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ART “4” “2”-DAY 21 November
DEATHS: 1927 TUXEN — 1717 SANTERRE — 1874 FORTUNY — 1849 GRANET — 1909 KRØYER
^ Died on 21 November 1927: Laurits Regner Tuxen, Danish painter born on 09 December 1853.
— Tuxen grew up in Copenhagen. His father was an officer in the navy and Tuxen originally wanted to be a marine painter. Together with Krøyer he was recognized as being one of the cleverest pupils at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts, and was, therefore, encouraged to study figure painting, which was regarded as being the most distinguished genre.
      Tuxen came to Skagen for the first time in 1874, where he met Michael Ancher with whom he developed a life-long friendship. It was, however, 27 years before he came to Skagen again in 1901. In the interim he had studied further in Paris with P.S. Krøyer, and he was the initiator of the Artists Independent Study Schools in Copenhagen. Furthermore, he traveled extensively because of large works commissioned by European royal families. Among other things he painted huge family portraits of the Danish King Christian IX and Queen Louise and their family, Queen Victoria and her family, and the Russian Tzar’s family.
     Tuxen’s first wife, the Belgian Ursule de Baisieux, died from tuberculosis in1899. In 1901 he married Frederikke Treschow from Norway and they settled in Copenhagen together with Tuxen’s two daughters, Yvonne and Nina. The same year they bought Madam Bendsen’s house in Skagen, which they renovated into a grand summer residence christened “Dagminne”. During the following years, Tuxen painted a large number of paintings in Skagen. Now it was especially the near things that occupied him: the family, friends, landscapes, the sea and the flowers in the garden. He was also very much engaged in the establishment of Skagens Museum.
— Tuxen came to Skagen a couple af times in the 1870's, before becoming a much sought-for portrait painter in the courts of Europe. But after the death in 1899 of his first wife, the Belgian-born Ursula de Baisieux, and his second marriage in 1901 with Frederikke Treschow, he bought a house in Skagen. Here, in the "Tuxen Villa", he spent much of his time together with Krøyer and Michael and Anna Ancher. In this period as an artist he was mainly occupied by the subjects of family life, his wife and daughters, and of Skagen in the changing light of summertime. The "Tuxen Villa" is today a museum.
Self-Portrait (1911; 314x300pix, 20kb)
First Wife (1890) — Artist's Mother and Daughter (1902) — From the Studio (1895)
Bathing Children (1907) — F.L. Smiths (1911) — The Lifeboat (1877)
Model in Sunshine (1881) — Returning Home (1905) — The Drowned (1913)
Coronation of Nicholas II (1898) — Wedding of Nicholas II (1896)
Venus (1905) — Susanne in the Bath (1879)
^ Died on 21 November 1717: Jean-Baptiste Santerre, French painter born on 23 March 1651. — {descendant de Jean Sans Terre? John Lackland [24 Dec 1167 – 18 Oct 1216]} {Etait-il sans terre Santerre?} {Un Santerre qui s'enterre sent la terre.}
— The 12th child of a merchant, he was apprenticed to the portrait painter Jean Lemaire before entering the busy studio of the history painter Bon Boullogne [bap. 22 Feb 1649 – 17 May 1717]. Although Santerre made some history paintings, he began to specialize in portraiture early in his career. The Portrait of Two Actresses (1699), clearly influenced by François de Troy, shows Santerre’s interest in the well-known portrait painters of his time. Nevertheless, he was among the first painters in France to absorb the influence of Rembrandt, as in Young Girl at a Window. In such portraits as Girl with a Veil (1699) he made an original contribution to French painting by successfully combining the fantasy portrait of northern tradition with the allegorical portrait currently fashionable in France.
Self~Portrait (90x80cm)
Suzanne au Bain (1704, 205x145cm; 1080x771pix, 103kb) _ Santerre was mainly a religious painter but his paintings lacked true inspiration. However, his Susanna at the Bath reveals an almost disturbing eroticism and something of that peculiarly chilly Rococo quality which is to be found in Falconet's nude statuettes. Few comparable pictures were to be produced at Venice, whereas Santerre initiates a whole troop of 'baigneuses' who go on dabbling with the erotic possibilities of water as late as Fragonard, all seeming ultimately to derive from Correggio's Leda. And out of this revolution was to come the achievement of Boucher as well as Fragonard.
Suzanne au Bain (engraving 44x31cm; 2/3 size)
Deux Actrices (1699, 146x114cm)
Marie Adélaïde de Savoie, Duchesse de Bourgogne (1709, 275x184cm)
Sainte Thérèse en Extase (1710, 267x171cm)
^ Died on 21 November 1874: Mariano Fortuny y Marsal (or: y Carbo?), Spanish painter born on 11 June 1838. — [Etait-il fortuné Fortuny?]
Moroccan Man (1869) — The Café of the Swallows (1868)
A Summer Day (25x66cm) — Idyll (1868) — The Choice of a Model (1874, 53x81cm)
The Painter's Children in the Japanese Room _ (1874, 44x93 cm) _ This painting is without doubt a small jewel. Though, because of its size it might be considered a minor work, it is actually one of his most brilliant. The painter, the first Spaniard to become a trully cosmopolitan artist, enjoyed international fame and earned a large number of commissions throughout his short life. However in this small work — Fortuny was certainly a specialist in small formats — he wasn't working "on commission". He painted it just a few months before he died, never really finishing it, and is a reflection of his search in the last years of his life to find new roads and outlets for his painting. Thus, while some elements of the scene — such as the girl's leg — are perfectly drawn with meticulous detail, other parts of the painting show such loose, separated brush strokes that one might say that this presages Impressionism. The children in the painting are Mariano [1871-1949] and Maria Luisa [1868-1936], the product of his marriage to Cecilia Madrazo, the daughter of Federico de Madrazo y Küntz [1815-1894] and grandaughter of José de Madrazo y Agudo [1781-1859].
^ Born on 21 November 1898: René François Ghislain Magritte, Belgian Surrealist painter who died on 15 August 1967.
— René François-Ghislain Magritte was born in Lessines, Hainaut, Belgium. On 12 March 1912 his mother drowned herself and the family moved to Charleroi. The following year he met his future wife, Georgette Berger. In 1914 Rene enroled at the Academy of Fine Arts in Brussels, in 1918 the rest of his family join him. After his military service, Rene married Georgette on 28 June 1922. In 1923 he sold his first picture, a portrait of the singer Evelyne Brelia, but it wasn't until 1926 that he produced his first surrealist work, Le Jockey Perdu. René and Georgette travelled widely around Europe and meet other surrealists such as Dali, Eluard, André Breton, Marcel Duchamp, Max Ernst and Man Ray. By 1965 Magrittes's health was declining. He left a legacy of 1300 works for us to wonder at.
— Magritte was born in Lessines. He studied at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts, Brussels. His first one-man exhibition was in Brussels in 1927. At that time Magritte had already begun to paint in the style, closely akin to surrealism, that was predominant throughout his long career. A meticulous, skillful technician, he is noted for works that contain an extraordinary juxtaposition of ordinary objects or an unusual context that gives new meaning to familiar things. This juxtaposition is frequently termed magic realism, of which Magritte was the prime exponent. In addition to fantastic elements, he displayed a mordant wit, creating surrealist versions of famous paintings, as in Perspective I: Madame Récamier de David (1950) [the original Madame Récamier of 1800, by Jacques-Louis David], in which an elaborate coffin is substituted for the reclining woman in the famous portrait by Jacques Louis David. Magritte's work was first shown in the United States in New York City in 1936 and again in that city in two retrospectives, one at the Museum of Modern Art in 1965 (U.S. tour, 1966), and the other at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in 1992.
Clairvoyance (Self-Portrait) (1936)
Les Bijoux Indiscrets (1963 color lithograph, 23x30cm)
Untitled Poster for Magritte Exhibition (1966, 29x40cm)
Homesickness (1940; 1000x763pix, 79kb)
Le Viol (1934) _ Le viol a été choisi par André Breton pour illustrer la couverture de Qu’est-ce que le surréalisme?, en 1934.
Ceci n'est pas une pipe (1929)
Perspective II: Manet's Balcony (1950; 1000x749pix, 127kb) [after Manet's Le Balcon]
The Blank Check (1965)
The Big Family (1963) [a sky-with-white-clouds-colored flying dove]
Attempting the Impossible (1926) [the artist creating a real woman by painting]
The Red Model (1937) [a pair of feet]
The Therapist (1936) [NOT “The rapist” — a bird cage with cloak, hat, and legs sitting on a chair]
Eternal Evidence (1930) [five sections of the artist's nude wife]
Voice [a tree] — The Listening Room [a canvas-filling room-filling green apple] (1958)
Le Thérapeute (1936) _ la photo semblable que Magritte a faite en 1937: Dieu le huitième jour
La Durée Poignardée (1938; 147x99cm) In this painting, Magritte depicts a miniature train suspended and coming out of a fireplace. This was one of the rare occasions in which a sudden image, almost a hallucination, appeared to Magritte. Although Magritte’s paintings may seem a little psychedelic, Magritte disliked many artists’ dependency on visions from dreams and delusions. Instead, he preferred complete, thorough, and deliberate paintings. _ From the 1920s on, the Surrealists, following laws of chance and the inspiration of dreams, sought to weave inner and outer experience into a totally new expression of reality. In his witty paintings, the Belgian René Magritte created absurd juxtapositions and visual puns. His Time Transfixed features improbable elements, a locomotive emerging from a fireplace, clock, empty candlesticks, plain room, and mirror without reflections, all painted with a realistic technique that paradoxically heightens the mysterious quality of this vivid but dreamlike image.
Le Jockey Perdu (The Lost Jockey) (1925) This is Magritte’s first major work. Magritte considered The Lost Jockey his first "’realized’" painting, since it was the first in which he played with a poetic idea. Magritte painted The Lost Jockey after seeing de Chirico’s The Song of Love, which demonstrated, according to Magritte, "the ascendancy of poetry over painting." In this painting, a jockey is situated in the middle of a forest composed of trees looking like giant balustrades. Here, Magritte juxtaposes the immobility of the trees with the fleeting motion of the horse and rider. In classic Magritte manner, common objects are disoriented. Balustrades, normally used to support stair rails, appear in exaggerated proportions as tree trunks. Max Ernst coined the word "phallustrade" in describing Magritte’s handling of the balustrades, which reoccur in many of Magritte’s other works. Magritte skips back and forth from the real to the unreal, from the conscious to the unconscious.
L’Assassin Menacé (1926) Magritte painted this piece while in the Parisian Surrealism scene. In this painting, two men in bowler hats, one holding a human limb as a club and the other holding a net, wait outside a room. In the room, a man listens to a record while a bleeding, nude female lies on a bed. Three men observe the scene from the outside. Here, Magritte explores space and perspective by playing with the foreground and background. Some critics liken this painting to an episode of Louis Feuillade’s Fantômas, the evil genius of crime whom the Surrealists adopted as their corrupt hero. Fantômas was the sly criminal who never once, in a long lifetime of thirty-two volumes, got caught for any sort of wrongdoing. He turned human values and morality upside-down and always outsmarted the law.
La Condition Humaine I (1933) In this painting, Magritte plays with space frames and the notion of the "inside" versus the "outside." Magritte best describes this piece in his own words: "In front of a window, as seen from the interior of a room, I placed a picture that represented precisely the portion of landscape blotted out by the picture… For the spectator it [the tree in the painting] was simultaneously inside the room; in the picture, and outside, in the real landscape, in thought." The contradiction lies in the relation between and treatment of three-dimensional space versus two-dimensional space. Writer Suzi Gablik comments on the piece: "In this single image he has defined the whole complexity of modern art — a complexity which has led to a devaluation of the imitation of nature as the basic premise of painting."
La Condition Humaine II (1935). Same idea, but this time it is the view of the sea that is expanded to the right by the painting inside the room.
L’Empire des Lumières (1954) Magritte seemed to divide the world into bipolar halves — night and day, real and unreal, inside and outside. At the same time, he placed these halves together in a precariously balanced whole. In this painting, he depicts night and day simultaneously, disrupting commonsense conceptions of time. A house is found in complete darkness, except for a bright (perhaps artificial) light. Magritte uses the Surrealist device of the double image, and one cannot tell whether the house should be more lit or plunged into complete darkness. Magritte said of this and other related paintings, "A thought limited to similarities can only contemplate a starry sky with a nocturnal sky. An inspired thought which evoked the mystery of a visible thing can be described by painting: indeed, it consists uniquely of visible things: skies, trees, people, solids, inscriptions, etc."
Euclidean Promenades (1955, 163x130cm; main detail 755x1008pix, 109kb — ZOOM TO FULL PICTURE 2000x1573pix, 242kb) _ Surrealism was an art of fantasy, dream, and the unconscious, delving into the recesses of the human psyche to discover mysterious, bizarre, and often disturbing images. René Magritte, however, was a Surrealist painter more fascinated by puzz les and paradoxes than by the nature of the unconscious. Les Promenades d'Euclide presents the age-old problem of illusion versus reality. In this witty picture within a picture, the canvas in front of the window seems to exactly replicate the section of city it blocks from view. But does it? Could the twin forms of tower and street exist only in the artist's imagination? Or do we view the actual city through a transparent canvas?
Le 16 Septembre (1955, 36x27cm; 939x756pix, 74kb — ZOOM to 2000x1512pix, 273kb) _ Magritte ranks among the greatest Surrealist painters. Trees are a recurrent subject in his work. As Magritte stated: "Growing from the earth to the sun, a tree is an image of certain happiness. To perceive this image we must be immobile like the tree. When we are moving, it is the tree which becomes the spectator. It is witness, equally, in the shape of chairs, tables and doors, to the more or less agitated spectacle of our life. The tree, having become a coffin, disappears into the earth. And when it is transformed into fire, it vanishes into air." Here Magritte superimposes a crescent moon in front of the tree. The artist referred to his intentional juxtaposition of incongruous objects as "objective stimulus." In reference to this image, Magritte observed: "I have just painted the moon on a tree in the grey-blue colors of evening." Typically, the titles of Magritte's paintings were determined after they were completed. In this case, the title was the idea of Magritte's friend, Surrealist poet Louis Scutenaire [in honor of Mexico's Independence Day?].
Lola de Valence (46x38cm; 833x672pix, 87kb — ZOOM to 2000x1614pix, 343kb) _ Lola de Valence was one of a group of gouaches shown in Magritte's first one-man show in Paris in 1948. Disgruntled that it took the Parisian art world so long to appreciate his art, Magritte called these gouaches the "vache" (i.e. "mean") paintings, after their deliberately provocative style and content. The title of this work refers to Lola de Valence (1862) a (fully clothed) portrait painted by Manet, and then immortalized in a quatrain by Charles Baudelaire which first appeared in the 1868 edition of Les Fleurs du Mal: “Entre tant de beautés que partout on peut voir, / Je comprends bien amis, que le désir balance; / Mais on voit scintiller en Lola de Valence / Le charme inattendu d'un bijou rose et noir.”
     Lola de Valence was the scene name of Lola Melea, the première danseuse of the dance company of Camprubi. It performed at the Porte Dauphine during the summer of 1862. Manet persuaded Camprubi to bring his dancers to the studio of his friend the Belgian painter Alfred Stevens during their leisure hours, and they posed for him there.
      Magritte takes images from his own work of the 1930s, the naked woman leaning against a rock and a female torso, and arranges them in a cold and artificial way. Rather than being a painting about a woman, Lola de Valence is a parody on Magritte's own reputation as a painter of enigmatic nudes and the artificiality of the Surrealist encounter with the female body.
^ Died on 21 November 1849: François~Marius Granet, French painter and sculptor born on 17 September 1775.
— Son of a master mason, Granet received early artistic training from J.-A. Constantin (1756-1844) at the free drawing academy in Aix. A fellow student was the highborn Auguste de Forbin (1777-1841), who became his most important friend and patron. In 1793 Granet participated in the siege of Toulon, where he met Bonaparte and worked as a draftsman with the artillery battery. Three years later he made his first visit to Paris, where he admired and copied Dutch and Flemish paintings in the Louvre.
      In 1798 Granet returned to Paris to join Forbin in the atelier of David, but he had to leave after a few months from lack of funds. The next year, however, he showed at the Salon; his successful Little Cloister of the Feuillants, a Parisian monastery interior, announced the dominant theme of his subsequent work, which owed more to his study of seventeenth-century northern masters than it did to the brief stay in David's studio.
      In 1802 Granet and Forbin went to Rome, where Granet remained generally for the next twenty-two years, making a living during the first years by selling views of ancient monuments. His internationally acclaimed Choir of the Capuchin Church in Rome (1815), of which he painted a later variant, sealed the artist's success.
      His precisely painted pictures appealed through their dramatic chiaroscuro and masterful articulation of architectural forms. In the Italian and French countryside Granet also created many fluid oil and watercolor landscape sketches, whose simplified forms and subtle light effects prefigured the art of Corot. 
      By the end of the 1830s the vogue for Granet's quietly religious paintings waned. In the meantime he had begun an important career as a museum official. Having left Rome in 1824 to accept a position offered by Forbin, Granet became chief curator at the Louvre in 1826 and then curator of Louis-Philippe's new Musée Historique de Versailles in 1833. He was also named, in 1844, honorary director of the museum in his hometown of Aix.
      His long-time friend Forbin died in 1841, and in 1843 Granet married the recently widowed Marie-Madeleine Appoloni ("Nena"), whom he had known since the early days in Rome. Upon her death in 1847 Granet went to his country residence in Aix, where he remained after the revolution of 1848. The next year's bequeathal of studio and collection to the Aix museum constitutes a rare example of the preservation of an artists's atelier at the time.
La Trinità dei Monti et la Villa Médicis à Rome (1808) — L'Usurier.

Self-Portrait, detail of On Skagen Beach ^ Died on 21 November 1909: Feder Severin (or Søren) Krøyer, Danish painter, sculptor and draftsman, born on 23 July 1851.
— He was a leading member of the artists’ colony at Skagen in Jutland (where he died) and a sought-after portrait painter, noted for his treatment of light and color. — Krøyer's students included Vilhelm Hammershøi [15 May – 13 Feb 1916], Carl Holsøe, Laurits Andersen Ring, Johan Rohde, Agnes Rambusch Slott-Møller [10 Jun 1862 – 11 Jun 1937], her husband Georg Harald Slott-Møller [17 Aug 1864 – 20 Oct 1937], Jens Ferdinand Willumsen.

      P.S. Krøyer blev født den 23. juli 1851 i Stavanger i Norge, men da hans moder, Ellen Cecilie Gjesdahl [1824-1893], led af depressioner, blev han sat i pleje på Christianshavn i København hos sin moster, Bertha Cecilie Krøyer [1817-1892], og hendes mand, marinezoologen Henrik Nikolaj Krøyer [1796-1870]. Krøyer begyndte 1861 på Teknisk Institut i København efter at have vist evner for at tegne ved at illustrere en af plejefaderens publikationer. Han fortsatte 1864-1870 studierne på Det Kongelige Danske Kunstakademi med Frederik Vermehren [1823-1910] som professor, og han malede ved siden af studierne portrætter. Et af dem forestiller Professorinde Bertha Cecilie Krøyer. Krøyer debuterede 1871 på Charlottenborg med et maleri af vennen fra kunstakademiet Frans Schwartz [1850-1917].
     Krøyer modtog 1873 en lille guldmedalje og et stipendium for kartonen David fremstiller sig for Saul efter have dræbt Goliath, da den blev udstillet på Charlottenborg. Han brugte stipendiet til et sommerophold i det afsides beliggende fiskerleje Hornbæk i selskab med malerne Kristian Zahrtmann [1843-1917], Holger Roed [1846-1874], Frants Henningsen [1850-1908], Bernhard Middelboe [1850-1931] og Viggo Johansen [1851-1935]. De seks malere dannede en lille kunstnerkoloni, hvor de malede naturen eller folkelivet i dagtimerne og morede sig hos den lokale kromand om aftenen. De foretrak som noget nyt at male deres billeder udendørs. Krøyer blev grebet af stemningen i Hornbæk og vendte tilbage i de tre følgende somre, hvor han bl.a. malede Morgen ved Hornbæk. Fiskerne kommer i land.

     P.S. Krøyer tog i forsommeren 1875 på sin første udlandsrejse til Tyskland i selskab med vennen fra kunstakademiet Frans Schwartz [1850-1917]. De besøgte Berlin, Dresden, München og Tyrol. I München mødtes de med den norske maler Eilif Peterssen [1852-1928], som senere blev Krøyers ven i Italien og på Skagen.
      Kunstakademiet tildelte 1877 Krøyer Det Stoltenbergske Legat, der sammen med Heinrich Hirschsprungs støtte finansierede et fireårigt udlandsophold. Krøyer bosatte sig i juni på Montmatre i Paris blandt andre skandinaviske kunstnere. Han studerede samtidens moderne kunst på bl.a. de nye Salonudstillinger og modtog undervisning hos maleren Léon Bonnat [1833-1922]. Undervisningen krævede, at Krøyer arbejdede hårdt, og den introducerede ham for traditionel fransk kunst, som havde lighedspunkter med spansk barokkunst. Bonnat vægtede, at malerierne optrådte som enkle og klare helheder med underordnede detaljer, og han fremhævede valørernes betydning, dvs. at lyset i de enkelte farver harmonerer indbyrdes.
      Krøyer afbrød i februar 1878 undervisningen hos Bonnat for at rejse til Madrid i selskab med malerkammeraterne Frans Schwartz og Frants Henningsen [1850-1908] samt kunsthistorikeren Julius Lange [1838-1896], hvis forelæsninger han havde fulgt med stor interesse på kunstakademiet. De studerede spansk barokkunst på Prado og var især imponerede af maleren Diego Velázquez [1599-1660]. Krøyer fortsatte i marts til Granada, hvor han boede næsten et halvt år for at male det store friluftsmaleri Søndagmorgen uden for en Ghitanobolig, inden han i november vendte tilbage til Paris. Han rejste i april 1879 til Cernay-la-Ville, hvor han et par måneder tegnede portrætter og malede Franske skovarbejdere vender hjem gennem en hulvej. Efter ophold i Paris og Pont-Aven tilsluttede han sig i august den franske kunstnerkoloni i Concarneau og malede Et sardineri i Concarneau.
      Krøyer afsluttede i oktober 1879 undervisningen hos Bonnat og rejste over bl.a. Firenze og Siena til Rom. Han studerede kunst på museerne og dyrkede det livlige fornøjelsesliv i selskab med de øvrige skandinaviske kunstnere. Han tog i maj 1880 på en kort rejse til Paris for at se Salonen, hvor han var repræsenteret med billedet fra Concarneau. Han bosatte sig henover sommeren i landsbyen Sora di Campagna syd for Rom for at male bl.a. Italienske landsbyhattemagere. Han rejste i efteråret videre til Capri og Napoli, hvor han på bestilling af Hirschsprung udførte Nannina. En neapolitansk blomstersælgerske, men vendte tilbage til Rom for at fejre julen og nytåret. Rejseårene er rigt illustreret i en række vignetter, som Krøyer forsynede sine breve til vennerne og familien med.

Mødet med Skagen
P.S. Krøyer var i maj 1882 i Paris for at se Salonen. Han fortsatte til Wien for at se en international kunstudstilling, hvor han var repræsenteret med bl.a. Italienske landsbyhattemagere. Her mødte han ægteparret Anna [1859-1935] og Michael Ancher [1849-1927], der lovpriste Skagen. Krøyer havde tidligere hørt lignende begejstrede beretninger fra digteren Holger Drachmann [1846-1908] samt malerne Laurits Tuxen [1853-1927] og Karl Madsen [1855-1938], der alle havde besøgt Skagen i 1870'erne, og da han længe havde ønsket at se Jylland, rejste han samme sommer dertil. Krøyer blev imponeret af Skagens barske natur og de seje fiskere. Han begyndte straks at male og færdiggjorde hurtigt I købmandens bod, når der ikke fiskes. Der er bevaret samtidige fotografier af såvel Brøndums Hotel som den tilhørende købmandsforretning.

Krøyer beskrev kammeratskabet på Skagen i et brev til moderen den 2. august 1882: Ellers har vi et meget hyggeligt Kammeratliv heroppe. Drachmann, Ancher og en svensk Maler Björck bestaaer Selskabet af. Drachmanns og Anchers holder Husholdning selv, men vi mødes dog hver Dag og er jævnlig sammen om Aftenen. Jeg har derfor ikke faaet læst synderligt, skøndt jeg havde mange Bøger med. Man foretrækker i Regelen Kammeraterne.

^ — Livet på Skagen
I 1880'erne malede P.S. Krøyer bestillingsportrætter i København i vintermånederne. Et af dem forestillede Arkitekten Ferdinand Meldahl, 1882 (Statens Museum for Kunst. Deponeret i Den Hirschsprungske Samling). Han tilbragte forårene i udlandet, hvor han besøgte Salonen og de øvrige store kunstudstillinger i Paris, London, Amsterdam eller Stockholm. Somrene blev brugt på Skagen. Han indrettede et atelier i et havehus, der lå ved Brøndums Hotel, og færdiggjorde her Sommerdag ved Skagens Sønderstrand efter at have malet nogle af skitserne udendørs. Han malede også Fiskerne trækker vod på Skagen Nordstrand (1883), Ved frokosten (1883) og Hip, hip, hurra! (1888).
      Krøyer var med sit vindende væsen et samlende midtpunkt for kunstnerne på Skagen, som bl.a. var malerne Michael Ancher [1849-1927], Viggo Johansen [1851-1935], Christian Krohg [1852-1925], Anna Ancher [1859-1935] og Oscar Björck [1860-1929] samt digteren Holger Drachmann [1846-1908]. Krøyer deltog ivrigt i bl.a. jagter og er fotograferet sammen med Anna og Michael Ancher foran en redningsbåd. De er ledsaget af en jagthund, og Michael Ancher har en bøsse under armen. Krøyer var blevet inspireret af de franske kunstnerkolonier til 1883 at oprette den selskabelige kunstnerforening Aften-academiet, der havde til huse på Brøndums Hotel. Kunstnerne festede, diskuterede og musicerede, og fiskerne deltog som dekorative statister. Særlig mindeværdig var Krøyers 37-års fødselsdagsfest, som han beskrev i et brev til moderen den 31. juli 1888: Modtagelsen [på] min Fødselsdag var storartet. Hele Befolkningen var samlet dernede paa Stranden, der var Æreport og flere af Badegæsterne var klædt ud og der var Kanonskud og Tromme og Champagne paa Stranden. Saa drog vi i stort Tog op til Kroen hvor vi fik større Frokost.

På bryllups- og studierejse
     P.S. Krøyer blev i foråret 1889 forlovet i Paris med Marie Triepcke [1867-1940], der var en smuk, ung malerinde. Hun var veninde med Heinrich Hirschsprungs niece, Ida Hirschsprung, og havde været elev på Krøyers private kunstskole for kvinder i København. Krøyer skrev i et brev til moderen den 29. maj 1889: Ja - tænk hvilken Forandring - ja jeg synes det er aldeles forunderligt at jeg nu snart skal være Ægtemand - jeg, som næsten rent havde opgivet den Tanke - som mente at ende som Pebersvend. Og saa at faa til Hustru den yndigste, elskeligste unge Pige der kan gaa paa Jorden - ja jeg maa være en Lykkens Yndling. Lykken har virkelig fulgt mig i en forunderlig Grad. Jeg haaber den vil blive ved at følge med. Forlovelsen blev markeret med et fotografi optaget i Paris.
      Brylluppet blev afholdt på Krøyers fødselsdag den 23. juli samme år hos svigerfamilien, der ejede et væveri i Augsburg i Tyskland. Umiddelbart efter brylluppet begav de nygifte sig ud på en kombineret studie- og bryllupsrejse, der varede i over to år. De rejste først over Paris til Stenbjerg i Thy, hvor de opholdt sig indtil slutningen af oktober. Krøyer udførte her et interiørmaleri af sin hustru. De drog herefter igen til Augsburg og fortsatte over Tyrol til Italien, hvor de bl.a. besøgte Firenze, Rom og Napoli. De bosatte sig i maj 1890 i Ravello, men rejste den følgende måned videre til Amalfi, hvor Krøyer malede Bugten ved Amalfi. De besøgte maleren Kristian Zahrtmann [1843-1917] i Civita d'Antino, før de i oktober påbegyndte hjemrejsen. Ankomsten til København i februar 1891 blev fejret med en forsinket bryllupsfest. De indlogerede sig efterfølgende et par måneder i maleren Carl Lochers [1851-1915] hus i Hornbæk, hvor Krøyer malede Hornbæk ved vintertid, som blev erhvervet af Hirschsprung samme år.

— 1890'erne på Skagen
     Marie og P.S. Krøyer lejede i somrene 1891-1893 den tidligere postgård, kaldet Madam Bendtsens Hus, på Skagen. Krøyer omtalte den begejstret i et brev til moderen den 22. august 1891: Vi er særdeles tilfreds med den og her er jo alt hvad man kan ønske: Strand, Hede, Skov, Have og Fiskere og et velindrettet Hus. Krøyer havde allerede 1885 købt et fotografiapparat, og han optog en række fotografier af familielivet, hvoraf flere blev anvendt som forlæg for bl.a. Ved frokosten. Kunstneren og hans hustru med forfatteren Otto Benzon. Skagen og Roser. Haveparti fra Skagen med kunstnerens hustru (1893). Krøyer begyndte også at arbejde med en blå farveskala, der fulgte ham resten af livet. Den ses bl.a. i Badende drenge. Solskin og Sommeraften på Skagens Sønderstrand.
      Ægteparret overtog 1894 den idylliske byfogedgård, kaldet Krøyers Hus, i Skagens plantage til helårsbrug. Den blev ombygget af arkitekten Ulrik Plesner [1861-1933], og Marie tegnede møbler, der var inspirerede af Arts and Crafts-bevægelsen. Året efter blev datteren Vibeke [1895-1986] født. Krøyer var beskæftiget med at male portrætter og udførte bl.a. gruppebillederne Fra Københavns Børs (1894), Et møde i Videnskabernes Selskab (1897) og Skagens jægere (1898). Den Hirschsprungske Samling har forarbejder til dem alle. Han malede også kunstnerportrætter af bl.a. Digteren Holger Drachmann.

De sidste år
     Livet på Skagen syntes ved udgangen af 1890'erne idyllisk, men sygdomme lurede. P.S. Krøyers syn blev gradvist dårligere som følge af kviksølvsbehandlinger mod syfilis i ungdomsårene. Han led yderligere af melankoli og hallucinationer og måtte periodisk indlægges på Middelfart Sindssygehospital. Marie Krøyer havde også et svageligt helbred. Krøyer formåede trods omstændighederne indimellem at male og rejse, og han udførte bl.a. Sommeraften ved Skagens strand. Kunstneren og hans hustru og Digteren Holger Drachmann i Skagens plantage, der leder tankerne hen på impressionismen.
      Marie forelskede sig i foråret 1902 i den svenske komponist Hugo Alfvén [1872-1960], som hun mødte under et rekreationsophold i Taormina på Sicilien, mens Krøyer malede portrætter i Paris. Krøyer accepterede Alfvén som en ven af huset på Skagen, men Marie foretrak 1903 at flytte med Alfvén til Sverige. Krøyer forblev på Skagen, hvor han færdiggjorde Skt. Hansblus på Skagens strand (1906), der havde været undervejs siden 1892. Han fandt støtte hos veninden Henny Brodersen [1868-1960], der 1896 var flyttet til byen med sin familie. Krøyers sygdomme tiltog gradvist, og han døde den 21. november 1909 på Skagen. De sidste års kvaler er fastholdt på fotografier, og et tegnet selvportræt viser en ældet kunstner.

Self Portrait (1907; 749x619pix, 62kb)
Marie in the Garden (1889, 43x58cm; 635x717pix, 96kb) _ a slightly cropped, degraded, grossly yellow image of the same painting is available, retitled Les Roses (723x1000pix, 248kb)
Hip, Hip Hurrah, Artists' Party (1888; 757x1000pix, 123kb)
Summer Eve in Skagen (1892; 800x464pix, 37kb)
Wine Harvest in Tyrol (1901; 597x800pix, 101kb)
Artists' Luncheon (800x587pix, 71kb) — Osteria Ravello, Italy (677x800pix, 81kb)
Sommeraften ved Skagens strand. Kunstneren og hans hustru (1899, 135x187cm)
Died on a 21 November:

1895 date sometimes given for the death of Silvestro Lega, instead of the preferred date 21 September 1895.

1894 Johann Till, Austrian artist born on 19 July 1827. — [Has art been any different since Till than it was 'till Till?]

1733 Louis de Boullogne II (or Boulogne), Parisian painter born on 19 November 1654. He was taught by his father Louis Boullogne I [1609-1674], like his brother Bon Boullogne [bap. 22 Feb 1649 – 17 May 1717] and sisters Geneviève Boullogne [22 Aug 1645 – 05 Aug 1708] and Madeleine Boullogne [24 July 1646 – 30 Jan 1710]. In 1673 Louis II won the Prix de Rome with Crossing the Rhine, which enabled him to go to the Académie de France in Rome, apparently when his brother Bon returned from there. He, too, made copies of paintings for reproduction as tapestries by the Gobelins. In Rome he proved a diligent student, winning a prize at the Accademia di San Luca for a drawing of Alexander Cutting the Gordian Knot.

Born on a 21 November:

1821 Jean-Baptiste Robie, Belgian artist who died on 08 December 1910.

1724 Jan Ekels I, Amsterdam Dutch painter who died on 22 November 1781. Father and first teacher of Jan Ekels II [28 Jun 1759 – 04 June 1793).
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