• Tiananmen protests begin... • Khmer Rouge takes over... • Mark Twain dies... • Battle of San Jacinto... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • Red Army approaches Berlin... • Red Baron shot down... • Charlotte Brontë is born... • California executions resume... • Keynes dies... • Racine dies... • Lincoln's body goes home... • Stalin's daughter in US... • Borland~WordPerfect software suite... • No more Quicken for Mac... • Dr. Seuss Living Books... • Red Scare minion back from rampage.... • First projected movie in US.... • Rome founded... • Naturalist Muir is born... • Thieu flees from Saigon... • North Vietnamese troops detected in South Vietnam...
an April 21:
1998 Intuit discontinues Quicken for Macintosh. ^top^
Citing the dwindling sales of Macintosh computers, Intuit announced it would no longer make Quicken, its popular financial software, for the Mac. Macintosh users represented about 10% of Quicken's customers in 1998, down from 15% a few years before. While Apple had recently returned to profitability after a long run of losses, the Mac continued to lose market share, dipping as low as 3% until the introduction of the popular iMac in May 1998 once again boosted Mac sales. Steve Jobs, Apple's cofounder and acting CEO, helped persuade Intuit to change its stance. In May, Intuit reversed its decision and agreed to continue making Quicken for Macintosh.
1998 Astronomers announce in Washington that they had discovered possible signs of a new family of planets orbiting a star 220 light-years away.
1996 Netscape says that it will create an online address book listing e-mail addresses, phone numbers, and addresses for most people around the country. The company partnered with some thirty-five companies to create the service.
1990 El Papa Juan Pablo II inicia su primera visita a Europa del Este, salvo las ya realizadas a Polonia.
1990 Tras 25 días amotinados de la prisión británica de Strangeway, Manchester, los últimos rebeldes deponen su actitud.
1982 El PSOE (Partido Socialista Obrero Español) y la UCD (Unión de Centro Democrático) alcanzan un acuerdo sobre el estatuto de autonomía de Valencia, que contempla la denominación Comunidad Valenciana, la bandera cuatribarrada y el valenciano, como idioma oficial.
1967 Military coup in Greece: Army colonels install Constantine Kollias as premier. Un golpe de Estado en Grecia acaba con el régimen monárquico en el país.
1967 El Gobierno español implanta el estado de excepción en Vizcaya durante tres meses.
1960 Newly built Brasilia becomes the capital of Brazil, replacing Río de Janeiro.
1959 Alf Dean using hooks a 1208 kg, 5.13 m white shark, the largest fish ever caught with rod and reel.
1958 Se inaugura en Madrid el Museo de Arte Contemporáneo.
1958 Pablo Picasso presenta la obra que decorará el vestíbulo principal del nuevo edificio de la UNESCO; una pieza inspirada en mitos clásicos que evoca la victoria de las fuerzas de la luz y la paz.
1954 USAF flies French battalion to Vietnam.
1954 Gregori Malenkov becomes premier of USSR.
1954 Estados Unidos e Iraq firman un pacto de asistencia mutua.
1936 Se desatan importantes incendios en los barrios judíos de Jaffa y de Tel Aviv, en Palestina. Los musulmanes exigen que se detenga por completo la inmigración judía y que se prohíba la compra de tierras.
1931 El Gobierno de la Segunda República española reconoce el Consejo provisional de la Generalitat catalana, presidida por Francesc Macià i Llusa.
1927 Benito Mussolini promulga en Italia la Carta de Trabajo, que convierte el país en un Estado corporativo.
1927 La bolsa de Japón experimenta un espectacular hundimiento.
1925 Chuvash Autonomous Region in RSFSR becomes Chuvash ASSR
1914 US marines occupy Vera Cruz, Mexico, stay 6 months.
1913 El paquebote alemán Imperator de 52'000 toneladas encalla en el río Elba durante su travesía inaugural.
1909 El Vaticano promulga la encíclica Communium Rerum, en honor de an Anselmo, símbolo de la lucha contra el modernismo.
1908 Frederick A. Cook claims to reach North Pole (He didn't)
1902 En Provenza se localizan los restos arqueológicos de un mosaico de 4,5 m2 que representa el rapto de Europa.
1901 En Madrid se celebra una concentración en la que gritan proclamas contra el clero, la monarquía y la propiedad privada, mientras en Barcelona los manifestantes protestan contra los atropellos de la Guardia Civil.
1901 La exposición en el Grand Palais de París de la monumental escultura de Victor Marie Hugo (“nu car on ne revêt pas un Dieu d'une redingote”), de Auguste Rodin, genera sonadas controversias.
1898 Spanish-American War begins. El presidente de EEUU, William McKinley, declara la guerra a España.
1863 Generals Jones and Imboden begin Confederate raid on the B&O Railroad in Virginia (now West Virginia)
1863 Siege of Suffolk, Virginia by Confederates continues
1862 Siege of Yorktown, Virginia continues.
1861 Slave ship Nightingale captured by USS Saratoga.
1837 Mosén Benet Tristany i Freixes, al frente de una partida realista, toma la ciudad de Solsona y la convierte en capital del carlismo en Cataluña.
1808 El rey de España Fernando VII llega a Bayona para entrevistarse con el emperador Napoléon.
1789 John Adams is sworn in as the first vice president of the United States. (9 days before Washington)
1653 Oliver Cromwell disuelve por la fuerza de las armas el Parlamento Rabadilla.
1649 The Toleration Act was passed by the Maryland Assembly. It protected Roman Catholics within the American colony against Protestant harassment, which had been rising as Oliver Cromwell's power in England increased. It provided for freedom of worship for all Christians.
1486 El rey Fernando el Católico (II, Rey de Aragón y V de Castilla) dicta la sentencia arbitral de Guadalupe.
which occurred on an April 21:
2004 Some 40 persons by car bombs almost simultaneously at about 07:15 (03:15 UT) at three police stations in Basra, Iraq. Some 200 persons are injured.
2003 Robert H. Blackburn, Black US printmaker, born on 10 December 1920. MORE ON BLACKBURN AT ART 4 APRIL with his portrait and links to images.
2002 At least 14 persons by a bomb, at 15:05, in a pedicab parked in a line about 10 m in front of the Gensan Fitmart department store in General Santos, Philippines. 34 minutes later another bomb explodes the Radio Mindanao Network office and shortly afterwards a third one at a bus terminal in this largely Christian city of 800'000 in the predominantly Muslim south of the Philippines. The three explosions injure at least 46 persons. An anonymous call to police had said that 18 bombs had been planted the city (the police finds a couple, undetonated). The Abu Sayyaf Muslim rebels are suspected. Or it could be retaliation by the Southeast Asian Jemaah Islamiyah terrorists for the 18 Apri[ 2002 sentencing in General Santos an Indonesian leader of theirs, Fathur Rohman Al-Ghozi, to 12 years in prison for explosives possession. He told police he had planned a series of bombings that killed 22 persons in Manila on 30 December 2000, and in January 2002 he led police to a buried cache of more than a ton of TNT, detonating cords and M-16 rifles in General Santos.
1997 Galdino Jesus dos Santos, Pataxó Hã-Hã-Hãe Amerindian, at 02:00, from burns on 95% of his body from alcohol poured on him sleeping on a bus station bench in Brasilia at 05:00 the previous day, and set afire by four young men of the upper middle-class: Max Rogério Alves, 19, Antônio Novély Cardoso de Vilanova, 19, Tomás Oliveira de Almeida, 18, and Eron Chaves Oliveira, 19. [see Justiça para Galindo]
1997 Andrés Rodríguez Pedotti, político y presidente paraguayo.
1994 Raúl Soldi, Argentinian painter.
1987 Más de 150 personas al explotar un coche-bomba en la capital de Sri Lanka. El atentado se atribuye a presuntos separatistas tamiles.
1986 Unas 300 personas en naufragio de un transbordador con 1000 pasajeros, en Bangladesh.
1982 Matanza de campesinos por miembros de ejército salvadoreño protagonizan una matanza de campesinos.
1971 François Duvalier, Papá Doc, presidente de Haití.
1971 Alberto Magnelli, Italian artist born on 01 July 1888.
1965 Pedro Albiza Campos, líder nacionalista puertorriqueño.
1954 Emil Leon Post, Jewish US mathematician, born Polish on 11 Feb 1897..
1935 Unas 2500 víctimas de un terremoto que devasta la isla de Formosa.
1927 Unos 500 bandidos atacan un tren cuando acababa de salir de la estación mexicana de Guadalajara, con un trágico balance de 176 viajeros muertos o heridos.
1922 Alfred Bray Kempe, English barrister and hobbyist mathematician born on 06 July 1849. Kempe published in 1879 a flawed “proof” of the four color theorem (at least four colors are required to color a plane map so that no two adjacent regions are of the same color). In 1890 Heawood [08 Sep 1861 – 24 Jan 1955] showed the mistake. However that “proof” is the basis for the valid proof completed in 1976 by Appel and Haken thanks to 1200 hours of computer time. The Four Color Theorem was the first major theorem to be proved using a computer.
1919 Se contabilizan hasta 500'000 víctimas de la gripe en el Congo belga.
1794 (2 floréal an II) BURGERE P. Michel Marie, homme de loi, domicilié à Cahors, canton du Lot, condamné à mort comme contre-révolutionnaire, par le tribunal criminel du département de la Haute Garonne.
1718 Philippe de La Hire, French artist, mathematician, and astronomer, born on 18 March 1640.
Jean Baptiste Racine. ^top^
French dramatic poet and historiographer baptized as an infant on 22 December 1639. He is renowned for his mastery of French classical tragedy. His reputation rests on the plays he wrote between 1664 and 1677, notably Andromaque (1667), Britannicus (1669), Bérénice (1670), Bajazet (1672), and Phèdre (1677).
Racine's first play, Amasie, was never produced and has not survived. His career as a dramatist began with the production by Molière's troupe of his play La Thébaïde ou les frères ennemis at the Palais-Royal Theatre on 20 June 1664. Molière's troupe also produced Racine's next play, Alexandre le Grand, which premiered at the Palais Royal on 4 December 1665. Thereafter all of Racine's secular tragedies would be presented by the actors of the Hôtel de Bourgogne, more skilled in tragedy.
Racine followed up his first masterpiece, Andromaque (1667), with the comedy Les Plaideurs (1668) before returning to tragedy with two plays set in imperial Rome, Britannicus (1669) and Bérénice (1670). He situated Bajazet (1672) in nearly contemporary Turkish history and depicted a famous enemy of Rome in Mithridate (1673) before returning to Greek mythology in Iphigénie en Aulide (1674) and the play that was his crowning achievement, Phèdre (1677). [Phèdre in English translation]
Racine was the first French author to live principally on the income provided by his writings.
After Phèdre, Racine left the theater to become a historiographer of Louis XIV, publishing in 1682 Eloge historique du Roi sur ses conquêtes. He also wrote Cantiques spirituels (1694).
By request from Louis XIV's consort Madame de Maintenon, Racine wrote two religious plays for the convent girls at Saint-Cyr: Esther (1689) and Athalie (1691). Probably his last work was Abrégé de l'histoire de Port-Royal. Racine died on 21 April 1699 from cancer of the liver.
La Thébaïde, presents two legitimate pretenders who are also identical twins. The play centres on the twin sons of Oedipus who slay one another in mortal combat, one defending, the other attacking, their native city of Thebes.
In Andromaque (1667) Racine replaced heroism with realism in a tragedy about the folly and blindness of unrequited love among a chain of four characters. The play is set in Epirus after the Trojan War. Pyrrhus vainly loves his captive, the Trojan widow Andromache, and is in turn loved by the Greek princess Hermione, who in her turn is loved by Orestes. Power, intimidation, and emotional blackmail become the recourses by which these characters try to transmit the depths of their feelings to their beloved. But this form of communication is ultimately frustrated because the characters' deep-seated insecurity renders them self-absorbed and immune to empathy. Murder, suicide, and madness have destroyed all of them except Andromache by the play's end.
The three-act comedy Les Plaideurs of 1668 offered Racine the challenge of a new genre and the opportunity to demonstrate his skill in Molière's privileged domain, as well as the occasion to display his expertise in Greek, of which he had better command than almost any nonprofessional classicist in France. The result, a brilliant satire of the French legal system, was an adaptation of Aristophanes' The Wasps that found much more favor at court than on the Parisian stage.
With Britannicus (1669) Racine posed a direct challenge to Corneille's specialty: tragedy with a Roman setting. Racine portrays the events leading up to the moment when the teenage emperor Nero cunningly and ruthlessly frees himself from the tutelage of his domineering mother, Agrippina, and has Britannicus, a legitimate pretender to the throne, poisoned in the course of a fatal banquet of fraternal reconciliation.
Bérénice (1670) marks the decisive point in Racine's theatrical career, for with this play he found a felicitous combination of elements that he would use, without radical alteration, for the rest of his secular tragedies: a love interest, a relatively uncomplicated plot, striking rhetorical passages, and a highly poetic use of time. Bérénice is built around the unusual premise of three characters who are ultimately forced to live apart because of their virtuous sense of duty. In the play, Titus, who is to become the new Roman emperor, and his friend Antiochus are both in love with Berenice, the queen of Palestine.
Racine followed the simplicity of Bérénice and its three main characters with a violent, relatively crowded production, Bajazet (1672). The play's themes of unrequited love and the struggle for power under the unrelenting pressure of time are recognizably Racinian, but its locale, the court of the Ottoman sultan in Constantinople, is the only contemporary setting used by Racine in any of his plays, and was sufficiently far removed in distance and in mores from 17th-century France to create an alluring exoticism for contemporary audiences. In the play, the main characters--the young prince Bajazet, his beloved Atalide, and the jealous sultana Roxane--are the mortal victims of the despotic cruelty of the absent sultan Amurat, whose reign is maintained by violence and secrecy.
In 1673 Racine presented Mithridate, which featured a return to tragedy with a Roman background. Mithradates VI, the king of Pontus, is the aging, jealous rival of his sons for the Greek princess Monime. The rivalry between the two brothers themselves for the love of their father's fiancée is another manifestation of the primordial tragic situation for Racine, that of warring brothers. Against the backdrop of this conflict, the play presents the demise of King Mithradates, who becomes conscious of his own eclipse as a heroic figure feared by Rome.
Despite a competing play mounted by his enemies on the same general subject, Racine's Iphigénie en Aulide (1674) was a resounding success that confirmed him as the unrivaled master of French theatre. It is an adaptation of a play by Euripides about the prospective sacrifice of Iphigenia by her father Agamemnon, but contains a happy ending in which Iphigénie is spared. Racine's deft insertion in Iphigénie en Aulide of the future as an intrusive force determining the present creates a rehearsal of the Trojan War that culminates in a profound moral illumination revolving around the title character. The play's dénouement, typical of Racine's practice, projects the imagination of the spectator beyond the present action to the future consequences of the acts portrayed on stage.
Phèdre (1677) is Racine's supreme accomplishment because of the rigor and simplicity of its organization, the emotional power of its language, and the profusion of its images and meanings. Racine presents Phèdre as consumed by an incestuous passion for her stepson, Hippolytus. Receiving false information that her husband, King Theseus, is dead, Phèdre declares her love to Hippolytus, who is horrified. Theseus returns and is falsely informed that Hippolytus has been the aggressor toward Phèdre. Theseus invokes the aid of the god Neptune to destroy his son, after which Phèdre kills herself out of guilt and sorrow. A structural pattern of cycles and circles in Phèdre reflects a conception of human existence as essentially changeless, recurrent, and therefore asphyxiatingly tragic. Phèdre's own desire to flee the snares of passion repeatedly prompts her to contemplate a voluntary exile. References to ancient Greek mythological figures and to a wide range of geographical places lend a vast, cosmic dimension to the moral itinerary of Phèdre as she suffers bitterly from her incestuous propensities and a sense of her own degradation. Phèdre constitutes a daring representation of the contagion of sin and its catastrophic results.
Esther (1689) is a biblical tragedy complete with musical choral interludes composed by Jean-Baptiste Moreau, who would serve in this same role for Racine's last play, Athalie. The play shows how Esther, the wife of the Persian king Ahasuerus (Xerxes I), saves the Jews from a massacre plotted by the king's chief minister, Haman. With its three acts, its chorus, and its transcendent message that God and truth can be made manifest on stage, Esther breaks sharply with Racine's previous practice in tragedy. It is not one of his major works, despite the beauty of its choruses.
In Athalie (1691) Racine reverted to his customary approach. Within the one day that is always the temporal duration of his plays, a situation of human origin must be resolved by divine intervention so that the child Joas, the rightful king of Judah, will be saved from his murderous grandmother Athalie. Athalie is a typical Racinian drama except for the fact that fate is replaced in this instance by divine providence. The title character, Athalie, though evil, still remains admirable in her titanic struggle against this superior adversary. Of all the characters never seen on stage but who enrich Racine's texts, from Hector and Astyanax in Andromaque through Venus, Minos, Neptune, and Ariane in Phèdre, the God of the Old Testament in Athalie exerts the greatest impact on the course of dramatic events.
Racine's art has influenced French and foreign authors alike, among them Émile Zola, Marcel Proust, François Mauriac, Henrik Ibsen, Henry James, and Samuel Beckett.
|1668 Johann Boeckhorst, Flemish painter born in 1605.
ON BOECKHORST AT ART 4 APRIL
with links to images.
1667 Cornelis de Wael, Flemish artist born on 07 September 1592. — more with links to images.
1588 Francesco Traballesi (or Trabaldese), Italian artist born in 1544.
1574 Cosmos de Medici, 64, art patron (Accademia del Disegno)
1526 Gil González Dávila, colonizador español.
which occurred on an April 21:
2000 Chong Lih Ying and her identical twin who dies at birth because of her malformed brain, in Kuala Lumpur. On June 12, Chong would become the world's first baby, and the 7th person, to receive an arm and hand transplant, from her twin.
1960 Brasilia inaugurated, new capital of Brazil, replacing Rio de Janeiro.
1955 Inherit the Wind, play by Jerome Lawrence-Robert Lee play "Inherit the Wind," loosely based on the Scopes trial of 1925, opens at the National Theatre in New York.
1951 Michael Hartley Freedman, US mathematician.
1940 "Take It of Leave It," quiz show that asked "the $64 question," premieres on CBS Radio.
1932 Elaine May, comedian and writer.
1926 Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor II, queen of England (1952- )
1913 Choh Hao Li bio-chemist professor (isolated growth hormones)
1911 José Antonio Rial, escritor español.
1907 Enrique Líster, militar y político español.
1905 Edmund G "Pat" Brown (Gov-D-Calif)
1904 Jean Hélion, French artist who died in 1987.
1903 Isaac Jacob Schoenberg, Romanian-born Jewish US mathematician who died on 21 February 1990..
1892 Dod Shaw Procter (or Proctor), British artist who died in 1972. MORE ON PROCTER AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1891 Oskar Mulley, Austrian artist who died in 1949.
1875 Teiji Takagi, Japanese mathematician who died on 29 February 1960. He worked on class field theory, building on the work of Heinrich Weber [05 May 1842 – 17 May 1913].
1868 Alfred Henry Maurer, US painter who died in 1932. MORE ON MAURER AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1864 Max Weber German sociologist (Ancient Judaism) and economist, who died on 14 June 1920.
1860 Fritz von Wille, German artist who died on 16 February 1941. MORE ON VON WILLE AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1849 Oskar Hertwig Germany, embryologist, discovered fertilization.
1843 John Emms, British artist who died on 01 November 1912.
1828 Adolphe Hippolyte Taine, escritor y filósofo francés.
1828 The first US English dictionary is published by Noah Webster.
1818 Josh Billings, US humorist and writer; popular after the Civil War. He died on 14 October 1885.
1818 Anselmo Suárez y Romero, escritor cubano.
1801 Robert M.T. Hunter, pro-slavery politician, speaker of the US House of Representatives (1839-41), US Senator (1847-1861), then Confederate secretary of state and Confederate Senator.
1790 Manuel Blanco Encalada, marino y militar chileno, que fue presidente de la República.
1787 Vicente Azuero Plata, abogado, político y periodista colombiano.
1782 Friedrich Froebel Germany, founded kindergaten. He died on 21 June 1852. pedagogo alemán, fundador de los jardines de niños. (Kindergarten).
1774 Jean-Baptiste Biot, French physicist and mathematician who died on 03 February 1862.
1740 Nicolaes Muys, Dutch artist who died on 28 February 1808.
1696 Francesco de Mura, Italian painter who died on 19 August 1782. He studied under Francesco Solimena. MORE ON DE MURA AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1682 Jaspar Broers, Flemish artist who died on 19 January 1716.
1652 Michel Rolle, French mathematician who died on 08 November 1719. He worked on Diophantine analysis, algebra (using methods of Bachet involving use of the Euclidean algorithm) and geometry. He published Traité d'algèbre on the theory of equations. Rolle is best remembered for Rolle's Theorem which he published in 1691, using a method of Hudde in the proof: If f(a) = f(b) = 0 then f '(x) = 0 for some x with a < x < b.
1610 Un niño le nace a la esposa del poeta Martin Opitz por una operación de cesárea practicada por Jeremias Trautmann y Christopher Seesth en presencia de casi todos los miembros de la Facultad de Medicina de Wittenberg (Alemania). La madre fallece días más tarde y el hijo sobrevive.
1555 (infant baptism) Lodovico Carracci, Italian painter and printmaker who died on 13 December 1619. MORE ON CARRACCI AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1496 Bernal Díaz del Castillo, conquistador español y cronista de Indias.