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ART “4” “2”-DAY  15 February
DEATHS: 1549 “SODOMA” — 1934 GRÜN
^ Born on 15 February 1817: Charles-François Daubigny, Parisian Barbizon School painter and printmaker, who died on 19 February 1878. He was one of the most important landscape painters in mid-19th century France and had an influence on the Impressionist painters.
— He studied under his father Edmond-François Daubigny [1789 – 14 Mar 1843] and in 1831–1832 also was trained by Jacques-Raymond Brascassat. At an early age he copied works by Ruisdael and Poussin in the Louvre, while also pursuing an apprenticeship as an engraver. At this time he drew and painted mainly at Saint-Cloud and Clamart, near Paris, and in the Forest of Fontainebleau (1834–1835). In 1835 he visited several Italian cities and towns, including Rome, Frascati, Tivoli, Florence, Pisa, and Genoa. He returned to Paris in 1836 and worked for François-Marius Granet in the painting restoration department of the Louvre. In 1840 he spent several months drawing from life in Paul Delaroche’s studio, although his early works were much more heavily influenced by 17th-century Dutch painters, whom he copied in the Louvre, than by Delaroche’s work.
— Besides his son “Karl” Daubigny [09 Jun 1846 – 25 May 1886], the students of Charles-François Daubigny included Dwight W. Tryon, Adolphe Appian, John Joseph Enneking, Alfred Roll, António Silva Porto.

Paysage près de Crémieu (1849, 63x91cm; 886x1280pix _ ZOOM to 1683x2432pix, 2959kb)
Le Carrefour du Nid d'Aigle, Forêt de Fontainebleau (1844, 79x113cm; 840x1204pix _ ZOOM to 1564x2241pix, 2926kb)
Un Étang dans le Morvan (1869, 113x165cm; 876x1280pix, 683kb _ ZOOM to 1674x2445pix)
Les Dunes à Camiers (1871, 57x65cm; 960x1166pix _ ZOOM to 1836x2230pix, 2714kb)
Paysage de moisson avec ciel orageux (1865; 600x1280pix _ ZOOM to 1400x2987pix)
Bateau sur l'Oise (1865; 600x1016pix _ ZOOM to 1400x2371pix)
Les Bords de L'Oise à Conflans (1859, 39x67cm; 1/3 size _ ZOOM to 2/3 size)
Le Village de Gloton (30x54cm) — Cattle at the Pool
Le Hameau d'Optevoz (1857)
The Flood-Gate at Optevoz I (1854; 600x1008pix _ ZOOM to 1400x2352)
The Flood-Gate at Optevoz II (1855; 600x1108pix _ ZOOM to 1400x2585)
The Flood-Gate at Optevoz III (1859; 574x880pix, 120kb)
Harvest (1875) — Les Péniches
51 prints at FAMSF
^ Died on 15 February 1549: Giovanni Antonio Bazzi “il Sodoma”, Italian painter born in 1477. — [Don't ask how he got the nickname Sodoma, nor whether anyone else got called Gomorra. If you must know more, read the Bible.]
— Il Sodoma (originally Giovanni Antonio Bazzi) is a painter whose work bridges the High Renaissance and Mannerist styles. He drew on the lush style of the Italian painters Luca Signorelli and Raphael, as well as on the sfumato (softening) technique of Leonardo, to create religious and mythological works that were graceful, delicate, and occasionally self-conscious in their beauty and sweetness. His most important project was the series of 31 frescoes in the monastery of Monte Oliveto Maggiore (1508). His students included Bartolommeo Neroni, Rustici, Vincenzo Tamagni, Vincenzo Michelangelo Anselmi, and Domenico Beccafumi, who, in the later years of Sodoma, would become his only rival in Siena.
— He worked mainly in Siena and was the dominant painter of the Sienese school in the early 16th century. He painted frescoes, altarpieces and panel paintings for private collectors; he was patronized by religious institutions, the civic authorities in Siena and by noble patrons. His art unites the vivid and detailed naturalism of a northern Italian artistic tradition with a new spaciousness and classical sense of form that reflects his study of the art of central Italy. He was a flamboyant and eccentric personality, whose character was later blackened by Vasari.

== Mural Frescoes of Scenes of the Life of Saint Benedict [480 – 21 Mar 543]. In the Great Cloister of the Monastery of Monte Oliveto Maggiore there is a series of scenes of the life of Saint Benedict, as told in the Second Book of the Dialogues of Saint Gregory the Great. The frescos were painted from 1497 to 1534 by three artists in three separate phases. Work was begun on the west wall of the Great Cloister by Luca Signorelli in 1497, during the second abbacy of Don Domenico Airoldi da Lecco (1497-1501). All the remaining scenes in the cycle, save one, were painted from 1505 to 1508 by Sodoma. In 1534, one scene was added to the cycle, that by Bartolomeo Neroni, "Il Riccio."
— 1 Benedict's Parting from his Parents in Nursia to Attend School in Rome (600x496pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1157pix)
— 3 Benedict Miraculously Mends a Broken Sifter (600x448pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1045pix) _ In 500 Benedict left Rome, not for the purpose of becoming a hermit, but only to find some place away from the life of the great city. He took his old nurse with him as a servant and they settled down to live in Enfide, in some kind of association with "a company of virtuous men" who were in sympathy with his feelings and his views of life. Enfide (the modern Affile) is in the Simbrucini mountains, about sixty kilometers from Rome and three from Subiaco. At Enfide Benedict worked his first miracle by restoring to perfect condition an earthenware wheat-sifter (capisterium) which his old servant had accidentally broken. The notoriety which this miracle brought upon Benedict drove him to escape still farther from social life, and "he fled secretly from his nurse and sought the more retired district of Subiaco". His purpose of life had also been modified. He had fled Rome to escape the evils of a great city; he now determined to be poor and to live by his own work. "For God's sake he deliberately chose the hardships of life and the weariness of labor".
— 4 The Monk Romanus Vests Benedict in the Habit of a Hermit (600x460pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1073pix) _ On his way from Enfide, Benedict found a cave in Subiaco and met the monk Romanus, whose monastery was on the mountain above the cave. Romanus discussed with Benedict the purpose which had brought him to Subiaco, and gave him the habit.
— 5 Romanus Brings Food to Benedict; the Devil Smashes the Bell (600x496pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1157pix) _ Following the advice of Romanus, Benedict became a hermit and for three years lived unknown in the cave which he had found at Subiaco. Romanus served Benedict in every way he could. The monk visited Benedict frequently, and on fixed days brought him food.
— 6 A Priest Bringing Food to Benedict on Easter Day (600x460pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1073pix)
— 7 Benedict Instructs Peasants in the Faith (600x560pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1307pix)
— 8 Benedict's Temptation and Mortification (600x496pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1157pix)
— 11 Benedict Founds 12 Monasteries and Supervises their Building (600x460pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1073pix) _ Eventually, as Benedict perform more miracles and it became known, many people, attracted by his sanctity and character, came to Subiaco to be under his guidance. For them he built in the valley twelve monasteries, in each of which he placed a superior with twelve monks. In a thirteenth he lived with "a few, such as he thought would more profit and be better instructed by his own presence". He remained, however, the father or abbot of all.
— 12 Benedict Receives Maurus and Placidus (600x544pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1269pix) _ With the establishment of the thirteen monasteries began the schools for children; and amongst the first to be brought were Maurus and Placidus.
— 13 Benedict Delivering a Possessed Monk by Scourging Him (600x488pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1269pix)
— 15 Benedict and the Miracle of the Axe (600x468pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1092pix) _ A monk had lost the iron head of his axe in a river. Abbot Benedict told him to throw the handle in after it, and the axe reassembled and rose from the river.
— 19 Florentius Sending Courtisans to Benedict's Monastery (600x464pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1083pix)
— 30 Benedict Prophesies the Destruction of Monte Cassino by the Lombards (600x496pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1157pix) not to mention its destruction by the US troops in World War II, who were attacking the German Nazis entrenched in the mountaintop monastery.
— 31 Benedict Receives Flour for the Monks During the Famine (600x468pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1092pix)
— 32 Benedict Appears to 2 Monks and Orders the Construction of the Terracina Monastery (600x492pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1148pix)
— 33 Benedict Excommunicating Two Nuns and Absolving Them after Their Deaths (600x500pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1167pix)
Saint Benedict and his Monks Eating in the Refectory (750x572pix, 148kb) and ignoring a dog and a cat which are angrily confronting each other.
Benedict gives his Monastic Rule to the Olivetan Monks (600x460pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1073pix) _ See Regula Sancti Benedicti

The Hurt Man (814x407pix, 479kb)
Pietà (1501; 600x452pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1055pix)
Pietà (1504; 600x352pix _ ZOOM to 1400x821pix) slightly different version.
Pietà (1540, 95x76cm) quite different from the preceding two.
Lamentation Over the Dead Christ (1503; 600x736pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1717pix)

The Death of Lucretia (1513, 71x61cm) _ The painting possibly is identical with the picture which according to Vasari was painted in 1513 for Pope Leo X. The story of Lucretia's suicide and the resulting end of the monarchy in Rome is told in Livy's History of Rome, at the end of Book I:
(English translation starts at then click on Next chapter at bottom of page)
[57] Ardeam Rutuli habebant, gens, ut in ea regione atque in ea aetate, divitiis praepollens; eaque ipsa causa belli fuit, quod rex Romanus cum ipse ditari, exhaustus magnificentia publicorum operum, tum praeda delenire popularium animos studebat, praeter aliam superbiam regno infestos etiam quod se in fabrorum ministeriis ac seruili tam diu habitos opere ab rege indignabantur. Temptata res est, si primo impetu capi Ardea posset: ubi id parum processit, obsidione munitionibusque coepti premi hostes. In his statiuis, ut fit longo magis quam acri bello, satis liberi commeatus erant, primoribus tamen magis quam militibus; regii quidem iuvenes interdum otium conuiuiis comisationibusque inter se terebant. Forte potantibus his apud Sex. Tarquinium, ubi et Collatinus cenabat Tarquinius, Egeri filius, incidit de uxoribus mentio. Suam quisque laudare miris modis; inde certamine accenso Collatinus negat verbis opus esse; paucis id quidem horis posse sciri quantum ceteris praestet Lucretia sua. "Quin, si vigor iuventae inest, conscendimus equos inuisimusque praesentes nostrarum ingenia? id cuique spectatissimum sit quod necopinato viri adventu occurrerit oculis." Incaluerant uino; "Age sane" omnes; citatis equis auolant Romam. Quo cum primis se intendentibus tenebris pervenissent, pergunt inde Collatiam, ubi Lucretiam haudquaquam ut regias nurus, quas in conuiuio luxuque cum aequalibus viderant tempus terentes sed nocte sera deditam lanae inter lucubrantes ancillas in medio aedium sedentem inveniunt. Muliebris certaminis laus penes Lucretiam fuit. Adveniens vir Tarquiniique excepti benigne; victor maritus comiter inuitat regios iuvenes. Ibi Sex. Tarquinium mala libido Lucretiae per vim stuprandae capit; cum forma tum spectata castitas incitat. Et tum quidem ab nocturno iuvenali ludo in castra redeunt.
[58] Paucis interiectis diebus Sex. Tarquinius inscio Collatino cum comite uno Collatiam venit. Vbi exceptus benigne ab ignaris consilii cum post cenam in hospitale cubiculum deductus esset, amore ardens, postquam satis tuta circa sopitique omnes videbantur, stricto gladio ad dormientem Lucretiam venit sinistraque manu mulieris pectore oppresso "Tace, Lucretia" inquit; "Sex. Tarquinius sum; ferrum in manu est; moriere, si emiseris vocem." Cum pavida ex somno mulier nullam opem, prope mortem imminentem videret, tum Tarquinius fateri amorem, orare, miscere precibus minas, versare in omnes partes muliebrem animum. Vbi obstinatam videbat et ne mortis quidem metu inclinari, addit ad metum dedecus: cum mortua iugulatum seruum nudum positurum ait, ut in sordido adulterio necata dicatur. Quo terrore cum vicisset obstinatam pudicitiam velut vi victrix libido, profectusque inde Tarquinius ferox expugnato decore muliebri esset, Lucretia maesta tanto malo nuntium Romam eundem ad patrem Ardeamque ad virum mittit, ut cum singulis fidelibus amicis veniant; ita facto maturatoque opus esse; rem atrocem incidisse. Sp. Lucretius cum P. Valerio Volesi filio, Collatinus cum L. Iunio Bruto venit, cum quo forte Romam rediens ab nuntio uxoris erat conuentus. Lucretiam sedentem maestam in cubiculo inveniunt. Aduentu suorum lacrimae obortae, quaerentique viro "Satin salue?" "Minime" inquit; "quid enim salui est mulieri amissa pudicitia? Vestigia viri alieni, Collatine, in lecto sunt tuo; ceterum corpus est tantum violatum, animus insons; mors testis erit. Sed date dexteras fidemque haud impune adultero fore. Sex. est Tarquinius qui hostis pro hospite priore nocte vi armatus mihi sibique, si vos viri estis, pestiferum hinc abstulit gaudium." Dant ordine omnes fidem; consolantur aegram animi avertendo noxam ab coacta in auctorem delicti: mentem peccare, non corpus, et unde consilium afuerit culpam abesse. "Vos" inquit "uideritis quid illi debeatur: ego me etsi peccato absoluo, supplicio non libero; nec ulla deinde impudica Lucretiae exemplo uiuet." Cultrum, quem sub ueste abditum habebat, eum in corde defigit, prolapsaque in volnus moribunda cecidit. Conclamat vir paterque.
[59] Brutus illis luctu occupatis cultrum ex volnere Lucretiae extractum, manantem cruore prae se tenens, "Per hunc" inquit "castissimum ante regiam iniuriam sanguinem iuro, vosque, di, testes facio me L. Tarquinium Superbum cum scelerata coniuge et omni liberorum stirpe ferro igni quacumque dehinc vi possim exsecuturum, nec illos nec alium quemquam regnare Romae passurum." Cultrum deinde Collatino tradit, inde Lucretio ac Valerio, stupentibus miraculo rei, unde novum in Bruti pectore ingenium. Vt praeceptum erat iurant; totique ab luctu versi in iram, Brutum iam inde ad expugnandum regnum vocantem sequuntur ducem.
      Elatum domo Lucretiae corpus in forum deferunt, concientque miraculo, ut fit, rei novae atque indignitate homines. Pro se quisque scelus regium ac vim queruntur. movet cum patris maestitia, tum Brutus castigator lacrimarum atque inertium querellarum auctorque quod viros, quod Romanos deceret, arma capiendi adversus hostilia ausos. Ferocissimus quisque iuvenum cum armis voluntarius adest; sequitur et cetera iuventus. Inde patre praeside relicto Collatiae [ad portas] custodibusque datis ne quis eum motum regibus nuntiaret, ceteri armati duce Bruto Romam profecti. Vbi eo ventum est, quacumque incedit armata multitudo, pavorem ac tumultum facit; rursus ubi anteire primores civitatis vident, quidquid sit haud temere esse rentur. Nec minorem motum animorum Romae tam atrox res facit quam Collatiae fecerat; ergo ex omnibus locis urbis in forum curritur. Quo simul ventum est, praeco ad tribunum celerum, in quo tum magistratu forte Brutus erat, populum advocavit. Ibi oratio habita nequaquam eius pectoris ingeniique quod simulatum ad eam diem fuerat, de vi ac libidine Sex. Tarquini, de stupro infando Lucretiae et miserabili caede, de orbitate Tricipitini cui morte filiae causa mortis indignior ac miserabilior esset. Addita superbia ipsius regis miseriaeque et labores plebis in fossas cloacasque exhauriendas demersae; Romanos homines, victores omnium circa populorum, opifices ac lapicidas pro bellatoribus factos. Indigna Ser. Tulli regis memorata caedes et inuecta corpori patris nefando vehiculo filia, invocatique ultores parentum di. His atrocioribusque, credo, aliis, quae praesens rerum indignitas haudquaquam relatu scriptoribus facilia subicit, memoratis, incensam multitudinem perpulit ut imperium regi abrogaret exsulesque esse iuberet L. Tarquinium cum coniuge ac liberis. Ipse iunioribus qui ultro nomina dabant lectis armatisque, ad concitandum inde adversus regem exercitum Ardeam in castra est profectus: imperium in urbe Lucretio, praefecto urbis iam ante ab rege instituto, relinquit. Inter hunc tumultum Tullia domo profugit exsecrantibus quacumque incedebat invocantibusque parentum furias viris mulieribusque.
[60] Harum rerum nuntiis in castra perlatis cum re nova trepidus rex pergeret Romam ad comprimendos motus, flexit viam Brutus—senserat enim adventum—ne obuius fieret; eodemque fere tempore, diuersis itineribus, Brutus Ardeam, Tarquinius Romam venerunt. Tarquinio clausae portae exsiliumque indictum: liberatorem urbis laeta castra accepere, exactique inde liberi regis. Duo patrem secuti sunt qui exsulatum Caere in Etruscos ierunt. Sex. Tarquinius Gabios tamquam in suum regnum profectus ab ultoribus veterum simultatium, quas sibi ipse caedibus rapinisque concierat, est interfectus.

_ See also: by Veronese: Lucretia Stabbing Herself (1584)
 _ by Dürer: The Suicide of Lucretia (1518, 168x745cm; 900x367pix, 75kb)
 _ by Titian: Suicide of Lucretia (1515; 650k523pix, 88kb)
 _ by Cranach the Elder: The Suicide of Lucretia (1529, 75x54cm; 739x493pix)
 _ by Gentileschi: Lucretia (1621; 455x400pix, 16kb)

Flagellation of ChristThe Road to Calvary (1510, 36x62cm) _ These two paintings are part of the predella of the altarpiece representing the Deposition.
Saint Sebastian (1525, 206x154cm) _ It is one of the most celebrated works of Sodoma and especially for the figure of the Saint. The influence of Leonardo is very evident. The composition of the figure in space is very felicitous and the fantastic landscape is worthy of note. There is an other painting on the back (The Virgin between Sts. Roch and Sigismund) which is of lesser quality.
The Mystic Marriage of Saint Catherine (1540, 95x76cm) — Saint Sebastian (1525, 206x154cm)
Allegory of Celestial Love
Flagellation of Christ (1510, 36x70cm) — The Road to Calvary (1510, 36x62cm)
The Abduction of the Sabine Women (1506, 76x170cm)

Saint George and the Dragon (1518) _ The artist was trained in Milan, where he became a close follower of Leonardo. His style combines influences from Leonardo, Fra Bartolommeo, and Raphael. Most of his career was spent in Siena. The wealth of narrative detail, histrionic action, and crowded composition are typical Mannerist tendencies of the mid-sixteenth century.
      All that is known with certainty about Saint George is that he suffered martyrdom at or near Lydda, also known as Diospolis, in Palestine, probably before the time of Constantine; that is cult is very ancient in both the Eastern and Western Christian churches; and that there are many legends about him. The best known form of the legend of Saint George and the Dragon is that made popular by the Legenda Aurea, and translated into English by Caxton. According to this, a terrible dragon had ravaged all the country round a city of Libya, called Selena, making its lair in a marshy swamp. Its breath caused pestilence whenever it approached the town, so the people gave the monster two sheep every day to satisfy its hunger, but, when the sheep failed, a human victim was necessary and lots were drawn to determine the victim. On one occasion the lot fell to the king's little daughter. The king offered all his wealth to purchase a substitute, but the people had pledged themselves that no substitutes should be allowed, and so the maiden, dressed as a bride, was led to the marsh. There Saint George chanced to ride by, and asked the maiden what she did, but she bade him leave her lest he also might perish. The good knight stayed, however, and, when the dragon appeared, Saint George, making the sign of the cross, bravely attacked it and transfixed it with his lance. Then asking the maiden for her girdle, he bound it round the neck of the monster, and thereupon the princess was able to lead it like a lamb. They then returned to the city, where Saint George told the people to have no fear but only be baptized, after which he cut off the dragon's head and the townsfolk were all converted. The king would have given George half his kingdom, but the saint replied that he must ride on, bidding the king meanwhile take good care of God's churches, honor the clergy, and have pity on the poor. The earliest reference to any such episode in art is probably to be found in an old Roman tombstone at Conisborough in Yorkshire, considered to belong to the first half of the twelfth century. Here the princess is depicted as already in the dragon's clutches, while an abbot stands by and blesses the rescuer.
--- See also:
  _ by Tintoretto: Drawing of a corpse for Saint George and the Dragon (1558)
  _ by Bellini: Pesaro Altarpiece: Saint George Fighting the Dragon (1473)
  _ by Burne-Jones: The Princess Sabra Led to the Dragon (1866)
  _ by Burne-Jones: Saint George and the Dragon (1868)
  _ by Nesterov: Saint George and Dragon (sketch)
  _ by Asam: Saint George and the Dragon
  _ by Colombe: Saint George and the Dragon (1508)
  _ English 14th-15th Century: Saint George and the Dragon
  _ by Meckenem: Saint George and the Dragon engraving (1470)
  _ by Moreau: Saint George and the Dragon
  _ by Redon: Saint George and the Dragon
  _ by Rivière: Saint George and the Dragon (1914)
  _ by Rubens: Saint George and the Dragon (1607)
  _ by Thompson: Saint George and the Dragon (1962)
  _ by Tintoretto: Saint George and the Dragon (1558)
  _ by Uccello: Saint George and the Dragon _ (detail) (1456)
  _ by Uccello: Saint George and the Dragon (1460)
  _ by Van Dyck: Saint George and the Dragon
  _ by Vanloo: Saint George and the Dragon
  _ by Weyden: Saint George and the Dragon (1432)
  _ by Carpaccio: Saint George and the Dragon _ (detail1)   _ (detail2) (1502)
  _ by Carpaccio: Saint George and the Dragon (detail) (1516)
  _ by Tintoretto: Saint George and the Dragon (1558)
  _ by Tintoretto: Saint George and the Dragon (1550)
  _ by Raphael: Saint George and the Dragon (1506, 28x21cm)
  _ by Raphael: Saint George Fighting the Dragon (1505, 32x27cm)
  _ by Domenichino: Saint George killing the Dragon
  _ by Martorell: Saint George Killing the Dragon (1435)
  _ by Vitale da Bologna: Saint George 's Battle with the Dragon (1350)
  _ by Rossetti: Saint George and the Dragon - design for glass, drawing
^ Born on 15 February 1751: Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein, German painter specialized in Portraits who died on 26 June 1829.
— He was one of a family which produced more than 20 artists in three generations, and was the student of his uncles in Hamburg. He went to Holland in 1771 and began to work as a portrait painter, having a great success at the court in Berlin after 1777. He became dissatisfied with portraiture and went to Munich, where he studied Dürer and the early German painters, going on to Italy in 1779. In 1783 he was in Rome for the second time and began to paint history pictures, but in 1786 he met Goethe, and in 1786/88 he painted the Goethe in the Roman Campagna on which his reputation chiefly rests. In 1789 he became director of the Naples Academy, and from 1791 supervised the engraving of the Greek vases belonging to Sir William Hamilton which were so important in the spread of Neoclassicism. In Naples he painted the famous beauty Charlotte Campbell as Erato (1790). He returned to Germany in 1799. This Tischbein is usually called “Goethe Tischbein”. The two other leading members of the family, his uncle and cousin, were nicknamed after their main place of work: his uncle Johann Heinrich the Elder “Kassel Tischbein” [14 Oct 1722 – 22 Aug 1789] and his cousin of Johann Friedrich August Tischbein “Leipzig Tischbein” [09 Mar 1750 – 21 Jun 1812]. They were principally portraitists, as also were Johann Valentin Tischbein [1715-1768], and Anton Wilhelm Tischbein [01 Mar 1730 – 01 Nov 1804]. Some of the other artists of the family were Anton Johann Tischbein [1720-1784], Johann Heinrich Tischbein the Younger, Johann Jakob Tischbein, August Anton Tischbein [09 October 1805 – >1867].

     Die Malerfamilie Tischbein
Die aus Marburg/Weidenhausen stammende Familie Tischbein siedelte 1685 nach Haina, wo Konrad (Curth) Tischbein die Stelle des Hospitalbäckers übernahm. Sein Sohn Johann Heinrich Tischbein (1683-1764) und dessen Ehefrau Susanna Margaretha Hinsing aus Bingen am Rhein (1690-1772) gelten als Stammeltern der Malerfamilie.
     Fast alle Kinder waren künstlerisch begabt. Der Überlieferung zufolge soll 1729 beim Besuch der landgräflich-darmstädtischen Regierungskommission ein (Amts-)Rat den zweitältesten der Brüder, Johann Valentin Tischbein, beim Zeichnen entdeckt haben. Der Junge erhielt daraufhin in Frankfurt eine Ausbildung zum Tapetenmaler und wurde zum Begründer der Malerdynastie, indem er auch für die Ausbildung seiner Brüder sorgte.
      Besonders bekannt wurde Johann Heinrich Tischbein der Ältere [1722-1789], der als Hofmaler in Kassel wirkte. 1762 wurde er Professor am „Collegium Carolinum" und später an der Kunstakademie in Kassel. Ein Jahr vor seinem Tod besuchte der schon fast erblindete noch einmal Haina und schenkte der Heimatkirche das Altarbild Christus am Ölberg.
      Der Sohn seines älteren Bruders, des Hospitalschreiners Johann Konrad Tischbein, Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein [1751-1829] wurde als Maler Goethes berühmt, den er auf seiner Italienreise begleitete. Das Geburtshaus des „Goethemalers", ein kleiner Fachwerkbau, ist noch heute in Haina erhalten.

Goethe in der römischen Campagna (1786, 164x206cm) _ Tischbein is the best-known of a family of German 18th-century painters. He was most important for his engravings of classical antiquities, but is now remembered solely for his famous portrait of Goethe [28 Aug 174922 March 1832]. Tischbein was Goethe's friend and he is usually called “Goethe Tischbein”.
      Das Bildnis entstand 1787 in Rom, als Goethe auf seiner Italienischen Reise bei dem ihm bekannten Maler am Corso wohnte. Goethe erwähnte das Bild mehrfach, hat es aber nie vollendet gesehen. Der Dichter ist als Weltbürger dargestellt, umgeben von Werken der Antike, z. B. dem Relief mit einer Iphigenie-Darstellung - ein Hinweis auf Goethes gleichzeitige Fertigstellung seiner Iphigenie. Der Maler Ludwig Strack charakterisierte das Bild schon damals treffend: "Über diese Veränderung der Natur und der menschlichen Dinge staunt das Auge des philosophischen Dichters hin und der schauervolle Gedanke der Vergänglichkeit scheint auf seinem Gesicht zu schweben”. Mit dem Bild allerdings wurde eher dem Dichter als dem Maler ein Denkmal gesetzt. Künstlerische "Schwächen”, wie die besonders irritierenden "zwei linken Füße”, lassen sich möglicherweise damit erklären, daß das große Bild längere Zeit unvollendet blieb. Wann, wo und sogar von wem es schließlich fertiggestellt wurde, ist nach wie vor unklar.
Elisabeth von Breitenbach (1765) _ Der »Kasseler Tischbein«, Onkel des berühmteren Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein (»Goethe-Tischbein«), malte überwiegend Porträts. Hier hat er eine junge Frau in einem sehr privaten Moment überrascht. Kokett die Füße mit den kleinen spitzen Schuhen übereinander geschlagen, hat sie sich zum Lesen eines Briefes an einen verschwiegenen Ort zurückgezogen. Nun blickt sie mit einem leicht verschmitzten, viel sagenden Lächeln den Betrachter an. Die Anmut der Gestalt entspricht ebenso dem Schönheitsideal des Rokoko wie das grausilberne Kleid in seiner schimmernden Stofflichkeit, dessen raschelnde Seide man fast zu hören vermag.
Hectors Abschied (1776; 550x654pix _ ZOOM to 1280x1523pix)
Konradin von Schwaben (1784; 600x424pix _ ZOOM to 1400x989pix)
Königin Elisabeth Christine von Preußen [1715-1797] (1798; 600x432pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1008pix)
Landschaft bei Frascati (1783; 540x412pix _ ZOOM to 1260x961pix)
^ Died on 15 February 1934: Jules Alexandre Grün, French painter, illustrator, and poster artist born on 26 (25?) May 1868.
— Grün was born in Paris, on 25 (26?) May 1868. He died of Parkinson's Disease, although the date of his death is debated. Some sources state that he died on February 15, 1934, while others, such as the Salon de Paris official documents claim 1938. Yet another source claims 1945. Grün was the student of Jean-Baptiste Lavastre, the famed theatrical decorator of the Paris Opera, and of Antoine Guillemet, a renowned landscape painter. Still life, portraits, and scenes of Parisian life were his favorite subjects. In 1890, his illustrations for Xanrof's Chansons sans Gêne (1890) and Chansons à rire (1891) made him the poet of the Bohemian element and the Montmartre atmosphere.
      His early life is almost unknown, although we do know many of his accomplishments, as they are well documented in the annals of the Paris Salons and periodicals of the period. One turn of the century publication characterized him as follows: "Whoever sees Grün once will always re-examine it in his spirit: a Frenchman with a beard and a legendary baldness; eyes strangely clear and penetrating, and under the sensual curving nose, a mouth gushing forth with quick wit and good banter." For Grün, life and art merged; he was a painter because he liked the life, and because he needed to express his clear feelings, colored, alive of people and the things around them. As Théophile Gautier said, Grün was "a man for whom the visible world exists".
      In the mid-to-late 1930s, Grün became stricken with Parkinson's disease, which served to isolate him from society, and greatly diminished his artistic abilities. When he died one of the last of the great Belle Epoque poster artists was taken away from the world. His posters, full of life and of color, contributed largely to the rebirth of the lithography. With Chéret, whose name is inseparable in this field, Jules Alexandre Grün helped transform the scenic landscape of the Parisian streets at the turn of the century. Full and powerful, almost caricatural, and when he desired, delicate and exquisite. Grün, by his love of painting, and by the diversity of his gifts and subjects, was a complete artist.
Photo of Grün

The Dinner Party (60x90cm)
Fin de Souper (1913, 56x152cm)
17 prints at Wet Canvas
^ Born on 15 February 1913: William Scott, British Abstract Expressionist painter who died on 28 December 1989.
— He spent his childhood in Scotland and from 1924 at Enniskillen, Co. Fermanagh. His Irish father, a house- and sign-painter, arranged for him to take lessons from an art teacher at Enniskillen, who introduced him at the age of 14 to the work of Cézanne, Modigliani, Picasso and Derain. He completed his studies from 1928 to 1931 at Belfast College of Art and from 1931 to 1935 at the Royal Academy Schools in London.
     In 1937 Scott spent six months in Italy and then moved to France, living mainly at Pont-Aven, where he helped to run a summer painting school. His works of this period included landscapes, still-lifes and studies from the model in the studio, for example Girl and Blue Table (1938), and consisted of a few simple, carefully spaced forms in a bare setting, combined with a sensuous handling of paint and color.
     At the outbreak of World War II, Scott returned to London and from there moved in 1941 to Hallatrow, Somerset. While serving in the army from 1942 to 1946 he made only a few watercolors of soldiers and the local landscape. He returned to painting in earnest in 1946, concentrating in works such as The Frying Pan on still-lifes of pots and saucepans, eggs, fishes and bottles on a bare kitchen table. Although this theme reflected the austere conditions of his childhood, he chose these objects simply because they provided contrasting shapes that he could arrange against simple backgrounds, often to elegant effect. By 1951 the forms had begun to take on a life of their own, sometimes as metaphors of erotic encounters between male and female, as in Still-life (1951). Paintings such as Cornish Harbour (1951), in which two small boats help to identify the large geometric shapes as sky, harbor and wall, are almost abstract, with the forms stretched out like a grid. A picture begun as a still-life could turn into a figure or vice versa. Some of his works of 1952-1954 became completely abstract.
      This phase of Scott's work came to an end partly as a result of a visit in 1953 to the USA, where he met Pollock, Rothko and Kline. He admired their work but felt that he belonged to the European tradition of Chardin, Cézanne and Bonnard, and this led to a gradual return to a more representational style. Winter Still-life (1956) and associated paintings were related to the works he had done just after World War II but were larger in scale, with a greater voluptuousness of colour and surface and a more monumental sense of design. Gradually, however, he moved again towards abstraction, turning pots and pans into irregular oblong or lozenge shapes, distributed laterally in groups across the picture surface and keyed to a particular colour, as in Ochre Still-life (Ochre Painting) (1958)
      Scott's work on a huge mural for Altnagelvin Hospital in Londonderry (1958-1961) led him increasingly to simplify his forms in large-scale, completely abstract easel paintings such as Berlin Blues 6 (1966), in which irregular squares and lozenges are flatly painted in separate tiers. In the late 1960s, for example in Grey Still-life (1969), he reintroduced objects such as frying pans and saucepans juxtaposed with purely abstract forms; the picture space was kept deliberately flat and the forms carefully spaced in floating rows. In both paintings and prints he sometimes produced variations of almost identical arrangements of forms in completely different colors, continuing to use still-life subjects as the starting-point for otherwise self-sufficient formal relationships.

Winter Still Life (1956 blue monochrome, 91x152cm) _ From 1946 on Scott began to flatten the forms in his paintings. He generally painted from memory rather than from actual objects. But some of the articles he used in his still life paintings he kept around him in his studio; they included frying pans and saucepans, images which occur regularly in his work. These things were to become the abstract shapes found in later paintings and also had associations with his childhood memories. Scott said 'I find beauty in plainness, in a conception which is precise, a simple idea which to the observer must inevitably shock and leave a concrete image on the mind.'
Ochre Still Life (1958, 86x112cm) _ This shows a move towards a more abstract interpretation of the still life themes that recur repeatedly in Scott's pictures. Here pots and pans have been flattened out completely and the table top area is a flat plane, resembling a rough cast wall. At this stage Scott regarded the kitchen objects from which he painted as a means to an end 'They convey nothing... but they are a means to making a picture.' Here shapes are distributed profusely but unevenly across the surface, rather than seen in depth. Scott's textured surfaces at this period have been linked to his direct experience of the shapes, colors and textures of the dry stone walls near his cottage and studio in Somerset.
Berlin Blues 4 (1965 153x183cm) _ Scott spent a scholarship year in Berlin in 1963-4. According to him, the title for this painting, was chosen because it was one of a group of blue pictures started in Berlin and the particular blue pigment he used for them was discovered by him in that city. He commented that in this work the spatial relationships in his composition had become more symmetrical and Byzantine in origin. In the mid-1960s Scott simplified and clarified his paintings, using bolder shapes and eliminating textural contrasts. Paint was evenly and thinly applied, as here.
Permutations Ochre (1978, 168x173cm; 497x512pix, 19kb) _ In the late 1960s Scott began to re-emphasise in his paintings and drawings the familiar kitchen objects, the pots and pans, that had been accommodated only as more abstract shapes during the earlier part of the decade. From this time on the distinction between abstraction and figuration was less emphasised in Scott's work. Schematized drawings of recognisable but extremely simplified objects were combined with more abstracted shapes in compositions of great refinement and clarity. In a series of large still lifes, as here, the spaces between the shapes, seen against a completely flat ground, are of particular importance. The color relationships are both rich and controlled in these paintings.
Orange, Black and White Composition (1953, 122x122cm; 512x512pix, 22kb)

Died on a 15 February:

^ 1928 Jacob Smits, Dutch Belgian painter born on 09 July 1855. He was trained as a decorative artist and became a student of Joseph Stallaert [1823–1903] at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels in 1873. Between 1878 and 1880 he traveled to Munich, Vienna, and Rome, before settling in Amsterdam; among his projects was the traditional and rather classic decoration of the vestibule of the old Museum Boymans in Rotterdam. In 1885 he rejected his bourgeois lifestyle and travelled to Laren, Blaricum, Drenthe and Haarlem. He had contact with Anton Mauve and Albert Neuhuys and was influenced by the sensitive, realistic art of the Hague school. In 1888 he settled in Achterbos-Sluis, a deserted corner of the Kempen in Antwerp. There he painted the simplicity of the farming population and their strong tradition of religious belief and close ties with nature; this work influenced Albert Servaes and Gustave Van de Woestyne.
—     Peintre, graveur, aquarelliste et dessinateur de paysages, de sujets religieux, de genre et de portraits, il est né à Rotterdam et porte en lui la tradition hollandaise. De 1872 à 1882, il suit des cours aux Académies de Rotterdam, Bruxelles (pendant 3 ans) et Munich. Il voyage également à Vienne et Rome. Il s'est construit une petite vie aisée et honorable à Amsterdam, épousant en 1881 sa riche cousine Antje Doetje Kramer, et vivant dans une maison bourgeoise. Devenu directeur de l'école des Arts Décoratifs de Haarlem, il travaille surtout dans ce domaine, devant répondre à beaucoup de commandes de décorations murales. Il peint des paysages hollandais comme Bariclum, Laren et du Limbourg où l'on perçoit l'influence des peintres de La Haye comme Israels et Mauve.
     En 1885, il décide de changer de vie, renonce à sa fortune, quitte sa femme et ses parents, renie son enseignement académique et s'installe à Drente où il rencontre le peintre Neuhuys, peintre des intérieurs paysans, où s'expriment la misère et la pauvreté. Trois ans après, il s'installe à Achterbos en Campine où il épouse Malvina De Deyn qui partage avec lui le dénuement et la privation. Ils vivent heureux mais dans la misère la plus complète.
     La Belgique connaît à cette époque une période artistique intense. Les artistes s'intéressent à l'impressionnisme français et s'en inspirent. Smits, par contre, reste totalement hermétique à cette nouvelle manière de peindre et préfère le symbolisme. Il exécute de nombreuses aquarelles en colorant le fond des ses compositions à l'or. Malvina et ses enfants sont ses modèles préférés. Dans les scènes qu'il représente, il veut atteindre l'âme du sujet, voir le lien privilégié d'une mère allaitant son enfant, la lourdeur des tâches ménagères d'une femme affaiblie, la quiétude de leur misérable chaumière... L'impression qui s'en dégage est solennelle. Les portraits de sa femme et de ses enfants deviennent des récits religieux inspirés de Rembrandt dans leurs éclairages, atmosphères, et leurs clairs-obscurs. Dès 1895, il expose plus régulièrement, il est respecté dans le milieu artistique, mais la vente de ses tableaux ne lui permet pas de mener une vie plus aisée. A cette époque, ses compositions deviennent plus lumineuses. Il adopte des tons purs, posés en une matière épaisse comme on le constate dans les portraits de Malvina, emplis de spiritualité.
     Son épouse adorée meurt en 1899, quelques jours seulement après le décès de son cinquième enfant. La femme avec laquelle il se remarie deux ans plus tard, Josine Van Cauteren accepte l'état misérable de ses finances et élève les trois enfants de Malvina. L'année suivante, les parents du peintre viennent se réfugier à Achterbos, ruinés et malades. En 1900, on lui accorde la nationalité belge.
     C'est aussi l'époque où il commence à peindre sur de grands formats. Il réalise ses peintures avec une facture de plus en plus lourde, compacte et grumeleuse, appliquée en couches successives pour mieux "fixer" ses préoccupations spiritualistes. Le symbole de la Campine date de 1901.
     Pendant la première guerre mondiale, il arrête de peindre et s'occupe de l'approvisionnement de sa ville car il est le seul à pouvoir dialoguer avec les Allemands. Jusqu'à la fin de sa vie, il peint des intérieurs de fermes et de grands paysages où s'inscrivent de petits personnages. Il se libère de l'influence de Rembrandt et son trait s'affine, plus vibrant, ses couleurs plus chatoyantes, posées en taches intenses sur des fonds blancs et cernées d'un contour noir. L'atmosphère générale de recueillement et de spiritualité persiste toujours.
     En 1920, ayant pris une part importante dans l'ouverture de la galerie Le Centaure, il influence les expressionnistes flamands et notamment ceux de Laethem Saint-Martin.
Evening Landscape (1910)

^ 1880 Jan (or Johannes) Weissenbruch, The Hague Dutch painter and printmaker, born on 18 March 1822, son of engraver Johan Daniel Weissenbruch [1789-1858] and brother of lithographer Frederick Hendrik Weissenbruch [1828–1887] and engraver Isaac Weissenbruch [1826–1912], and first cousin of watercolorist Jan Hendrik Weissenbruch [19 June 1824 – 24 Mar 1903] and of engraver Adrianus Weissenbruch [1826-1882]. Jan Weissenbruch studied at the Koninklijke Academie van Beelden de Kunsten in The Hague and was also a student of Salomon Leonardus Verveer. Like Verveer, he chiefly painted town views, favoring the small towns along the Rhine and the Lek. His earliest works, such as the Oude Kerk at Scheveningen (1843), show the influence of the currently fashionable Romantic style, with its brown tone, rather viscous touch, rounded shapes and contrasts between light and shade strongly recalling the work of Wijnand Nuyen. Weissenbruch’s watercolors of this period, such as View of the Bant Windmills on the River Senne at Brussels, are also Romantic in feeling. However, the Dunne Bierkade in The Hague shows increased attention to the treatment of surfaces and an intimate, calm atmosphere that is characteristic of Weissenbruch. With View of the Saint Catharine-Gasthaus in Arnhem (1850) he completely abandoned Romantic coloring, choosing a light, bright palette that would distinguish him for the rest of his career: clear blue sky, white plasterwork, beaming sunlight, warm red roofs and red accents in the figures’ clothing are all typical of his later works.

Born on a 15 February:

1863 Pietro Scoppetta, Italian artist who died on 09 February 1920.— {Scoppetta? scopetta? little broom?}

1853 Eduard Schleich II, German painter who died on 28 October 1893. Als Akademieschüler der Münchner Malerschule schuf er in der Tradition seines Vaters, Eduard Schleich I (d.Ä.) [12 Oct 1812 – 08 Jan 1874], hauptsächlich stimmungsvolle Landschaftsbilder der Umgebung von München.

^ 1834 Paul-Camille Guigou, French painter who died on 21 December 1871. Born into a family of landowners, he became a notary’s clerk at Apt, Vaucluse, in 1851 and then in 1854 at Marseille. He learnt to paint from Camp, a teacher at the school in Apt, and then at Marseille from Émile Loubon [1809–1863], director of the local École des Beaux-Arts, who urged him to paint directly from nature. Guigou settled in Marseille in 1854, where he participated regularly in the annual Salon of the Société Artistique des Bouches-du-Rhône. Guigou painted almost exclusively Provençal landscapes, which were influenced by the works of the Barbizon painters, who exhibited in Marseille, and by the brownish tones and picturesque figures of Loubon’s paintings. The Road to Gineste (1859) and The Washerwoman (1860) reflect the independent tradition of Provençal painting during the Second Empire, which was characterized by warm coloring and precise lighting used to separate and distinguish forms. His knowledge of the works of Gustave Courbet, acquired during a visit to Paris in 1859, doubtless increased his liking for broad technique and sincere vision, articulated in a strong and ordered construction of space: for example, The Gorges of the Lubéron (1861) — The Washerwoman (1860) — The Bay of Marseille, Saint-Henri (1868; 602x1137pix, 162kb) — 38 images at Webshots.

1808 Karl Friedrich Lessing, German painter who died on 05 June 1880. Great-nephew of Gotthold Ephraim Lessing. He studied architecture in Berlin at the Königliche Bau-Akademie under Karl Friedrich Schinkel [1781-1841], before transferring to the Kunstakademie, where he became a student of Wilhelm Schadow in 1825. The next year Lessing followed Schadow to Düsseldorf, where the latter had been appointed Director of the Kunstakademie. Lessing also studied under Julius Hübner. Almost to the end of his career Lessing was to follow Schadow’s rules for a standard series of procedures in the production of a finished work: compositional sketch, oil study, detailed model study, cartoon and underdrawing for the final painting. Without an official position, Lessing worked at the Düsseldorf Akademie until 1858, when he was appointed Director of the Grossherzogliche Gemäldegalerie in Karlsruhe, a position he held until his death. — Karl Lessing's students included his son Otto Lessing [24 Feb 1846 – 22 Nov 1912] and John W. Ehninger.

^ 1705 Carle (or Charles André) Vanloo, French artist who died on 15 July 1765. — Carle was the Vanloo family’s most famous member, whose illustrious career was notable for its eclectic diversity of subject and style; he was acclaimed for his history and genre paintings and also for his portraits and decorative work, and his style encompassed influences ranging from Mannerism to Rococo. — After the death of his father Louis-Abraham van Loo [1656-1712], Carle went to Turin to join his elder brother, Jean-Baptiste van Loo [11 Jan 1684 – 19 Sep 1745], who took charge of his education. When they moved to Rome in 1714, Vanloo began formal studies with the painter Benedetto Lutti and the sculptor Pierre Legros le jeune. In 1719 the brothers moved to Paris, where the younger artist gained practical experience by assisting his brother on such commissions as the restoration of the Galerie François I at the château of Fontainebleau. He also studied at the Académie Royale, where he won first prize for drawing in 1723. One of his teachers was Nicolas Vleughels. In 1724 Vanloo was awarded the Prix de Rome, but the money that was to finance his studies in Italy was withheld, and he was forced to raise the necessary funds himself by painting society portraits and stage decorations for the opera in Paris. His few extant paintings from this period demonstrate, by their combination of Mannerist figural proportions with a fashionable Rococo palette, Vanloo’s ability to assimilate various stylistic influences (e.g. The Presentation in the Temple, 1728). In early 1728 he was at last able to set out for Rome, in the company of his nephews (sons of Jean-Baptiste) Louis-Michel van Loo [02 Mar 1707 – 20 Mar 1771] and François van Loo [1708-1732], and of his friend and future rival François Boucher. Another son of Jean-Baptiste was Charles-Amédée-Philippe van Loo [25 Aug 1719 – 15 Nov 1795].
— Vanloo's students included Jean-Baptiste Deshays, Gabriel-François Doyen, François-Hubert Drouais, Louis-Jacques Durameau, Simon Julien, Louis Lagrenée, Nicolas-Bernard Lépicié, César van Loo, Philippe Jacques de Loutherbourg, Michel-Barthélémy Ollivier, Bernhard Rode, Christopher Steele, Johann Heinrich Tischbein.

1622 Adam (or Adrian?) Pynaker (or Pijnacker), Dutch painter and merchant who was buried on 28 March 1673. In both style and subject-matter, Pynacker belongs to the group of Netherlandish artists known as the Dutch Italianates. His earliest paintings, for example Buildings from the Ripa Grande, Rome, show a first-hand knowledge of the Italian terrain, the subject of almost his entire output.

1611 Cornelis Simonszoon van der Schalcke, Dutch artist who died on 05 March 1671.

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