• Lincoln fatally shot... • Titanic hits iceberg... • US, UK, and Italian partisans attack Germans... • Guillotinés par la Révolution... • USSR withdraws from Afghanistan... • Bataan Death March's 5th day... • ENIAC computer proposed... • Helen Keller's teacher is born... • Greenbacks voted by US Congress... • First Volvo car... • First US WWI aerial dogfight... • US Cold War policy plan... • Edison's Kinetoscope... • US planes on their way to peacetime bombing of Libya... • Webster's Dictionary is printed... • US airborne troops to Vietnam... • Baby Lift out of Vietnam concludes...
|On an April
2002 The Venezuelan military, faced with defections of some of their own and mass demonstrations by the supporters of President Hugo Chávez, whom they had deposed two days earlier saying that he had resigned, reinstate him, who denies ever having resigned. Chávez accepts the resignation of the directors he had named to Petróleos de Venezuela, which action had started the opposition movement. The coup leaders are arrested and will be tried for sedition, it is announced. In the US, the Bush regime, which had rejoiced at Chávez's ouster, says that it hopes that the incident taught him a lesson, and that he will amend his ways (i.e. become compliant with the will of the Bush regime).
2000 On Wall Street, in heavy trading, the Dow Jones industrial Average closes down 617 points and the Nasdaq composite index falls 355 points, ending one of the worst weeks ever for US stocks.
2000 In Washington, manure is dumped on Pennsylvania Avenue by protesters against the meetings of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund.
2000 La Duma rusa ratifica, por la vía rápida y con amplia mayoría, el tratado Start II de reducción de armas nucleares estratégicas, firmado en 1993.
1999 La OTAN admite, por segunda vez, haber bombardeado a civiles por error durante el conflicto de Kosovo.
1999 El ministro del Interior británico Jack Straw autoriza la extradición de Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte a España.
1999 Huge hail devastates Sydney.
1998 El Tribunal Superior de Salvaguarda del Patrimonio Público dicta un auto de arresto contra el ex mandatario venezolano Carlos Andrés Pérez Rodríguez y su compañera, Cecilia Matos.
1998 Katharine Graham, editora de The Washington Post, gana el premio Premio Pulitzer a la mejor biografía por su libro Personal History.
1997 Un huelga general, convocada por la oposición para exigir la dimisión del presidente Joseph~Désiré Mobutu Sese Seko, paraliza la capital de Zaire.
1996 Israel's 4-day-old military campaign against Hezbollah guerrillas continued, with aircraft bombing guerrilla strongholds in Beirut and southern Lebanon, provoking guerrilla vows to turn northern Israel into a "fiery hell."
1994 The chiefs of the US's seven largest tobacco companies spent more than six hours being grilled by the House Energy and Commerce health subcommittee about the effects of smoking.
1993 Se inicia el juicio contra los artífices del fallido golpe de Estado de agosto de 1991 en la URSS.
1992 UN imposed embargo against Libya takes effect.
1992 Tiene lugar el viaje inaugural de la Línea de Alta Velocidad española (AVE) entre Madrid y Sevilla.
1992 Un activista antinuclear ataca al ex presidente Ronald Reagan en un acto público.
1991 The final withdrawal of American combat troops from southern Iraq began, 88 days after the United States launched its massive offensive to drive Saddam Hussein's forces from Kuwait (but not Hussein from power in Iraq).
1989 El crítico literario Ricardo Gullón es galardonado con el premio Príncipe de Asturias de las Letras.
1988 Las Cortes españolas aprueban, sólo con los votos socialistas, la ley de televisión privada.
US planes on their way to peacetime bombing of Libya.
Without any declaration of war, the US planes take off from their bases in England, on a mission to bomb Libya in retaliation for the Libyan sponsorship of terrorism against American troops and citizens. The bombing would begin the next day shortly before 02:00 (Libya time = 00:00 UT), involved more than 100 US Air Force and Navy aircraft, and was over within an hour. Five military targets and "terrorism centers" were hit, including the home tent of Libyan dictator Muammar al-Qaddafi.
During the 1970s and '80s, Qaddafi's government financed a wide variety of Muslim and anti-US and anti-British terrorist groups worldwide, from Palestinian guerrillas and Philippine Muslim rebels to the Irish Republican Army and the Black Panthers. In response, the US imposed sanctions against Libya, and relations between the two nations steadily deteriorated. In 1981, Libya fired at a US aircraft that passed into the Gulf of Sidra, which Qaddafi had claimed in 1973 as Libyan territorial waters. That year, the US uncovered evidence of Libyan-sponsored terrorist plots against the United States, including planned assassination attempts against US officials and the bombing of a US embassy-sponsored dance in Khartoum, Sudan.
In December 1985, five American citizens were killed in simultaneous terrorist attacks at the Rome and Vienna airports. Libya was blamed, and US President Ronald Reagan ordered expanded sanctions and froze Libyan assets in the United States. On 24 March 1986, US and Libyan forces clashed in the Gulf of Sidra, and four Libyan attack boats were sunk. Then, on 05 April, terrorists bombed a West Berlin dance hall known to be frequented by US servicemen. One US serviceman and a Turkish woman were killed, and more than 200 people were wounded, including 50 other US servicemen. US intelligence reportedly intercepted radio messages sent from Libya to its diplomats in East Berlin ordering the 05 April attack on the LaBelle discotheque.
On 15 April (Libya time, 14 April in the US), the US planes arrive on target over Tripoli and Banghazi. The attacks were mounted by 14 A-6E navy attack jets based in the Mediterranean and 18 FB-111 bombers from bases in England. Numerous other support aircraft were also involved. France refused to allow the F-111s to fly over French territory, which added 2600 total nautical miles to the journey from England and back. Three military barracks were hit, along with the military facilities at Tripoli's main airport and the Benina air base southeast of Benghazi. All targets except one were reportedly chosen because of their direct connection to terrorist activity. The Benina military airfield was hit to preempt Libyan interceptors from taking off and attacking the incoming US bombers.
Even before the operation had ended, President Reagan went on national television to discuss the air strikes. "When our citizens are abused or attacked anywhere in the world," he said, "we will respond in self-defense. Today we have done what we had to do. If necessary, we shall do it again."
Operation El Dorado Canyon, as it was code-named, was called a success by US officials. Qaddafi's 15-month-old adopted daughter was killed in the attack on his residence, and two of his young sons were injured. Although he has never admitted it publicly, there is speculation that Qaddafi was also wounded in the bombing. Fire from Libyan surface-to-air missiles and conventional anti-aircraft artillery was heavy during the attack, and one F-111, along with its two-member crew, were lost in unknown circumstances. Several residential buildings were inadvertently bombed during the raid, and 15 Libyan civilians were reported killed. The French embassy in Tripoli was also accidentally hit, but no one was injured.
Later in the day, Libyan patrol boats fired missiles at a US Navy communications station on the Italian island of Lamedusa, but the missiles fell short. There was no other major terrorist attack linked to Libya until the 1988 bombing of Pan Am 747 over Lockerbie, Scotland. All 259 passengers and crew of that flight were killed, and 11 people on the ground perished. In 1999, Qaddafi, seeking to lead Libya out of its long international isolation, agreed to turn over to the West two suspects wanted for the Lockerbie attack. In response, Europe lifted sanctions against Libya. The United States maintained sanctions, even after one of the Lockerbie suspects was convicted in 2001.
Aviones de la VI Flota estadounidense bombardean la capital de Libia, Trípoli.
|1982 Concluye la Guerra de las Malvinas, en la
que Gran Bretaña resulta vencedora.
1981 ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna) pone en libertad al industrial valenciano Luis Suñer Sanchís, secuestrado durante tres meses, tras cobrar un rescate.
1981 first Space ShuttleColumbia 1returns to Earth.
1978 Se constituye la junta preautonómica de Canarias.
1978 Tiene lugar el primer congreso de la CC.OO. (Confederación Sindical de Comisiones Obreras)
1959 Se desintegra al entrar en la atmósfera la cápsula instrumental del satélite científico americano Discover II.
1956 La URSS licencia a 1'400'000 soldados.
1950 Dimite el gabinete Venizelos del Gobierno de Grecia; el general Plastiras recibe el encargo de formar un nuevo gobierno.
1948 La Cámara de los Comunes del Reino Unido declara abolida la pena de muerte durante cinco años.
1948 A flash of light is observed in the crater Plato on the Moon.
1947 El trasatlántico británico Queen Elizabeth se hunde frente a las costas de Southampton.
1939 El rey de Italia, Víctor Manuel III, ostenta, después de la ocupación de Albania, el título de "rey de Italia y Albania y emperador de Abisinia".
1937 Se producen manifestaciones en los mercados de Barcelona por el alza del precio de los comestibles.
1931 Spain becomes republic with overthrow of King Alfonso XIII, who goes into exile. Se proclama la Segunda República Española con un gobierno provisional presidido por Niceto Alcalá-Zamora y Torres; Alfonso XIII huye a Francia sin abdicar oficialmente. Francesc Macià i Llusà, por su parte, proclama el Estado Catalán y se erige en presidente.
1914 El presidente de los Estados Unidos, Thomas Woodrow Wilson, prevé una intervención militar en México ante la respuesta negativa del presidente Victoriano Huerta Ortega al ultimátum previo.
1908 Después de varias entrevistas, el canciller alemán Karl von Bülow, el rey de Italia Vittorio Emmanuele III y su ministro de Asuntos Exteriores, Tittoni, deciden estrechar las relaciones entre ambos países.
1905 El zoólogo y filósofo alemán Ernst Heinrich Haeckel hace un llamamiento en pro del pensamiento evolucionista.
1904 Se produce un mitin anarquista y antipatriota en Barcelona.
1887 Start of Sherlock Holmes adventure Reigate Squires
(Good Friday) US President Lincoln fatally shot
| 1865 United States flag raised over Fort Sumter, South
1865 Mobile, Alabama is captured.
1864 Tropas españolas ocupan las islas guaneras de Chincha, en Perú, como respuesta ante el supuesto maltrato sufrido en una hacienda por dos colonos vascos.
1863 Siege of Suffolk, Virginia by Confederates continues.
1863 Engagement at Irish Bend (Fort Bisland), Louisiana.
1862 Bombardment of Fort Pillow, Tennessee begins.
1862 Siege of Yorktown, Virginia continues.
1860 First Pony Express rider arrives in SF from St Joseph, Missouri.
1834 Entra en Portugal el ejército del general José Ramón Rodil y Campillo, enviado por España para apoyar la causa de la reina María II.
1814 Se produce el desembarco de Luis XVIII en Calais para tomar posesión del trono de Francia, tras el destierro de Napoleón a la isla de Elba.
1814 Un grupo de diputados entrega a Fernando VII, en Valencia, el Manifiesto de los Persas.
1794 (25 germinal an II) GATTEY Marie Claudine, ex religieuse du couvent de St Lazare, âgée de 39 ans, née à Autun, département de la Saône et Loire domiciliée à Paris, département de la Seine, crie Vive le roi!, dans l'enceinte de l'audience du tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, par désespoir de ce que son cousin François Charles Gattey, libraire, vient d'être condamné à mort. Elle veut, pour lui témoigner son amitié, mourir avec lui, mais sa condamnation à mort et son exécution sont remises au lendemain.
1790 (14 et 15 avril) Lois révolutionnaires en France relatives aux biens provenants des religieux.
0073 According to Jewish historian Josephus, 967 Jewish zealots committed mass suicide within the fortress of Masada on this last night before the walls were breached by the attacking Roman Tenth Legion. (Two women and five children survived by hiding in a cistern, and were later released unharmed by the Romans.)
which occurred on an April 14:
2003 Jonathan Williams, 15, among the students sitting on the bleachers in the gymnasium of John McDonogh High School in New Orleans, as four persons, aged 15 to 19, enter and shoot at him more than 30 bullets from an AK-47 and a handgun. Three girl students suffer collateral damage: a 15-year-old shot through both legs by one bullet, and Michelle Brown, 16, and Trakeido Barracks, 16, lightly grazed by bullets..
2001 Hiroshi Teshigahara, pintor y director de cine japonés.
1999:: 75 ethnic Albanian Kosovar refugees whose convoy is mistakenly bombed by NATO.
1997 Rodolfo Oroz Scheibe, escritor chileno.
1994 Manuel Andújar, escritor español.
1992 Artur Mkrtchan, presidente del Parlamento de Nagorno Karabaj.
1986 Simone de Beauvoir, escritora francesa.
1976 Luis Mariano Ospina Pérez, político colombiano.
1973 Tres de los doce obreros que quedan sepultados en las obras del metro de Madrid.1965 Estados Unidos lanza bombas de napalm contra objetivos en Vietnam, causando un número indeterminado de víctimas civiles.
1964 Rachel Carson, of cancer, US biologist and author born on 27 May 1907. Author of Under the Sea Wind (1941), The Sea Around Us (1951), The Edge of the Sea (1955), Silent Spring (1962) in which she opposed the indiscriminate use of poisonous chemical sprays to kill insects.
1917 Ludwik Lejzer Zamenhof, Polish physician and oculist, born on 15 December 1859, who, using the pseudonym Doktoro Esperanto, in 1888 published Lingvo Internacia, creating the best-known international artificial language, now known as Esperanto.
1911 Emilio Grau Sala, pintor español.
which occurred on an April 14:
1956 First commercial videotape recorder (Ampex Corp.) demonstrated by its inventors Charles Ginsberg, Charles Anderson, and Ray Dolby simultaneously in Redwood City, California, and Chicago. CBS buys three machines for $75'000 each.
1955 Millán Salcedo, humorista español.
1944 José María Guelbenzu, escritor español.
1944 Los niños perdidos en la selva, de Jacinto Benavente y Martínez, se estrena en el teatro Infanta Isabel de Madrid.
1944 Pabellón de reposo, novela de Camilo José Cela Trulock, se publica.
1939 The Grapes of Wrath, novel by John Steinbeck, is first published.
1929 Chadli Bendjedid, Algerian FLN guerilla officer who in February 1979 succeeded Houari Boumedienne [23 Aug 1927 – 27 Dec 1978] as head of the military government and loosened government control of the economy and moved toward democracy, but had to face rising Islamic militancy. As it became clear that the Islamist FIS (Front Islamiste du Salut) would win the January 1992 elections, Bendjedid resigned and, the next day, the army canceled the elections and made Mohammed Boudiaf [23 Jan 1919 – 29 Jun 1992] president of a ruling Supreme State Council.
1928 Eugenia Viteri Segura, escritora ecuatoriana.
1926 Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo y Bustelo, político y presidente del Gobierno español.
1920 Josep Benet I Morell, político e historiador español.
1907 François Duvalier, Papá Doc, médico y dictador haitiano (1957-1971). Murió el 21 Apr 1971.
1902 J.C. Penney opens his first store, in Kemmerer, Wyoming.
1898 Abraham Mintchine, Russian artist who died on 25 April 1931. MORE ON DE MINTCHINE AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1889 Arnold Toynbee England, historian. The first volume of his magnum opus, A Study of History, was published in 1934, and it was completed with the publication of the twelfth volume in 1961. In it he refused to be a propagandist, which upset many people. He died on 22 October 1975.
1879 James Cabell Branch, US novelist; author of Jurgen. He died on 05 May 1958.
1852 Jacob Isaac Meyer van Haan, Dutch artist who died on 24 October 1895. — more
1831 Gerhard Rohlfs, German explorer who journeyed across deserts of North Africa. He died on 02 June 1896.
1827 Augustus Pitt-Rivers, father of British archaeology who died on 04 May 1900.
1818 Carl Hilgers, German artist who died on 03 December 1890.
1802 Horace Bushnell, US Congregational minister and controversial theologian who died on 17 February 1876.
1800 Ange-Louis-Guillaume Lesourd-Beauregard, French artist who died in 1885.
1775 The Society for the Relief of Free Negroes Unlawfully held in Bondage holds its first meeting, in Philadelphia, called by Quaker activists Anthony Benezet [31 Jan 1703 – 03 May 1784] and attended by Thomas Paine [29 Jan 1737 – 08 Jun 1809] and eight other White Philadelphians, including six Quakers. Often referred to as the Abolition Society, the group focused on intervention in the cases of Blacks and Amerindians who claimed to have been illegally enslaved. Of the twenty-four men who attended the four meetings held before the Society disbanded, seventeen were Quakers. Six of these original members were among the largely Quaker group of eighteen Philadelphians that reorganized in February 1784 as the Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery and for the Relief of Free Negroes Unlawfully Held in Bondage (commonly referred to as the Pennsylvania Abolition Society, or PAS). Although still occupied with litigation on behalf of blacks who were illegally enslaved under existing laws, the new name reflected the Society's growing emphasis on abolition as a goal. Within two years, the group had grown to 82 members and inspired the establishment of anti-slavery organizations in other cities. PAS reorganized once again in 1787. While previously, artisans and shopkeepers had been the core of the organization, PAS broadened its membership to include such prominent figures as Benjamin Franklin [17 Jan 1706 – 17 Apr 1790] and Benjamin Rush [04 Jan 1746 – 19 Apr 1813], who helped write the Society's new constitution.
1755 Simon-Joseph Denis den Schelen, Flemish artist who died on 01 Januaary 1813.
1724 Gabriel Jacques de Saint-Aubin, French painter, draftsman, and etcher, who died on 14 February 1780. MORE ON DE SAINT~AUBIN AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1629 Christiaan Huygens, Holland, astronomer (discovered Saturn's rings), mathematician, physicist. He died on 08 July 1695.
1588 Alessandro Varotan il Padovanese, Italian artist who died in 1648.
1578 Felipe III king of Spain and Portugal (1598-1621)