Born on 03 June 1819: Johan
Barthold Jongkind, Dutch Realist painter and printmaker
who died on 09 February 1891.
Jongkind's small, informal landscapes continued the tradition of the Dutch landscapists while also stimulating the development of Impressionism.
Originaire de Latrop, aux Pays-Bas, Johan Barthold Jongkind fit sortir l'art néérlandais de son provincialisme idyllique et devint du même coup l'un des plus notables précurseurs de l'évolution européenne ultérieure. Elève d'Andreas Schelfhout à La Haye et d'Isabey à Paris, il se fixa de 1855 à 1860 à Rotterdam, mais passa ensuite les trente dernières années de sa vie a Paris. Ses premières oeuvres hollandaises surtout les représentations fluviales et marines se distinguent cependant déjà par une atmosphère étonnamment transparente et un haut degré de luminosité. Créée en 1856, la toile intitulée Le Port de Rotterdam semble avoir pour sujet réel les teintes vaporeuses suspendues entre les objets, ainsi que les reflets de l'eau. Le coloriage de Jongkind obéissait encore aux règles de la cohésion tonale, mais dans la luminosité de ses atmosphères l'artiste dépassait jusqu'aux Français les plus hardis. A quel point il était attaché a l'inspiration puisée aux mille aspects de la nature vivante ressort aussi du fait qu'il aimait peindre et repeindre le même motif sous un éclairage different. Né exactement la même année que Colbert, et à peu près contemporain des principaux pleinairistes de l'école de Barbizon, Jongkind allait devenir, a côté de Boudin, l'un des plus grands promoteurs de l'impressionisme. Il n'a pas seulement enthousiasmé Manet, mais aussi comme pas un autre confirmé Monet dans son esthétique. Jongkind est mort à Côte-Saint-André, France.
Le Pont de la Tournelle (1859, 45x73cm) — Notre-Dame de Paris, Seen from the Pont de L'Archéveche 1849; Oil on canvas; Private Collection by jbjongkind Photo 1 of 23 : Image resolution 1056 x 601 Clair de Lune (1853) Harbor Scene (1865, 14x23cm) Sortie du Port de Honfleur (1864, 24x31cm) La Jetée en bois dans le port de Honfleur (1865, 24x32cm) Moulins en Hollande (1867, 15x20cm) Vue du Port à Chemin de Fer à Honfleur (1866, eau-forte 27x34cm) Vues de Hollande: Les deux Barques a voile (18x21cm) Vues de Hollande: La Barque amarrée, (18x21cm) The Seine and Notre-Dame à Paris (1864) In Holland; Boats near the Mill (1868) The Church of Overschie Honfleur (1865, 52x82cm) _ This canvas was painted in August–September 1865, during Jongkind's third visit to Honfleur, on the Normandy coast, where Monet also worked in the early and mid-1860s.
— 38 images at Webshots
Buried on 03 June 1679: Jean-François
Francisque Millet (or Millé), French
painter baptized as an infant on 27 April 1642. Not to be confused
with the better known Jean-François
Millet [04 Oct 1814 20 Jan 1875]
Jean François Millet, called Francisque, was born in Antwerp, where his French father was in the service of the Prince de Condé, and where Francisque was apprenticed to a painter whose daughter he married. The couple settled in Paris in 1660, Francisque painting Italianate and Arcadian landscapes in the style of Gaspard Dughet. He was received into the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in 1763, after having worked in the Low Countries and in England. He was perhaps the best imitator of Nicolas Poussin's classical landscapes, retaining the formality and dignity of his models without loss of subtlety. Like those of Gaspard Dughet, his pictures are largely attributions on purely stylistic grounds, there being no sure documentation. He had relatives of the same name, and it is not clear what is by him. Three etchings are also now attributed to him.
— Little is known about his life. His oeuvre remains ill-defined, in part because he seems never to have signed his paintings and in part because, after his death (by poisoning), both his son Jean Millet [1666–1723] and later his grandson Joseph Millet [1688–1777] took the name Francisque and continued to paint landscapes in his style. The firmest point of reference for attributions to Millet is a series of 28 engravings after his works made by one Théodore, possibly a student. They are all landscapes, some with religious, mythological or heroic genre subjects, and have been identified with a number of surviving paintings that can therefore be attributed to Millet on this evidence.
Imaginary Landscape (1665, 57x66cm) _ Under Louis XIV, the two main landscape painter of the time were Pierre Patel and Francisque Millet. They were largely derivative in their styles, but this was the secret of their success. Both of them are relatively little known today. Francisque Millet was more talented than Patel, though his present reputation is also obscure. Flemish in origin like Philippe de Champaigne, he worked mainly in Paris, specializing in classical landscapes inspired by the works of Dughet and Poussin. Millet had imagination and good powers of observation, but he never painted anything without a classical format. Millet preferred an intense blue for his landscapes (as did Poussin), which gives then an unnatural air. This Imaginary Landscape is typical of Francisque's style.
— The Flight into Egypt (etching 20x30cm)
Born on 03 June (22 May Julian) 1881:
Mikhail Fyodorovich Larionov, Moldovan~Russian
painter, stage designer, printmaker, illustrator, draftsman, and writer,
who died on 10 May 1964.
Pioneer of pure abstraction in painting, he founded the avant~garde Rayonist movement (1910) with Natal'ya Sergeyevna Goncharova [16 Jun 1881 – 17 Oct 1962], whom he later married. Early work was influenced by Impressionism and Symbolism, but he later introduced a nonrepresentational style conceived as a synthesis of Cubism, Futurism, and Orphism. In the Rayonist manifesto (1913), he espoused the principle of the reduction of form in figure and landscape compositions into rays of reflected light. Both Larionov and Goncharova exhibited in the first Jack of Diamonds exhibition of avant-garde Russian art in Moscow (1910). In 1914 they went to Paris, where both achieved renown as designers for Sergey Diaghilev's Ballets Russes. During the 1920s they played a significant role within the École de Paris and continued to live and work in France until their deaths.
Le Renard: costume sketch for Le Coq (1922, 49x32cm) Le Renard: Decor with three figures (32x43cm) Curtain design for the dance Le Soleil de Nuit (1915) Décor pour Le Soleil de Nuit (1915) The Golden Cockerel (1911) Soldier at Rest (1911) — Vladimir Tatlin (1911)
Died on 03 June 1592: Bartolomeo
Passerotti (or Passarotti, Passarotto), Bolognese painter
born on 28 June 1529.
Except for some years in Rome (about 1551 to. 1565) Passerotti worked in his native Bologna. There he had a large studio, which became the focal point of the city's artistic life. He was a pupil of Girolamo Vignola and Taddeo Zuccaro (or Zuccari), in Rome. Here, he also came into contact with the works of Correggio and Parmigianino.
The religious paintings that were the basis of his success were fairly conventional and undistinguished, and he is now remembered for his pioneering genre scenes of butchers' shops. They reflect the influence of northern painters such as Aertsen and in their lively observations broke free from prevailing Mannerism. Annibale Carracci (whose brother Agostino Carracci studied with Passarotti) was influenced by these genre scenes in his early career. In addition to his religious and genre works, Passarotti painted excellent portraits throughout his career. His son Tiburzio (d. c. 1612) imitated his style, and he in turn had two artist sons, Gaspare and Archangelo.
Holy Family with the Infant St John the Baptist and St Catherine of Alexandria (111x92cm) _ The composition follows the example of Raphael, but there are some details characteristic for Passerotti, e.g. the hand of St Catherine and the portrait-like position of St Joseph.
The Butcher's Shop (1580, 112x152cm) _ This and The Fishmonger's Shop were originally part of a series of four, which are among the best examples of Italian genre painting. There are close stylistic connections between these canvases and the works of the Dutch masters Aertsen and Beuckelaer, as well as with The Butcher's Shop by Annibale Carracci.
Passerotti describes the butcher's shop with a combination of realistic precision in the rendering of details and irony in the characterization of the people. In late sixteenth century art the theme of the butcher shop was moralistically interpreted as an allegorical warning about the temptations of flesh and of indulgence in erotic passions without caution. According to the counter-reformation precepts laid down by Gabriele Paleotti (1582), veiled moral messages could be transmitted through comical pictures. In both pictures the sparrow appears: as this bird's Italian name is passerotto, the artist used it as a type of pictorial signature.
The Fishmonger's Shop (1585, 112x152cm) _ This painting is rich with the most minute naturalistic description, with the woman holding up the blowfish and with various types of sea shells on display reflecting Passerotti's interest in naturalistic study. A participant in the scientific culture of Bologna, of which Ulisse Aldovrandi was a protagonist, Passerotti created his own varied collection of curiosities and monstrosities.
Born on 03 June 1877: Raoul
Dufy, French Fauvist
painter, printmaker, and decorative artist, who died on 23 March 1953.
— From the age of 14 he was employed as a book-keeper, but at the same time he developed his innate gift for drawing, at the École des Beaux-Arts in Le Havre in evening classes given by the Neo-classical painter Charles Lhuillier [1824–1898]. Dufy discovered the work of Eugène Boudin, Poussin, and Delacroix, whose Justice of Trajan (1840) was a revelation to him. In 1900, with a grant from Le Havre, he joined his friend Othon Friesz in Paris and enrolled at the École Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts in the studio of Léon Bonnat. At the Musée du Louvre he studied the art of Claude Lorrain, to whom he painted several Homages between 1927 and 1947. His encounter with works by van Gogh at the Galerie Bernheim-Jeune and with Impressionism at Durand-Ruel is reflected in such early works as Beach at St Adresse (1904) — Georges Braque was a student of Dufy.
Nice Open Window *_ Nice Window (1928) * The Nice Casino (1927) * (Nice, the nice city on the French Riviera) Regatta at Cowes (1934) Flags Deauville Basin (1935) — Three Umbrellas (1906) — La Place d'Hyères
Born on 03 June 1852: Theodore
Robinson, US Impressionist
painter who died on 01 (02?) April 1896. He studied under Claude
Monet. [OK, he was from the US. But did he have a Swiss family?]
— Brought up in Evansville Wisconsin, Robinson studied art briefly in Chicago at the end of the 1860s, and in New York at the National Academy of Design (1874–1876). His early work, for example Haying (1882), was in the US genre tradition of Winslow Homer. From 1876 to 1878 Robinson studied in Paris under Carolus-Duran, alongside John Singer Sargent, and under Jean-Léon Gerôme. In 1879 Robinson returned to the USA and lived mainly in New York and Boston; he made a living by teaching and by assisting John La Farge and Prentice Treadwell with mosaic and stained-glass decorations for the Metropolitan Opera House in New York. In 1881 Robinson was elected to the Society of American Artists, a group in revolt against the conservatism of the National Academy.
Returning to France in 1884, Robinson worked in Paris and Barbizon and was strongly influenced for a time by the Barbizon School. A crucial event was his meeting with Monet at Giverny, near Rouen, in 1887. By 1888 they were close friends and Robinson began to develop his own Impressionist style, which was never as extreme in its use of broken color as that of Monet. His aim, as he wrote in his journal, was to combine Impressionism’s ‘brilliancy and light of real outdoors’ with ‘the austerity, the sobriety, that has always characterized good painting’. Cézanne seems to have influenced the strong compositional structure of his paintings, and his best work was done mostly in France during the next four years. He also painted in Italy for several months in 1890 and 1891. His favorite subjects were landscapes and intimate vignettes of farm and village life, such as The Watering Pots (1890), In The Grove (1888) and Wedding March (1892). Since models were expensive and Robinson was poor, he often took photographs as studies for his figure compositions.
Woman in a White Cap (1884) House in Virginia (1893, 46x56cm) In the Orchard (1895, 46x56cm) Girl Sewing (1891, 46x55cm) Country Road (35x25cm)
Born on 03 June (January?) 1887: August
Macke, German expresssionist painter who died on 26 September
1914 [It is not true that he was run over by a Mack truck.].
— Macke, August (Robert Ludwig) (b Meschede, Westphalia, 3 Jan 1887; d nr Perthes-les-Hurlus, Champagne, 26 Sept 1914). German painter. He began his artistic training in autumn 1904 at the Kunstakademie in Düsseldorf, but he was far more interested by the instruction at the Kunstgewerbeschule, run by Peter Behrens, where he attended evening courses given by the German printmaker Fritz Helmuth Ehmcke (1878–1965). Friendship with the playwrights of the Düsseldorfer Theater, Wilhelm Schmidtbonn and Herbert Eulenberg, awakened Macke’s interest in the stage. With the German sculptor Claus Cito, he developed designs for stage sets, including those for a production of Macbeth, which led to an offer by the theatre to employ him, but Macke turned it down. In April 1905 Macke travelled with Walter Gerhardt, his future wife Elizabeth Gerhardt’s brother, to northern Italy and Florence. His drawings of this period reveal freshness and a receptive sensibility. In July 1906 he travelled to the Netherlands and Belgium with Schmidtbonn, Eulenberg and Cito, continuing on with Schmidtbonn to London, where he visited the city’s museums. In November 1906 he broke off his studies at the academy. After encountering French Impressionism on a trip to Paris in summer 1907, Macke began to paint in this manner; in autumn of that year he went to Berlin to join the studio of the German painter Lovis Corinth. However, work in the studio, and Corinth’s way of suggesting corrections, did not suit Macke’s temperament, nor did the city’s oppressive atmosphere. He returned to Bonn in early 1908. His future wife’s family provided him with the means for further travel, first to Italy and then together with his wife and her uncle Bernhard Koehler, who later became his patron, to Paris. Through Koehler he gained an insight into the art market in Paris and became acquainted with Ambroise Vollard. In 1908–1909 Macke served his one-year of compulsory military service. Once again in Paris on his honeymoon in 1909, he met Louis Moilliet and, through him, Karl Hofer.
August Macke was born in Meschede, Germany, and during his childhood he spent time in Basle where he came into contact with the work of Böcklin (1827 16 Jan 1901). He was taught by Corinth (21 Aug 1858 1925), and travelled widely throughout Europe. He married the beautiful Elisabeth Gerhardt in 1909. He met Franz Marc (08 Feb 1880 04 Mar 1916) in 1910 in Munich, and with him established the Blaue Reiter the following year. In 1912 they both journeyed to Paris, where they discovered Cubism and the work of Delaunay (12 Apr 1885 25 Oct 1941). In 1914 he visited North Africa with Paul Klee (18 Dec 1879 29 Jun 1940). Macke was killed in battle, at the age of 27, that same year in the stupid World War I. His early Impressionist style developed into a use of strong, sunlit color applied in painterly facets of light. His preferred subject matter remained urban scenes of shopping and leisure. His North African work had a more structured appearance, and in 1913 he experimented with pure abstraction and also produced many watercolors.
Upon Macke's death, Franz Marc, who was later to also be killed in the same hellish war, wrote him this obituary: August Macke- "Young Macke"- is dead. Those who have followed the course of German art during these last, eventful years, those who sensed what the future held in store for the development of that art, also knew Macke. And those of us who worked with him- we, his friends, we knew what promise this man of genius secretly bore in him. His life described one of the boldest and most beautiful curves in the development of German art; and with his death that curve has been rudely broken. There is not one among us who can take it further. Each of us goes his own way; wherever our paths meet, we shall feel his absence. We painters know that without his harmonies whole octaves of color will disappear from German art, and the sounds of the colors remaining will become duller and sharper. He gave a brighter and purer sound to color than any of us; he gave it the clarity and brightness of his whole being.
Selbstbildnis (1906) Selbstporträt mit Hut (1909) Four Women in the Forest Three Girls in a Barque (1911) Garden Gate (1914) Hat Shop (1914) Girls and Trees (1914) Lady in the Green Coat (1913) Lady in a Green Jacket Tegernseer Bauernjunge (1910) Der Sturm (1911) Elisabeth Gerhardt Nähend (1909) Frau des Künstlers mit Hut (1909) Porträt mit Äpfeln: Frau des Künstlers (1909) Bildnis Franz Marc (1910) Der Mackesche Garten in Bonn (1911) Farewell Man Reading in the Park
Born on 03 (02?) June 1662: Willem van Mieris,
Leiden painter and draftsman who died on 27 (26?) January
— Willem van Mieris was the younger son of Frans van Mieris the Elder [16 Apr 1635 – 12 Mar 1681]. Together with his brother Jan van Mieris [1660-1690] he continued his father's tradition. His paintings are similar to his father's, and his scrupulous attention to detail makes them fascinating. Willem's son and student Frans van Mieris the Younger [24 Dec 1689 – 22 Oct 1763] painted in a watered-down version of his grandfather's style.
— Willem van Mieris was trained by his father and probably contributed to several of his later works. It is almost certain, for example, that he finished his father’s signed painting of the Holy Family (1681). The earliest examples signed and dated by Willem himself are from 1682, after which there is a large oeuvre of dated works up to the 1730s, when he became partly blind. In 1693 he joined the Leiden Guild of Saint Luke, for which he served as headman several times and once as dean. Around 1694, with the painters Jacob Toorenvliet [1635–1719) and Karel de Moor, he founded a drawing academy in Leiden, which he and de Moor directed until 1736.
The Peepshow (1718; 1600x1346pix, 191kb) — The Death of Cleopatra (1694, 23x20cm; 1205x1000pix, 606kb)
The Greengrocer (1731, 40x34cm; 900x756pix, 138kb) The Spinner (1014x824pix, 131kb) — Portrait of a Widow (oval 17x15cm; 600x460pix, 55kb)