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Events, deaths, births, of APR 18

[For Apr 18 Julian go to Gregorian date:
1583~1699: Apr 281700s: Apr 291800s: Apr 301900~2099: May 01]
• “The British are coming!”... • Great San Francisco quake... • Hume's autobiography... • US Beyrut embassy suicide~bombed... • Guillotinés par la Révolution... • Coup in Burundi... • Ernie Pyle killed... • Doolittle raid on Tokyo... • Red Brigade kidnaps Italian prosecutor... • Non~importation Act... • Last Motorola MacIntosh chip... • Chinese students protest... • Ezra Pound to be released from asylum... • Einstein dies... • Nixon: Vietnam peace prospects are better... • Daimler and Maybach plan engine...
On an 18 April:
2003 In four barricaded cottages in conquered Baghdad, Iraq, US troops find $656 million in US currency, in $100 bills stacked inside galvanized aluminum boxes sealed with blue strapping tape and green seals stamped "Bank of Jordan." On 22 April 2003, in the same Baghdad neighborhood, US troops would find another $112 million, similarly packed, hidden in seven dog kennels.
2001 Outside of its scheduled meetings, the US Federal Reserve Board unexpectedly approves action by the Board of Directors of the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City decreasing the discount rate at the bank from 4.5% to 4% effective immediately. Banks then cut their prime lending rate to 7.5%. The stock markets responds by a surge of 399 in the Dow Jones Industrial Average to close at 10'616, and of 156 in the NASDQ to close at 2079.44, and similarly around the world.
2001 Failed (or phony?) coup attempt in Burundi.       ^top^
     A group of junior army officers who attempted a coup to oppose Burundi's President Pierre Buyoya's negotiations with Hutu rebels surrendered Thursday 19 April. The 30 officers, who had billed themselves as the Patriotic Youth Front, gave up after spending the night in the studios of state-run Radio Burundi from where they had announced their coup. Buyoya, who had been in Gabon for talks with the country's main rebel group, the Forces for Defense of Democracy, was expected back in Bujumbura later on 19 April. The group took over the radio station at 16:30 on 18 April. After the guard fled, the soldiers played a tape announcing Buyoya's removal from office, the dissolution of the National Assembly and closure of the airport. The statement was attributed to a Lt. Gaston Ntakarutimana.
      The group had never been heard of before. "The coup attempt looks extremely unprofessional and extremely unrealistic ... you cannot achieve a coup by taking a radio station," said Francois Grignon, a senior analyst at the International Crisis Group. "We do not know what happened or why those guys did it. It therefore lacks credibility that it was a real coup attempt." Tutsi hard-liners have opposed any talks with the rebels, and rumors of a coup have been rampant since Buyoya signed a power-sharing agreement with 18 other parties and groups last August in Arusha, Tanzania, in the presence of former President Clinton. The two rebel groups did not sign, insisting that people they call political prisoners must be freed first and that a cease-fire must be in place. The Arusha agreement does not include provisions for a cease-fire.
      Buyoya himself took power in a coup in July 1996, promising to end the civil war that has left more than 200'000 persons dead. The war erupted in October 1993 after Tutsi hard-liners assassinated the country's first democratically elected president, a Hutu. Although Hutus form the majority in the tiny central African country, Tutsis have controlled the military, the government and business for all but a few months since independence from Belgium in 1962.
2000 In a defeat for the United States, a United Nations commission in Geneva voted 22-18 against censuring China's human rights record.
1999  El primer ministro turco Bülent Ecevit se proclama ganador de las elecciones generales celebradas en su país.
1998  Los jefes de Estado y de Gobierno de 34 países del continente americano, a excepción de Cuba, se reúnen en Santiago de Chile en la II Cumbre de las Américas.
1996 US Congress passed and sent to President Clinton long-awaited legislation giving federal law officers new powers to use against terrorism.
1996 CompuServe launches an IPO, selling 17.7 percent of its stock. The remainder of the stock was held by H&R Block, until WorldCom bought the ailing online service in early 1998. Most of the company's Internet businesses were sold to rival America Online.
1995  El juez Baltasar Garzón decreta el procesamiento de catorce personas en relación con las actividades de los GAL (Grupos Antiterroristas de Liberación)
1994 Former US President Nixon suffers a stroke at his home in Park Ridge, N.J.; he would die four days later at a New York hospital.
1992  El VI Congreso de Diputados de Rusia acuerda adoptar una nueva Constitución que no otorge al presidente de la Federación el derecho de disolver el Parlamento.
1992  Se constituye la nueva Mesa Nacional de HB (Herri Batasuna), con predominio de KAS, en la que está presente ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna).
1991 The US Census Bureau estimated its 1990 census had failed to count up to 6.3 million people.
1989 Zimbabwe gains independence.
1989  ETA pone fin a la tregua iniciada en septiembre de 1988 con una serie de atentados en las vías férreas y el envío de varios paquetes-bomba.
1989 Chinese students protest against government.       ^top^
      Thousands of Chinese students take to the streets in Beijing to protest government policies and issue a call for greater democracy in the communist People's Republic of China (PRC). The protests grew until the Chinese government ruthlessly suppressed them in June during what came to be known as the Tiananmen Square Massacre. During the mid-1980s, the communist government of the PRC had been slowly edging toward a liberalization of the nation's strict state-controlled economy, in an attempt to attract more foreign investment and increase the nation's foreign trade. This action sparked a call among many Chinese citizens, including many students, for reform of the country's communist-dominated political system. By early 1989, peaceful protests against the government began in some of China's largest cities. The biggest protest was held on April 18 in the capital city of Beijing. Marching through Tiananmen Square in the center of the city, thousands of students carried banners, chanted slogans, and sang songs calling for a more democratic political atmosphere.
      The government's response to the demonstrations became progressively harsher. Government officials who showed any sympathy to the protesters were purged. Several of the demonstration leaders were arrested, and a propaganda campaign was directed at the marching students, declaring that they sought to "create chaos under the heavens."
      On 03 June 1989, with the protests growing larger every day and foreign journalists capturing the dramatic events on film, the Chinese army was directed to crush the movement. An unknown number of Chinese protesters were killed (estimates range into the thousands) during what came to be known as the Tiananmen Square Massacre. In the United States, the protests attracted widespread attention. Many Americans assumed that China, like the Soviet Union and the communist nations of Eastern Europe, had been moving toward a free market and political democracy. The brutal government repression of the protests shocked the American public. The US government temporarily suspended arms sales to China and imposed a few economic sanctions, but the actions were largely symbolic. Growing US trade and investment in China and the fear that a severe US reaction to the massacre might result in a diplomatic rupture limited the official US response.
1988  El Consejo de Ministros de la UEO (Unión Europea Occidental) aprueba en La Haya el inicio de negociaciones para la adhesión de España y Portugal.
1988  Fuerzas de Estados Unidos atacan dos instalaciones petrolíferas iraníes en la península de Fao y hunden dos fragatas de este país, en represalia por la colocación de minas en el Golfo Pérsico.
1985  El presidente francés Francois Mitterrand presenta el Plan Eureka para el progreso de la tecnología europea frente al reto de Estados Unidos y Japón.
1985 El Congreso de los Diputados español aprueba la nueva ley electoral.
1982  ETA destruye con explosivos la central de Telefónica en la calle de Ríos Rosas de Madrid, que interrumpe 700'000 líneas y causa pérdidas de más de mil millones de pesetas.
1982   Edén Pastora, el "Comandante 0", anuncia desde México a Fidel Castro Ruz su ruptura con el régimen sandinista de Nicaragua.
1982 Canada Constitution Act replaces British North America Act.
1980 Rhodesia become Zimbabwe, independent from Britain (National Day) —  Se declara la independencia del estado de Zimbabwe.
1978 The US Senate votes 68-32 to turn the Panama Canal over to Panamanian control on 31 December 1999.
1974 The Red Brigade kidnaps prosecutor Sossi.       ^top^
      Italian prosecutor Mario Sossi is kidnapped by the Red Brigade. It was the first time that the left-wing terrorist group had directly struck the Italian government, marking the beginning of tensions that lasted for 10 years. The Red Brigade was founded by college student Renato Curcio in 1969 to battle "against the imperialist state of the multinationals." At first, the fledgling organization restricted its activities to small acts of vandalism and arson. However, in 1972, they abducted business executive Idalgo Macchiarini, releasing him a short time later with a sign that said, "Hit one to educate 100. All power to the armed people." The Red Brigade kidnapped several other executives in the years following. The kidnapping of Mario Sossi marked the first time that the Red Brigade demanded a ransom: They insisted on the release of eight imprisoned members. After fellow prosecutor Francesco Coco agreed to the demand, Sossi was released. However, Coco reneged on the deal and infuriated the Red Brigade. Over the next several years, the terrorist group kidnapped 26 wealthy men and women to fund their criminal enterprises, extorting as much as $2 million for one abduction. They also got revenge on Coco, killing him in 1975. That same year, 49 members were prosecuted in Turin, prompting several retaliatory shootings against government officials. In 1978, the ante was upped even further after some of the Red Brigade's leaders were arrested. Aldo Moro, a former Italian prime minister, was kidnapped on 16 March 1978, and five bodyguards were killed in the attack. For 55 days, the terrorists made various demands while taunting Moro's family with fake death announcements. On 09 May, after their demands were refused, Moro's body was found in the trunk of a red car in the middle of Rome. He had been shot 11 times in the chest. The Red Brigade killed seven more politicians in the next week, terrorizing the whole country of Italy. Sixty-three persons ended up being charged with involvement in Moro's murder. Prospero Gallinari, the actual shooter, and 22 others were convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment. The Red Brigade was finally crushed in the early 1980s when over 400 members were jailed.
1970  Se produce una considerable caída de los valores en la Bolsa de Nueva York.
1969 Nixon says prospects for peace in Vietnam are better.       ^top^
      At a news conference, President Nixon says he feels the prospects for peace have "significantly improved" since he took office. He cited the greater political stability of the Saigon government and the improvement in the South Vietnamese armed forces as proof. With these remarks, Nixon was trying to set the stage for a major announcement he would make at the Midway conference in June. While conferring with South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu, Nixon announced that the United States would be pursuing a three-pronged strategy to end the war. Efforts would be increased to improve the combat capability of the South Vietnamese armed forces so that they could assume responsibility for the war against the North Vietnamese--Nixon described this effort as "Vietnamization." As the South Vietnamese became more capable, US forces would be withdrawn from South Vietnam. At the same time, US negotiators would continue to try to reach a negotiated settlement to the war with the communists at the Paris peace talks. This announcement represented a significant change in the nature of the US commitment to the war, as the United States would be withdrawing troops from the war for the first time. The first US soldiers were withdrawn in the fall of 1969 and the withdrawals continued periodically through 1972. At the same time, the United States increased the advisory effort and provided massive amounts of new equipment and weapons to the South Vietnamese as well. When the North Vietnamese launched a massive invasion in the spring of 1972, the South Vietnamese wavered, but eventually rallied with US support and prevailed over the North Vietnamese. Nixon proclaimed that the South Vietnamese victory validated his strategy. In fact, a peace agreement was finalized in January 1973, but the fighting continued anyway. The US did not deliver the aid it had promised in the case of continued attacks-the South Vietnamese held out for two years but they succumbed to the North Vietnamese in April 1975.
1966  Comienza la Revolución Cultural en China Popular.
1963  Se descubre, gracias a su publicación en prensa, la existencia de un cuadro de Francisco de Goya y Lucientes, San Jerónimo, sacado ilegalmente de España y adquirido por la prestigiosa galería de arte londinense Sotheby´s.
1961 La compilación del derecho civil especial de las Baleares es aprobada por las Cortes españolas.
1961  Se producen diversas manifestaciones en Argentina, Chile, México y Venezuela en favor del régimen de Cuba y contra la política de Estados Unidos.
1960  Se proclama la ley marcial en Corea del Sur después de las sangrientas revueltas en Seúl.
1958 Ezra Pound to be released from asylum.       ^top^
      A US federal court rules that Ezra Pound should no longer be held at St. Elizabeth's Hospital for the criminally insane in Washington, D.C. Pound has been held for 13 years, following his arrest in Italy during World War II on charges of treason. Pound was born in Hailey, Idaho, and grew up in a suburb near Philadelphia, where his father worked at the US Mint. He attended the University of Pennsylvania, where he met William Carlos Williams and had a romance with Hilda Doolittle, later known as the poet H.D. He earned a master's degree in languages from the University of Pennsylvania in 1906. He took a job teaching at Wabash College in Indiana but lost it after six months, having been accused of hosting a woman in his room overnight.
      In 1908, Pound moved to London, where he taught and published reviews. While working as secretary to William Butler Yeats, he met the daughter of one of Yeats' friends, Dorothy Shakespear, who he married in 1914. The couple later had a child. During this time, he wrote important works of literary criticism, spelling out the rules for new forms of poetry. He championed young writers such as William Carlos Williams, H.D., T.S. Eliot, James Joyce, Robert Frost, Ernest Hemingway, and Marianne Moore. He also began writing his own poems, including his 116 Cantos, which combined his memories, feelings, impressions, and fragments of literature. In 1920, Pound and his family moved to Paris, where he fell in love with violinist Olga Rudge, with whom he also had child. In 1925, he and his wife moved to Rapallo, Italy. Pound spent the summers with Rudge in Venice until World War II broke out; Rudge then joined Pound and his wife in Rapallo.
      Pound strongly supported Benito Mussolini, believing that art flourishes under strong leaders. He worked actively against the Allies until the end of the war, when he was arrested by US forces and held for weeks in an open cage in a prison camp near Pisa. The experience broke his mental health, although he produced one of his most beautiful works, the Pisan Cantos there. When he was returned to the US, he was ruled unfit to stand trial and held at St. Elizabeth's for 13 years. While in prison, his Pisan Cantos (1948) won an award from the Library of Congress. Poets and authors rallied around him and finally gained his release in 1958. He returned to Italy, where he lived until his death in 1972.
1955  Comienza la Conferencia Internacional Afroasiática de Bandung con una condena al colonialismo. 
1955 El presidente del Consejo de Ministros húngaro Imre Nagy es destituido de su cargo. 
1955 Se establece un acuerdo jordano-israelí sobre la neutralidad de la ciudad de Jerusalén.
1954 Colonel Nasser seizes power in Egypt.
1951  Se instituye la Comunidad Europea del Carbón y del Acero, tras la firma del Plan ideado por Robert Schuman, primera institución europea de carácter supranacional constituida por Francia, Italia, Alemania y el Benelux.
1950 The first transatlantic jet passenger trip is completed.
1949 Republic of Ireland (Eire) is proclaimed and withdraws from British Commonwealth.
1948  La Democracia Cristiana italiana obtiene la mayoría absoluta en las elecciones legislativas.
1946 League of Nations dissolves (3 months after the UN starts) —  Se disuelve la Sociedad de Naciones, que transfiere sus funciones a la ONU. 
1946 Estados Unidos reconoce el gobierno yugoslavo de Josip Broz “Tito”.
1945 Clandestine Radio 1212, after broadcasting pro-nazi propaganda for months, uses its influence to trap 350'000 German army group B troops
1942 Doolittle leads air raid on Tokyo.       ^top^
      16 American B-25 bombers, launched from the aircraft carrier USS Hornet 1050 km east of Japan and commanded by Lieutenant General James H. Doolittle, attack the Japanese mainland in broad daylight. The now-famous Tokyo Raid did little real damage to Japan (wartime Premier Hideki Tojo was inspecting military bases during the raid; one B-25 came so close, Tojo could see the pilot, though the American bomber never fired a shot)--but it did hurt the Japanese government's prestige. In the belief that the air raid had been launched from Midway Island, approval would be given to Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto's plans for an attack on Midway--which would also end up damaging Japanese "prestige." Doolittle was eventually awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor and promoted straight to brigadier general, bypassing the rank of colonel. A book describing the raid, 30 Seconds Over Tokyo by Ted Lawson, was adapted into a film starring Spencer Tracy in 1944.
1942  Se produce un ataque aéreo estadounidense contra Tokio en el transcurso de la Segunda Guerra Mundial. 
1942 El Gobierno de Vichy se reorganiza y Pierre Laval acumula cargos.
1941  Francia se retira de la Sociedad de Naciones.
1940 Le maréchal Pétain entre au gouvernement français comme vice-président du Conseil.
1937 Leon Trotsky called for the overthrow of Soviet leader Josef Stalin.
1791  El rey Luis XVI intenta huir de París ante la tensa situación creada por el estallido revolucionario francés, pero es detenido en Varennes.
1936 Clipper begins regular passenger flights from SF to Honolulu.
1934  Se constituye en España, al margen de la FAI (Federación Anarquista Ibérica ), el Partido Sindicalista. 
1934 Adolf Hitler reclama el rearme aéreo de Alemania en contra de lo dictado por el Tratado de Versalles.
1934 First "Washateria" (laundromat) opens (Ft Worth, Tx)
1931  Se restaura la Generalitat de Catalunya, tras la proclamación de la República Catalana por Francesc Macià i Llusa.
1930  Se producen graves desórdenes en Chittagong por partidarios exaltados de Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi.
1925  Se decreta en España una emisión de deuda pública por valor de 180 millones de pesetas para la construcción de viviendas de bajo presupuesto.
1923 Poland annexes Central Lithuania.
1916  El presidente estadounidense Thomas Woodrow Wilson amenaza con romper las relaciones diplomáticas con Alemania si continúa la guerra submarina. 
1912 El Imperio otomano cierra el estrecho de los Dardanelos tras los bombardeos efectuados por la marina italiana.
1912  El ejército ruso interviene para evitar una huelga de los trabajadores de las minas de oro de Lena, en Siberia.
1909  Tiene lugar la ceremonia de beatificación de Juana de Arco en Roma.
1907  Nicolas Salmerón (presidente de la I República) y Francesc Cambó i Batlle (fundador de la Lliga Regionalista) son agredidos en Barcelona.
1904  Los Estados Unidos intervienen en el conflicto entre Honduras y Nicaragua e imponen la paz.
1898  La Cámara de Representantes y el Senado de los Estados Unidos aprueban conjuntamente la guerra contra España para que ésta se retire de Cuba
1882 Daimler and Maybach       ^top^
      Gottlieb Daimler and his protégé Wilhelm Maybach reached an agreement to work towards the creation of a high-speed internal combustion engine for propelling vehicles. Working in Daimler's greenhouse, the two men finished their first gas-powered engine in 1883. Four years later, the two men achieved a major breakthrough when they constructed the first water-cooled, gas-powered internal combustion engine.
1865 Union General William T. Sherman and Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston sign armistice memorandum at Durham Station, North Carolina
1864 Siege of Yorktown, Virginia continues
1864 Engagement at Poison Springs, Arkansas (part of Union General Frederick Steele's Camden Expedition)
1864 Confederate attack on Plymouth, North Carolina continues
1863 Siege of Suffolk, Virginia by Confederates continues
1862 Bombardment begins at Fort Jackson and Fort St. Philip, 110 km south of New Orleans, Louisiana.
1861 Col Robert E. Lee turns down offer to command Union armies
1853 First train in Asia (Bombay to Tanna, 36 km)
1838 Wilkes' expedition to South Pole sails.
1834 William Lamb became prime minister of England.
1806 The Non-Importation Act.       ^top^
      The ever-tense relationship between Great Britain and the US--still smoldering well past the close of the Revolutionary War--took a turn for the worse during the early portion of the nineteenth century. Putatively hoping to locate sailors who had deserted the Royal Navy, the British had taken to impressing American merchant ships. Though the deserters often took refuge on American vessels, the British often simply seized any sailors--deserters or not--who failed to prove their American citizenship. So, on this day in 1806, Congress fired back at England by passing the Nicholson Act (or Non-Importation Act), legislation which effectively shut the door on the importation of numerous British goods to America. The legislation blocked the trade of brass, tin, textiles and other items that could either be produced in the States or imported from other countries. The Nicholson Act took effect in December of 1806; but, a mere month later, President Thomas Jefferson lifted the trade blockade in hopes of speeding treaty negotiations with Britain. US Minister James Monroe brokered a deal with Britain, albeit one that did little to spare America's commercial ships. In 1808, the government reinstated the Nicholson Act, though it did little to prevent America and England from sailing into another war.
1775 Paul Revere, William Dawes, and Samuel Prescott ride to warn Patriots.       ^top^
      British troops marched out of Boston on a mission to capture Patriot leaders Samuel Adams and John Hancock in Lexington and to confiscate the Patriot arsenal at Concord. As the British departed, Boston Patriots Paul Revere and William Dawes set out on horseback from the city along separate routes to warn Adams and Hancock and to rouse the Patriot minutemen.
      By 1775, tensions between the American colonies and the British government had reached the breaking point, especially in Massachusetts, where Patriot leaders formed a shadow revolutionary government and trained militias to prepare for armed conflict with the British troops occupying Boston.
      In the spring of 1775, General Thomas Gage, the British governor of Massachusetts, received instructions from England to seize all stores of weapons and gunpowder accessible to the American insurgents. On 18 April, he orders British troops to march against the Patriot arsenal at Concord, and to capture Adams and Hancock, known to be hiding at Lexington.
      The Boston Patriots had been preparing for such a military action by the British for some time, and upon learning of the British plan, Revere and Dawes set off across the Massachusetts countryside. Taking separate routes in case one of them were captured, Dawes left Boston by the Boston Neck peninsula and Revere crossed the Charles River to Charlestown by boat.
      As the two couriers make their way, Patriots in Charlestown waited for a signal from Boston informing them of the British troop movement. As previously agreed, one lantern would be hung in the steeple of Boston's Old North Church, the highest point in the city, if the British were marching out of the city by Boston Neck, and two if they were crossing the Charles River to Cambridge. Two lanterns were hung, and the armed Patriots set out for Lexington and Concord accordingly.
      Hundreds of other militiamen were awakened by Revere and Dawes, and after arming themselves, set out for the towns to oppose the British. Revere arrived in Lexington shortly before Dawes, but together they warned Adams and Hancock and then set out for Concord with Samuel Prescott.
      Early in the morning of 19 April, a British patrol captured Revere, and Dawes lost his horse, forcing him to walk back to Lexington on foot. However, Prescott escaped and rode on to Concord to warn the Patriots there. After being roughly questioned for an hour or two, Revere was released when the patrol heard minutemen alarm guns being fired on their approach to Lexington.
      At about 05:00, 700 British soldiers under Major John Pitcairn arrived at the town to find a 77-man-strong colonial militia under Captain John Parker waiting for them on Lexington's common green. Pitcairn ordered the Patriots to disperse, and after a moment's hesitation, the Americans began to drift off the green. Suddenly, the "shot heard around the world" was fired from an undetermined gun, and a cloud of musket smoke soon covered the green. When the brief Battle of Lexington ended, eight Americans lay dead and ten others were wounded. Only one British soldier was injured, but the US War of Independence had begun.
1676 Sudbury, Mass attacked by Indians.
1521 German reformer Martin Luther, at the Diet of Worms, proclaimed that a biblical foundation supported the theological position of his "Ninety-Five Theses." Luther ended his defense with the famous words: “Here I stand! I can do nothing else! God help me! Amen.”
1506 In Rome, Julius II laid the foundation stone of the second building of St. Peter's Basilica. Completed 20 years later by Urban VIII, St. Peter's today is the largest church in Christendom, with an overall length of 189 m.
0310 St Eusebius begins his reign as Pope.
Deaths which occurred on an April 18:
2003 Yusuf Yahya, 21, Palestinian, shot repeatedly on a Tul Karm, West Bank, street, by Israeli soldiers who say that he had thrown two Molotov cocktails at them and was about to light a third.
2002 Annalisa Rapetti, 40, Alessandra Santonocito, 39, and Luigi Fasulo, 68, as his Rockwell Aero Commander 112TC crashes at 17:47 into the 25th floor of the Pirelli building, the tallest in Milan (31 floors) and seat of the regional government of Lombardy, starting a fire. The 27th floor collapses onto the 26th, where government lawyers Rapetti and Santonocito were working.. Fasulo, a Swiss+Italian from Pregassona, Switzerland, was flying in from Locarno, as he frequently did, but reported problems with the landing gear and was off the course indicated to him by the control tower. 36 persons are injured. Fasulo may have been a money smuggler defrauded by his accomplices on whom he wanted to draw the police's attention by his spectacular suicide.
2002 Dunya Ishtaya, 4 days old, Palestinian en route to a hospital in Nablus after the ambulance was stopped at Israeli army checkpoints, in the evening. The baby daughter of Nasser Ishtaya, a photographer who covers the West Bank for The Associated Press, had been born five to six weeks prematurely, and a village doctor said that the child had an irregular heartbeat and needed treatment at a hospital. Ishtaya spent two hours getting Israeli permission to allow an ambulance to come to their home in the village of Salim 5 km from Nablus. The ambulance was stopped at an Israeli military checkpoint outside the village, and Ishtaya and his wife, Sareen, 22, were ordered out of the ambulance and searched. While they were waiting at the next Israeli roadblock, a member of the ambulance crew said that the baby had died.
2002 Fadel Abu Zahera, 9, Palestinian boy, shot in the abdomen by Israeli soldiers, while he was playing with a friend in his yard in Beitunia, near Ramallah, West Bank.
2002 Sergeant Marc Leger of Lancaster, Ont.; Corporal Ainsworth Dyer of Montreal; Private Richard Green, of Mill Cove, N.S.; and Private Nathan Smith of Tatamagouche, N.S., Canadian soldiers in Afghanistan, by a US “smart” bomb that went stupid. At 01:55 local (17 Apr 21:25 UT) a US Air National Guard F-16 fighter plane mistakenly drops a laser-guided bomb on Canadian soldiers participating in a nighttime live-fire training exercise about 15 km south of their Kandahar base. Eight Canadian soldiers are injured, two of them severely. The US plane was not involved in the exercise.
2002 Sixteen Chechen puppet riot policemen, in Grozny, ten when their vehicle detonates a landmine 200 m from their barracks, and six others in another vehicle which comes to the aid of the first, as it detonates another landmine. Six are wounded.
2002 Zhang Xinmin, 39, sucked into the engine of an Air China Boeing 767 as it began to taxi toward the Kansai, Japan, airport runway for take-off bound for Beijing. Zhang, a Chinese member of the airline's maintenance staff, possibly intent on suicide, chased after the plane.
2001 Union Stock Yards, last large cattle market in Texas, holds its final auction, on the edge of downtown San Antonio. It was started in 1889. It has become uneconomical with fewer ranches in increasingly urban Texas.
2001 Balder, blind cod, 20 years old (estimated), weight about 2.5 kg, apparently from overeating. The fish, also called "Toralf" or "Torolv," repeatedly swam into the net of Harold Hauso, 69, in the Norwegian fjord of Hardanger, from March 2000 until the 40th and last time on 7 February 2001. Hauso sent the scrawny fish to a marine park in Aalesund, about 300 km north of Hardanger, where, on 09 February 2001, it underwent an emergency operation to remove gas which built up inside its body because of its repeated capture. The cod eventually regained its appetite and ate the herrings and shrimps fed to it, but remained very skinny. Suddenly it rolled over and died.
2000 Russell Jump, born in Illinois on 16 March 1895, he served in the US Army during World War I, and was mayor of Wichita, Kansas in 1952-1953. He was a Methodist and one of the longest-lived US persons who have been elected to public office.
1996: 91 Lebanese refugees in a U.N. camp; killed by Israeli shells. Israel called the attack an "unfortunate mistake."
1996: 18 Greek tourists, shot by gunmen at a hotel in Egypt. The gunmen do not say that it is an unfortunate mistake.
1995  Arturo Frondizi, político argentino.
1991  Gabriel Celaya, poeta y escritor español.
1987  Cecil King, magnate de la prensa británica.
1983:: 63 persons, as suicide bomber destroys US embassy in Beirut       ^top^
      The US Embassy in Beirut, Lebanon, was almost completely destroyed by a car-bomb explosion that killed sixty-three people, including the suicide bomber and seventeen Americans. Although the perpetrators of the terrorist attack were not found, the bombing was probably carried out in protest of the US military presence in Lebanon.
      In 1975, a bloody civil war erupted in Lebanon, with Palestinian and leftist Muslim guerrillas battling militias of the Christian Phalange Party, the Maronite Christian community, and other groups. Over the next few years, Syrian, Israeli, and United Nations interventions failed to resolve the factional fighting, and on August 20, 1982, a multinational force featuring US Marines landed in Beirut to oversee the Palestinian withdrawal from Lebanon.
      The marines left Lebanese territory on September 10, but returned on September 29 following the massacre of Palestinian refugees by a Christian militia. The next day, the first US marine to die during the mission was killed while defusing a bomb, and on 18 April 1983, the US embassy in Beirut was devastated by a car bomb, killing sixty-three people.
      On October 23, 1983, Lebanese terrorists evaded security measures and drove a truck packed with explosives into the US Marine barracks in Beirut, killing 241 US military personnel. Fifty-eight French soldiers were killed the same evening in a separate suicide terrorist attack. On February 7, 1984, US President Ronald Reagan announced the end of US participation in the problem-plagued peacekeeping mission, and on February 26, the last US Marines left Beirut.
1974::  11 muertos por un ataque contra una escuela militar en El Cairo; el Gobierno egipcio acusa a Libia.
1971 Howard Hughes billionaire
1961 Abraham Ezechiel Plessner, Polish Russian mathematician born on 13 February 1900.
^ 1955 Albert Einstein, physicist, mathematician, developer of relativity theory.
      Albert Einstein dies in his sleep in a hospital in Princeton, New Jersey. Einstein's revolutionary theories about time, space, and gravity profoundly influenced the course of modern science. Einstein was born in Germany on 14 March 1879, grew up in Milan, studied and taught in Switzerland, returned to Germany. But, when the Nazis took power in 1933 he was out of the country, and stayed out, as they were persecuting Jews, including him. He settled in the US on the eve of World War II. An avid pacifist, he nevertheless set the stage for the invention of nuclear weapons when he wrote a letter to President Roosevelt, warning that Germany might build an atom bomb. The development of nuclear weapons eventually led to the creation of Internet. The threat of an attack that could wipe out coast-to-coast communications was an important factor motivating the Defense Department's ARPA project, which created the foundation for the Internet.
1951  Antonio Oscar de Fragoso Carmona, general portugués y presidente de la República.
1945 Journalist Ernest Taylor “Ernie” Pyle killed during World War II.       ^top^
      The US's most popular war correspondent is killed by Japanese machine-gun fire on the island of Ie Shima in the Pacific.
      In 1935, Pyle, born on 03 August 1900 on a farm near Dana, Indiana, first began writing a column for the Scripps-Howard newspaper chain. Eventually syndicated to some two hundred US newspapers, Pyle's column, which related the lives and hopes of typical citizens, captured the US's affection.
      In 1942, after the United States entered World War II, Pyle went overseas as a war correspondent. He covered the North Africa campaign, the invasions of Sicily and Italy, and on 07 June 1944, went ashore at Normandy the day after Allied forces landed. Pyle, who always wrote about the experiences of enlisted men rather than the battles they participated in, described the D-Day scene: "It was a lovely day for strolling along the seashore. Men were sleeping on the sand, some of them sleeping forever. Men were floating in the water, but they didn't know they were in the water, for they were dead."
      The same year, he was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for distinguished correspondence, and in 1945 traveled to Pacific to cover the war against Japan.
      On 18 April 1945, on the island of Ie Shima, Ernie Pyle was killed by enemy fire. After his death, President Harry S. Truman spoke of how Pyle "told the story of the American fighting man as the American fighting men wanted it told." He was buried in his hometown of Dana, Indiana, next to other local soldiers who had fallen in battle.
      He was the author of Ernie Pyle in England (1941), Home Country (1935), Here Is Your War: Story of G.I. Joe (1945), Brave Men (1943).
Another account:
Pulitzer Prize-winning war correspondent Ernie Pyle is killed by Japanese machine-gun fire on the island of Ie Shima off the coast of Okinawa. Extremely popular, especially with the average GI, whose life and death he reported on (American infantrymen braved enemy fire to recover Pyle's body), Pyle had been at the London Blitz of 1941 and saw action in North Africa, Italy, France, and the Pacific. A monument exists to him to this day on Ie Shima, describing him simply as "a buddy." Burgess Meredith portrayed him in the 1945 film The Story of GI Joe.
1941 Eugène Gallien-Laloue (or Galien) “Jacques Liévin”, French artist born in December 1854.
1936  Ottorino Respighi, compositor italiano.
1923 Pieter Hendrik Schoute, Dutch mathematician born on 21 January 1846.
1921  El Banco Hispano Sudamericano quiebra en Buenos Aires.
1906 The first victims of the San Francisco earthquake       ^top^
      At 05:13, an 8.3 magnitude earthquake struck San Francisco, California, collapsing the city's unreinforced brick buildings and closely spaced wooden Victorian dwellings. Shock waves from the quake were felt from Coos Bay, Oregon, to Los Angeles, and as far east as central Nevada, affecting a total area of about 600'000 square km, approximately half of which was in the Pacific Ocean.
      Collapsed buildings, broken chimneys, and a shortage of water due to broken mains led to several large fires that soon coalesced into a deadly city-wide blaze that burned for days. Hundreds, perhaps thousands, of trapped persons died when South-of-Market tenements collapsed as the ground liquefied beneath them. Most of those buildings immediately caught fire, and trapped victims could not be rescued.
      At 07:00, US Army troops from Fort Mason reported to the Hall of Justice, and San Francisco mayor E. E. Schmitz called for the enforcement of a dusk-to-dawn curfew and authorized the soldiers to shoot-to-kill anyone found looting. Meanwhile, in the face of significant aftershocks, firefighters and additional US troops fought desperately to control the spreading blaze, often dynamiting whole city blocks to create firewalls.
      On 20 April, twenty thousand refugees trapped by the massive fire were evacuated from the foot of Van Ness Avenue onto the USS Chicago, in one of history's largest evacuations by sea to that date. By 23 April, most fires were extinguished and authorities commenced the task of rebuilding the devastated metropolis. It was estimated that over three thousand people died as a result of the Great San Francisco Earthquake and the devastating fires that it inflicted upon the city, which was 75% destroyed..
      A devastating earthquake begins to shake the city of San Francisco in the morning hours. The first of two vicious tremors shook San Francisco at 05:13, and a second followed not long after. The quake was powerful enough to be recorded thousands of kilometers away in Cape Town, South Africa, and its effect on San Francisco was cataclysmic. Thousands of structures collapsed as a result of the quake itself. However, the greatest devastation resulted from the fires that followed the quake. The initial tremors destroyed the city's water mains, leaving overwhelmed firefighters with no means of combating the growing inferno. The blaze burned for four days and engulfed the vast majority of the city. By the time a heavy rainfall tamed the massive fire, the once proud city of San Francisco was in shambles. More than 28'000 buildings burned to the ground and the city suffered more than $500 million in damages. The human toll was equally disastrous: authorities estimated that the quake and fires killed 700 people, and left a quarter of a million people homeless. The famous writer and San Francisco resident Jack London noted, "Surrender was complete." Despite the utter devastation, San Francisco quickly recovered from the great earthquake of 1906. During the next four years, the city arose from its ashes. Ironically, the destruction actually allowed city planners to create a new and better San Francisco. A classic western boomtown, San Francisco had grown in a haphazard manner since the Gold Rush of 1849. Working from a nearly clean slate, San Franciscans could rebuild the city with a more logical and elegant structure. The destruction of the urban center at San Francisco also encouraged the growth of new towns around the bay, making room for a new population boom arriving from the US and abroad. Within a decade, San Francisco had resumed its status as the crown jewel of the American West.
     The fire caused by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake destroyed the production facilities of the fledgling Sunset Automobile Company in San Francisco, California. Production of the Sunset never resumed and the firm was legally dissolved in 1909. Throughout the history of American automobile production no company has ever succeeded on the US West Coast.
1905  Juan Valera y Alcalá Galiano (una sola persona), novelista, político y diplomático español.
1898 Gustave Moreau, French Symbolist painter born on 06 April 1826. — MORE ON MOREAU AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
1897 Charles Olivier de Penne, French artist born on 11 January 1831. — [Is it of him that they say that “de Penne is mightier than the soared.”?]
1886  Monseñor Martínez Izquierdo, primer obispo de la diócesis de Madrid-Alcalá, asesinado.
^ 1864 More than 150 Yanks, mostly Black and 13 of the Rebs who massacred them at Poison Spring.
      At Poison Spring, Arkansas, 4000 Confederate calvarymen ambushed 1170 Union soldiers, of which over 300, including 182 from the 1st Kansas Colored Infantry Regiment, would be listed as killed, wounded, or missing. Many of the casualties occurred after the battle had ceased. One account states that Arkansan Rebs, ordered to remove their wagons from the battle site, “drove over the dead and dying Blacks,” competing to see who could crush the most heads of Black soldiers.
     Following the occupation of Camden on 15 April 1864, Union General Frederick Steele sent foraging parties to gather supplies for his army from the countryside. Hopeful Arkansas civilians interpreted Steele's advance as a retreat. "Our cavalry are fighting Steele near Washington," a resident of Princeton recorded in her diary on 16 April 16. "Report says Steele is slowly retreating towards Camden with Shelby and Marmaduke hanging like hungry wolves along his line." Safe but uncertain in Camden, Steele restrained his men admirably from pillaging the town (after some initial looting of food by the starved troops upon their arrival) and established a fairly harmonious relationship with the townspeople, as he had done in Little Rock. When civilians complained of soldiers raiding their smokehouses and corn cribs, Steele assigned safeguards to ward off potential thieves. When supplies that Steele had ordered sent to Camden from Little Rock and Pine Bluff a week earlier failed to appear, he sent out foraging parties to collect whatever they could from the neighborhood. One party of nearly two hundred wagons set out on 17 April to gather corn some 30 km west of Camden.
      Col. James M. Williams led the mixed column of infantry and cavalry and two guns. He commanded roughly 670 men, including over 400 black infantrymen from the First Kansas Colored Volunteers. Sterling Price, from his headquarters at Woodlawn, about sixteen miles west of Camden, had ordered his cavalry to be alert to Union movements, particularly attempts to forage. Consequently, his men covered all roads out of Camden, and that was how a force of nearly 3600 men, including about 1200 Arkansans and nearly 700 "hungry, half-clothed Choctaws," and twelve guns commanded by Marmaduke got between the forage train and Camden. The train was actually returning along the Washington-Camden Road when Marmaduke launched his attack. Having loaded approximately half of the wagons with five thousand bushels of corn, the expedition, expecting to fill the others from farms along the return route, had set a leisurely pace. Near Poison Spring, about 22 km from Camden, a relief column added two more guns and gave Williams about 1160 men; but Williams had also lost men to fatigue as he marched homeward. When Marmaduke struck, Williams had only about 1000 effectives.
      It was nearly an ambush. Marmaduke, having the advantage over the slow-moving train, shifted easily into position across the road to Camden on high ground near Poison Spring and Lee's plantation. But Williams, who learned of the Confederate force ahead of him, quickly deployed his own men at about 09:30. He even managed to push back the pickets of Brigadier General John Sappington Marmaduke [14 Mar 1833 – 28 Dec 1887] more than one kilometer. But realizing the strength of the opposition, Williams halted his wagons and drew them up in a defensive line to receive the inevitable Confederate attack. He placed his Black infantry in the center of the formation, his cavalry on the flanks. The Black First Kansas, mostly former slaves from Missouri and Arkansas, bore the brunt of the attack. They stood little chance. The men of Brigadier General Samuel Bell Maxey [30 Mar 1825 – 16 Aug 1895] moved first against the Federal right flank. This initial advance was followed almost immediately by deadly artillery fire. The First Kansas repulsed the first charge, but the weight of Rebel men and arms began to tell on the bluecoats. Marmaduke followed within minutes with the full force of his command. Men broke out of the wooded ridge that had concealed them and descended at the double-quick upon the already wavering Federal line. Nearly half of the black soldiers fell dead or were wounded in a little over an hour of fighting.
      Once penetrated, the Union line collapsed rapidly. Threatened with envelopment when the cavalry screen on their left flank was beaten back, the remains of the First Kansas broke and ran. This proved to be their undoing. Pursuing Confederates, enraged as the Rebels usually were when the Federals used Blacks as combat troops, showed vicious cruelty. They continued to fire into the fleeing ranks, and many wounded Blacks were murdered as they were lying on the ground. Other Black troops, hunted down and trapped in the surrounding swamps and woods, were executed when they attempted to surrender. One Rebel colonel admitted, "Away trotted the poor Black men into the forest, clinging to their rifles, but not using them, while the pursuing Confederates cut them down right and left." A private in Cabell's brigade believed Choctaws perpetrated most of the butchery. "You ought to see Indians fight Negroes," he recalled, "kill and scalp them. Let me tell you, I never expected to see so many dead Negroes again. They were so thick you could walk on them." A few Blacks, realizing the vengeance being reaped on their comrades, feigned death by lying motionless on the field. After dark, they crawled into the woods and made their way back to Camden. Kirby Smith, who arrived from Louisiana on 19 April, admitted that of some two hundred captured Federals, he saw "but two Negro prisoners."
      The remnants of Williams' command had long since retreated toward Camden. Following one last threatened charge by Col. Tandy Walker's Choctaws - aborted when the Indians turned their attention to the defenseless forage wagons-the Federals moved northward and then eastward in a wide arc toward their garrison. The head of the column reached Camden at about 23:00. In addition to losing 4 cannons, 170 wagons, and 1200 mules, the Federals sacrificed 204 killed or missing and 97 wounded, or 30% of the entire command. The First Kansas lost 117 killed and 65 wounded, or 42% casualties. The Confederates lost 13 men killed, 81 wounded, and 1 missing. The Confederates also discovered, upon inspecting the wagons, that the Federal foraging party had secured far more than grain on its expedition: included in the cargo was "every kind of provision from the farm-yard, the pantry, the dairy, and the sideboard. . . . men's, women's and children's clothing, household furniture, gardening implements, the tools of the mechanic, and the poor contents of the Negro hut."
      The loss of the forage train and the military embarrassment at Poison Spring hit hard at Steele and his thirteen thousand men. A supply train from Pine Bluff did arrive on 20 April, but it carried only ten days' worth of provisions. By this time, also, the Louisiana prong of the Federals' Red River advance had been thoroughly blunted by defeats at Mansfield and Pleasant Hill. Steele received official notice that Banks was in retreat; he heard rumors that eight thousand Confederates led by Kirby Smith had arrived in Arkansas to join the attack against him. What was more, tensions had developed between his men and the citizens of Camden who, while adjusting to life with white occupation troops, resented Steele's black soldiers. "The one thing that really stirred my blood to heat was the sight of Negro troops going out to fight our men," reported one resident. Finally, too, the Rebels were closing in; artillery had been moved up for an apparent bombardment of the town.
^ 1863 Four Yanks and some 20 Rebs at the battle of Fayetteville.
      In April 1863 , two of the Arkansas's most aggressive cavalry commanders attempted to reverse the Southerners' sagging fortunes. On the sixteenth, Brig. Gen. William Cabell led 900 Rebel cavalrymen north from Ozark to attack Federal forces occupying Fayetteville. Cabell, nicknamed "Old Tige," was a thirty-six-year-old Virginian and a West Pointer whose prewar service in the army had been primarily in the quartermaster departments On this spring morning, he would lead his troops into a fight that was a microcosm of the whole war. The First Arkansas Cavalry (Confederate) would battle the First Arkansas Cavalry (Union) in an area both called home.
      A Federal officer described Fayetteville as "a beautiful little hamlet nestling among the foothills of the Ozark range,… the chief educational center of the state, the home of culture, refinement, and that inborn hospitality so characteristic of the South… The Public Square… was surrounded by stores and shops, broken only… by an old-fashioned tavern."
      The first "casualties" of the battle of Fayetteville were Lt. Gustavus F. Hottenhaur and eight of his men from Company B of the First Arkansas Cavalry (Union), who were enjoying a dance at a private home in West Fork some 12 km south of the town. A detachment of Cabell's cavalry under Lt. Jim Ferguson surprised the merrymakers and demanded their surrender. The shocked Federals scattered in every direction, "into the kitchen, the cellar, and under the floor." Their commanding officer demonstrated the greatest imagination by attempting unsuccessfully to climb up the chimney. All nine were taken prisoner.
      Cabell continued his march on Fayetteville, arriving shortly after sunrise on Saturday 18 April. The Confederates approached the city from the east with "wild and deafening shouts" and advanced on the headquarters of the Federal commander, Col. M. LaRue Harrison, located in the Tebbetts' house just northeast of the town square." Harrison's brother, Capt. E. B. Harrison, was asleep in the Baxter house across the street when the Rebels attacked. Awakened by the commotion, he looked out the east door of his room and saw, to his shock and consternation, a column of Confederate cavalry moving toward him. He escaped out the front door and ran to warn his brother. Cabell placed his two pieces of artillery on a hillside east of town and opened fire on the Federal camp with canister and shell. One of the first shots, an explosive shell, entered the Baxter house, where several women and children had sought shelter in the cellar. The shell crashed through the wall and struck a heavy wooden partition. The partition deflected the shell into a kettle of lye, which extinguished the fuse and prevented an explosion and, in all probability, saved the lives of the civilians huddled in the cellar. For almost four hours the battle raged around the Union headquarters. The Rebels managed to gain control of the Baxter house and a grove of trees south of the Tebbetts' house, but could go no farther.
      About 09:00, Col. J. C. Monroe led a desperate cavalry charge against the Union right, only to run into "a galling crossfire ... piling rebel men and horses in heaps" in front of the Federals' ordnance office. Captain Harrison had sought protection behind a tree and witnessed the Rebel charge. He later wrote:
      I looked with wonder, as well as admiration, upon that splendid body of horsemen as they swept down Dixon Street.... [W]hen nearing College Avenue, they were met by a fire from the Federal soldiers the most heroic could not face it.... I stood by the tree as the cavalrymen came thundering down the road, many falling from their mounts, one horse (evidently wounded to its death) turned and with a terrific leap cleared the high plank fence and fell dead in the Baxter lot, carrying his rider with him, who, though evidently wounded, freed himself from the dead horse and made his way around the house.
      Monroe's charge was the Confederate high water mark. Gradually, the Union forces began to drive back both flanks of the Rebel line. The Confederates in the Baxter house at the center of the Rebels' position continued to resist for almost an hour after both wings had begun to give way, but eventually they too were driven out. By late morning, what remained of Cabell's command was retreating toward Ozark. Colonel Harrison had too few horses to mount a pursuit.
      Federal losses were 4 killed, 23 wounded, 35 missing, and 16 captured (including Hottenhaur's ill-fated dancers at West Fork). Cabell reported his losses as approximately 20 killed, 30 wounded, and 20 missing. The fierce resistance of the Arkansas Federals surprised him. The First Arkansas (Union) had turned and run at the battle of Prairie Grove and ever since had been considered unreliable. But in his official report of the engagement at Fayetteville, Cabell noted, "The enemy all (both infantry and cavalry) fought well, equally as well as any Federal troops I have ever seen. Although it was thought by a great many that, composed as they are of disloyal citizens and deserters from our army, they would make but a feeble stand, the reverse, however, was the case."
      Cabell also reported that he could have burned a large part of the town, "but every house was filled with women and children, a great number of whom were the families of officers and soldiers in our service." He placed part of the blame for his setback on the superior weapons possessed by the Union troops. Many of his men were armed with "Arkadelphia rifles," which, he noted, were "no better than shotguns." The Federals were equipped with the longer-range Springfields and Whitneys. Despite his failure to take the town, Cabell reported that his men were "in fine spirits, and ready to try to take the enemy again and that he would shortly be prepared "to strike a heavier blow."
1862 Frederik Hansen Södring, Danish artist born on 31 May 1809.
1855 Jean-Baptiste Isabey, French painter, draftsman, and printmaker, born on 11 April 1767. — MORE ON ISABEY AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
1837 Giovanni Migliara, Italian painter and teacher born on 05 (15?) October 1785. — MORE ON MIGLIARA AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
1832 Jeanne-Elisabeth Chaudet Husson “Gabiou”, French artist born on 23 January 1767. — more
1803 Louis François Antoine Arbogast, Alsatian mathematician born on 04 October 1759.

1794 (29 germinal an II) Condamnés à mort par la Révolution:       ^top^
Par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris:
LABORDE Jean. Joseph, banquier de la ci-devant cour, ex-député à l'assemblé constituante, âgé de 70 ans, né à Inca, en Espagne, domicilié à Mierville, département de la Seine Inférieure, comme contre-révolutionnaire.
LALAURENCIE Marie (dite Charras), ex noble, âgée de 42 ans, native de Chassars, département de la Charente. domicilié à Amiens, département de la Somme, comme contre-révolutionnaire.
MAGNY François, âgé de 24 ans, tailleur et soldat au 6ème régiment de hussards cavalerie, domicilié à Limoges, département de la Haute Vienne, comme usurpateur des autorités constituées.
     ... domiciliés à Paris, département de la Seine:
GOUVEL Marie Adrienne, veuve Vierville, comme contre-révolutionnaire.
MESNARD Didier François (dit Chouzy) père, ex commissaire au bureau de la dépense du dernier tyran roi, âgé de 64 ans, né à Versailles, ex ministre plénipotentiaire en franconie, comme convaincu d'être auteur et complice des conspirations qui ont existé contre la liberté du Peuple.
MESNARD Jean Didier (dit Chouzy) fils, ex contrôleur général de la bouche du dernier tyran roi, âgé de 35 ans, né à Versailles, département de la Seine, comme convaincu d'être auteur et complice des conspirations qui ont existé contre le peuple français.
NOGUET Jeanne Marie, âgée de 36 ans, native de Bayonne, veuve de Rolin-d’Ivry, maître des requêtes, actuellement femme Destat-Bellecourt, comme complice des conspirations contre la liberté et la sûreté du peuple, tendantes à rétablir la tyrannie et à détruire le gouvernement républicain.
PAYMAL François Michel, domestique du nommé Hariague, âgé de 29 ans, natif de Versailles, département de la Seine et Oise, comme contre-révolutionnaire, ayant partagé les sentiments de Guybeville, et ayant dit qu’il aimerait mieux voir le feu aux quatre coins de Paris, que de voir la république tenir.
ROBIN Jean, officier de maison chez le nommé Hariague de Guibeville, âgé de 43 ans, natif de Valence, comme ayant dit qu’il aimerait mieux voir le feu aux quatre coins de Paris, que de voir tenir la république; que si l’on faisait mourir Marie Antoinette, il connaissait un parti qui s’y opposerait, et qu’il serait le premier à se mettre à leur tête.
ROLLAT Sébastien, ex noble, âgé de 52 ans, natif de Bruyère, département de l’Allier, comme contre-révolutionnaire, ayant fait partie d’un rassemblement chez les nommées Billens et Charras.
     ... nés et domiciliés à Paris, département de la Seine:
DEMESLE Adélaïde Marguerite, femme divorcée de Duchilleau, âgée de 41 ans, comme contre-révolutionnaire.
GOUGENO Louis Georges, ex syndic de la ci-devant compagnie des Indes, receveur à la régie général, ex maître d'hôtel du tyran roi, comme contre-révolutionnaire.
GENESTE (ou GENET) Antoine Grégoire, 27 ans, banquier, comme contre-révolutionnaire conspirateur contre la souveraineté du Peuple.
ROLLAT René, officier de la colonelle général de dragons, âgé de 32 ans, comme ayant fait partie des rassemblements chez les nommées Billens, et Charras, et comme ayant émigré.
GONNEL Marie Gabriel, veuve de Vierville, âgée de 49 ans, condamnée à mort , comme conspiratrice.
HARINCUE Pierre, (dit Guibeville), ex noble, ex président au ci-devant parlement de Paris, âgé de 63 ans, comme contre-révolutionnaire.
HARINVUE Marie Claude Emilie, veuve Bonnaire, ex noble, âgée de 43 ans, comme contre-révolutionnaire.
GRANSART Catherine, domicilié à Allauch, département des Bouches du Rhône, par le tribunal criminel dudit département comme contre-révolutionnaire.
PHILIPPIÉ François, marchand de Bois, domicilié à Marseille, département des Bouches du Rhône, par le tribunal criminel dudit département, comme conspirateur.
BARBEYER Jacques, (dit Lamotte), précepteur de la jeunesse, domicilié à Montjabron, canton de Montélimart, département de la Drôme, comme séditieux, par le tribunal criminel du département de la Drôme.
BAUD André, manœuvrier, domicilié à Montjabron, canton de Montélimart, département de la Drôme, comme séditieux, par le tribunal criminel du département de la Drôme.
BOISSIE Jean, domicilié à Moullac, canton de Puy-la-Roque et de Montauban, département du Lot, comme émigré, par le tribunal criminel du département du Lot.
LAPOIRE Cl. François, cultivateur et négociant, domicilié à Valdahon près de Besançon, département du Doubs, comme complice d'émigré, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
DAUDIN Nicolas, prêtre, domicilié à Richelieu, département de l'Indre et Loire, comme réfractaire à la loi, par le tribunal criminel du département de la Vienne.
LAUDINET Jean, maçon, domicilié à Pointiers, département de la Vienne, comme receleur de prêtres réfractaires, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
DAVID Pierre, commissaire des guerres à l’armée de l’Ouest, domicilié à Angers, département de Mayenne et Loire, comme Conspirateur, par la commission militaire séante à Angers.
DIGNE Jean François, homme de loi, domicilié à Draguignan, département du Var, comme conspirateur, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
MEDARD Jacques, bordager, domicilié à Courceboeuf, département de la Sarthe, comme contre-révolutionnaire, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
VINCHON Jean Claude, domicilié à Letric, département des Vosges, comme émigré, par la commission militaire séante à Auxonne.
YWINS, domicilié à Douay, département du Nord, par la commission militaire de l’armée du Nord séante à Cassel, comme introducteur de faux assignats.

1793 Condamnés à mort par la Révolution:       ^top^
HUNOUT Pierre Séverin, feudiste domicilié à Chaumont, département de l'Oise, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme distributeur de faux assignats.
LECLER Jeanne Catherine, âgée de 50 ans, cuisinière depuis 15 ans dans la même maison, née et domiciliée à Paris, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme contre-révolutionnaire, pour avoir dit, en allant au marché, quelle aimerait mieux un roi, que cela 'irait pas bien sans cela.
Comme brigands de la Vendée, domiciliés dans le département de la Vendée, par la commission militaire séante aux Sables:
ACHARD Pierre, laboureur domicilié à St Nicolas de Brrein, canton des Sables.
ANGIBAUD François (dit Moriniére), domicilié à Beauvoir, canton de Challans.
ANGIBAUD Prosper, juge de paix, domicilié à Beauvoir, canton de Challans.
BOURGEOIS Denis, employé aux douanes, domicilié à St Gervais, canton de Challans.
BROCHET Joseph, jardinier, domicilié à St Gervais, canton de Challans.
POIRAUD François, domestique, domicilié à St Gervais.
BOUTEILLER François, domicilié à la Garnache, canton de Challans.
GUITTONNEAU Nicolas, marchand, domicilié à Challans.
GUERIN Pierre, laboureur, domicilié à Aubigny.
MINAUD Pierre, laboureur, domicilié à Poiré.
RABLOT Jacques, maire de Notre-Dame-de-Ré, y demeurant.
RIVALIN Jacques, marchand, domicilié à Verré.
1684 Gonzales Coques, Flemish painter specialized in portraits, born on 08 December 1614. — MORE ON COQUES AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
Births which occurred on an April 18:       ^top^
1994 Last Motorola Macintosh chip.       ^top^
      Motorola introduces its new 68060 microprocessor, the last descendant of the 68040 used in the Macintosh. Apple had recently abandoned the classic line of Macintosh processors in favor of the PowerPC, a microprocessor manufactured by IBM and Motorola. The 68060 chip would be used for control applications like networking systems instead of computers.
1949 Charles Louis Fefferman, US mathematician
1949  Celia Villalobos Talero, política y ministra de Sanidad española.
1927  Tadeusz Mazowiecki, político polaco. 
1927 Charles Pasque, político y ministro del Interior francés.
1918 Hsien Chung Wang, Chinese US mathematician who died on 25 June 1978.
1908  La araña, drama de Àngel Guimerà i Jorge, se estrena en el teatro Español de Madrid.
1907 Lars Valerian Ahlfors, Finnish US mathematician who died in October 1996. He made important contributions to Complex Analysis.
1884 Ludwig Meidner, German Expressionist painter who died on 14 May 1966. — MORE ON MEIDNER AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
1867  Luis Millet i Paget, músico y escritor catalán.
1867  Carlos Arturo Torres, escritor y político colombiano.
1857 Clarence S Darrow, defense attorney at the Scopes “monkey trial” (about teaching evolution).
1854 José Frappa, Spanish artist who died on 16 February 1904.
1843 Adrien Moreau, French artist who died on 22 February 1906.
1838 Evert Jan Boks, Dutch painter who died in 1914.
1838  El primer aparato telegráfico eléctrico portátil es patentado por el electrotécnico británico William Fothergill Cooke.
1829 George Smith, British artist who died on 02 January 1901.
^ 1797 Louis Adolphe Thiers, French statesman, journalist, and historian, a founder and the first president (1871–1873) of the Third Republic.
      Thiers was officially the son of a sea captain who married Thiers's mother on 13 May 1797, and deserted her four months later. Educated at first at the Marseille school that now bears his name, he studied law at Aix-en-Provence, where he met his lifelong friend, the historian François Mignet [08 May 1796 – 24 Mar 1884]. In 1821 he went to Paris and became a contributor to the influential newspaper Le Constitutionnel. In January 1830 he helped found a new opposition newspaper, Le National, which almost openly advocated a change of dynasty should the reactionary king Charles X [09 Oct 1757 – 06 Nov 1836] attempt to circumscribe public liberties. During the revolution of 27 July to 29 July 1830, which overthrew King Charles, he took refuge in a Paris suburb and returned on the 29 July to win support for Louis-Philippe, duke of Orléans [06 Oct 1773 – 26 Aug 1850]. He was rewarded by being made a member of the Council of State and was elected to the Chamber as a deputy for Aix-en-Provence.
      Under the Orleanist monarchy, Thiers was undersecretary of state for the treasury (1830), minister of the interior (1832 and 1834–1836), and minister of trade and public works (1833–1834). During those years, he was the most notable representative of the Party of Resistance (conservative moderates). He mercilessly crushed all insurrections, in particular those of the legitimists under the Duchesse de Berry in 1832 and of the Republicans in 1834. Premier and minister of foreign affairs (1836 and 1840), in his second term of office his support of the Egyptian pasha Muhammad 'Ali [1769 – 02 Aug 1849] almost led to war with England because of a conflicting Middle Eastern policy. Forced to resign by King Louis-Philippe's determination to avert war, Thiers nevertheless remained a leader of the resistance party.
      After the Revolution of February 1848, Thiers returned to the Assembly as a representative for Seine Inférieure. Though he helped elect Prince Louis-Napoléon [20 Apr 1808 – 09 Jan 1873] to the presidency of the Second Republic (1849), the two later became estranged. Exiled from 1851 to 1853, Thiers again became a deputy under the Second Empire and was originally one of those who favored war with Prussia in 1870. During the war crisis, however, Thiers changed his views and became an opponent of the aggressive policy that he had previously advocated. This swing stood him in good stead after the French defeat in September 1870; he thus became the wise man who had foreseen the folly of pursuing such a policy without adequate military power.
      He was clever enough to remain out of the national defense government set up after the fall of the Empire (September) and thus had no responsibility for the final French surrender in January 1871. In February he was elected simultaneously for 26 départements and on 17 February 1871 became “chief of the executive power of the French Republic.” In August 1871 he became president of the republic. Thiers believed that France could be united under a conservative republic and tried to win the monarchist opposition over to this view. His first major task was to restore political order. In concert with the Germans, he ruthlessly used troops to defeat the Paris insurrection known as the Commune (March–May 1871), thus destroying for many years the strength of French Socialists and workers' movements. But even this did not win him the support of the monarchists, and in 1873 he resigned. Meanwhile, his financial skill had enabled France to pay off ahead of time the indemnity due the Germans. But his military law of 1872 failed to establish an adequate professional army and the five years' conscription period he introduced seriously depleted the labor force.
      Thiers joined the republican opposition in what was now a mainly royalist Assembly. He died suddenly at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, just outside Paris, while preparing an election manifesto.
      Thiers probably achieved greater power and wealth than any French politician of his time, but his ability was not greatly appreciated by those whom he served. His Histoire de la révolution française (10 volumes, 1823-1827), and his Histoire du consulat et de l'empire (20 volumes, 1845-1862), made a notable contribution to the growth of nationalism in France. In addition, his effecting the return of Napoléon's body to France from St. Helena in 1840 fostered the Napoleonic legend. Of himself, Thiers fairly successfully promoted the image of an old, shrewd, and wise patriot, although, by those of left-wing sympathies, he was never regarded as anything but an inveterate enemy of social reform.
^ 1776 The Life of David Hume, Esquire, Written by Himself is completed by himself.
     David Hume, born on 07 May (26 April Julian) 1711 in Edinburgh, died on 25 August 1776 in Edinburgh. Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, known especially for his philosophical empiricism and skepticism, Hume conceived of philosophy as the inductive, experimental science of human nature. Taking the scientific method of the English physicist Sir Isaac Newton as his model and building on the epistemology of the English philosopher John Locke, Hume tried to describe how the mind works in acquiring what is called knowledge. He concluded that no theory of reality is possible; there can be no knowledge of anything beyond experience. Despite the enduring impact of his theory of knowledge, Hume seems to have considered himself chiefly as a moralist.
     During three years in France, he wrote A Treatise of Human Nature, his attempt to formulate a full-fledged philosophical system. It is divided into three books:
      book I, on understanding, aims at explaining man's process of knowing, describing in order the origin of ideas, the ideas of space and time, causality, and the testimony of the senses;
      book II, on the "passions" of man, gives an elaborate psychological machinery to explain the affective, or emotional, order in man and assigns a subordinate role to reason in this mechanism;
      book III, on morals, describes moral goodness in terms of "feelings" of approval or disapproval that a person has when he considers human behaviour in the light of the agreeable or disagreeable consequences either to himself or to others.
      At the end of his life he repudiated it as juvenile. The Treatise is not well constructed, in parts oversubtle, confusing because of ambiguity in important terms (especially "reason"). Book I, nevertheless, has been more read than any other of his writings.
      His next venture, Essays, Moral and Political (1741-42), won some success.
      During years of wandering Hume produced a further Three Essays, Moral and Political (1748) and Philosophical Essays Concerning Human Understanding (1748). The latter is a rewriting of book I of the Treatise (with the addition of his essay On Miracles, which became notorious for its denial that a miracle can be proved); it is better known as An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding, the title Hume gave to it in a revision of 1758.
      The Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals (1751) was a rewriting of book III of the Treatise.
      An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding is an attempt to define the principles of human knowledge. It poses questions about the nature of reasoning in regard to matters of fact and experience, and it answers them by recourse to the principle of association. The basis of his exposition is a twofold classification of objects of awareness. In the first place, all such objects are either "impressions," data of sensation or of internal consciousness, or "ideas," derived from such data by compounding, transposing, augmenting, or diminishing. That is to say, the mind does not create any ideas but derives them from impressions. From this Hume develops a theory of meaning. A word that does not stand directly for an impression has meaning only if it brings before the mind an object that can be gathered from an impression by one of the mental processes mentioned.
      In the second place, there are two approaches to construing meaning, an analytical one, which concentrates on the "relations of ideas," and an empirical one, which focuses on "matters of fact." Ideas can be held before the mind simply as meanings, and their logical relations to one another can then be detected by rational inspection. The idea of a plane triangle, for example, entails the equality of its internal angles to two right angles, whether there really are such things as triangles. Only on this level of mere meanings, Hume asserts, is there room for demonstrative knowledge. Matters of fact, on the other hand, come before the mind merely as they are, revealing no logical relations; their properties and connections must be accepted as they are given. That lead is heavy, and that fire burns things are facts, logically barren. Each, so far as reason is concerned, could be different: the contradictory of every matter of fact is conceivable. Therefore, any demonstrative science of fact is impossible.
      From this basis Hume develops his doctrine about causality. The idea of causality is alleged to assert a necessary connection among matters of fact. From what impression, then, is it derived? Hume states that no causal relation among the data of the senses can be observed, for, when a person regards any events as causally connected, all that he does and can observe is that they frequently and uniformly go together. In this sort of togetherness it is a fact that the impression or idea of the one event brings with it the idea of the other. A habitual association is set up in the mind; and, as in other forms of habit, so in this one, the working of the association is felt as compulsion. This feeling, Hume concludes, is the only discoverable impressional source of the idea of causality.
     The Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals is a refinement of Hume's thinking on morality, in which he views sympathy as the fact of human nature lying at the basis of all social life and personal happiness. Defining morality as those qualities that are approved (1) in whomsoever they happen to be and (2) by virtually everybody, he sets himself to discover the broadest grounds of the approvals. He finds them, as he found the grounds of belief, in "feelings," not in "knowings." Moral decisions are grounded in moral sentiment. Qualities are valued either for their utility or for their agreeableness, in each case either to their owners or to others. Hume's moral system aims at the happiness of others and at the happiness of self. His emphasis is on altruism: the moral sentiments that he claims to find in human beings, he traces, for the most part, to a sentiment for and a sympathy with one's fellows.
      His History of England, extending from Caesar's invasion to 1688, came out in six quarto volumes between 1754 and 1762, preceded by Political Discourses (1752). His recent writings had begun to make him known, but these two brought him fame, abroad as well as at home. He also wrote Four Dissertations (1757), which included a rewriting of book II of the Treatise and a brilliant study of The Natural History of Religion.
     He published A Concise and Genuine Account of the Dispute Between Mr. Hume and Mr. Rousseau in 1766. He issued eight editions of his collected writings (omitting the Treatise, History, and ephemera) under the title Essays and Treatises between 1753 and 1772, and Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion, held back until 1779. His curiously detached autobiography, The Life of David Hume, Esquire, Written by Himself is dated 18 April 1776.
     He did not formulate a complete system of economic theory, as did Adam Smith in his Wealth of Nations, but had some similar ideas.
      Immanuel Kant conceived his critical philosophy in direct reaction to Hume. Hume was one of the influences that led Auguste Comte, the 19th-century French mathematician and sociologist, to positivism. In Britain his influence is seen in Jeremy Bentham, the early 19th-century jurist and philosopher, who was moved to utilitarianism (the moral theory that right conduct should be determined by the usefulness of its consequences) by book III of the Treatise, and more extensively in John Stuart Mill, the philosopher and economist who lived later in the 19th century.
HUME ONLINE:       ^top^
  • Selected Works
  • A Treatise of Human Nature
  • A Treatise of Human Nature
  • A Treatise of Human Nature
  • My Own Life
  • My Own Life
  • My Own Life
  • Of Commerce
  • Of Commerce
  • Of Interest
  • Of Tragedy
  • On Essay Writing
  • On Interest
  • On Money
  • On Money
  • On Public Credit
  • On Public Credit
  • On Taxes
  • Of Taxes
  • Of the Balance of Trade
  • Of the Balance of Trade
  • The Natural History of Religion
  • The Natural History of Religion
  • The Natural History of Religion
  • Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion
  • Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion
  • Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion
  • An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding
  • An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding
  • An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding
  • An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding
  • An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding
  • An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding
  • An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding
  • An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding
  • An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding
  • An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding
  • On the First Principles of Government
  • On the First Principles of Government
  • On the Jealousy of Trade
  • On the Origin of Government
  • Selected Essays
  • Essays on Suicide and the Immortality of the Soul
  • Essays on Suicide and the Immortality of the Soul
  • Essays on Suicide and the Immortality of the Soul
  • Essays on Suicide and the Immortality of the Soul
  • A Letter from a Gentleman to His Friend in Edinburgh
  • A Letter from a Gentleman to His Friend in Edinburgh
  • Cause and Effect (from The Enquiry)
  • Of Superstition And Enthusiasm
  • Of The Delicacy Of Taste And Passion
  • Of the Dignity or Meanness of Human Nature
  • Of the Jealousy of Trade
  • Of The Liberty Of The Press
  • Of the Origin of Government
  • Of the Refinement of the Arts
  • Of the Refinement of the Arts
  • Of The Rise And Progress of The Arts And Sciences
  • Of the Standard of Good Taste
  • Of the Standard of Good Taste
  • Of the Standard of Taste
  • Of the Standard of Taste
  • 1768 Jean-Baptiste Debret, French artist who died on 11 June 1848. — more with links to images.
    1734  Ramón de Pignatelli de Aragón y Montayo, ingeniero y escritor español.
    1480 Lucretia Borgia, alleged (perhaps falsely) serial murderess (by use of poison). She died of natural causes on 24 June 1519.
    Holidays: Zimbabwe : Independence Day (1989) / Oklahoma : 89'ers Day rodeos commemorate opening of Oklahoma in 1889
    Santos Eleuterio, Perfecto, Calócero, Apolonio y Andrés.
    Easter Sunday in 1897, 1954, 1965, 1976, 2049, 2055, 2060, 2106, 2117.
    Good Friday in 1919, 1924, 1930, 2003, 2014, 2025, 2087, 2098.
    Holy Thursday in 1878, 1889, 1935, 1946, 1957, 2019, 2030, 2041, 2052, 2109.
    Thoughts for the day:
    “If we were intended to talk more than we hear, we'd have two mouths and only one ear.”
    “A mind is a terrible thing to lose when you don't have a mind of your own.”
    (inspired by Dan Quayle)
    “A mind is a terrible thing to close when you don't even mind.”
    “We are all more average than we think.”
    — Gorham Munson, US author and editor [1896-1969].
    “No one is exactly average.”
    “The average person is one standard deviation above or below the average.”
    “In Lake Wobegone, all the children are above average.”
    updated Sunday 18-Apr-2004 1:14 UT
    safe site
    site safe for children safe site