tiber with Castel San Angelo and the San Angelo bridge
Paesaggio con Figure — Concerto all'aperto
Born on 14 August 1714: Claude
Joseph Vernet, French painter who died on 03 December 1789.
— Vernet probably received his first lessons in painting from his father, Antoine, who then encouraged him to move to the studio of Philippe Sauvan (1697–1792), the leading master in Avignon. Sauvan supplied altarpieces to local churches and decorative works and mythologies for grand houses in the area. Adrien Manglard was another teacher of Vernet. After this apprenticeship Vernet worked in Aix-en-Provence with the decorative painter Jacques Viali ( fl 1681– 1745), who also painted landscapes and marine pictures. In 1731 Vernet independently produced a suite of decorative overdoors for the hôtel of the Marquise de Simiane at Aix-en-Provence; at least two of these survive (in situ) and are Vernet’s earliest datable landscapes. These are early indications of his favored type of subject, and Vernet would have studied works attributed to such 17th-century masters as Claude Lorrain, Gaspard Dughet and Salvator Rosa in private collections at Aix and Avignon. Three years later Joseph de Seytres, Marquis de Caumont, who had previously recommended Vernet to the Marquise de Simiane, offered to sponsor a trip to Italy. This was partly for Vernet to complete his artistic education but also to provide his sponsor with drawings of antiquities.
Claude-Joseph Vernet, the son of a decorative painter in Avignon, was the father of Carle Vernet [14 August 1758 27 November 1836] and the grandfather of Horace Vernet. He studied with Philippe Sauvan, a history painter, and later with Jacques Vialy in Aix-en-Provence, where a local nobleman was impressed with his talent and in 1734 sent him to Italy. There he may have studied under Adrien Manglard, a marine and landscape specialist, but he was also influenced by the seventeenth-century masters of landscape, Claude Lorrain, Gaspard Dughet, and Salvator Rosa. During his stay in Rome, Vernet explored the Italian countryside, making studies after nature in Naples, Tivoli, and around the lakes of Nemi and Albano. He had an international clientele by 1740, was elected a member of the Academy of Saint Luke in 1743, and began to exhibit at the Paris Salons in 1746.
He returned to Paris in 1753, was elected to membership in the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture, and through the efforts of the marquis de Marigny, the Superintendent of Royal Buildings and the brother of Madame de Pompadour, received a prestigious royal commission to paint a series of the ports of France. By 1765 he had completed fifteen canvases, remarkable for their topographical accuracy and indefatigable imagination, and all replete with numerous figures to integrate nature into the human sphere. Upon his return to Paris he was given lodgings at the Louvre and received wide critical acclaim, especially from Diderot who preferred his work to that of Claude. Vernet's repertory includes views of ports, imaginary seascapes at sunrise and sunset, storms, shipwrecks, and landscapes-all characterized by clarity of vision and mellow lighting.
Vernet was one of the leading landscapists of the period. From 1733 to 1753 he worked in Rome, where he was influenced by the light and atmosphere of Claude and also by the more wild and dramatic art of Salvator Rosa. With Hubert Robert, he became a leading exponent of a type of idealized and somewhat sentimental landscape that had a great vogue at this time. Vernet was particularly celebrated for his paintings of the sea-shore and ports, and on returning to Paris in 1753 he was commissioned by Louis XV to paint a series of the sea-ports of France. The sixteen which he did are in the Louvre. Vernet belonged to a family of French painters of which two other members attained distinction: his son Antoine-Charles-Horace Vernet [14 Aug 1758 – 27 Nov 1836] known as 'Carle', and his grandson Émile-Jean-Horace Vernet [30 Jun 1789 – 17 Jan 1863]
— The students of Vernet included Cozens: Alexander Cozens, Jean-François Huë, Elias Martin, Thomas Patch, Pierre-Henri Valenciennes.
Self Portrait (1778)
Les Baigneuses (1786, 57x83cm)
— Ships in port (857x1207pix, 84kb — ZOOM to 1286x1811pix, 187kb)
— Roman Bridge Ruin (1745; 718x1418pix, 67kb — ZOOM to 874x2127pix, 118kb)
— Vue du Port de Rochefort (1762; 621x1191pix, 77kb — ZOOM to 828x1588pix, 147kb — ZOOM++ to 1573x3177pix, 804kb)
— Roadbuilding (872x1496pix, 180kb — ZOOM to 1669x2993pix, 868kb) by a stream in a mountain pass overlooked by a walled city on an abutment.
Harbor Scene (30x40cm)
The Town and Harbor of Toulon Shepherd in the Alps — View of Naples
Shipwreck (1759, 96x135cm) _ The French marine artist Claude-Joseph Vernet specialized in harbor views. This sublime and very effective scene is a good example of his works.
Storm with a Shipwreck (1754, 87x137cm) _ Vernet's considerable contemporary reputation was largely founded on such agreeably terrifying images as this, which were also particularly prized by English collectors.
— Storm on the Coast, (1754, 97x129cm) _ All paintings of storms are imaginative reconstructions and here, painting in France, Vernet shows the famous lighthouse of the Bay of Naples buffeted by a raging sea. On the left a ship is driven onto the rocks while survivors escape in a lifeboat and are dragged to safety by those on shore. The dark sky is lit up by a bolt of lightning which Vernet paints as a familiar (but inaccurate) zig-zag. It was not until the 1880s that photography revealed lightning’s true form.
Died on 14 August 1784: Nathaniel
Hone, Irish painter and printmaker born on 24 April 1718.
— Born in Dublin, he settled in London in the 1740s and soon made a name for himself as a painter in miniature on enamel. Between 1750 and 1752 he studied in Italy. He was a regular exhibitor at the Society of Artists and, in 1768, a founder-member of the Royal Academy, where he exhibited until his death. Although Hone was a relatively successful portrait painter in oils, he was burdened by an overpowering jealousy for Joshua Reynolds and had numerous rifts with the Academy. He was, in particular, opposed to the dominant classicism based on Italian Renaissance art, preferring a more Dutch-inspired domesticity for his figures and their settings. His portraits of children, particularly his own, are considered among the best of their kind in mid-18th-century painting. They include a Piping Boy (1769), which depicts his son John Camillus and which excited great admiration at the first Royal Academy exhibition in 1769; he made an etching of it in 1771. Although Hone was primarily a portrait painter, he is especially remembered for one large subject painting, the Pictorial Conjuror, Displaying the Whole Art of Optical Deception (1775), a work that caused considerable controversy as it was a clever and detailed attack on Reynolds, the first PRA. Not only does it lampoon Reynolds’s penchant for borrowings from the Old Masters but, when first displayed, it also carried the indecorous suggestion of an intimate relationship between Reynolds and the painter Angelica Kauffman. Hone was forced to paint over one section of the painting, but the picture was nevertheless rejected for exhibition at the Academy; his oil sketch records its original appearance. In order to display the rejected Conjuror, also in 1775 Hone arranged his own private show in London, exhibiting 70 works. This helped to initiate the trend for one-man exhibitions taken up increasingly by artists in the following century. — Nathaniel I trained his sons Horace Hone [1754 – 24 May 1825] and John Camillus Hone [1759 — 23 May 1836], both of whom became painters, the former also an engraver. Several members of later generations of the family pursued artistic careers, notably the great-grandson of Nathaniel I's brother Brindley, landscape painter Nathaniel Hone II [26 Oct 1831 – 14 Oct 1917]; and the descendant of Nathaniel I's brother John, painter and stained-glass artist Evie Hone [22 Apr 1894 – 13 Mar 1955].
— Self-Portrait (1765, 32x28mm) Anne Gardiner with her Eldest Son Kirkman (1776) — Mary Hone, the Artist's Wife (1760, 29x22cm)
— Sketch for The Conjuror (1775, 58x82cm) _ This is the preparatory oil sketch for The Conjuror, a satirical painting which caused one of the greatest art scandals in 18th-century Britain. The conjuror represents Sir Joshua Reynolds, the President of the Royal Academy. The young girl is Angelica Kauffman, a member of the Academy, and allegedly Reynolds’s former lover. Kauffman is also shown cavorting naked among a group of artists at the top left.
— Sir John Fielding (1762, 124x100cm) _ Sir John Fielding [1721-1780], magistrate and social reformer, was the son of a general and the half brother of the magistrate and novelist Henry Fielding. The brothers worked together to raise the standards of honesty and competence amongst those engaged in the administration of justice. John is shown here with one hand holding a document, which is thought to represent one of several which he and his brother wrote suggesting improvements in the law, and the other resting on two volumes, a law book and a Bible. The black band on his forehead was there to let others know that he was blind; it is said that Fielding knew more than three thousand London thieves by their voices.
— John Wesley (1766, 126x100cm) _ John Wesley [17 Jun 1703 – 02 Mar 1791] was the founder of the Methodist movement which grew from the 'Holy Club' of his Oxford friends into a great religious revival. An indefatigable traveller, preacher and writer, Wesley averaged 13'000 km a year on horseback and gave 15 sermons a week. The reluctance of the Anglican clergy to lend him their pulpits led him to give some of his sermons in the open air, a decision which enabled him to reach those among the poorer sections of society who were not accustomed to going to church. Here Wesley is depicted preaching in a rural setting.
Born on 14 August 1758: Antoine~Charles~Horace
“Carle” Vernet, French painter and lithographer
who died on 27 November 1836.
“Carle” Vernet was the son of Claude Joseph Vernet [14 Aug 1714 – 03 Dec 1789] and the father and teacher of Horace Vernet, as well as the teacher of Théodore Géricault.
— At the age of 11 he entered the studio of Nicolas-Bernard Lépicié. His training culminated in the award of the Prix de Rome in 1782; however, his stay in Rome was terminated when he underwent a ‘mystical experience’ and was sent back to Paris. He was approved (agréé) by the Académie Royale in 1789 on presentation of The Triumph of Aemilius Paulus. Although his sister Émilie was guillotined, none of the tragic aspects of the Revolution is apparent in his subsequent work. His wittily malicious satires of Directoire types, Incroyables et merveilleuses, engraved in 1797, made his reputation and set the tone for most of his future aquatinted work, for example Costumes (1814–1818). An early practitioner of lithography, he excelled in the acute, unexaggerated observation of contemporary manners, e.g. L'Imprimerie Delpech (1818) and Les Cris de Paris (100 plates, after 1816).
— Napoléon Donne des Ordres avant la Bataille d'Austerlitz (1808; 708x1193pix, 135kb — ZOOM to 885x1491pix, 234kb — ZOOM++ to 1180x1988pix, 602kb) — main detail (886x1179pix, 309kb)
— La Victoire d'Austerlitz, 2 décembre 1805 (1805; 635x1135pix, 89kb — ZOOM to 1588x2838pix, 1355kb) — main detail (892x1190pix, 336kb)
— Le fou qui vend la sagesse (lithograph 19x24cm)
— Charleroi (1815) Napoléon méditant sur une carte militaire (1830, 24x30cm)
— Soldat de Waterloo (1830 lithograph, 28x33cm)
— The Triumph of Aemilius Paulus (1789, 130x438cm) _ The painting illustrates the procession celebrating the victory of the Roman general, Aemilius Paulus, over King Perseus of Macedonia in 168 BC. Aemilius is shown on the gold chariot on the right followed by prisoners, among whom is Perseus with his family. The temple of Jupiter Capitolinus with its hundred steps dominates the background. The picture was begun in 1787 and was presented as Vernet's reception piece to the French Royal Academy in 1789. It was exhibited in the Salon in 1789 and 1791. A Funeral of Patrocles was planned as a pendant but was never finished.
19 prints at Fine Arts Museums of SF
Died on 14 August 1905: Simeon
Solomon, British painter born on 09 October 1840.
— Two of his seven siblings became painters too: Abraham Solomon [14 May 1823 – 19 Dec 1863] and Rebecca Solomon [26 Sep 1832 – 20 Nov 1886]. Simeon Solomon possessed by far the greatest artistic talent of the family. Having lost his father in early childhood, he looked to his brother Abraham both as substitute father and artistic mentor. He attended F. S. Cary’s Academy in 1852 and followed his brother into the Royal Academy Schools in 1856. However, he preferred the increasingly fashionable Pre-Raphaelite style to the manner of Abraham’s genre subjects. Through Dante Gabriel Rossetti’s influence, he soon mastered the delicacy of Pre-Raphaelite draftsmanship, a talent that is abundantly evident in the pen-and-ink drawing Dante’s First Meeting with Beatrice (1863). Rebecca’s deep Jewish spirituality influenced Simeon’s choice of subjects from the Old Testament and contemporary Jewish life, and he never fully abandoned religious themes. Such biblical oil paintings as The Mother of Moses (1860) and The Child Jeremiah (1861), both exhibited at the Royal Academy, where he showed regularly from 1858 to 1872, reveal his profound spiritual grasp of Hebraic mysticism.
Simeon Solomon, an orthodox Jew, was an admirer of Rossetti's late aesthetic period. He entered the Royal Academy School in 1855 and exhibited his first picture there in 1860. He was quickly befriended by Rossetti, Burne-Jones and the poet, Algernon Swinburne, along with other members of the Pre-Raphaelite circle. During the 1860s he produced a number of fine drawings, gouaches and oil paintings, mainly of religious subjects, especially depicting Jewish ritual, but also classical and allegorical subjects which combine Pre-Raphaelite and aesthetic ideas in a highly individual way. Although Solomon's pictures owe much to Rossetti and Burne-Jones, especially his allegorical female figures, they have a strong individuality which makes them instantly recognizable. Solomon's career disintegrated when, in February 1873, he was arrested for homosexual offences, after which he was completely shunned by all his former friends, including Swinburne. The remainder of Solomon's career is one of the minor tragedies of the Pre-Raphaelite story. Made a complete social leper by the strength of the Victorian moral code, he steadily gave way to drink and dissipation, ending his days an alcoholic in the St. Giles Workhouse in 1905. During his last years he supported himself by making drawings and pastels.
— Portrait of Solomon
— Bacchus (1867, 51x38cm; 1614x1220pix, 2028kb) head — a different Bacchus (650x472pix; 75kb) full length
— Babylon hath been a golden cup' (1859, 27x28cm) — A Rabbi Holding The Torah (35x25cm)
—Shadrach, Meschach and Abednego preserved from the Burning Fiery Furnace (32x33cm)
— King Solomon (1854; 700x598pix)
Born on 14 August 1840: Briton
Rivière, British [hey, what did you think?] painter,
etcher, and sculptor, specialized in animal paintings [not rivers, unfortunately],
who died on 20 April 1920.
— He was born into a family of Huguenot artists, the youngest child of William Rivière (1806–76), with whom he studied. As a child he made sketches at the London Zoological Gardens, and his most popular pictures depict animals, especially lions and dogs. He began to exhibit regularly at the Royal Academy in 1858, but between 1860 and 1863 such paintings as Elaine on the Barge (untraced), influenced by the Pre-Raphaelites, were rejected. The first of his pictures to be engraved (by Frederick Stacpoole) was Charity (exh. RA 1870), but his first popular success came in 1871 with Circe and the Friends of Ulysses, using for models the pigs he kept at his home in Bromley, Kent. Around 1865 he met and was influenced by a group of Scottish painters in London, including John Pettie and William Orchardson. He adopted their broken-color technique, evident in his work of the 1870s, for example The Last of the Garrison (1875).
— Rivière was an animal painter, and was widely regarded as the successor of Landseer. He was also one of the few painters with an Oxford University Degree. He was the son of a well known artist. Riviere lived near to London Zoo, where he spent much time studying the physiology of animals. He painted glorified, romanticised pictures of wild animals. Another speciality was sentimental, rather humanised paintings of dogs, which found a considerable market. Rather surprisingly he only was narrowly beaten to the Presidency of the Royal Academy by Edward Poynter in 1896. Briton Rivière’s son Hugh Rivière [1869-1956] was a successful painter of portraits.
Sympathy (1877) _ This painting shows a little girl who has been sent to bed early as a punishment sitting on the stairs being comforted by a dog. The artist recorded that he painted the little girl from his daughter Millicent, and the dog 'with slight alterations (as my animals are never portraits) was done from a bull terrier belonging to a man who has supplied me with dogs for some considerable time.'
Requiescat (1889) _ A bloodhound standing faithfully by his dead master.
— The Long Sleep (1868, 71x91cm) The King Drinks (1881, 61x91cm)
Daniel's Answer to the King
Died on 14 August 2002: Yitzroch
Loiza Grossberg “Larry Rivers”,
born on 17 August 1923, US proto-Pop
painter, printmaker, and sculptor; jazz saxophonist, writer, poet, teacher,
sometime actor and filmmaker, whose partly self-mocking bad boy persona
encapsulated the spirit of a restless era that shook up US art. Hans Hofmann
was one of his teachers.