ART 4 2-DAY 20 November
DEATH: 1678 DUJARDIN
Baptized as an infant on 20 November 1625:
Paulus Pieterszoon Potter,
Dutch painter and etcher, specialized in animals, who was buried on 17 January
1654. [ancestor of Harry?]
— He was the son, and became the assistant of Pieter Simonszoon Potter [1599-1653], of Enkhuizen, who produced paintings in all the main genres. Paulus overshadowed his father, with whose works his have often been confused. Pieter signed his paintings P. Potter, whereas Paulus typically signed Paulus Potter. Paulus was one of the foremost 17th-century artists to depict animals. His detailed images of cattle, horses and other farm animals in landscape settings are presented in highly accomplished paintings, drawings and etchings and offer a striking, artfully naturalistic vision of the Dutch rural scene. His works were particularly popular with French and British collectors in the late 18th century and the 19th.
Paulus Potter was related through his mother, Aechtie Pouwels [–1636], to the wealthy and powerful von Egmont and Semeyns families, who held important offices in Enkhuizen and at the court in The Hague. He worked in his father’s studio in Amsterdam during the 1630s and, like him, painted history subjects that show the strong influence of Claes Moeyaert, by whom Paulus may also have been taught. Jacob Willemszoon de Wet I was also his teacher. In the painting Abraham Returning from Canaan (1642) Potter adapted the landscape setting from an etching by Moses van Uyttenbroeck and the figures from works by Moeyaert from over ten years earlier. Significantly, however, he redistributed the numerous animals and figures that Moeyaert had aligned evenly across the frontal plane; Potter placed them to one side, permitting a view into the deep distance where other animals can be seen. Potter followed his father more than Moeyaert in searching for ways to integrate his figures with the landscape, suggesting space by carefully positioning the forms of the figures.
Potter is known chiefly for his paintings of animals. Animals appear prominently in all of Potter's works, sometimes singly but usually in small groups silhouetted against the sky, or in greater numbers with peasant figures and rustic buildings in an extensive landscape. Potter is one of the minor Dutch masters.
Potter entered the Guild of Saint Luke at Delft in 1646. In 1649 he moved to The Hague, where in the following year he married Adriana, daughter of the architect Claes van Balkeneynde. In 1652 Potter settled in Amsterdam. He probably received his early training from his father, the painter Pieter Potter [1597-1652], but his style shows little dependence upon that of earlier masters. In so short a career there was little development in style between the earlier and the later works, but 1647 seems to mark a peak in his achievement, for many of the finest paintings bear this date.
Among works that depart from his normal scale or style, the huge Young Bull (1647), which is life-size, is his most celebrated, though not necessarily his finest work, while Orpheus Charming the Beasts (1650) is an excursion into a poetic world. Potter's etchings of animals show all the skill and sympathy of his paintings.
— Karel Du Jardin was a student of Potter.
Four Cows in a Meadow (1651) _ The bulk of Potter's work is devoted to horses and to scenes of cows, goats, sheep, and pigs, which show an extraordinary sensitivity to the various ways in which farmyard animals behave at different times of the day as well as to the different quality of light in the morning or at dusk in landscapes that almost invariably make country life appear idyllic. Notable too are are his portraits of dogs.
Orpheus Charming the Beasts (1650)
Diederik Tulp (1653) _ Potter worked for the court in The Hague, in nearby Delft, and in 1652 he settled in Amsterdam. Nicolaes Tulp persuaded him to move to the metropolis where the famous doctor became his mentor. Once again Tulp showed he had an eye for young talent. Two decades earlier he had asked the twenty-six-year-old Rembrandt to paint The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp (1632) which established Rembrandt's reputation in the city. In 1653 Potter painted a life-size equestrian portrait which has been traditionally identified as his likeness of Tulp's son Dirck (Diederik); however, the tradition may very well be apocryphal. The portrait proves that Potter was no exception to the rule that seventeenth-century Dutch painters never match the life-size equestrian portraits of royalty and their ministers by Velázquez, Rubens, or Van Dyck
Landscape with Shepherdess and Shepherd Playing Flute (1644, 67x114cm) _ The painting reflects the influence of Elsheimer, or the Dutch followers of Elsheimer.
The Farm (1649, 81x116cm) _ Potter's career was short. He died a few months after his twenty-eighth birthday. His early works show the influence of his father, the painter Pieter Symonsz Potter (c. 1595/1601-1652) and Moeyaert who painted cattle in his biblical and mythological pictures. He is documented as a student of Jacob de Wet, a Rembrandt follower, and probably also knew the innovative prints done in the thirties by Moeyaert, Gerrit Bleker (active 1625-1656), and Pieter van Laer, which prominently feature cattle, horses, and other livestock; he himself made etchings of animals. Potter tried his hand at a few subject paintings, but the bulk of his work is devoted to horses and to scenes of cows, goats, sheep, and pigs, which show an extraordinary sensitivity to the various ways in which farmyard animals behave at different times of the day as well as to the different quality of light in the morning or at dusk in landscapes that almost invariably make country life appear idyllic.
Young Bull (1647, 236x339cm; 770x1114pix, 156kb) _ In the work of Paulus Potter views of nature and animals are seen for their own sake, and not as a backdrop for human action. Potter can paint equally well the bright sunlight and the cool air, but his real fame lies with his penetrating portraits of animals. His best-known work is the life-size Young Bull, an unusual heroization of a single animal, a counterpart to the monumental trend of Ruisdael and Cuyp. Although at first blush it appears to be a portrait of a prize young bull Potter most probably composed his famous beast from studies of more than one animal since its dewlap, horns, and teeth belong to bulls of different ages. The ancient Greek painter Zeuxis used a similar method; when he painted his portrait of Helen in the city of Croton he chose five beautiful virgins, in order to copy the finest features of each, for in one woman he felt he could not find perfect beauty. During the nineteenth century the Young Bull by the 22-year-old Potter ranked close in fame to the Night Watch of Rembrandt. Later generations have been less captivated by Potter's fidelity to nature when he worked life-size. Although the shapes of the farmer, the tree, and the bull against the light sky are impressive and the textures of the animals have been convincingly represented by the use of an original impasto which approaches relief, the entire foreground of this huge canvas seems airless. Atmosphere enters the picture only in the lovely distant view on the right, where a sunny light plays upon the cattle in the meadows and on the woods, making this passage one of his loveliest landscapes. Potter is more consistent on a small scale, and his cabinet pieces show him at his best.
— The piping Shepherd (etching 18x27cm; full size)
16 etchings at Fine Arts Museums of SF
Died on 20 November 1678: Karel
Dujardin (or Du Jardin, Du Gardijn), Dutch Romanist Baroque
painter, etcher, and draftsman, born in 1622. Another source dates his birth,
in Amsterdam, as 27 Sep 1626, and his death, in Venice, as before 09 Oct
— His father was the painter Guilliam Dujardin. According to that other source, his father was Chaarles de Jardin (Gardyn; 1599–<1650], a fat-renderer, and his mother was Catalyn Borchout [1588–<1650]; and they had at least one other child, Herbert, who must have died by 1651 and about whom nothing is known.
Dujardin is best known for his spirited representations of Italian peasants and shepherds with their animals. Dujardin studied under Nicolaes Berchem, Jan Both, and Pieter van Laer. After a trip to Italy, Dujardin worked in Amsterdam and The Hague from 1652 until 1674; after that he returned to Rome, where he stayed until shortly before his death. He also painted religious, mythological, and allegorical subjects; genre scenes; and a number of excellent likenesses, notably a large group portrait. When and where he acquired his nickname 'Bokkebaart' (Goat's Beard or Goatee) is unknown. Certain is our knowledge that he was more than able to make ends meet. In Amsterdam he lived in a house on the fashionable Herengracht, and in an inventory made of his chattels and movables indicates that in his maturity he enjoyed considerable wealth.
— Dujardin's students included Johannes Lingelbach and Willem Schellinks.
Saint Paul Healing the Cripple at Lystra (1663)
— The Annunciation (1660, 34x44cm; full size, 1490kb)
Young Shepherd (1662) _ In many ways Karel Dujardin is the most Dutch of the Italianate painters. His bucolic landscapes are done on a small scale, and have an intimacy lacking in pictures made by Italianates who used a larger format and more ambitious motifs. Dujardin was apprenticed to Berchem and probably travelled to Italy in the late 1640s or early 1650s, but like so many other Dutch Italianate artists of his generation this early trip south cannot be substantiated. In 1652 he was in Amsterdam and during the next few years his art took an unexpected turn. Instead of settling down in Holland to paint views of the Campagna and the vita popolare of Rome, as most Italianate Dutch painters did after their documented or putative trips to Italy, he made pictures of the Dutch countryside which are closely related to Paulus Potter's carefully executed small paintings of cattle in sunny meadows and woods. During this phase it is sometimes difficult to distinguish the hand of Potter from Dujardin's.
By the end of the 1650s he began once again to paint bambocciate and modest Italian pastoral scenes. His Young Shepherd, datable to the early 1660s, shows him at his best. The theme is simple. A young boy lies on his back playing with his dog. The sheep, the old grazing horse, and the basket and keg appear to lie about in a haphazard fashion. In a black and white reproduction, only the mountains tell us that this is not a Dutch scene, but when the original or even a good color reproduction is viewed, warm Italian air and the strong shimmering light of the south permeate it.
Hagar and Ishmael in the Wilderness (1662) _ Dujardin was a Dutch Italianate painter. Additionally, he painted handsome portraits of famous citizens in the style of Bartholomeus van der Helst, and he also painted elegant, highly finished religious and allegorical paintings, like the picture shown here. Hagar, the Egyptian hand maiden of Sarah was the mother of Ishmael, Abraham's first son. When Isaac, Sarah's son, was born Ishmel mocked his younger brother so that Sarah asked Abraham to banish him, together with his mother. Abraham provided them with bread and a botle of water and sent them of into the desert of Beersheba. When the water was spent Hagar put Ismael under a bush to die and then sat some way off, weeping. But an angel appearred, by tradition the archangel Michael, and disclosed a well of water near by, so they were both saved. Two scenes, the banishment, and the appearence of the angel are common in 17th century Italian and Dutch painting.
Landscape in the Roman Campagna (1675, 85x107cm) _ In 1675 Dujardin is securely documented in Rome. His Landscape in the Roman Campagna indicates that during this last phase he found inspiration from the classicizing landscapes painted in Rome by Poussin's follower Gaspar Dughet.
— Italian Landscape with Herdsman and a Piebald Horse (1675, 32x27cm)
— Tale of the Soldier (1655, 98kb) — Woman Milking a Red Cow (1655, 90kb)
— A Party of Charlatans in an Italian Landscape (1657, 603x700pix, 102kb) — The Flood (1660, 106kb)
Born on 20 November 1580: Guy François
Le Grand François, Le Puy French Baroque
painter who died on 05 October 1650.
— He was known to be in Rome as early as 1608 and to be back in his native Puy-de-Dôme by 1613. He seems to have spent the rest of his long career in and around Le Puy, with an undocumented visit to Toulouse at an indeterminate date, probably in the 1620s. Most of the artist's pictures remain in the obscurity of the parish churches for which they were painted, and it is clear that he had ceased to experiment by about 1630. One of his most important pictures is the large altarpiece The Holy Family with St Bruno and St Elisabeth of 1626, which shows the artist's careful assimilation of the style of the Roman painter Carlo Saraceni. There is now a dispute as to whether some pictures are by Saraceni or Guy François, notably the Holy Family in the Wadsworth Athenaeum Hartford, which seems characteristic of both artists. Unlike Tournier, François never showed any passion in his art; his pictures always retained a Saracenesque smoothness and elegance.
— He is documented (under the Italian form of his name) in Rome in 1608, both in the archives of the Accademia di San Luca and in parish records. He presumably returned to France before 1613, for at that date he made a painting for the church of Saint Pierre, Montpezat, Tarn-et-Garonne. From 1614 to 1616 worked on paintings for St-Pierre-de-Monastier in Le Puy. His earliest surviving painting is The Virgin and Child with Two Saints (1615). There are two signed and dated paintings of 1619: The Virgin of the Rosary and a Crucifixion with Two Marys and Saint John; there is also L'Incrédulité de Saint Thomas. By 1620 François had established a busy workshop with many apprentices. At some point between 1623 and 1626 he was in Toulouse; he is recorded again in Le Puy in 1627–1628, 1636, and 1638. In 1630 he was in Riom and in 1633–1634 in Montpellier. Many signed and dated paintings by François survive from the years 1619–1646, all of them large altarpieces. Apparently official painter to the Jesuits in Le Puy, he also worked regularly for other religious orders in the region. His style is similar to that of Caravaggio, tempered with the influence of Guido Reni and Carlo Saraceni, whose studios he must have frequented in Rome: the influence of Saraceni is particularly evident in the gentle lighting of his paintings, as well as in the female facial types and the focus on anecdotal detail. Nicolson reattributed Saraceni’s famous Saint Cecilia to François; and Rosenberg similarly gave a Holy Family in Saint Joseph’s Workshop, previously attributed to Saraceni, to François. François was one of a number of French painters who established a form of Caravaggism in the provinces.
— Holy Family with Saint Bruno and Saint Elisabeth (210x153cm; 900x710pix, 102kb). _ Saint Bruno was canonized in 1623, and so appeared frequently at that time in paintings from throughout southern Europe. Le Puy is the capital of the Haute Loire, part of a large upland area, the Massif central, in the southern central region of France. The large number of Romanesque churches in and around the town bear testimony to the fact that it flourished in the Middle Ages. It was never an area noted for painting activity, and the return of Guy François from Rome to his native region was therefore to be of great significance in local terms, much more so than similar events in other centers where there was more than one painter active. Guy François was to work in isolation for more than thirty years, gradually diluting his art as memories of what he had learned in Rome faded. The pictures that he painted in France nearly all remain in and around Le Puy. It is only in recent years that the Italian period of Guy François has been reconstructed and his Italian pictures disentangled from the work of Carlo Saraceni. Saraceni, a difficult artist to define, was essentially eclectic, with an unusual skill in brushwork almost akin to that of a northerner. He assimilated many influences, ranging from Caravaggio to the German Erlsheimer.
The picture by François that most shows the influence of Saraceni is this one. Like much of François's work, it was intended as a large altarpiece. His altarpieces that survived in the Le Puy area, in the churches for which they were painted, are often surrounded by a provincial version of a sculptured and stuccoed framework in the Italian Baroque style. Although commonplace in Italy, such pictures in situ are rare in France; most seventeenth century altarpieces by the major painters are now in museums. The Holy Family altarpiece has the simplified forms sometimes found in works by Saraceni and also the strong lighting suitable for a prominent position in a church, where the picture would normally be seen from a distance. The strength of some of Guy François' compositions has led some authorities to suggest that he was influenced by Nicolas Tournier, but the most likely explanations for their superficial similarity are that both artists brought back from Italy similar Caravaggesque influences, and that both of them were forced to rely on what they had experienced and learned without renewed contact with their sources. Both painter had a predilection for monumental scale, although François never achieved Tournier's dramatic intensity. Instead he provided, in an area isolated from all artistic contact, a whole group of soundly painted and striking altarpieces.
— Sainte Marie-Madeleine pénitente (1630, 105x83cm; 645x518pix, 58kb).
— La Vierge, l'Enfant Jésus et Saint Jean (86x62cm , 545x380pix, 21kb)