Born on 24 May 1834: Peter
Baumgartner, German painter who died in 1911.
Born in Munich, Peter Baumgartner (1834-1911) received his initial training at the Munich Polytechnic under Joseph Anton Rhomberg, but subsequently entered the Munich Academy where he studied with Hermann Anchutz. In 1857, Baumgartner entered the studio of Karly Theodore von Piloty, one of the most celebrated history painters of the Munich school. Munich, along with Dusseldorf and Berlin, was one of Germany's chief artistic centers at the time. Its genre and history painters established a widespread reputation among the country's haute bourgeoisie. Baumgartner, in conformity with this taste, represented scenes from literary sources, including German folklore and fairy tales.
The Auction Sale (1863, 124x157cm)
Died on 24 May 1831: James
Peale, US painter specialized in Still Life, born in 1749.
— [Is it true that the appeal of a Peale is only skin deep in the
eye of the beholder?]
James Peale was the father of Anna Claypoole Peale [06 Mar 1791 – 25 Dec 1878], Margaretta Angelica Peale [01 Oct 1795 – 17 Jan 1882], Sarah Miriam Peale [19 May 1800 – 04 Feb 1885]; and brother of Charles Willson Peale [15 Apr 1741 – 22 Feb 1827], who encouraged him to become a painter. James also worked as a frame-maker for his brother until the US War of Independence, in which he served as a lieutenant. From 1779 James shared Charles’s practice, specializing in miniatures. His early work, occasionally confused with Charles’s, shows his brother’s influence. After 1794, his style became clearly his own: more delicate with subtle color harmonies, softened outlines and free handling; it may be distinguished by a faint violet tone in the shadows and the inconspicuous signature ‘IP’. His miniatures of male subjects are frequently superior to his portraits of women, for example Benjamin Harwood (1799), but his meticulous attention to costume and his success in imparting color and sparkle to skin and eyes, as in the lovely portrait of Mrs John McCluney (1794), compensate for drawing deficiencies. — [Is it true that the appeal of a Peale is only skin deep in the eye of the beholder?]
— The Artist and His Family (1795, 79x83cm)
— Still Life, Apples, Grapes, Pear (1825, 46x67cm) — Still Life: Balsam Apple and Vegetables (112kb)
— Portrait of Rembrandt Peale (1795, 71kb) _ his nephew — George Washington
— Madame Dubocq and her Four Children (1807) _ Madame Marie Tracbon Dubocq was born in Nantes, France, the daughter of Count Trochon de Lorrière. Marie Trochon was taken as a child to Haiti, a French colony. There she met and married French merchant, William Dubocq. The Dubocq family moved to Philadelphia during the Haitian Insurrection, but relocated to Shippingport, Kentucky, during the early 1830s. Artist James Peale painted Madame Dubocq and her children while the family lived in Philadelphia. James Peale painted several large-scale portraits like this one, but specialized in miniatures. The Dubocq family brought the portrait with them when they moved to Kentucky. Like many affluent families who migrated to the state, the Dubocqs sought to retain some of their cultural traditions even in the settlements of Kentucky.
— The Ambush of Captain Allan McLane (1803) _ James Peale began his artistic career as a student of his famous elder brother, Charles Willson Peale. James's steady progress as a portraitist was interrupted by the Revolutionary War, in which he served as an officer in the Continental Army under George Washington. At the Battle of Long Island, James Peale's regiment was reduced from 1000 men to a little over 150. Peale painted The Ambush of Captain Allan McLane at the request of Charles, who had heard of McLane's colorful military exploits. Captain McLane himself told James the story of his encounter with a British ambush in 1778 near Philadelphia. McLane shot one dragoon (cavalryman armed with a musket) and clubbed another with his pistol, then escaped. The captain posed for Peale to re-create this dramatic moment, thus lending to the work additional historical interest. Attentive to naturalistic details, Peale simultaneously endowed McLane with a sense of strength and nobility that serve to commemorate the struggle for independence in heroic overtones.
Born on 24 May 1728: Jean~Baptiste
Pillement, French painter and draftsman who died on 26 April
— He was an extremely varied and prolific artist who became fashionable early in his career. First trained by Daniel Sarrabat in Lyon, Pillement received a good grounding in the Rococo style of genre painting exemplified in the work of Antoine Watteau and François Boucher. After a brief spell at the Gobelins, in 1745 he left for Madrid. He stayed there for three years, and his work was much appreciated both in Spain and in Portugal, which he visited often. He supervised sets of Rococo singeries and chinoiseries painted for Quinta de Alegria, the house at Seteais, near Sintra, of the Dutch consul in Lisbon, Jan Gildemeester, and soon after he was offered the title of Painter to the King. He declined this honor and instead went to London. There he stayed for the next 10 years, during which time he fully exploited the English taste for landscapes. In addition to his brightly colored, artificial landscapes, inspired by Nicolaes Berchem and Claude-Joseph Vernet, Pillement painted fancy pieces, which were theatrical in composition and inspired by prints rather than nature. In 1761, having sold off his remaining work at the annual exhibition in London of the Society of Artists, Pillement went to Vienna. In 1763–1764 he decorated rooms at the Hofburg and he also worked for Wenceslas, Prince of Liechtenstein. In 1766 Stanislaw II Augustus Poniatowski, King of Poland, requested that Pillement decorate interiors at the royal castle in Warsaw. The result was a room of exquisite chinoiseries as well as the Pillement Room at the Ujazdow Palace. Made Pictor Regius by the Polish king in 1767, Pillement had in the meantime discovered a new method of printing on silk with fast colors (recorded in his Memoirs, 1764).
— Francisco Vieira Portuense was a student of Pillement.
— Shepherds Resting near a Stream (1779, 77x101cm) — Rocky Landscape with Figures — Bamboo Flowers and Cactus (octagon, 21x21cm) — Pagoda Flowers and Roses (octagon, 21x21cm) — Trumpet Flowers and Daisies (octagon, 21x21cm)
Died on 24 May 1872: Julius
Veit Hans Schnorr von Carolsfeld, German painter and draftsman
born on 26 March 1794, brother of Ludwig Ferdinand Schnorr von Carolsfeld
[11 Oct 1788 – 13 Apr 53].
— Julius was taught engraving by his father and then trained under Heinrich Füger at the Akademie in Vienna (1811–1815). Though not particularly excited by the curriculum, he was inspired by his friendship with Ferdinand Olivier and Joseph Anton Koch and the circle around A. W. Schlegel to an interest in both landscape sketching and in old German and Netherlandish art, as reflected in the style of the detailed pen drawing of The Prodigal Son (1816). From 1815 to 1818 he lived in the house of Ferdinand Olivier, whose step-daughter, Marie Heller, he later married. A painting of 1817, Saint Roch Distributing Alms, is an excellent record of this period, as it contains portraits of Ferdinand Olivier and Marie Heller, and a landscape background similar to that sketched by Schnorr von Carolsfeld with Ferdinand and Friedrich Olivier near Salzburg.
— Ruth in Boaz's Field (59x70cm) _ This picture was painted in Munich, based on drawings made a few years earlier in Italy. The artist had spent ten years in that country, and was a leading figure in a group of German and Austrian artists named the Nazarenes who sought to invest modern painting with the purity of form and spiritual values that they saw in Renaissance art. The subject is taken from the Old Testament Book of Ruth. Here the Moabite Ruth is gleaning (gathering up corn left after the harvest) to support her widowed mother-in-law. The landowner Boaz who talks to her has come to show his admiration for her support for her family. The two eventually married, and King David, Mary, Joseph, and Jesus were among their descendants.
— Der Sechskampf auf der Insel Lipadusa (1816, 102x170cm)
Born on 24 May 1895: Marcel
Janco, Romanian Israeli painter, printmaker, architect,
and writer, who died on 21 April 1984.
— He was a student of the painter Iosif Iser and from 1915 studied architecture in Zurich. With Tristan Tzara, Hans Arp, Richard Huelsenbeck, and Hugo Ball, Janco participated in the Dada performances of the Cabaret Voltaire. Janco made props and posters for the Dada group and illustrated with engravings the books of Tristan Tzara. Janco broke with Dada in 1922. In 1918 he became involved with the Neue Leben group in Basle. After returning to Romania in 1920 he took part in all the major avant-garde exhibitions, showed at the Maison d’Art in Bucharest (1922) and was a member of the group Contimporanul (1924), which published an eponymous review and organized the first international avant-garde exhibition in December 1924.
Janco was prolific as an artist, drawing, painting, engraving, designing buildings (e.g. Wexler House, 1931, Bucharest, with his brother, Jules Janco) and also writing manifestos and articles. As well as abstract graphic compositions, in which he explored the possibilities of a universal formal language, Janco produced works of traditional genres. In his portraits in Indian ink he took up the formal aspects of Expressionism. His paintings also display such elements. Although some abstract reliefs of 1918–1920 show an inclination towards geometric abstraction, Janco never fully came to terms with it. In 1940 he emigrated, settling in Tel Aviv. The move marked a renewal in his art, away from abstraction to vigorous interpretations of the colorful local life. He also became involved in progressive art education. In 1948 he founded the New Horizons group, and in 1953 he set up the artists’ colony of Ein Hod in the ancient Arab village of Carmel. In 1967 he was awarded the Grand Prix National d’Israel.
— Composition with an Owl, Galloping Horse and a Pipe (1944, 45x70cm)
— Don Quixote and Sancho Panche (sic) (1945, 35x50cm)
— Don Quixote and Sancho Pancha (sic) (1955, 20x32cm)
— Don Quihote and Sansho Pansha (sic) (28x20cm)
— Goat (1950, 35x50cm)
— Man Smoking Pipe (1965, 35x50cm) — Man Sitting (1945, 17x21cm) — Nude (29x21cm)
— Acre (1945, 24x33cm) — Jaffa (27x40cm) — Tiberiade (1949, 33x44cm)
— Composition (26x37cm) — Landscape (24x36cm) — Marine Landscape (1955, 25x35cm)
— On the Banks of the Yarkon River (1975, 16x20cm)
— Fabulation Dada (38x56cm) — Euphorie Dada (40x31cm)
Died on 25 May 1929: Liubov'
Sergeyevna Popova, Moscovite painter and designer born on
24 April 1806.
She worked with Valdimir Tatlin, in Moscow early in the 20th century and visited Paris and Italy in 1911 and 1912. She is primarily a cubist painter but she also designed textiles, dresses, books, costumes, and theater sets. — She was born into a wealthy family and trained as a teacher before beginning her artistic studies with Stanislav Zhukovsky [1873–1944] and Konstantin Yuon. Their influence, particularly through their interest in luminous tonalities reminiscent of Impressionism, can be seen in early works by Popova such as Still-life with Basket of Fruit (1908). Popova travelled extensively: in Kiev (1909) she was very impressed by the religious works of Mikhail Vrubel'; in Italy (1910) she admired Renaissance art, especially the paintings of Giotto. Between 1910 and 1911 she toured many parts of Russia, including Suzdal', Novgorod, Yaroslavl' and Pskov. Inspired by Russian architecture, frescoes and icons, she developed a less naturalistic approach. A more crucial influence was the first-hand knowledge of Cubism that she gained in Paris, which she visited with Nadezhda Udal'tsova during the winter of 1912–13. She studied at the Académie de la Palette, under the direction of Henri Le Fauconnier and Jean Metzinger, and her paintings of this time clearly display the influence of these artists (e.g. Two Figures, 1914). Numerous sketchbooks attest to the rigor with which Popova applied Cubist analysis to the human figure. This approach was extended to paintings, for example Seated Figure (1914), which has affinities with work by Léger and the Italian Futurist Umberto Boccioni; here, Popova shows a new confidence and fluency, and a more sophisticated integration of form and space into the transparent structures of curved and rectilinear planes. A more complex and dynamic fragmentation appears in canvases such as Traveling Woman (1915)
— Liubov Popova was born near Moscow. After graduating from the Arseniev Gymnasium, she studied art with Stanislav Zhukovsky in 1907 and with Konstantin Yuon and Ivan Dudin in 1908. In the course of travels from 1909 to 1911, she saw Mikhail Vrubel’s work in Kiev, ancient Russian churches and icons in Pskov and Novgorod, and early Renaissance art in Italy. In 1912, Popova worked at the Tower, a Moscow studio, with Vladimir Tatlin and other artists. That winter, she visited Paris, where she studied under Henri Le Fauconnier, Jean Metzinger, and André Dunoyer de Segonzac at La Palette. In 1913, Popova returned to Russia, but the following year she journeyed again to France and to Italy, where she gained familiarity with Futurism.
In her work of 1912 to 1915, Popova was concerned with Cubist form and the representation of movement; after 1915, her nonrepresentational style revealed the influence of icon painting. She participated in many exhibitions of advanced art in Russia during this period: the Jack of Diamonds shows of 1914 and 1916 in Moscow; Tramway V: First Futurist Exhibition of Paintings and 0.10: The Last Futurist Exhibition, both in 1915 in St. Petersburg; The Store in 1916, Fifth State Exhibition: From Impressionism to Nonobjective Art in 1918–19, and Tenth State Exhibition: Non-Objective Creativity and Suprematism in 1919, all in Moscow. In 1916, Popova joined the Supremus group, which was organized by Kazimir Malevich. She taught at Svomas and Vkhutemas from 1918 onward and was a member of Inkhuk from 1920 to 1923.
The artist participated in the 5 x 5 = 25 exhibition in Moscow in 1921 and in the Erste russische Kunstausstellung, held under the auspices of the Russian government at the Galerie van Diemen in Berlin in 1922. In 1921, Popova turned away from studio painting to execute utilitarian Productivist art: she designed textiles, dresses, books, porcelain, costumes, and theater sets (the latter for Vsevolod Meierkhold’s productions of Fernand Crommelynk’s The Magnanimous Cuckold, 1922, and Serge Tretiakov’s Earth on End, 1923). Popova died May 25, 1924, in Moscow.
— The artists of the Russian avant-garde were distinguished from their Western counterparts in many ways, particularly in the extraordinary number of women in their ranks who were responsible for discovering new bases of artistic creation. Liubov Popova was among the most important of these early pioneers. Her development as an artist was encouraged through private lessons and frequent travel, which brought her into contact with a broad range of historical examples, from Italian Renaissance art and Russian medieval icons to Cubism and other Western vanguard styles. In 1912 she went to Paris with fellow painter Nadezhda Udaltsova to study painting at the Académie de la Palette under André Dunoyer de Segonzac, Henri Le Fauconnier, and Jean Metzinger. There she mastered the Cubist idiom and was probably exposed to Italian Futurism, the two styles that would dominate her paintings of the next three and a half years.
After returning to Moscow in 1913, she quickly emerged as one of the primary exponents of Russian Cubo-Futurism, an amalgam of the faceted planarity of Cubism and the formal energy of Futurist art. Birsk was completed near the end of her involvement with this style. Its crystalline structure is formally reminiscent of the views of houses in l’Estaque painted by Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso in 1908, but the vibrant palette attests to Popova’s sustained interest in Russian folk and decorative art. Birsk (1916, 106x70cm), one of the few landscapes from this stage of Popova’s career, was begun during a summer visit to the home of her former governess, who lived near the Ural Mountains in the small town of the painting’s title.
The painting on the reverse of the same canvas, entitled Portrait of a Woman (1915, 106x71cm), shows Popova undertaking a subject that consistently occupied her during 1915: a figure situated in a Cubist-inspired composition. Although this work retains some representational elements, Popova’s gradual move away from representation is evident in her forceful application of an abstract visual vocabulary. By the end of 1916 Popova was completely devoted to abstraction, joining Kazimir Malevich’s Supremus group and creating paintings composed solely of dynamic geometric forms. These experiments in texture, rhythm, density, and color — which she called “painterly architectonics” — became the basis of her textile and theater designs of the 1920s. Like many of her Russian colleagues, Popova would ultimately renounce painting as obsolete and concern herself with the applied arts, which became synonymous with building a new society after the October Revolution.
Objects (1915) Composition
— Prozodezhda aktera No. 7 (The Magnanimous Cuckold: Actor no. 7, costume design, 1921) _ In the early twentieth century, avant-garde artists began exploring the forms and technologies of mass media. Beginning in 1909, the Italian Futurists rejected the past and glorified the age of the machine--cars, planes, speed, and war. Dada, dedicated to destroying the status quo, arose in Zurich in 1916 and then in New York, Berlin, and Paris, reacting against the absurdity and horror of World War I. Futurist and Dada poets scattered different styles and sizes of type across the page, using the techniques of advertising as literary devices. In Russia the Constructivists combined ideas from abstract painting with experimental typography in the early 1920s to create a new language of public address; Liubov' Popova's costume design at left for The Magnanimous Cuckold employs a red square as both a banner for social change and a functional element of costume.