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ART “4” “2”-DAY  13 March
BIRTHS: 1774 GUÉRIN — 1825 GUDE — 1858 LUCE — 1870 GLACKENS
^ Born on 13 March 1774: baron Pierre-Narcisse Guérin, French Neoclassical painter, draftsman and teacher, who died on 16 July 1833.
— Jean-Baptiste Regnault, was a teacher of Guérin. Guérin had an early success with The Return of Marcus Sextus (1799). Phèdre et Hippolyte (1802) and Andromaque et Pyrrhus (1810) are melodramatic. Énée racontant à Didon les malheurs de la ville de Troie (1815) is his best painting, the only one with feeling for color and atmosphere. He was one of the most successful French painters working in the Neo-classical style at the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th. He especially admired the art of Poussin and David, and derived inspiration from Greek mythology and from the Classical themes of the plays of Jean Racine. At the Salons in Paris he exhibited elegant compositions painted in a carefully controlled manner and with arresting chiaroscuro. He was never a prolific artist and, owing to ill-health, painted even less in his later years, devoting himself instead to teaching and to the directorship (1822–1828) of the Académie de France in Rome.
— Among the students of Guérin were Eugène Delacroix {“Ducroissant” pour les musulmans?}, Théodore Géricault {“Joshua fit the battle of Géricault, Géricault, Géricault...”}, Édouard Cibot {“C'est si beau, Cibot!”}, Léon Cogniet {Contre qui cognait Cogniet?}, Bengt Erland Fogelberg {“Mont-Oiseau”}, Henriquel-Dupont {“Henri Dupont? Henri... quel Dupont?”}, Paul Huet {“On huait Huet”}, Alexander Lauréus {“Lauréus réussit”}, Victor Orsel {Il n'était jamais Ancel? Même à cheval?}, Ary Scheffer {“Scheffer sait faire”}, Xavier Sigalon {“Sigalon aux six galons”}.

Le Retour de Marcus Sextus
(1799, 217x243cm; 888x1168pix, 72kb ZOOM to 2034x2455pix, 307kb) _ "Marcus Sextus, échappé aux proscriptions de Sylla, trouve à son retour sa fille en pleurs auprès de sa femme expirée.'' Les personnages comme l'action de cette scène sont imaginaires et, au Salon de 1799, les royalistes croyaient y voir une allusion au retour des émigrés. Mais ce qu'on y loua surtout, c'est la puissance dramatique, la force et la vérité des expressions.
Offrande à Esculape (1803; core detail: 875x1020pix, 76kb) — ZOOM to full picture: 2300x2039pix, 514kb)
Énée racontant à Didon les malheurs de la ville de Troie (1815; 937x1256pix, 128kb) _ Ce tableau s'inspire de l'Enéide de Virgile. Enée raconte à Didon la destruction de Troie, dont il vient de réchapper. Son fils Ascagne ôte l'anneau donné par son défunt époux à la reine de Carthage, qui concevra pour Enée une passion fatale.
Le Vigilant (monochrome lithograph 27x20cm)
^ Born on 13 March 1825: Hans Fredrik Gude, Norwegian painter who died on 17 August 1903. — {Was Gude good as a painter?}
— Born in Oslo, Hans Frederik Gude studied at the Düsseldorf Academy under Wilhelm Schirmer, where he befriended the genre painter Adolf Tidemand with whom he collaborated on several paintings. Gude taught at the Düsseldorf Academy from 1854 to 1860, and at the Academy in Karlsruhe from 1860 until 1880, at which time he accepted a teaching position at the Berlin Academy. His early work was dominated by romanticized scenes of the mountains and fjords of Norway, but by 1860 he turned to coastline scenes and began incorporating elements of naturalism.
— He was the most renowned Norwegian landscape painter of his time. At the age of 12 he was enrolled as a student of Johannes Flintoe [1787–1880]. After attending evening classes at the Kongelige Tegneskole in Christiania, he went to Düsseldorf in 1841 to be trained privately by the landscape painter Andreas Achenbach [1815–1910]. In 1842 Gude was admitted to the landscape class at the Akademie under Johann Wilhelm Schirmer. He was later appointed an assistant teacher at Schirmer’s private studio, and he succeeded his master as Professor of landscape painting both at the Düsseldorf Akademie (1854–1862) and at the Karlsruhe Akademie (1864–1880).
      In the 1840s Gude established his reputation in Norway and on the Continent with powerful images of the Norwegian mountains. These were shown in the Kunstforening galleries in Düsseldorf and Christiania and at the Berliner Akademische Kunstausstellung, where Gude exhibited throughout his life. Adolph Tidemand and Gude dominated the colony of Norwegian artists who studied in Düsseldorf in the mid-19th century. The two artists worked together on five paintings, all representing people in boats; Gude painted the landscape, Tidemand the figures. The Bridal Procession at Hardanger (1848) celebrates a ceremony of country life and is the most famous work of Norwegian National Romanticism. In a sunny western Norwegian landscape with snow on the high mountains, the bridal couple and wedding guests in national costume are shown rowing across the water from a medieval stave church on the headland in the background. Gude revealed greater maturity in High Mountain (1857). The disposition of mountains massed on the high plateau around a little lake produces an effect of monumentality. The predominant colors shade from grey to blue, concentrated in the cloud cover. The influence of Schirmer’s tranquil landscapes is apparent, while the rhythmic arrangement of light and shadow is reminiscent of Achenbach.
— Gude's good students included Johan Edvard Bergh, Herman August Cappelen, Lars Hertervig, Gustaf Werner Holmberg, Kitty Lange Kielland, Christian Krohg, Walter Leistikow, Berndt Adolf Lindholm, Magnus Hjalmar Munsterhjelm, Gustaf Fredrik Rydberg, Otto Ludvig Sinding, Frits (Johan Fredrik) Thaulow, Herman Alfred Leonard Wahlberg, Magnus von Wright.

Fishing Boats Setting to Sea (1885) _ This is an example of the later phase of Gude's painting career. Evidence of naturalism is clearly evident in the extensive detail with which all elements of the painting are rendered and in the depiction of the mundane activities of the diminutive foreground figures. {especially diminutive in this tiny reproduction, the only Gude which I found on the internet}
^ Born on 13 March 1858: Maximilien Luce, Parisian Pointillist painter and printmaker who died on 06 (07?) February 1941.
— He was born and brought up in the working-class surroundings of Montparnasse, and an interest in the daily routines and labours of the petit peuple of Paris informs much of his art. After an apprenticeship with the wood-engraver Henri Théophile Hildebrand [1824–], in 1876 he entered the studio of the wood-engraver Eugène Froment where he assisted in the production of engravings for various French and foreign publications such as L’Illustration and The Graphic. He also sporadically attended classes at the Académie Suisse and in the studio of Carolus-Duran. In Froment’s studio he came into contact with the artists Léo Gausson and Émile-Gustave Péduzzi “Cavallo-Péduzzi” [1851–1917] and in their company began painting landscape subjects in and around the town of Lagny-sur-Marne..
— Luce was apprenticed to various artists from 1872-1884, including painter Carolus Duran at the École des Beaux-Arts and engraver H.T. Hildebrands. In 1884 he joined Georges Seurat's Societé des Artistes Indépendants, now known as the Neo-Impressionists and three years later participated in the Salon des Indépendants. Soon Luce was one of the leaders of the movement. Luce had strong socialist ideals. Politically active as an anarchist, Luce was incarcerated in 1894 as a socialist sympathizer. Upon his release, he created a series of lithographs on prison life. Later Luce abandoned both his socialist beliefs and his pointillist style, eschewing anarchist causes and painting in a looser, freer, less controlled manner. Under the influence of Pissarro, he returned to a broad technique influenced by impressionism, thus neglecting the divisionism he had previously adopted through his contact with Seurat's art. He died in Paris.

Usines de CharleroiHenri Edmond CrossLa Seine à Herblay
Les Batteurs de Pieux, Quai de la Seine à Billancourt
Une Rue de Paris en Mai 1871 (La Commune)Notre-Dame (1899, 81x55cm)
^ Died on 13 March 1653: Simon Jacobszoon de Vlieger, Dutch painter, draftsman, etcher, and stained-glass designer, born in 1600.
— De Vlieger painted mainly of marine subjects, active in his native Rotterdam, Delft, and Amsterdam. One of the outstanding marine painters of his period, he moved from stormy subjects in the manner of Porcellis to serene and majestic images that influenced van de Capelle and Willem van de Velde the Younger. De Vlieger also painted a few landscapes and genre pictures.
— He was one of the leading marine and landscape artists of the Dutch school and decisively influenced the direction of Dutch marine art during the 1630s and 1640s. His late works anticipated the shift from the monochrome or tonal phase of Dutch marine art to the more classical style of Jan van de Cappelle and Willem van de Velde the younger. Although de Vlieger’s reputation rests chiefly on his marine paintings, he was also a notable draftsman and etcher.
— Hendrik Dubbels was an assistant of de Vlieger.
— De Vlieger's students included Jan van de Cappelle and Willem van de Velde II.

Marine with Dutch Shipping (1635, 78x112cm) _ detail 1 _ detail 2 _ detail 3
A Beach with Shipping Offshore, detail
A Dutch Man-of-war and Various Vessels in a Breeze (1642, 41x55cm) _ Simon de Vlieger took his style from Porcellis (who likewise influenced Jan van Goyen). In the 1630s De Vlieger (like Van Goyen) was caught up in the tonal style, so suited to marine painting, and he gradually departed from Porcellis's tendency to paint seas in stormy wheather. As in "A Dutch Man-of-war and Various Vessels in a Breeze", his sea is usually much calmer and less threatening to the ships, the vast sky more gentle. Rarely, too, is it the high sea; the shore-line is visible on the distant horizon, and in the lower left corner a stake is ptrotruding as a discreet indication of the shore at this side. It is a wide estuary, then; ships are coming in from sea; another ship, in the distance, is riding at anchor.
Visit of Frederick Hendriks II to Dordrecht in 1646 (1649, 71x92cm) _ Visit of Frederick Hendriks II to Dordrecht in 1646 (1650, 60x83cm) _ These two versions of the same subject are in the late style of Simon de Vlieger. There is a third version
Landscape with River and Trees (70x61cm) _ This is one of the few forest landscapes of the artist who was specialized in marine paintings. A hunting scene in the foreground makes the composition more lively.
^ Born on 13 March 1870: William Glackens, US Ashcan School painter who died on 22 May 1938.
— Glackens wan born in Philadelphia, he died in Westport, Conneticut. His paintings of street scenes and middle-class urban life rejected 19th-century academic art and introduced a matter-of-fact realism into the art of the United States. Glackens studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts and at the same time worked as an illustrator for the Philadelphia Record, the Public Ledger, and The Press. In 1895 he spent a year in Paris and then settled in New York, where he worked as an illustrator for The New York Herald and the New York World. McClure's Magazine sent him to Cuba in 1898 to cover the Spanish-American War.
      At about the turn of the century he took up painting seriously. Hammerstein's Roof Garden (1901), a cabaret scene, was his first important picture. He joined a group of artists who were also interested in depicting contemporary life. Robert Henri was the leader of this group, which included John Sloan, George Luks, and Everett Shinn as well as the more Romantic painters Ernest Lawson, Maurice Prendergast, and Arthur B. Davies. Known as The Eight, they held one memorable exhibition in 1908, but, because of diversity of viewpoints, they disbanded. Among Glackens' major early paintings, Chez Mouquin (1905) shows a gay New York restaurant in a vivid and robust manner. Later, he became interested in Impressionism and was particularly influenced by Pierre-Auguste Renoir.
Photo of Glackens.

Image on cover of Scribner's August fiction Number (46x18cm; 2/3 size)
Rocks and Lighthouse (1908, 63x76cm; half size _ ZOOM to full size)
May Day, Central Park (1905, 64x77cm) — Garden at Hartford (1918)
Beach Scene near New London (1918) — The Soda Fountain (1935) — Connecticut Landscape
Under the Trees, Luxembourg Gardens (1906, 50x61cm) — East Point, Gloucester (51x65cm)
Scene On The Lower East Side (42x28cm) — Two In A Garden (46x61cm)
Hammerstein's Roof Garden (1901, 76x63cm) _ At the turn of the century, New Yorkers began to frequent roof gardens — nightspots built on the roofs of buildings to escape the summer heat. This is Hammerstein's Roof Garden at the corner of Seventh Avenue and 42nd Street.
      At the top of the image, Glackens shows you a woman in a blue dress performing a tightrope act. Entertainment at roof gardens was on the seedy side: acrobats, exotic dancers, mermaids in glass tanks. Like the blockbuster movies we now flock to see during the summer, it was trashy but fun. It was also a tribute to technology. Audiences were carried to the roof on newfangled elevators. Electric lights lit the stage. A roof garden was held to be one of the crowning achievements of the modern city.
      Look at the people seated at the bottom of the canvas. The well-dressed women with their backs to you seem quite respectable. But the way the tables and chairs are jumbled together, it's hard to tell who is with who. Does the man in the group actually know any of these women? Have they been introduced? Will they speak to each other? The public mingling of the sexes you see here was new, just as new as light bulbs and elevators. The women are walking a tightrope of their own—the fine line between Victorian values and a new modern sensibility.
Mahone Bay (1910, 66x79cm) _ Mahone Bay has come to be one of the "signature" works of William Glackens, having represented him in twenty-five loan exhibitions in the years since its acquisition. In this context it can surely be regarded as typical. In the first place, the painting displays the artist's rapport with the life around him. He worked as a newspaper illustrator, an experience he shared with John Sloan, Everett Shinn, and George Luks. This activity cultivated a genuine love of the human comedy. A generosity of spirit in Glackens's view of life is evident in the way he recorded whatever he observed, whether a street incident, a landscape, or a still life arrangement. This warmth conditions his skill and takes his work a perceptible step beyond mere professional reportage.
      Moreover, his experience as a journalist and illustrator contributed to the development of a technique marked by a special freshness and spontaneity in the handling of pigment, or charcoal, his preferred drawing medium. If one closely examines Mahone Bay, this confident pleasure in the medium is very evident. The colors are laid on with a firmness and density far removed from the suggestive lightness of touch in the standard Impressionist method. All of the elements of the composition, figures, boats, and buildings, are realized as complete entities, self-sufficient within their allotted picture space. We know, as a matter of fact, that the picture is nearly an exact rendering of the scene. The small boat with dark sails is a fisherman's boat, its sails dyed with tanbark to prevent mold. The dock belonged to a now vanished resort hotel. The largest boat is the Blackbird, with its staysail set in a position of artistic licence. These facts indicate the artist's essentially realistic point of view. The place and the events of a summer's day in 1910, are empirically intact. The paint and the color are the means of recording these facts. There are those who believe that this respect for the facts is an essentially US trait.
      Of all the US Impressionists, William Glackens seems closest in feeling to his French contemporaries, to Renoir in particular and the comparison need not be at the expense of the US painter. Although it is unlikely that a work by Glackens would ever be mistaken for a Renoir, it is also true that no work by Glackens would suffer unduly through its comparison to a work by the French master. Both men were devoted to the sensuous pleasures of life, the American perhaps the more sophisticated of the two. Both were visual hedonists. A comparison of Glackens and Renoir could be considered something of a test case for the perennial problem of national identity in art. A final footnote is that William Glackens acted as the agent and scout for Dr. Albert C. Barnes, whose private collection of the works of Renoir is one of the best in the world.

Died on a 13 March:

1922 Max Nonnenbruch, German artist born on 25 January 1857.

1855 John James Masquerier, British artist born in October 1778. [Did he only masquerade as an artist? I find nothing of him on the internet.]

1854 Richard-Barrett Davis, British artist born in 1782.

1806 Gabriel-François Doyen, French painter born on 20 May 1726. In 1748 he won second place in the Prix de Rome competition and subsequently became a student of Carle Vanloo at the École Royale des Élèves Protégés, Paris. In 1752 he arrived to complete his artistic education at the Académie de France in Rome, where he discovered the art of Raphael and of Domenichino, as well as that of such Baroque masters as Pietro da Cortona, Luca Giordano and Francesco Solimena. He also stayed in Parma and visited Venice, Bologna and Turin. His experiences in Italy confirmed him in his lifelong vocation for large-scale history painting. — Doyen's students included Jean-Victor Bertin, Etienne-Barthélemy Garnier, Orest Kiprensky, Pierre Lélu, Guillaume Lethière, Jean-Charles-Nicaise Perrin, Pierre-Henri Valenciennes.

^ 1654 (14 Mar?) Jan van Balen, Flemish artist baptized as an infant on 21 July 1611, one of the three painter sons of Hendrik van Balen I [1575 – 17 Jul 1632] . — [Y a-t-il quelque chose d'emballant dans Balen?] — Athene Pallas and the Muses. (483x612pix, 77kb) — Allegory of Hearing (420x533pix, 82 Kb) — Allegory of Music (420x585pix, 42 Kb)

Born on a 13 March:

1919 Kumi Sugaï, Japanese painter who died in 1996. He entered Osaka Art School in 1933 but left it in mid-course. From 1937 to 1945 he worked at the publicity department of a railway company in Osaka as a graphic designer. After World War II he decided to become a painter. He went to Paris in 1952, where he studied at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière, and in the following year exhibited at the Salon d’Octobre. His abstract works of the early 1950s have a static, poetic picture surface with delicate texture. However, from 1957 a dramatic, bold element began to appear (e.g. Festival, 1960), involving simplified forms reminiscent of calligraphy. From then, he exhibited regularly at such exhibitions as the Salon des Réalités Nouvelles and the Salon de Mai. In the mid-1960s his style underwent a drastic change. Sugai produced compositions with dynamic movement, flat colour fields eliminating traces of brushstrokes, and sign-like forms with a clear outline. Such works as Autoroute du matin (1964) show the unique sense of rationalism and cool sensibility of Sugai, who was passionate about sports cars. He was awarded a prize for the best foreign artist at the São Paulo Biennale in 1965. From the 1970s his style became more rigidly geometric, repeating patterns of circles, rectangles and stripes, and eliminating all personal emotions

1851 Berhard Wiegandt, German artist who died on 28 March 1918.

^ 1839 (or 1840?) Daniel Rigway Knight, US artist who died in March 1924. — LINKSHarvest Repast (1875) — By the RiversideArranging Flowers,

^ 1815 Hermanus Koekkoek Sr., Dutch marine painter who died on 05 November (14 Mar?) 1882. — Father of Hermanus Koekkoek Jr. [1836-1885], Johannes Hermanus Barend Koekkoek [1840-1912], and of Willem Koekkoek [1839-1895]; and son of Johannes Hermanus Koekkoek [1778-1851]; and brother of Barend Cornelis Koekkoek [11 Oct 1803 – 05 Apr 1862] and Marianus Adrianus Koekkoek [1807-1870]. — Shipping off the Dutch Coast (82x114cm) — Shipping in a stiff breeze (1859 62x84cm) — Three Mast Ships at Anchor (1869, 51x81cm) — Vessels at Anchor in an Estuary with Fisherman hauling up their rowing boat in the Foreground (1857, 83x114cm) — Mending the Nets by the Shore (1862; 775x1132pix, 127kb) — Shipping in a Calm, Amsterdam (1856, 36x55cm) — Fishing Boats Off The Coast At Dusk (1852, 38x54cm) — A Sea Piece (39x53cm) — A Shipwreck In Stormy Seas (38x58cm) – A Sunlit Dock (50x60cm) — Bringing in the CatchProvisioning a Tall Ship at Anchor Oil on canvas Private collection Added 10/22/2003 Buy a Fine Print of this artwork! Returning To The Sound (43x60cm) — The Scheldt River at Flessinghe (38x50cm) — A Shipwreck off the Coast (37x58cm; 387x600pix, 52kb) _ sold for $12'650 on 07 June 2003 at Neal Auction..

^ 1781 Karl Friedrich Schinkel, German architect, painter, and stage designer, who died on 09 October 1841. At an early age Schinkel expressed the wish to become an architect. He went for an education to the famous Gilly family. After the death of Friedrich Gilly, Schinkel finished works that his friend and teacher had started. With the money he earned he went on a study journey to Italy. When he returned in 1805, there was no work because Prussia suffered under a Napoleontic occupation, so he started painting. In 1826 he made a journey to England, where he visited the museums and industrial buildings. He was fascinated by the technical progress that was made in Britain. After Prinz Otto of Bayern was chosen as king of Greece, he was asked to build a palace on the acropolis in 1832. He was the greatest architect in 19th-century Germany, and his most important surviving buildings in Berlin and Potsdam show his sense of German idealism and technical mastery. He became Geheimer Oberlandesbaudirektor of the Prussian state and influenced many architects in Germany and abroad.— The assistants of Schinkel included Johann Erdmann Hummel, Ludwig Persius, August Soller, Wilhelm Stier, Ludwig Wichmann, Ernst Friedrich Zwirner. — The students of Schinkel included Friedrich Hitzig, Carl Friedrich Lessing, Ferdinand von Quast. — LINKSMittelalterliche Stadt an einem Fluss (1815).

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