<< Apr 01|      HISTORY “4” “2”DAY      |Apr 03 >>
Events, deaths, births, of APR 02

[For Apr 02 Julian go to Gregorian date:
1583~1699: Apr 121700s: Apr 131800s: Apr 141900~2099: Apr 15]
• Statue of Liberty sculptor is born... • President wants US to declare war... • First US congresswoman... • Change of chairman at GM... • Gorbachev begins visit to Cuba... • Zola is born... • First US movie theater opens... • Hans Christian Andersen is born... • First electronic computer proposal... • Morse dies... • North Vietnamese troops capture part of Quang Tri... • South Vietnamese evacuation begins at Qui Nhon.... • The Desert Fox starts reconquering Libya... • Guillotinés par la Terreur... • Struwwelpeter's author is born... • Charlemagne is born...
On an April 02:
2003 Zyness O'Haver, 95, and Sallie Warren, 94, get married, at the Oklahoma County courthouse in Oklahoma City. They began living as a couple on 17 July 1925 and had one son, the late Louis Gene O'Haver, and now have four grandchildren, including Louis G. "Garrett" O'Haver Jr., and Rebecca O'Haver.
2003 Gideon Samet's editorial in Ha'aretz begins with “The settlers are competing with Palestinian terror[ism] as the number one threat to the quality of life and the future of [Israel].”
2002 Forgea, a 2-year-old mixed breed female terrier is left behind when the Chinese crew of the refueling tanker Insiko 1907, wrecked by a fire which started on 13 March and killed one crew member, is rescued by a cruise ship, about 1100 km southwest of Hawaii. The Hawaiian Humane Society would spend $50'000 (and receive $40'000 in donations) to try and rescue the dog by contracting American Marine Services. Dog food would be air-dropped, then, on 21 April 2002, two long line fishing vessels arrive, but their sailors are unable to catch Forgea, healthy but terrified, which keeps going below decks where it is too dangerous for the sailors to follow, because of the fire damage. Besides Forgea is used to hearing commands in Mandarin Chinese and the would-be rescuers only speak English, and even with one of Forgea's favorite foods — peanut butter — and the Mandarin word for “come,” [Mandarin is a 4-tone language, and, what if, with the wrong tone, that word means “go hide”?] they have no success.
2001 The US census bureau pinpoints the “US population gravity center” within 10 cm at 37.6969877º N, 91.809567º W, is in Phelps County, about 19 km south and 52 km west of the 1990 population center near Steelville, Missouri. The new center is 5 km E (bearing 96.1º) of Edgar Springs and 6 km NW (bearing 318.8º) of Lenox.
2001  El ejército israelí atenta contra Mohamed Abdel Al, destacado dirigente del movimiento fundamentalista de la Chijad islámica.
2000 Japanese Prime Minister Obuchi suffers a stroke. ^top^
     Keizo Obuchi, 62, Prime Minister of Japan (July 1998--April 2000), suffers a stroke from which he will not recove and is hospitalized. He would later lapse into a coma and be put on artificial respiration. Within a few days later, Parliament elects Yoshiro Mori as his successor.      
      Keizo Obuchi became Japan's prime minister in July 1998 to widespread expectations that his humble manner meant he lacked the nerve to handle the country's deepening economic problems. He soon proved his critics wrong.
      Before his stroke, Obuchi had established a solid record as premier: He put Japan on a massive public spending plan to pull it out of recession and pushed controversial legislation through Parliament.
      While Obuchi's policies were bold, the results were mixed. He helped set the Japanese economy on the path to recovery, but his successors will pay the price: all the spending has given the country an enormous fiscal deficit. Over the past six months, support for his government has been dropping. But most seem to agree that one thing is undeniable: he proved he was up to the job. At the pinnacle of his popularity, last summer, analysts had only praise for his first year in office. "In the economy, foreign policy, and getting legislation approved, I think Obuchi deserves pretty high marks,"
      It was easy to underestimate Obuchi. While other top politicians had grabbed headlines, Obuchi toiled behind the scenes and by the book, working his way up the Liberal Democratic Party ranks. Obuchi had the charisma of "cold pizza,"
      . Obuchi was the son of a national lawmaker from Gunma Prefecture north of Tokyo. He graduated from Tokyo's prestigious Waseda University. Obuchi won election to Japan's powerful lower house of Parliament in 1963 at the age of 26 -- inheriting, in common Japanese fashion, the seat held previously by his father. He's been elected to the seat ever since. Obuchi first served as a Cabinet official in 1979, when he was selected to jointly head the Management and Coordination Agency and Okinawa Development Agency.
      In 1993, he became the Liberal Democrats' secretary-general, one of three key party posts, under Prime Minister Toshiki Kaifu. A year later, Obuchi took control of the biggest of several rival factions in the Liberal Democratic Party, succeeding former Prime Minister Noboru Takeshita. He became foreign minister in 1997 — a post considered a stepping stone to the premiership.
      Obuchi never described himself as a big shot, at least not in public. He once reportedly compared himself to a "noodle shop between two skyscrapers," referring to two of his protégés, former prime ministers Yasuhiro Nakasone and the late Takeo Fukuda. That humble image was often cited as a key to his success. Instead of the hard-driving style that is often frowned upon in Japan, Obuchi favored low-key consensus-building.
      In addition to his economic policies, he also used his skills to push a number of tough packages through Parliament, including passage of controversial US-Japan defense guidelines that boost Tokyo's regional security role.
      In foreign policy, Obuchi is widely credited with furthering Japan's warming relations with Russia. The two countries have long-standing territorial disputes that have prevented them from signing a peace treaty since World War II. He also moved toward closer ties with South Korea, China and North Korea.
      He cobbled together an unwieldy three-party ruling coalition. That latest coup, however, backfired. Polls indicated rising disapproval ratings, with voters citing unease with the growing clout of the coalition. The coalition broke up over just before Obuchi fell ill, but the LDP still held enough seats in Parliament to guarantee its grip on power.
      Keizo Obuchi would die on 14 May 2000, at 08:07 UT (16:07 local time), in Tokyo's Juntendo Hospital, hospitalized there in a coma since his stroke, survived by his wife, a son, and two daughters.
1998  El Tribunal de lo Criminal de Burdeos condena a Maurice Papón, antiguo alto funcionario del régimen colaboracionista de Vichy, a diez años de prisión.
1998   Los veinticinco líderes participantes en la segunda cumbre euroasiática se comprometen a pedir una revisión del sistema financiero internacional que devuelva la estabilidad a los mercados.
1997  Los presidentes ruso, Boris Nikolaievich Yeltsin, y bielorruso, Alexandr Lukashenko, firman el Tratado de Unión de sus respectivos países, que permite a ambos países mantener su soberanía y fortalecer la cooperación.
1996 Former President Walesa returns to shipyard job       ^top^
      Lech Walesa, founder of the Solidarity trade union and Poland's first democratically elected postwar leader, returned to his old job as an electrician at the Gdansk shipyard after failing in his 1995 presidential re-election bid.
      Solidarity, founded by Walesa and other Labor workers in 1980, called for improved working conditions for workers and greater liberty in Polish society. Under Walesa's charismatic leadership, the organization rapidly grew in size and political influence, soon becoming a threat to the authority of Poland's communist government.
      On 13 December 1981, martial law was declared in Poland, and Walesa and other Solidarity leaders were arrested. In 1982, overwhelming public outcry forced his release, but Solidarity remained illegal and public protests continued.
      In 1983, Walesa was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize and in 1989 became a leader in Poland's nonviolent transition from communist to democratic rule. After the fall of the communist government, Walesa became increasingly critical of the coalition government of Premier Tadeusz Mazowiecki, and in 1990 ran for the presidency. On December 9, 1990, he became the first democratically elected Polish leader in over six decades, and in the next year, he declared the first truly free parliamentary elections since before World War II.
      In 1995, Walesa was defeated in his re-election bid by a candidate of the democratic Left Alliance, which featured a coalition of former communists and members of the Peasants party, and Poland's great democratic leader returned to his old factory job.
1996 A federal appeals court rejected New York state laws banning doctor-assisted suicide, saying it would be discriminatory to let people disconnect life support systems while refusing to let others end their lives with medication.
1992 Teflon don convicted       ^top^
     Mafia boss John Gotti, who was nicknamed the "Teflon Don" after escaping unscathed from several state and federal trials during the 1980s, was convicted in a federal district court on fourteen accounts of conspiracy to commit murder and racketeering.
      Gotti, born and educated on the mean streets of New York City, became head of the powerful Gambino family after boss Paul Castellano was murdered outside an elegant steakhouse in Manhattan in December of 1985. The New York gangland assassination, the first in three decades, was organized by Gotti and his colleague Sammy "The Bull" Gravano.
      Over the next five years, Gotti rapidly expanded his Mafia empire and, despite wide publicity of his criminal activities, managed to avoid prosecution several times, usually through witness intimidation. However, in 1990 he was indicted with conspiracy to commit murder in the death of Paul Castellano, and in 1991, Sammy "The Bull" Gravano agreed to testify against him in exchange for a reduced prison sentence.
      On 02 April 1992, John Gotti was found guilty on all counts, and on 23 June was sentenced to multiple life terms without the possibility of parole.
1992 Edith Cresson, France's first female premier, resigns. — Pierre Bérégovoy es nombrado primer ministro de Francia, en sustitución de Edith Cresson.
1992  El mafioso John Gotti es condenado a cadena perpetua por un tribunal de Nueva York.
1989 Gorbachev begins visit to Cuba.       ^top^
      In an effort to mend strained relations between the Soviet Union and Cuba, Russian leader Mikhail Gorbachev arrives in Havana to meet with Fidel Castro. Castro's suspicions regarding Gorbachev's economic and political reform measures in the Soviet Union, together with the fact that Russia's ailing economy could no longer support massive economic assistance to Cuba, kept the meetings from achieving any solid agreements. The relationship between the Soviet Union and Cuba had been extremely close since the early-1960s, when Castro declared his government to be a Marxist-Leninist regime.
      In the years that followed, the Soviet Union provided Cuba with large amounts of military and economic assistance. Since Gorbachev's rise to leadership in the Soviet Union in 1985, however, relations with Cuba had deteriorated badly. Castro was extremely suspicious, and often openly critical, of Gorbachev's efforts to introduce more free market economics and political democracy into the Soviet Union. In a speech in December 1988, the Cuban leader warned that his nation might "be in for difficulties coming from the enemy camp and difficulties coming from the camp of our own friends." In addition, the weakening Soviet economy could no longer provide the levels of assistance to Cuba that it had in the past.
      Gorbachev's visit was an attempt to mend political fences between the two communist nations. Castro greeted Gorbachev with a great deal of pomp and public affection. The meeting quickly cooled, though, when it became apparent that Gorbachev hoped to convince Castro to enact political and economic reforms and had also made the trip to explain that Soviet aid would be dwindling even further in the years to come. When Gorbachev left, the farewell was correct and cordial, but nothing more. Gorbachev had little time to consider Soviet-Cuban relations, however. The Soviet Union was soon thrown into upheaval by political and economic instability, and Gorbachev resigned in December 1991. Castro continues to hold power in Cuba.
1989 La guardia personal del presidente haitiano Prospère Avril aborta un golpe de estado.
1989  La Agrupación Constitucional Democrática obtiene los 141 escaños de la Asamblea Legislativa de Túnez, en elecciones que renuevan por cinco años el mandato del presidente Zine el Abidine Ben Ali.
1987 Highway speed limit raised in US.       ^top^
      The United States government allowed individual states to increase the speed limit on rural roads from 55 mph to 65 mph. The move opened the forum for legislation that would, over the next decade, dramatically increase the speed limits observed on our country's roads. Since 1973, when Richard Nixon set a federal maximum speed limit of 55 mph, no cars were allowed to exceed this speed. After 1987, many states raised maximum speed limits to 75 mph. Nevada and Montana observe a policy of "reasonable speed," wherein drivers are urged to use speed prudently but are not held to a numerical speed limit. The debate over the safety of increased speed limits rages on. Many hold that increased speed limits translate directly into increased numbers of highway fatalities. Other advocacy groups claim that higher speed limits actually diminish the rate of accidents by thinning out traffic. Both groups use well-presented statistics to bolster their causes. New cars are certainly capable of handling higher speeds on today's roads, but are their drivers?
1986  El Vaticano rehabilita la Teología de la Liberación.
1982 Argentina invades the Falklands Islands.       ^top^
     They are a British colony since 1892 and British possession since 1833. Argentine amphibious forces rapidly overcome the small garrison of British marines at the town of Stanley on East Falkland and the next day seize the dependent territories of South Georgia and the South Sandwich group. The 1800 Falkland Islanders, mostly English-speaking sheep farmers, await a British response.
      The Falkland Islands, located about 500 km off the southern tip of Argentina, had long been claimed by the British. British navigator John Davis may have sighted the islands in 1592, and in 1690 British Navy Captain John Strong made the first recorded landing on the islands. He named them after Viscount Falkland, who was the First Lord of the Admiralty at the time. In 1764, French navigator Louis-Antoine de Bougainville founded the islands' first human settlement, on East Falkland, which was taken over by the Spanish in 1767. In 1765, the British settled West Falkland but left in 1774 for economic reasons. Spain abandoned its settlement in 1811. In 1816 Argentina declared its independence from Spain and in 1820 proclaimed its sovereignty over the Falklands. The Argentines built a fort on East Falkland, but in 1832 it was destroyed by the USS Lexington in retaliation for the seizure of US seal ships in the area.
      In 1833, a British force expelled the remaining Argentine officials and began a military occupation. In 1841, a British lieutenant governor was appointed, and by the 1880s a British community of some 1800 persons on the islands was self-supporting. In 1892, the wind-blown Falkland Islands were collectively granted colonial status. For the next 90 years, life on the Falklands remained much unchanged, despite persistent diplomatic efforts by Argentina to regain control of the islands. In 1981, the Falkland Islanders voted in a referendum to remain British, and it seemed unlikely that the Falklands would ever revert to Argentine rule. Meanwhile, in Argentina, the military junta led by Lieutenant General Leopoldo Galtieri was suffering criticism for its oppressive rule and economic management, and planned the Falklands invasion as a means of promoting patriotic feeling and propping up its regime.
      In March 1982, Argentine salvage workers occupied South Georgia Island, and a full-scale invasion of the Falklands began on 02 April. Under orders from their commanders, the Argentine troops inflicted no British casualties, despite suffering losses to their own units. Nevertheless, Britain was outraged, and Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher assembled a naval task force of 30 warships to retake the islands. As Britain is 13'000 km from the Falklands, it took several weeks for the British warships to arrive. On 25 April, South Georgia Island was retaken, and after several intensive naval battles fought around the Falklands, British troops landed on East Falkland on 21 May. After several weeks of fighting, the large Argentine garrison at Stanley surrendered on 14 June, effectively ending the conflict. Britain lost five ships and 256 lives in the fight to regain the Falklands, and Argentina lost its only cruiser and 750 lives. Humiliated in the Falklands War, the Argentine military was swept from power in 1983, and civilian rule was restored. In Britain, Margaret Thatcher's popularity soared after the conflict, and her Conservative Party won a landslide victory in 1983 parliamentary elections.
1981 Belgium's 4th govt of Martens resigns.
1981 Heavy battle between Christian militia and Syrian army in East Lebanon. —   se desencadenan los más violentos combates desde 1978 entre las tropas sirias y las milicias cristianas.
1981 Las autoridades nicaragüenses denuncian un plan de invasión desde Honduras.
1981 Una explosión destruye la redacción del periódico salvadoreño Diario Latino.
1980 US President Jimmy Carter signs the Crude Oil Windfall Profits Tax Act.
1979 Israeli PM Menachem Begin visits Cairo Egypt / meets pres Sadat
1977  Se presenta al público por primera vez el partido político vasco Euskal Iraultzarako Alderdi (EIA), antecedente de Euskadiko Ezkerra (EE).
1976  Se inuaugura en Segovia el Primer Congreso de Federación Popular Democrática, presidido por José María Gil Robles y Gil Delgado.
1976 Cambodia Khieu Sampan succeeds prince Sihanouk as premier.
1976 Portuguese constitution assumed.
1975  El presidente hondureño Osvaldo López Arellano ha sido sustituido como jefe de las fuerzas armadas.
1975 South Vietnamese evacuation begins at Qui Nhon.       ^top^
      As North Vietnamese tanks and infantry continue to push the remnants of South Vietnam's 22nd Division and waves of civilian refugees from the Quang Ngai Province, the South Vietnamese Navy begins to evacuate soldiers and civilians by sea from Qui Nhon. Shortly thereafter, the South Vietnamese abandoned Tuy Hoa and Nha Trang, leaving the North Vietnamese in control of more than half of South Vietnam's territory. During the first week in April, communist forces attacking from the south pushed into Long An Province, just south of Saigon, threatening to cut Highway 4, Saigon's main link with the Mekong Delta, which would have precluded reinforcements from being moved north to assist in the coming battle for Saigon. This action was part of the North Vietnamese general offensive launched in late January 1975, just two years after the cease-fire had been established by the Paris Peace Accords. The initial objective of this campaign was the capture of Ban Me Thuot in the Central Highlands. The battle began on March 4 with the North Vietnamese quickly encircling the city. As it became clear that the communists would take the city and probably the entire Darlac province, South Vietnamese president Thieu decided to protect the more critical populous areas. He ordered his forces in the Central Highlands to pull back from their positions. Abandoning Pleiku and Kontum, the South Vietnamese forces began to move toward the sea, but what started out as an orderly withdrawal soon turned into panic. The South Vietnamese forces rapidly fell apart. The North Vietnamese pressed the attack and were quickly successful in both the Central Highlands and farther north at Quang Tri, Hue and Da Nang. The South Vietnamese soon collapsed as a cogent fighting force and the North Vietnamese continued the attack all the way to Saigon. The South Vietnamese surrendered unconditionally on April 30.
1973 ITT pleads guilty to asking CIA to affect Chilean presidential election
1972 North Vietnamese troops capture part of Quang Tri.       ^top^
      Soldiers of Hanoi's 304th Division, supported by Soviet-made tanks and heavy artillery, take the northern half of the Quang Tri province. This left only Quang Tri City (the combat base on the outskirts of the city) and Dong Ha in South Vietnamese hands. South Vietnam's 3rd Division commander Brig. Gen. Vu Van Giai moved his staff out of the Quang Tri combat base to the citadel at Quang Tri City, the apparent North Vietnamese objective. This attack was the opening move of the North Vietnamese Nguyen Hue Offensive (later called the "Easter Offensive"), a massive invasion by North Vietnamese forces designed to strike the blow that would win them the war. The attacking force included 14 infantry divisions and 26 separate regiments, with more than 120,000 troops and approximately 1,200 tanks and other armored vehicles. The main North Vietnamese objectives, in addition to Quang Tri in the north, were Kontum in the Central Highlands, and An Loc farther to the south. Initially, the South Vietnamese defenders were almost overwhelmed, particularly in the northernmost provinces, where they abandoned their positions in Quang Tri and fled south in the face of the enemy onslaught. At Kontum and An Loc, the South Vietnamese were more successful in defending against the attacks, but only after weeks of bitter fighting. Although the South Vietnamese suffered heavy casualties, they managed to hold their own with the aid of US advisors and American airpower. Fighting continued all over South Vietnam into the summer months, but eventually the South Vietnamese forces prevailed against the invaders and retook Quang Tri in September. With the communist invasion blunted, President Nixon declared that the South Vietnamese victory proved the viability of his Vietnamization program, instituted in 1969 to increase the combat capability of the South Vietnamese armed forces.
1970 Meghalaya becomes autonomous state within India's Assam state
1970 Qatar gains independence from Britain
1968 Chad creates Union of Central African States
1966 Soviet Union's Luna 10 becomes first spacecraft to orbit Moon
1964 Military coup in Brazil by Gen Castello Branco, Pres Goulart ousted. —  Tras ser derrocado por la oligarquía y el Ejército, el expresidente de Brasil, João Goulart, encuentra asilo político en Uruguay.
1964 Josef Klaus succeeds Alfons Gorbach as chancellor of Austria.
1959  Juan XXIII ratifica la condena de las alianzas entre comunistas y católicos. 
1959 En Bolivia se declaran en huelga 10'000 mineros.
1958 Wind speed reaches 450 kph in tornado, Wichita Falls, TX (record)
1956 Chairman change at General Motors.       ^top^
     Alfred P. Sloan stepped down after nineteen years as chairman of General Motors, with Albert Bradley elected as his successor. Sloan is recognized as the creator of the GM Corporation as it exists today. Brought on by William Durant by way of the purchase of the Hyatt Roller Bearing Corporation, Sloan worked his way into the position of vice president of GM. At that time the company was a poorly planned and loosely configured extension of William Durant's vision. Sloan, with Durant's approval if not his undivided attention, set about centralizing GM. His first major step was to build a new corporate headquarters on the outskirts of Detroit. Methodical and calculating, Sloan was the model for the late-twentieth century corporate leader in that he did not allow his ego, or his genius, to interfere with his shareholders' interests. When the DuPont family bought Durant out of GM in 1920, Pierre DuPont, at the urging of Sloan, took his place at the company's head. The recession of the early 1920s had damaged GM stock and Sloan believed that DuPont's name at the head of the company would help to restore its investors' confidence. DuPont was not interested in running the company, and so the Sloan Era of General Motors began. Alfred Sloan reorganized the company and trimmed its financial sails, and before long GM was making headway. Gone were the days of Durant's mercurial and reckless expansionist policies. Sloan focused on consolidation and profit margin. He would effectively rule GM with an invisible hand for over three decades.
1954  Llega al puerto de Barcelona el buque Semíramis, en el que regresan 286 voluntarios de la División Azul.
1953 Raab forms his first government in Austria. —  En Austria se constituye un nuevo Gobierno presidido por el canciller federal Julius Raab.
1953 James D. Watson and Francis H. C. Crick write to Nature magazine a letter which for the first time gives the correct double-helix structure of DNA, which, they write, “suggests a possible copying mechanism for the genetic material”. It would be published Nature 171, 737-738 (25 July 1953)
1949  Es aprobado el texto de la Organización del Tratado del Atlántico Norte (OTAN), que será firmado tres días después.
1948  Entra en vigor el [Plan Marshall para Europa.
1947  El Consejo de Seguridad de la Organización de las Naciones Unidas confía a EE.UU. la administración en mandato de las islas Carolinas, Palaos, Marshall y Marianas, anteriormente bajo mandato japonés.
1945 First US units reach east coast of Okinawa
1944 Soviet Army marches into pro-German Romania
1943 First electronic computer proposal.       ^top^
      John Mauchly, a physicist at the University of Pennsylvania's Moore School, wrote a report proposing an electronic computer for calculating ballistic missile firing tables. Although he had written a similar proposal the previous summer, the original memo had been lost by all of its recipients. In World War II, artillery operators had to consult pocket-sized reference books to aim their weapons. These books were filled with complex firing tables that accounted for factors like weather and terrain conditions. The tables were extremely time-consuming to produce: one hundred female human "calculators" would work full-time for a month to compile a new table. Mauchly proposed a machine that would dramatically reduce the time required to produce a table and thus use a new weapon. Eventually, the ballistics lab hired the Moore School to create the computer, known as ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer). Spearheaded by Mauchly and graduate student J. Presper Eckert, the effort took three years. ENIAC went into operation in 1946-six weeks after the war had ended. Despite its late delivery, ENIAC marked the beginning of the modern computer era.
1941 "The Desert Fox" starts to reconquer Libya     ^top^
      German Lieutenant General Erwin Rommel, "the Desert Fox," resumes his advance into Cyrenaica, modern-day Libya, signaling the beginning of what nine days later will become the recapture of Libya by the Axis forces.
      Early Italian successes in East Africa, which included occupying parts of Sudan, Kenya, and British Somaliland, were soon reversed after British offensives, led by British Field Marshall Archibald Wavell, resulted in heavy Italian casualties and forced the Italians to retreat into Libya.
      But Axis control of the area was salvaged by the appearance of Rommel and the Afrika Korps, sent to East Africa by the German High Command to bail their Italian ally out. On the verge of capturing Tripoli, the Libyan capital, Britain's forces were suddenly depleted when British Prime Minister Winston Churchill transferred British troops to Greece.
      Seizing the opportunity of a weakened British force, Rommel struck quickly, despite orders to remain still for two months. With 50 tanks and two fresh Italian divisions, Rommel forced the British to begin a retreat into Egypt. Operation Battleaxe, the counteroffensive by British Field Marshall Archibald Wavell, resulted in little more than the loss of large numbers of British tanks to German 88mm anti-tank guns, as well as Wavell's ultimately being transferred from North Africa to India.
      Rommel, known for his trademark goggles, which he pilfered from a British general's command vehicle, may have had some help in defeating his British counterpart. He was known to carry with him a book called Generals and Generalship, written by Archibald Wavell. Rommel was portrayed by James Mason in the 1953 film The Desert Rats and by Christopher Plummer in 1967's Night of the Generals. Wavell was portrayed by Patrick Magee in the 1981 TV movie Churchill and the Generals.
1941  Un piloto de pruebas llamado Schäfer despega en Rostock a bordo del primer avión equipado con dos motores a reacción.
1940 En Italia son movilizados todos los hombres y mujeres mayores de catorce años.
1939  EE.UU. reconoce al nuevo Gobierno español de Francisco Franco Bahamonde, después de que ya lo hicieran Francia y Gran Bretaña.
1934  Manuel Azaña Díaz funda el Partido Izquierda Republicana de España.
1932 Charles Lindbergh turns over $50'000 as ransom for kidnapped son (who had already been murdered, it would be discovered later).
1926 Riots between Moslems and Hindus in Calcutta.
1919  En España es detenido el director de Solidaridad Obrera, Ángel Pestaña Núñez.
1917 Jeannette Rankin becomes first US congresswoman.       ^top^
     Jeannette Pickering Rankin, the first woman ever elected to Congress, took her seat in the US Capitol as a representative from Montana.
      Born on a ranch near Missoula, Montana Territory, in 1880, Rankin worked as a social worker in the states of Montana and Washington before joining the women's suffrage movement in 1910. Working with various suffrage groups, she campaigned for the women's vote on a national level, and in 1914, was instrumental in the passage of suffrage legislation in Montana.
      Two years later, she successfully ran for Congress in Montana on a progressive Republican platform calling for total women's suffrage, legislation protecting children, and US neutrality in the European war. Following her election as a representative, Rankin's entrance into Congress was delayed for a month as congressmen discussed whether a woman should be admitted into the House of Representatives.
      Finally, on 02 April 1917, she was introduced in Congress as its first female member. On 06 April, citing public opinion in Montana and her own pacifist beliefs, Jeannette Rankin was one of only fifty representatives who voted against the American declaration of war against Germany..
      For the remainder of her first term in Congress, she sponsored legislation to aid woman and children, and advocated the passage of a federal suffrage amendment. In 1918, Rankin unsuccessfully ran for a Senate seat, and in 1919 she left Congress to become an important figure in a number of suffrage and pacifist organizations.
      In 1940, with the US entrance into another world war imminent, she was again elected as a pacifist representative from Montana, and after assuming office argued vehemently against President Franklin D. Roosevelt's war preparations. On December 7, 1941, the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, and the next day, at Roosevelt's urging, Congress passed a formal declaration of war against Japan. Representative Rankin cast the sole dissenting vote.
      In 1967, the former congresswoman organized the Jeannette Rankin Brigade, an organization that staged a number of highly publicized protests against the Vietnam War. She died in 1973 at the age of ninety-two.
1917 Wilson asks US Congress to declare war against Germany    ^top^
     President Woodrow Wilson, who initially sought a peaceful resolution to the war in Europe, appears before a joint session of Congress and urges a declaration of war, citing Germany's unrestricted submarine warfare against US vessels traveling in the Atlantic.
     Two days later the US Senate votes 82 to 6 to declare war against Germany, and two days after that, the US House of Representatives endorsed the declaration by a vote of 373 to 50 (one of the 50 was Jeannette Rankin), and America formally entered World War I.
      Four days earlier, On 28 January 1915, six months after the outbreak of the war, Germany sunk the first neutral US vessel traveling between America and England. The US government was outraged, but the German government apologized and called the attack an unfortunate mistake. However, on 07 April of the same year, a German submarine torpedoed the British steamship Lusitania, the queen of the Cunard Line, off the coast of Ireland. The unarmed vessel was destroyed and 1198 persons died, including 114 Americans and sixty-three infants. The German government maintained that the Lusitania was sunk in self-defense, but the US demanded reparations and an end to German attacks on unarmed passenger and merchant ships.
      On 31 January, the German ambassador delivered a note to the US State Department formally announcing the renewal of Germany's submarine warfare against both neutral and belligerent ships. On 03 February 1917, the US severed diplomatic relations with Germany hours before the US liner Housatonic was sunk by a German U-boat. Two months later, the US Congress declared war against Germany, and America entered World War I.
      After four years of bloody stalemate along the Western Front, the entrance of America's well-supplied forces into the conflict was a major turning point in the war. When the war finally ended on 11 November 1918, more than two million American soldiers had served on the battlefields of Western Europe, and some fifty thousand of these men had lost their lives
1916 German troops overtake Bois de Caillette
1912 Sun Yet Sen forms Guomindang-Party in China.
1904  Los hereros son vencidos cerca de Okaharaui por los colonos europeos.
1902 First US movie theater opens.       ^top^
      The first US theater devoted solely to movies opens in Los Angeles on this day in 1902. Housed in a circus tent, the venue was dubbed "The Electric Theater." Its earliest pictures included "New York in a Blizzard." Admission cost about 10 cents for a one-hour show. Inventors in Europe and the United States, including Thomas Edison, had been developing film cameras since the late 1880s. Early films were shown in individual viewing devices called Kinetoscopes. By the late 1890s, audiences could attend public demonstrations of movies, and several movie "factories" (as the earliest production studios were called) had been formed. In 1896, the Edison Company inaugurated the era of commercial movies, showing a collection of moving images as a minor act in a vaudeville show that also included live acts, among which were a Russian clown, an "eccentric dancer," and a "gymnastic comedian." The film, shown at Koster and Bial's Music Hall in New York City, featured images of dancers, ocean waves, and gondolas. Short films, usually less than a minute long, became a regular part of vaudeville shows at the turn of the century but were often shown at the very end of the performance, as "chasers," while the audience left the theater. A vaudeville performers' strike in 1901, however, left theaters scrambling for acts, and movies became the main event. In the earliest years, vaudeville theater owners had to purchase films from factories via mail order, rather than renting them, which made it expensive to change shows frequently. Starting in 1902, Henry Miles of San Francisco began renting films to theaters, forming the basis of today's distribution system. After the opening of the first movie theater, in Los Angeles in 1902, amusement arcades began opening small storefront theaters called Nickelodeans (so called because admission cost 5 cents), which showed short silent films, usually less than 15 minutes, accompanied by a live pianist. By 1907, some 2 million Americans had visited a Nickelodean.
1883 Battle at Bamako: French assault on Fabous arm forces attack
1879 District Telephone Company of New Haven, Connecticut starts the first commercial telephone service using toll lines, between Springfield and Holyoke, Massachusetts, about 13 km apart.
1866 US President Johnson declares Civil War ended in Ala, Ark, Fla, Ga, Miss, La, NC, SC, Tn and Va
1865 Confederate government with President Jefferson Davis evacuates its capital of Richmond, VA
1865 Battle of Ft Blakely AL and Selma AL
1865 (a Sunday) At approximately 07:00, Ulysses S. Grant's army attacks Confederate lines at Petersburg, Virginia, and storms Fort Gregg. By mid-afternoon, Confederate troops had begun to evacuate the town. The Union victory ensured the fall of Richmond, the capital of the Confederacy, located just 25 miles north of Petersburg.
1865 Siege of Spanish Fort, Alabama continues
1864 Skirmish at Crump's Hill (Piney Woods), Louisiana
1864 Skirmish at Spoonville/Antoine, Arkansas
1863 Bread riots in Richmond, Virginia
1860 First Italian Parliament met at Turin
1827 Joseph Dixon begins manufacturing lead pencils
1795 (13 germinal an III) DUROY Jean Michel, né à Bernay, député à la convention nationale du département de l'Eure, condamné à mort 28 prairial an 3, par le conseil militaire établi à Paris, comme convaincu d'avoir été un des provocateurs des décrets rendus le 1er prairial, d'avoir demandé le réarmement des terroristes, la liberté des conspirateurs ses collègues, dans la nuit du 12 au 13 germinal, et de ceux qui se sont soustraits à l'arrestation etc.., et par ces faits d'être un des principaux conspirateur contre la République, et contre la Convention nationale, dans la révolte des 1, 2 3 et 4 prairial an 3, il s'est poignardé après la lecture de son jugement, n'étant pas mort de ses blessures, il a été exécuté le même jour.
1792 US Congress establishes Philadelphia mint
1792 US authorizes $10 Eagle, $5 half-Eagle and 2.50 quarter-Eagle gold coins, and silver dollar, « dollar, quarter, dime and half-dime
1745 Austria and Bavaria sign peace.
1734  El rey de España Felipe V cede a su hijo Carlos (futuro Carlos III de España), mediante decreto, todos los derechos al trono de Nápoles y Sicilia.
1559 England/France signs first Treaty of Le Chateau-Cambrésis
1559 (or 1550?) Genoa, Italy, expels Jews.
1513 Ponce de León discovers Florida ^top^
     Near present-day St. Augustine, Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León came ashore on the Florida coast, and claimed the territory for the Castilian crown.
      Although other European navigators may have sighted the Florida peninsula before, Ponce de León is credited with the first recorded landing and the first detailed exploration of the Florida coast. According to legend, the Spanish explorer was searching for the “Fountain of Youth,” a fabled water source that could bring eternal youth. Ponce de León subsequently named what he believed to be an island “La Florida,” likely because his discovery came during the time of the Easter feast, or Pascua Florida.
      In 1521, he returned to Florida in an effort to establish a Spanish colony on the “island”. However, his expedition was attacked by hostile Amerindians soon after landing, and the party retreated to Cuba, where Ponce de León died from a mortal wound suffered during the battle. Successful Spanish colonization of the peninsula finally began at St. Augustine in 1565, and in 1819, the territory passed into US control under the terms of the Florida Purchase Treaty between Spain and the United States.
1453  Mehmet II emprende el sitio de Constantinopla, con 300'000 hombres y 1400 galeras.
1416 Alfonso V succeeds his father as king of Aragon.
1332  Se firma en Vitoria la escritura de incorporación de Álava a Castilla, reconociendo ésta el fuero de aquélla.
Deaths which occurred on an April 02:
2003 Spc. Mathew Boule, 22, and 6 other US soldiers in an army Black Hawk UH-60 helicopter, shot down by Iraqi small arms fire near Karbala, Iraq. The other four soldiers aboard, wounded, are rescued by US forces.
2003 Master Sgt. George Fernandez, 36, of El Paso, Texas, of US Army Special Operations, killed in action in Iraqi Kurdistan.
2003 Fifteen persons by terrorist bomb, hidden in a barbecue stand outside the main gate of the ferry terminal at Davao, Mindanao island, the Philippines. The bomb explodes as passengers are getting off a ferry from Manila. Among the dead are children, a nun, four policemen, and several vendors. 53 persons are wounded. The island's largest rebel group, the 12'000-strong MILF (Moro Islamic Liberation Front), denies responsibility.
2001 Mohammed Abdel Al, 29, by 3 rockets from two Israeli helicopters targeting him as an Islamic Jihad leader, as he was driving his van near the Rafah refugee camp in the Gaza Strip on Egyptian border. A passenger is critically injured.
1975 Un teniente coronel del Ejército de Argentina, asesinado por miembros del Movimiento Montonero.
1974 Georges Pompidou, 62, French president, in Paris.
1970: 16 Syrian soldiers, including 4 officers, in attack by Israeli air force and army. Thirty-seven other Syrian soldiers are wounded.
1914 Paul Johann Ludwig von Heyse, writer (Nobel 1910), in Munich.       ^top^
     Er wurde als Paul Johann Ludwig Heyse am 15. März 1830 in Berlin geboren.
     Heyse fand schon im Elternhaus eine Atmosphäre vor, in der kultivierte Geselligkeit, geistig-literarischer Austausch, die Anteilnahme an Musik und bildender Kunst Selbstverständlichkeiten waren. Die Mutter war mit der Familie Mendelssohn-Bartholdy verwandt und stand mit den führenden jüdischen Salons in Berlin in geselligem Verkehr. Schon während seiner Schulzeit am Gymnasium entstanden erste literarische Versuche, auf die Emanuel Geibel aufmerksam wurde. Aus der Förderung durch den 15 Jahre Älteren und schon Berühmten erwuchs eine lebenslange Freundschaft und gemeinsame literarische Arbeit.
      Die Freundschaft zum Haus des Kunsthistorikers Kugler brachte Heyse in Kontakt mit Burckhardt, Menzel, Fontane und Storm, schließlich mit der literarischen Vereinigung »Tunnel über der Spree«. Nach vier Semestern Studium der klassischen Philologie in Berlin wechselte Heyse zum Studium der Kunstgeschichte und Romanistik nach Bonn und promovierte 1852 mit einer Arbeit über die Lyrik der Troubadours. Zuvor schon hatte der Vater des Sohnes Entschluß, Dichter zu werden, freudig begrüßt.
      Den 24jährigen erreichte auf Vermittlung Geibels der Ruf des bayerischen Königs Maximilian II. 1854 übersiedelte Heyse nach München und nahm regelmäßig teil an den »Symposien« des Königs im Dichter- und Gelehrtenkreis. Daraus ergaben sich vielfältige gesellschaftliche Verbindungen. Er konnte sich eine herausragende Stellung als literarische Autorität aufbauen und sie über Jahrzehnte als Hofpoet und Dichterfürst in der Nachfolge Goethes behaupten, seit 1874 in der repräsentativen Neo-Renaissance-Villa nahe der Lenbachs residierend. Um den brachliegenden literarischen Austausch in München zu beleben, hatte Heyse mit Geibel schon 1854 nach dem Muster des Berliner »Tunnel« die Dichtervereinigung Krokodil gegründet und seit 1868 auch geleitet. Mit dem von Geibel herausgegebenen Münchner Dichterbuch stellte sich die Gruppe 1862 der Öffentlichkeit vor.
      Viele seiner Novellen siedelte Heyse in seiner Wahlheimat Italien an, wo er auch im Alter meist den Winter auf seinem Landsitz in Gardone am Gardasee verbrachte.
      Nach dem Tode Maximilians II. 1864 lockerte sich Heyses Bindung an den Hof und löste sich 1868; er hatte sich mit Geibels politischen Überzeugungen solidarisiert und damit unerwünscht gemacht. Seine Stellung im literatischen Leben wurde dadurch jedoch nicht erschüttert: 1871 Aufnahme in den Kreis der Ritter des Maximilians-Ordens, 1884 der Schiller-Preis, 1910 die Ehrenbürgerschaft der Stadt München. Heyse erhielt 1910, erstmals an einen deutschen Dichter verliehen, den Literatur-Nobelpreis.
      Er bildete mit E. Geibel den Mittelpunkt des Münchner Dichterkreises. Paul von Heyse war geprägt von der klassisch - romantischen Bildung. Er entwickelte eine Novellentheorie, um der Formauflösung entgegenzuwirken. Es handelt sich um die " Falkentheorie ". Falke steht für ein symbolträchtiges Leitmotiv. Diese Theorie verwirklichte er in zahlreichen Novellen. Paul von Heyse schrieb auch Romane, Dramen und Gedichte sowie Übersetzungen, vor allem italienische und spanische Texte übersetzte er ins Deutsche. Viele seiner Gedichte wurden vertont, u. a. von Johannes Brahms ( siehe Vertonungen ). 1901 - 1910 lebte er Gordone in Italien in der Villa Itolanda. Er liebte das Leben in Italien und sein Wunsch war es, dort begraben zu werden, wie aus dem Gedicht "Letzter Wille" hervorgeht. 1910 erhielt er den Nobelpreis für Literatur von der schwedischen Nobelpreisstiftung. Er wurde geadelt und konnte sich ab 1910 Paul Johann Ludwig von Heyse nennen. Paul Heyse starb am 02 April 1914 kurz nach Vollendung des 84. Lebensjahres in München.
     Heyse studied classical and Romance languages and traveled for a year in Italy, supported by a research grant. After completing his studies he became an independent scholar and was called to Munich by Maximilian II of Bavaria. There, with the poet Emanuel Geibel, he became the head of the Munich circle of writers, who sought to preserve traditional artistic values from the encroachments of political radicalism, materialism, and realism. He became a master of the carefully wrought short story, a chief example of which is L'Arrabbiata (1855). He also published novels (Kinder der Welt 1873) and many unsuccessful plays. Among his best works are his translations of the works of Giacomo Leopardi and other Italian poets. His poems provided the lyrics for many lieder by the composer Hugo Wolf. Heyse, who was given to idealization and who refused to portray the dark side of life, became an embittered opponent of the growing school of Naturalism, and his popularity had greatly decreased by the time he received the Nobel Prize in 1910.
Im Lenz, im Lenz,
Wenn Veilchen blühn zuhauf,
Gib acht, gib acht,
Da wachen die Tränen auf.

Im Herbst, im Herbst,
Fiel alles Laub vom Baum.
Ach, Lieb' und Glück
Vergangen wie im Traum!

Gib acht, gib acht,
So ist der Dinge Lauf:
Blumen und Wunden
Brechen im Frühling auf.

Letzter Wille

Der Tag an dem das Leben gehen wird
und ich nicht mehr aufwachen kann,
in welchem Ort oder welcher Stadt ist mir unwichtig,
das Bett werden sie mir machen wollen.
Eine ruhige Grube würde ich hier mögen,
unter diesen Zypressen,
wo ich mit meinen süßen Träumen rastete
und wohin ich meine Schritte richtete.

Am Ufer meines Sees, auf dessen Seiten
der Frieden die Flügel schlägt,
würde ich mir mit dem Murmeln der Wellen
ein Zikadengezirpe anhören,
würde ich vom hohen Monte Baldo grüßen,
dem eingeschlafenen Gipfel,
schwärzlich auf dem See, und stolz und unabänderlich,
von Sternen gekrönt.

  • L'Arrabbiata / L'Arrabbiata
  • Das Mädchen von Treppi
  • Andrea Delfin
  • Spielmannslegende
  • Der letzte Zentaur
  • Die Witwe von Pisa
  • Ein Ring
  • Spielmannslegende
  • Gedichte
    Works not found online:
    Rafael — Elisabeth Charlotte — Colberg — Moralische Novellen — Im Paradiese — Merlin
  • 1905 Hjalmar “Magnus” Munsterhjelm, Swedish French artist born on 19 October 1840.
    1902 Esther Morris, 87, the first woman judge in US history, in Cheyenne, Wyoming.
    1901 Claude Thomas Stanfield Moore, British artist born on 10 June 1853.
    1872 Samuel Finley Breese Morse, US painter, telegraph pioneer.  Born on 27 April 1791, Samuel Morse invented Morse code, developed an electric telegraph, and established the first telegraphy line in the United States. In addition, Morse was an accomplished artist whose portraits are still exhibited in major art museums today. Morse began work on a telegraph in 1832 and spent several years developing a prototype of an electric telegraph, which he demonstrated for the first time at the Speedwell Iron Works in Morristown, New Jersey, in 1838. After several years of lobbying Congress, Morse received a grant to build an experimental telegraph line from Baltimore to Washington DC. On 24 May 1844, Morse transmitted his first telegraph message, "What hath God wrought?" MORE ON MORSE AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
    1831 Charles Felix, 74, blind King of Sardina (1821-1831)
    1800 Gulielma Sands, found dead at the bottom of a well. Sands lived in a boardinghouse in lower Manhattan and had been engaged to marry Levi Weeks, who also lived in the building. In Weeks's subsequent two-day trial, 75 witnesses would testify. The jury would returned a verdict of not guilty after only five minutes. Weeks's attorneys were Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr, who less than five years later would fight each other in a duel that left Hamilton dead.
    1794 (13 germinal an II) Condamnés à mort comme brigands de la Vendée,       ^top^
    tous ceux dans la liste ci-dessous, domiciliés à Bouguenais (ou Bourgenais, Bourguenais, Bougenais, Bouquenais, Bonquenais) canton de Nantes, département de la Loire-Inféreure, par la commission militaire séante à Nantes, et, présumément, ils sont guillotinés (ou fusillés?) le même jour ou très peu après.
    1. AIGRONT Julien,
    2. ANGEBOT Jacques
    3. BABONEAU Jean
    4. BAUDIN Jacques
    5. BAUDRY Honoré
    6. BEAUTREUX Simon Jean
    7. BEAUTRU Jean
    8. BERNARD Jean
    9. BERTAUD Jean Pierre
    10. BERTAUD Nicolas
    11. BERTHAUD Mathurin
    12. BERTRAND Jean
    13. BICHON Pierre
    14. BILLOND Jean
    15. BLANCHARD François
    16. BLANCHARD François
    17. BLANCHARD Laurent
    18. BLINAUT Jean
    19. BONNEAU Jean
    20. BOUDOT Pierre
    21. BOUDOT Jacques
    22. BOUDRU Jacques
    23. BOUILLE Joseph
    24. BOUSSAINT Mathurin
    25. BOUTEILLER Jean
    26. BREAND André
    27. BRISSON André
    28. BRISSON Jean
    29. BOCHARD Pierre
    30. BUREAU Mathurin
    31. BUREAU Pierre
    1. BUROT Michel
    2. CHAUVEL Louis
    3. CHENAUT Pierre
    4. CLERGEAU Julien
    5. CLERGEAU Louis
    6. CORBINEAU Jean
    7. CORBINEAU Pierre
    8. COSSART René
    9. COUPRE Hyacinthe
    10. DAVID Jean
    11. DAVIOT François
    12. DELAUNAY Pierre
    13. DOREAU Pierre
    14. FLORISSON André
    15. FORTUNEAU François
    16. FORTUNEAU Noël
    17. FRINCHET Mathurin
    18. GAUTHIER Pierre
    19. GIRAUX Jean
    20. GIRAUX Jean
    21. GOBIN Olivier
    22. GRATON Maurice
    23. GUERIN Jacques
    24. GUERIN Jean
    25. GUERIN Pierre
    26. HERDOT Jean
    27. HERVE Simon
    28. HEURTIN André
    29. HOUSSAYE Simon
    30. INGRAND Simon
    31. JANNEAU Pierre
    1. LARDIERRE Jean
    2. LAUNAY André
    3. LEROY Pierre
    4. LESAGE Guillaume
    5. LESAGE Jean
    6. LESAGE Mathurin
    7. LESAGE Pierre
    8. LESGNIERRE Pierre
    9. LESVEQUE Julien
    10. LIAMORT Pierre
    11. LIOTTE Pierre
    12. LISTER Antoine
    13. LOIRALL Clément
    14. LOIRAULT Julien
    15. LOIRAUD Mathurin
    16. LOUSTOT Jacques
    17. LUCAS Jean
    18. MAILLARD Joseph
    19. MARET Louis
    20. MARTINET Jean
    21. MASSU Pierre
    22. MOCART Antoine
    23. MOCART Jean
    24. MOIDON Pierre
    25. MOISDON André
    26. MOISDON Bastien
    27. MONNIER Jean
    28. MOREAU Jean
    29. MOREAU Louis
    30. NEVEU Jean
    31. NORY Guillaume
    1. OLIVE François
    2. ORRIENT Pierre
    3. PAUVEREAU Simon
    4. PIESSEAU Jean
    5. PIESSEAU Nicolas
    6. PISSARD Pierre
    7. POKCHATEAU Louis
    8. RENOISET Renault
    9. RICHON Pierre
    10. ROBERT Pierre
    11. ROQUET Jean
    12. ROUSSEAU Mathurin
    13. ROUSSEAU Pierre
    14. SALMON Pierre
    15. SAURIN Jacques
    16. SOULAS Olivier
    17. TARTRU Pierre
    18. TENAY Jean
    19. TESSIER Isaac
    20. TOURNAY Hervé
    21. TOUZE François
    22. TOUZE Jean
    23. TOUZE Julien
    24. TOUZE Mathurin
    25. TOUZEAU Joseph
    26. TROUVEL Guillaume
    27. VIEUX Jean
    28. VILENOT Jacques
    29. VINET Pierre
    30. VIOT Julien
    1794 LORAIN Jacques, garçon laboureur, domicilié à Martigné-Briant, département de Mayenne et Loire, condamné à mort comme brigand de la Vendée, le 13 germinal an 2, par la commission militaire de Laval.
    1794 ROMIGNIÈRES Jean Baptiste, laboureur, domicilié à Annauville, département de la haute Garonne, condamné à mort comme contre-révolutionnaire, le 13 germinal an 2, par le tribunal révolutionnaire dudit département.
    1794 REDOUDIS Jean, conducteur des charrois d’artillerie, domicilié à Limoges, département de la Haute Vienne, condamné à mort, comme contre-révolutionnaire, le 13 germinal an 2, par le tribunal militaire du 1er arrondissement de l’armée des Pyrénées-Orientales.
    1794 DIEUDONNE Claude François, canonnier au 6ème bataillon de Paris, domicilié à Colle-l'Unité, département de la Seine, condamné à mort comme contre-révolutionnaire le 13 germinal an 2, par le tribunal criminel du département du Nord.
    1794 MONTAVANT Joseph, ci-devant soldat au régiment de Renac-suisse, depuis journalier, domicilié à Maubeuge, département du Nord, condamné à mort, comme contre-révolutionnaire, le 13 germinal an 2, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
    1794 MASQUET Jean, marchand de bœufs, âgé de 27 ans, natif de Civay, département de la Charente, domicilié à Paris département de la Seine, condamné à mort le 13 germinal an 2, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme contre-révolutionnaire, pour avoir vendu à un prix excessif les bestiaux destinés pour l'approvisionnement de Paris, et empêché l'arrivages des subsistances.
    1794 LECHAUDEL Joachim, lieutenant de la 34ème division de la gendarmerie nationale, en cantonnement à Marseille, domicilié à Romilly, département de la Seine Inférieure, condamné à mort le 13 germinal an 2, par le tribunal criminel du département du Nord, comme contre-révolutionnaire
    1794 JORRE Jean Baptiste, domicilié à Toulouse, département de la haute Garonne, condamné à mort, le 13 germinal an 2, par la commission militaire séante à Auxonne, comme émigré.
    1794 GROS Jean Jacques, ex prieur des bénédictins ex curé de St Sever, domicilié à St Sever, département des Landes, condamné à mort, le 13 germinal an 2, par le tribunal criminel révolutionnaire du département de la Haute Garonne, comme contre-révolutionnaire.
    1794 DEVELLE Antoine Joseph Marie, âgé de 50 ans, né et demeurant à Arras, ci-devant greffier du tribunal du district d'Arras, époux de Regnier François, condamné à mort à Arras le 13 germinal an II
    1794 MONTGON ou MONTGOUR François Aymar, âgé de 64 ans, né à Chalenton (Vivarais), époux de Durand Marguerite Flore, commandant de la citadelle d'Arras, condamné à mort à Arras le 13 germinal an II
    1794 PREVOST Nicolas, notaire, né à Foncquevillers, veuf de Camus Caroline Romaine, condamné à mort à Arras le 13 germinal an II
    1794 BOUTONNIER Sicaire, domestique, domicilié à Verthalat, canton de Riberac, département de la Dordogne, condamné à mort comme émigré, le 13 germinal an 2, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
    1709 Giovanni-Battista Gaulli “Il Baciccio”, Italian artist born on 08 May 1639. MORE ON GAULLI AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
    1657 Ferdinand III, 48, King of Hungarian/Bohemia/German Emperor
    1416 Ferdinand I, the Justified, 52, king of Aragon/Sicily
    1118 Boudouin I, of Bologne/Edessa, first crusader/king of Jerusalem.
    Births which occurred on an April 02:
    2003 America, Iraqi girl, delivered and named by US Navy Hospitalman First Class Kyle Morris, 39, at a Marine battalion aid station near Nasiriyah, Iraq, to which a military ambulance had taken the mother, 20, after US Marines had noticed her in labor in a pickup truck. The woman's family, refugee from another city, is living in tents in Nasiriyah.
    1987 PS/2 and OS/2 are introduced by IBM.
    1978 Velcro is first put on the market.
    1940  Poeta en Nueva York, de Federico García Lorca se publica.
    1936  Abdelhamid Brahimi, político y economista argelino.
    1934 Paul Joseph Cohen, in Long Branch NJ, mathematician known for to his work on differential equations, harmonic analysis, and especially set theory (in which he proved
    the independence of the axiom of choice and of the generalized continuum hypothesis).
    1933 György Konrád, Hungarian novelist and essayist. As an advocate of individual freedom Konrád was under a publication ban by the Communist government during most of the 1970s and early 1980s. His works began to appear in Hungary after the formation of multiparty democratic system and the ties to Soviet Union were cut.
    1896 Luigi Filippo Tibertelli De Pisis, pittore e scrittore italiano (Ferrara 1896 - Milano 1956). La sua pittura è legata al processo dell'arte italiana dal momento metafisico al Novecento. L'opera letteraria di De Pisis è rappresentata da scritti di critica d'arte e da raccolte di liriche (Poesie, 1942), nelle quali il gusto impressionistico e visivo trova espressioni di singolare vivacità. — Negli anni della giovinezza ferrarese de Pisis porta a termine gli studi regolari, ma coltiva ad un tempo molteplici interessi: dalla botanica alla storia dell’arte, dalla pittura alla letteratura. Molte di queste esperienze, e in particolare quella letteraria, riaffiorano e tornano utili in seguito al suo lavoro pittorico. Altrettanto vale per l’incontro avvenuto a Ferrara, nella seconda metà degli anni Dieci, con i padri della pittura metafisica: De Chirico, Savinio e Carrà. Anche i frutti di quell’esperienza maturano più avanti, negli anni di Parigi.
          Nel 1920 si trasferisce a Roma, dove lavora alla definizione di un proprio linguaggio figurativo. Esiti interessanti di quel periodo non mancano, ma è a Parigi, dove si trasferisce nel 1925, che, anche grazie allo studio dei grandi ottocentisti francesi e dei contemporanei, raggiunge la piena padronanza dei suoi mezzi, avviando uno dei più straordinari itinerari della pittura del Novecento, non solo italiano. Il suo pennello diventa infatti una sorta di sismografo capace di registrare con inimitabile immediatezza ciò che accade nell’attimo dell’ incontro-scontro tra la sensibilità dell’artista e l’emozione che gli procurano le cose, anche le più umili: una semplice penna d’oca a terra, nel mezzo di una strada, o una conchiglia abbandonata su una spiaggia. Paesaggi, nature morte, frutti, fiori, animali e uomini sono tratteggiati, sulle sue tele, con pennellate lievi, vibranti, luminose, fragili in apparenza, ma dure in realtà come il fil di ferro. È così per tutto il quindicennio trascorso a Parigi, e poi anche in Italia, a Milano e Venezia, dove risiede principalmente a partire dal 1939. Vengono, infine, gli anni di Villa Fiorita. Anni di sofferenze che si riflettono nelle opere di quel tempo estremo della sua arte, ma che non gli impediscono di prosciugare la sua febbrile "stenografia pittorica", costruendo una sintassi figurativa ridotta all’essenziale, una sorta di personalissimo alfabeto Morse drammaticamente pausato, capace di esiti all’altezza di quanto di più grande e di più moderno andava avvenendo in pittura, in Italia e fuori. — (A street in an earthquake?) — (can, bottle, candle?)
    1891 Max Ernst, German French Surrealist painter and sculptor who died on 01 April 1976. — MORE ON ERNST AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
    1875 Walter Chrysler, founded car company (Chrysler)
    1872 Gasolive-powered engine is patented by George B. Brayton.
    1858  Eduardo Barrón González, escultor español.
    1841 Clément Ader, French engineer, invented and flew the first airplane (a short hop).
    1840 Émile Zola    ^top^
          Il deviendra le romancier de la condition ouvrière en France (Germinal, La bête humaine) et le peintre de toute la société de la " Belle Epoque " (Nana, etc.) Il est également l’auteur du fameux "J'accuse" dans l'Aurore qui bouleversa, sema le trouble et divisa la France et permit de faire réviser le procès du capitaine Dreyfus, juif, faussement accusé de trahison avec l’ennemi, rétrogradé, condamné au Bagne (à Cayenne).
    click for full portrait     [< click on image for full portrait of Zola]
          French writer Emile Zola's “J'accuse...!”, was printed on 13 January 1898 in L'Aurore. The letter exposes a military cover-up regarding Captain Alfred Dreyfus. Dreyfus, a French army captain, had been accused of espionage in 1894 and sentenced in a secret military court-martial to imprisonment in a South American penal colony. Two years later, evidence of Dreyfus' innocence surfaced, but the army suppressed the information. Zola charges various high-ranking military officers and, indeed, the War Office itself of concealing the truth in the wrongful conviction of Dreyfus. Zola was prosecuted for libel and and, on 23 February 1898, sentenced to one year's imprisonment. In July 1899, when his appeal appeared certain to fail, he fled to England. In 1899, Dreyfus was pardoned, but for political reasons was not exonerated until 1906. Zola returned to France in June 1900. Zola's intervention in the controversy helped to undermine anti-Semitism and rabid militarism in France.
          Zola died unexpectedly on 28 September 1902, the victim of coal gas asphyxiation resulting from a blocked chimney flue. Some believe that fanatical anti-Dreyfusards arranged to have the chimney blocked.
         Zola grew up in poverty and twice flunked the baccalauréat. Employed in the advertising department of Hachette, in 1865 Zola published his first novel, La Confession de Claude, a sordid, semiautobiographical tale that drew the attention of the public and the police. Zola left Hachette.
          In 1867 he published Thérèse Raquin, first published serially as Un Mariage d'Amour earlier in the same year. The sensual Thérèse and her lover Laurent murder her weak husband Camille. After marrying, they are haunted by Camille's ghost, and their passion for each other turns to hatred. They eventually kill themselves.
          In 1868 Zola published Madeleine Férat, a rather unsuccessful attempt at applying the principles of heredity to the novel.
          It was this interest in science that led Zola, in the fall of 1868, to conceive the idea of a large-scale series of novels similar to Honoré de Balzac's La Comédie humaine.. Zola's project would become the 20 volumes of the Rougon-Macquart series (deux branches d'une même famille: l'une issue d'un mariage, les riches et puissants Rougon, l'autre issue d'un adultère, les pauvres Macquart: les personages). La Fortune des Rougon was published in book form in October 1871. Zola went on to produce these 20 novels--most of which are of substantial length--at the rate of nearly one per year, completing the series in 1893.
         Les Rougon-Macquart is "the natural and social history of a family under the Second Empire." (1852-70).
          La Curée (1872)explores the land speculation and financial dealings that accompanied the renovation of Paris during the Second Empire.
          Le Ventre de Paris (1873) examines the structure of the Halles and its influence on the lives of its workers. The 10 steel pavilions that make up the market are compared alternately to a machine, a palace, and an entire city.
          Son Excellence Eugène Rougon (1876) traces the machinations and maneuverings of cabinet officials in Napoleon III's government.
          L'Assommoir (1877) shows the effects of alcoholism in a working-class neighborhood by focusing on the rise and decline of a laundress, Gervaise Macquart.
          Nana (1880) follows the life of Gervaise's daughter as her economic circumstances and hereditary penchants lead her to a career as an actress, then a courtesan.
          Au Bonheur des Dames (1883) depicts the mechanisms of a new economic entity, the department store, and its impact on smaller merchants.
          Germinal (1885) depicts life in a mining community by highlighting relations between the bourgeoisie and the working class. At the same time, the novel weighs the events of a miners' strike and its aftermath in terms of those contemporary political movements (Marxism, anarchism, trade unionism) that purport to deal with the problems of the proletariat.
          L'Œuvre (1886), explores the milieu of the art world and the interrelationship of the arts by means of the friendship between an innovative Impressionist painter, Claude Lantier, and a naturalist novelist, Pierre Sandoz. Unable to realize his creative potential, the painter ends up hanging himself in front of his final painting.
          In La Terre (1887), a particularly grim portrait of peasant life, Zola shows what he considers to be the sordid lust for land among the French peasantry.
          In La Bête humaine (1890) he analyzes the hereditary urge to kill that haunts the Lantier branch of the family, set against the background of the French railway systemt.
          La Débâcle (1892) traces both the defeat of the French army by the Germans at the Battle of Sedan in 1870 and the anarchist uprising of the Paris Commune.
          In Le Docteur Pascal (1893) Zola uses the main character, the doctor Pascal Rougon, armed with a genealogical tree of the Rougon-Macquart family published with the novel, to expound the theories of heredity underlying the entire series.
          In the early '70s Zola expanded his literary contacts, meeting frequently with Gustave Flaubert, Edmond Goncourt, Alphonse Daudet, and Ivan Turgenev, all successful novelists whose failures in the theatre led them to humorously refer to themselves as auteurs sifflés ("hissed authors"). Beginning in 1878 the Zola home in Médan, on the Seine River not far from Paris, served as a gathering spot for a group of the novelist's disciples, the best-known of whom were Guy de Maupassant and Joris-Karl Huysmans, and together they published a collection of short stories, Les Soirées de Médan (1880).
          As the founder and most celebrated member of the naturalist movement, Zola published several treatises to explain his theories on art, including Le Roman expérimental (1880) and Les Romanciers naturalistes (1881). Naturalism involves the application to literature of two scientific principles: determinism, or the belief that character, temperament, and, ultimately, behavior are determined by the forces of heredity, environment, and historical moment; and the experimental method, which entails the objective recording of precise data in controlled conditions.
          Zola's final series of novels, Les Trois Villes (1894-98) and Les Quatre Évangiles (1899-1903) are generally conceded to be far less forceful than his earlier work. However, the titles of the novels in the latter series reveal the values that underlay his entire life and work: Fécondité (1899), Travail (1901), Vérité (1903), and Justice (which remained incomplete).
    Zola en-ligne en français:   
  • Germinal
  • Germinal
  • Contes à Ninon
  • J'accuse!
  • J'accuse!
  • L'Argent
  • L'Assommoir
  • L'Œuvre
  • La Bête humaine
  • La Curée
  • La Débâcle
  • La Terre
  • Le Docteur Pascal
  • Le Roman expérimental
  • Le Rêve
  • Le Ventre de Paris
  • Les Soirées de Médan
  • Lourdes
  • Nana
  • La Conquête de Plassans
  • Nouveaux Contes à Ninon
  • Pot-Bouille
  • Rome
  • Son Excellence Eugène Rougon
  • Une Page d'Amour
    Zola online in English translations:
  • Germinal,
  • Nana; The Miller's Daughter; Captain Burle;
    The Death of Olivier Becaille
  • Zola en allemand: Der große Michu
    Emile Zola téléchargeable
    (choix de Acrobat, Claris, RTF) Au bonheur des dames / Germinal / J'accuse / Jacques d'amour / La bête humaine / La curée / La faute de l'abbé Mouret / La fortune des Rougon / La mort d'Olivier Bécaille / L'attaque du moulin / L'œuvre / Naïs / Nana / Pour une nuit d'amour / Son excellence Eugène Rougon
    1837 Johan Conrad Greive, Dutch artist. People did grieve for Greive when he died on 14 May 1891.
    1834 Frédéric-Auguste Bartholdi, sculpteur français de la Statue de la Liberté.       ^top^
          Frédéric-Auguste Bartholdi, artiste sculpteur, né à Colmar, s’engage dans la Garde Nationale lors des événements de la Commune et de la prise de Paris (1870). Il est déjà célèbre pour de multiples œuvres, dont la très belle statue de Vercingétorix à Clermont-Ferrand.
          Il se rend à New-York. Et c’est le 21 Jun 1871, en entrant dans cette baie de l’Hudson qu’il imagine "La Liberté éclairant le monde". Il faudra cependant plusieurs années pour qu’un Comité de l’union franco-américaine, sous la présidence d’Édouard de Laboulaye, puisse recueillir, par souscriptions et manifestations mondaines, les fonds nécessaires à la colossale entreprise.
          Bartholdi découvre le modèle espéré en Jeanne-Émilie Baheux de Puysieux qu’il épousera, mais il prête à la Liberté le visage grave de sa mère. Il conçoit une statue ayant 33 mètres de haut, la plus grande du monde, exécutée en plaques de cuivre martelées et rivées, soutenues par une armature de fer très savamment calculée par Gustave Eiffel pour résister aux vents les plus forts.
          Le bras de la statue, tenant le flambeau, est envoyé, en 1876, à l’exposition de Philadelphie où il déchaîne tantôt l’enthousiasme tantôt la suspicion et les moqueries des Américains qui doutent que l’œuvre soit jamais réalisée en son entier. Elle devait l’être assez rapidement. Dressée dans la rade, elle est offerte officiellement par la France le 4 juillet 1884. Sa célébrité est universelle, et peu d’œuvres sont autant reproduites (réduction en cuivre martelé, sur le pont de Grenelle à Paris) et prises à parti dans les dessins humoristiques des journaux et sur les affiches politiques ou publicitaires.
         The Statue of Liberty is Bartholdi's best-known work, but his masterpiece is the "Lion de Belfort" (completed 1880), which is carved out of the red sandstone of a hill that towers over the city of Belfort in eastern France. Bartholdi died on 04 October 1904, in Paris.
          On 05 August 1884, on Bedloe's Island in New York harbor, the cornerstone of the pedestal for the Statue of Liberty, a gift of friendship from the people of France to the people of the United States, is laid.
          Originally known as "Liberty Enlightening the World," the Statue of Liberty was first proposed by French historian Edouard Laboulaye to commemorate the Franco-American alliance during the American Revolution. Designed by French sculptor Frederic Auguste Bartholdi, the 46-meter statue was the form of a woman with an uplifted arm holding a torch. On 22 February 1877, the anniversary of George Washington's birthday, Congress approved the use of a site on New York Bedloe's Island suggested by Bartholdi. In May of 1884, the statue was completed in France, and three months later, the Americans laid the cornerstone for its pedestal in New York. On June 19, 1885, the dismantled Statue of Liberty arrived to the New World, enclosed in over two-hundred packing cases. Its copper sheets were reassembled and the last rivet of the monument was driven in on 28 October 1886, during a dedication ceremony attended by US President Grover Cleveland.
          On the pedestal is inscribed "The New Colossus," a famous sonnet by American poet Emma Lazarus that welcomes immigrants to the United States with: "Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, / The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. / Send these, the homeless, tempest-tossed to me. / I lift my lamp beside the golden door." [sentiments all too rarely shared by the majority of those already comfortably installed in the US]
          Six years later, Ellis Island, adjacent to Bedloe's Island, opened as the chief entry station for immigrants to the United States, and for the next thirty-two years, more than twelve million immigrants were welcomed into New York harbor by "Lady Liberty." In 1924, the Statue of Liberty was made a national monument.
         On 19 June 1885, in New York City's harbor, arrives the Statue of Liberty, a gift of friendship from the people of France to the people of the United States. Originally known as "Liberty Enlightening the World," the statue was proposed by French historian Edouard Laboulaye to commemorate the Franco-American alliance during the American Revolution. Designed by French sculptor Frederic Auguste Bartholdi, the 46-meter statue is in the form of a woman with an uplifted arm holding a torch. On February 22, 1877, the anniversary of George Washington's birthday, Congress approved the use of a site on New York Bedloe's Island suggested by Bartholdi. In May of 1884, the statue was completed in France, and three months later, the Americans laid the cornerstone for its pedestal in New York.
          On 19 June 1885, the dismantled Statue of Liberty arrived to the New World, enclosed in over two hundred packing cases. Its copper sheets were reassembled and the last rivet of the monument was driven in on October 28, 1886, during a dedication ceremony attended by US President Grover Cleveland. On the pedestal was inscribed "The New Colossus," a famous sonnet by American poet Emma Lazarus that welcomed immigrants to the United States with the declaration, "Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, / The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. / Send these, the homeless, tempest-tossed to me. / I lift my lamp beside the golden door."
    However, all too often, anti-immigrant sentiments and legislation have belied those hospitable words.
          Six years later, Ellis Island, adjacent to Bedloe's Island, opened as the chief entry station for immigrants to the United States, and for the next thirty-two years, more than twelve million immigrants were welcomed into New York harbor by "Lady Liberty." In 1924, the Statue of Liberty was made a national monument.
    1827 William Holman Hunt, British painter who died on 07 September 1910. MORE ON HUNT AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
    1811 William Joseph Shayer Junior, British artist who died in 1892.
    1810 Kaspar Karsen (or Karssen), Dutch artist who died on 24 July 1896.
    Struwwelpeter1809 Heinrich Hoffman,       ^top^
         He would become a German physician and writer, best known for his story of a boy, who had bad manners, Der Struwwelpeter (1845). Hoffmann's didactic tales are contrary to more modern educational principles — they were meant to scare children when they fail to follow the instructions of their elders. Der Struwwelpeter has been translated into some 30 languages and it has deeply influenced children's literature. Hoffmann died on 20 September 20 1894.
         Der Arzt Heinrich Hoffmann schuf den Struwwelpeter 1844 für seinen damals dreijährigen Sohn. Bilder und Verse, die er seinen kleinen Patienten zur Ablenkung zeichnete und vortrug, waren das Ausgangsmaterial. Das so entstandene Manuskript wurde unter dem Titel "Lustige Geschichten und drollige Bilder mit 15 schön kolorierten Tafeln für Kinder von 3-6 Jahren" und dem Verfassernamen "Reimerich Kinderlieb" 1845 erstmals veröffentlicht. Erst die fünfte vermehrte Auflage von 1848 erhielt den Titel "Der Struwwelpeter oder lustige Geschichten und drollige Bilder für Kinder von 3-6 Jahren". Seitdem steht der namengebende Struwwelpeter am Beginn des Buches. Vermutlich 1858 verfaßte Hoffmann ein zweites Manuskript mit veränderten Darstellungen, dem alle späteren Ausgaben folgen. Das Bilderbuch wurde in viele Sprachen übersetzt. Bis in die heutige Zeit nutzten zahlreiche "Struwwelpetriaden" das Struwwelpeterbild zu einer meist politisch gemeinten Interpretation der jeweiligen Gegenwart.
         Sieh einmal, hier steht er. Pfui ! Der S t r u w w e l p e t e r ! An den Händen beiden Ließ er sich nicht schneiden Seine Nägel fast ein Jahr; Kämmen ließ er nicht sein Haar. Pfui ! Ruft da ein jeder: Garst'ger Struwwelpeter !
    SLOVENLY PETER (Translation by MARK TWAIN:)
          See this frowsy "cratur" - Pah ! its's Struwwelpeter ! On his fingers rusty, On his tow-head musty, Scissors seldom come; Lets his talons grow a year, - Hardly ever combs his hair, - Do any loathe him ? Some ! They hail him "Modern Satyr - Disgusting Struwwelpeter."
         Regardez un peu, le voici: Pierre l'Ebouriffé ! Fi ! Fi ! Quand on veut lui peigner les cheveux Le vilain dit: Non ! et s' entête A ne pas se laisser tailler Les ongles, un an tout entier. Oh ! vilain Pierre, oh ! sale Pierre ! Il devrait se cacher sous terre !
    Die Geschichten = The Stories = Les Histoires
  • Die Geschichte vom bösen Friedrich = The Story of Ugly Frederick = L' histoire du Vilain Frédéric
  • Die gar traurige Geschichte mit dem Feuerzeug = The Sad Tale of the Match-Box = Triste Histoire de la Boite d' Allumettes
  • Die Geschichte von den schwarzen Buben = The Tale of the Young Black Cap = L' histoire des Enfants Noirs
  • Die Geschichte vom wilden Jäger = The Tale of the Terrible Hunter = L' Histoire du Fameux Chasseur
  • Die Geschichte vom Daumenlutscher = Story of the Thumb-Sucker = L' Histoire du Suce-Pouce
  • Die Geschichte vom Suppen-Kaspar = The Tale of Soupy-Kaspar = L' Histoire de Gaspard à la Soupe
  • Die Geschichte vom Zappel-Philipp = The Tale of Fussy-Philip = L' Histoire de Philippe le Balanceur
  • Die Geschichte vom Hans Guck-in-die-Luft = The History of Hans Stare-in-the-Air = L' Histoire de Jean le Nez-en-l'Air
  • Die Geschichte vom fliegenden Robert = The Story of Flying Robert = L' Histoire de Robert Qui s'Envole
    Der Struwwelpeter auf jiddischanother site for Der Struwwelpeter in English
  • 1805 Hans Christian Andersen, Danish author of 168 fairy tales:       ^top^
         Andersen was born in Odensk, near Copenhagen. During his boyhood, his father died, and the child went to work in a factory briefly. However, he showed great talent for languages and entered the University of Copenhagen in 1828. The following year, he published his literary spoof A Walk from Amager, which became his first important work. Andersen wrote several plays that flopped, but he achieved some success with his novel The Improviser (1835). Meanwhile, he entertained himself by writing a series of children's stories that he published as collections. The first, Tales Told for Children, (1835) included "The Princess and the Pea." Andersen released new collections every year or two for decades as he traveled widely in Europe, Africa, and Asia Minor. His stories include "The Ugly Duckling," "The Little Mermaid ," and "The Emperor's New Suit." He died in 1875 at age 70.
    ANDERSEN ONLINE: (in English translations) Andersen's Fairy TalesFairy Tales and StoriesThe Tinder Box, and Other Stories. — StoriesStories and Fairy Tales
    MORE ON HANS CHRISTIAN ANDERSEN with COMPLETE LIST of Andersen's 168 tales, in English and in Danish:
    1792  Francisco de Paula Santander y Omaña, presidente de Colombia.
    1725 Giovanni Giacomo Girolamo Casanova “Jean-Jacques Chevalier de Seingalt”, in Venice, ecclesiastic, writer, soldier, adventurer, spy, and diplomat, chiefly remembered as the prince of Italian adventurers and as the man who made the name Casanova synonymous with "libertine." He is chiefly remembered from his autobiography, which has established his reputation as the most famous erotic hero. Casanova's memoirs are primarily an unreliable account of an extraordinary succession of sexual encounters, but they also are of great interest historically and provide an intimate portrait of the manners and life in the 18th century. His countless projects, employments, and initiatives took him through the courts of Europe. In Paris he was employed to do some espionage work by Louis XV and from London he tried to sell the secret of a cotton red dye to his own country. Casanova died on 04 June 1798. CASANOVA ONLINE: Il Duello (zipped) — (English translation of Histoire de ma Vie): The Memoirs of Jacques Casanova de Seingalt.
    1688 John Smibert, Scottish US painter specialized in Portraits, who died on 02 March 1751. MORE ON SMIBERT AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
    1648 Cornelis Huysmans van Mechelen, Flemish painter who died on 01 June 1727. MORE ON HUYSMANS AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
    0742 Charlemagne, king of the Franks (768-814), king of the Lombards (774-814), and first Holy Roman emperor (800-14). He died on 28 January 814. [uncertain date, details at 01 April in History]
    Holidays [Chad] Creation of Union of Central African States (1968) / [Iran] Nawroz 13 / [Liberia] National Day of Prayer and Fast / [Mass] Student Government Day / [Switzerland] Glarius Festival (1388)
    Observances 1507 [RC] St Francis of Paula, hermit/confessor (opt) / 1876 [Ang] James Lloyd Breck, priest / [RC] Theodosia, martyr to Cesarea / Santos Francisco de Padua, Teodosia y Nicecio.
    Holy Thursday in 1885, 1896, 1931, 1942, 1953, 2015, 2026, 2037, 2048, 2105.
    Good Friday in 1915, 1920, 1926, 1999, 2010, 2021, 2083, 2094.
    Easter Sunday in 1893, 1899, 1961, 1972, 2051, 2056, 2113, 2124.
    Thoughts for the day: “We crucify ourselves between two thieves: regret for yesterday and fear of tomorrow.” — Fulton Oursler, US journalist and author (1893-1952). — [Perhaps, but the two thieves are crucified too, and they die first, becoming amnesia for yesterday and improvidence for tomorrow.] — [Crucify ourselves? Neat trick! Let's see, how does it go? First bend over and nail your feet to the cross. Then reach over with one hand, jam the spike into the other hand, then grab the hammer and pound it in. Now you have only one hand free. How does it nail itself?] — [Who is “We”? Did Oursler have a multiple personality?]
    “WASHINGTON DC IS FAR FROM NORMAL” In fact, in the US it is only in Illinois, Alabama, Indiana, Kentucky, or Tennessee, that people can lead a near to Normal life, and that a relatively few people can even live a completely Normal life, but only if they are prepared not to live a normal life, never stepping outside the boundaries of their small home town, Normal. Washington is not close to the Normal in any of those five states, but it is furthest from Normal, Illinois, as far 38º54'18"N 77º00'58"W as is from 40º31'03"N 88º59'58"W: 1042 km
    updated Thursday 01-Apr-2004 19:07 UT
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