<< Aug 01|         HISTORY “4” “2”DAY         |Aug 03 >>
Events, deathsbirths, of 02 AUG

[For Aug 02 Julian go to  Gregorian date: 1583~1699: Aug 121700s: Aug 131800s: Aug 141900~2099: Aug 15]
DJO price chartOn an August 02:

The previous evening, San Diego maker of sports medicine products Dj Orthopedics (DJO) reported a 2nd-quarter loss of $4.9 million, or 27 cents a share, on revenue of $45.7 million. This is due to charges totaling $7.6 million related to increases in estimated reserves for accounts receivable, excess inventory, and asset impairment. In the 2nd quarter of 2001, the company earned $1.3 million. Dj Orthopedics also said it plans to implement a restructuring program, and that it has named Jack Blair chairman. Thereupon USB Piper Jaffray downgrades the stock from Outperform to Underperform. On the New York Stock Exchange, DJO drops from its previous close of $5.02 to an intraday low of $2.70 and closes at $2.94. It had dropped steadily ever since it high of $17.23 the day it went public, 15 November 2001 and, as recently as 28 June 2002, traded at $8.70. [9~month price chart >]
Krstic2001 Butcher of Srebenica sentenced to 46 years in prison.
     The Yugoslav war crimes tribunal hands down its first conviction for genocide, finding a Bosnian Serb general guilty for the deaths of up to 8000 Muslims at the UN-protected enclave of Srebrenica. The verdict and 46-year sentence for Gen. Radislav Krstic [photo, listening to verdict >] could be a harbinger of more genocide trials. A suggestion that the defendant by sentenced to the added penalty of deprivation of his one remaining vowel was rejected as cruel and unusual, considering that, even in the best of times, Serbs suffer from an acute shortage of vowels. As it is the judges had to pronounce the man guilty without being able to pronounce his name.
      It was the first time that the UN court, established in 1993 to prosecute war crimes in the former Yugoslavia, convicted a suspect of genocide. The crime, introduced in international law by the 09 December 1948 UN Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, after the Nazi slaughter of 6 million Jews in World War II, refers to "acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group." [Article 2]. So it would not be genocide to destroy, without discriminating as to nationality, ethnicity, race, or religion, other groups, such as professional or occupational (lawyers? CEOs? tax collectors? drug dealers? drug enforcement agents? advertisers? tobacco farmers? saloon keepers? politicians? abortionists? aluminum siding sales agents? insurance agents? lobbyists?), political or ideological (Communists? Socialists? Republicans? Democrats? Greens? White Suprematists? Neo-Nazis? Protectionists? Free Traders? Freudians?), physical or mental condition (Down's Syndrome? Alzheimers? HIV? cancer?), economic condition (billionaires? welfare recipients?), habits (smokers? cell phone users? slow drivers in the fast lane?), etc.
      The 255-page verdict recounted emotional scenes of family separations at Srebrenica in 1995, of bound and blindfolded victims slaughtered within sight of the bulldozers preparing their graves, of widows and children haunted by memories of their men, and of an operation to hide mutilated corpses.
      Krstic, 53, received the longest sentence yet passed by the tribunaln. He was also convicted of persecution and inhumane treatment for the forceable transfer of 30'000 refugees, mostly women and the elderly, who had sought protection at a Dutch-manned UN base in Potocari near Srebrenica.
      Reading a summary of the judgment, Judge Almiro Rodrigues said even though Krstic may have received orders to execute the men and deport women and children, he bore responsibility for genocide. "You were there, General Krstic," Rodrigues said. "You are guilty of the murder of thousands of Bosnians Muslims. ... You are guilty of inflicting incredible suffering," he said. "In July 1995, General Krstic, you agreed to evil."
      Referring to Mladic and Karadzic, both of whom have been indicted on genocide charges for Srebrenica, Rodrigues said the order to kill thousands of innocent people had likely come from Krstic's superiors. "Someone else probably decided to order the execution of all the men of fighting age," the judge said. Rodrigues quoted from a directive issued by Karadzic in March 1995 ordering the creation of "an unbearable situation of total insecurity with no hope of further survival or life for the inhabitants of Srebrenica and Zepa."
      In July 1995, some 15'000 soldiers under Krstic's command launched an offensive on Srebrenica that cleared the region of non-Serb inhabitants. In a week of bloodshed, his soldiers rounded up thousands of men and teen-age boys and transported them to execution sites throughout eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina. In its summary, the tribunal said a deliberate decision had been made to kill all the men of Srebrenica after Serb forces seized the strategic town in eastern Bosnia, overrunning a Dutch UN garrison, and deported thousands of women, children and old people. "The result was inevitable - the destruction of the Bosnian Muslim people in Srebrenica," said the verdict. "What was ethnic cleansing became genocide," it said.
      The Srebrenica killings were Europe's worst civilian massacre since World War II. And the genocide verdict places the tragedy in the historical record much as the 1946 Nuremberg trials endure as an official condemnation of Nazi genocide.
      The term genocide entered international law after the 1948 Genocide Convention, which took effect in 1951.

Judgement of Trial Chamber I in the Krstic case The events of the nine days from 10 July to 19 July 1995 in Srebrenica defy description in their horror and their implications for humankind’s capacity to revert to acts of brutality under the stresses of conflict. In little over one week, thousands of lives were extinguished, irreparably rent or simply wiped from the pages of history.
Related Press release The Trial Chamber stated that it was "convinced beyond any reasonable doubt that a crime of genocide was committed in Srebrenica" and that General Radislav Krstic is guilty of genocide.
2001 Netzero will limit its free Internet access (which it was the first to offer, in 1996, unrestricted) to 10 hours a month (down from 40) starting on 01 October 2001, it is announced by news media (but not by the Netzero web site).
2000 US President Clinton postpones the scheduled execution of Juan Raul Garza, a Texas drug kingpin and murderer (Garza would be executed on 19 June 2001).
1996 Dow Industrial average closes up 80.72 points on the good news that. unemployment is climbing and consumer spending is dropping. What's good about it is that interest rates wont go up.
1996 US-Japan Trade Agreement      ^top^
      Negotiations go on until the eleventh hour, but, before the day is over, the United States and Japan are able to make a new trade agreement. American officials describe in as a "significant" step in trade relations between the two nations, centered on establishing fair practices for the sale of American computer chips. The two sides agree to establish a council to monitor trading.
1995 News media report that CompuServe will do a $125 million overhaul of its services in order to brace itself for the launch of the Microsoft Network. The company also plans a family-oriented consumer service called "WOW" and a change in pricing to attract more customers.
1994 El presidente dominicano, Joaquín Balaguer, es oficialmente declarado vencedor en las elecciones celebradas el 16 de mayo último.
1992 Croacia celebra elecciones presidenciales y parlamentarias, que ganan Franjo Tudjman y su partido, Comunidad Democrática Croata (HDZ), respectivamente.
1991 Argentina y Chile resuelven sus problemas limítrofes pendientes desde 1902, a excepción del que existe sobre Laguna del Desierto, que lo hará un tribunal arbitral.
1990 Iraq invades Kuwait
      At about 02:00 local time, Iraqi forces invade Kuwait, Iraq's tiny, oil-rich neighbor. Kuwait's defense forces are overwhelmed in two hours, and those that are not destroyed retreat to Saudi Arabia. The emir of Kuwait, his family, and other government leaders also flee to Saudi Arabia, and within hours Kuwait City is captured and the Iraqis establish a provincial puppet government. In Washington DC it is still 01 August when at 20:00 President Bush Sr. is notified.
     The same day, the UN Security Council unanimously denounces the invasion, and demands Iraq's immediate withdrawal from Kuwait. On 09 August, Operation Shield, the US defense of Saudi Arabia, would begin as US forces race to the Persian Gulf. On 29 November 1990, the UN Security Council passed a resolution authorizing the use of force against Iraq if it failed to withdraw from Kuwait by 15 January 1991.
      At 21:30 UT on 16 January 1991, Operation Desert Storm, a massive US-led offensive against Iraq, began as the first fighter aircraft were launched from Saudi Arabia and from US and British aircraft carriers in the Persian Gulf. All evening, aircraft from the US-led military coalition pounded targets in and around Baghdad as the world watched the events transpire on television footage transmitted live via satellite from Baghdad and elsewhere.
      Operation Desert Storm was conducted by an international coalition under the command of US General Norman Schwarzkopf and featured forces from thirty-two nations, including Britain, Egypt, France, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait. Over the next six weeks, the allied force engaged in a massive air war against Iraq's military and civil infrastructure, encountering little effective resistance from the Iraqi air force. Iraqi ground forces were also helpless during this stage of the war, and Saddam Hussein's only significant retaliatory measure was the launching of SCUD missile attacks against Israel and Saudi Arabia. Saddam hoped that the missile attacks would provoke Israel, and thus other Arab nations, to enter the conflict; however, at the request of the US, Israel remained out of the war.
      On 24 February 1991, a massive coalition ground offensive began and Iraq's outdated and poorly supplied armed forces were rapidly overwhelmed. By the end of the day, the Iraqi army had effectively folded, ten thousand of its troops were held as prisoners, and a US air base had been established deep inside Iraq. After less than four days, Kuwait was liberated and the majority of Iraq's armed forces had either been destroyed, surrendered, or retreated to Iraq.
      On 28 February, US President George Bush declared a cease-fire, and on 03 April, the UN Security Council passed Resolution 687, specifying conditions for a formal end to the conflict. According to the resolution, Bush's cease-fire would become official, some sanctions would be lifted, but the ban on Iraqi oil sales would continue until Iraq destroyed its weapons of mass destruction under UN supervision. On 06 April, Iraq accepted the resolution, and, on 11 April, the Security Council declared it in effect; although in later years Saddam Hussein frequently violated the terms of the peace agreement.
     In the Persian Gulf War, 148 US soldiers were killed and 457 wounded. The other allied nations suffered about 100 deaths combined during Operation Desert Storm. There are no official figures for the number of Iraqi casualties, but it is believed that at least 25'000 soldiers were killed and more than 75'000 were wounded, making it one of the most one-sided military conflicts in history. It is estimated that 100'000 Iraqi civilians died from wounds or from lack of adequate water, food, and medical supplies directly attributable to the Persian Gulf War. In the ensuing years, more than one million Iraqi civilians have died as a result of the continuing UN sanctions.
1989 NASA confirmed Voyager 2's discovery of 3 more moons of Neptune designated temporarily 1989 N2, 1989 N3 and 1989 N24
1989 Teodoro Obiang jura su cargo de presidente de Guinea Ecuatorial.
1987 El presidente peruano, Alan García, anuncia la nacionalización de 10 bancos, 17 compañías de seguros y 6 entidades financiera
1984 El Alto Volta se convierte en la República Democrática de Burkina Faso.
1982 Firma de un acuerdo colectivo de seguridad entre los países árabes del golfo Pérsico.
1972 Gold hits record $70 an ounce in London
1971 Nixon administration acknowledges secret army in Laos      ^top^
      The Nixon administration officially acknowledges that the CIA is maintaining a force of 30'000 'irregulars' fighting the Communist Pathet Lao in Laos. The CIA trained and equipped this force of mountain tribesman, mostly from the Hmong tribe, to fight a secret war against the Communists and to sever the Ho Chi Minh Trail into South Vietnam. According to a once top-secret report released this date by the US Defense and State Departments, US financial involvement in Laos had totaled $284,200'000 in 1970.
1965 Newsman Morley Safer films the destruction of a Vietnamese village by US Marines.
1964 Race riot in Jersey City NJ
1964 North Vietnamese torpedo boats attack US destroyer      ^top^
      North Vietnamese torpedo boats reportedly attack the destroyer USS Maddox (DD-731).
      With fresh evidence now available, claims that the Tonkin Gulf incident was deliberately provoked gain new plausibility.
      The American ship had been cruising around the Tonkin Gulf monitoring radio and radar signals following an attack by South Vietnamese PT boats on North Vietnamese facilities on Hon Me and Hon Nhieu Islands (off the North Vietnamese coast) under Oplan 34A. US crews interpreted one North Vietnamese message as indicating that they were preparing "military operations," which the Maddox's Captain John Herrick assumed meant some sort of retaliatory attack. His superiors ordered him to remain in the area.
      Early that afternoon, three North Vietnamese patrol boats began to chase the Maddox. At about 15:00, Captain Herrick ordered his crew to commence firing as the North Vietnamese boats came within 10'000 yards of his ship; at the same time he radioed the aircraft carrier USS Ticonderoga for air support. The North Vietnamese boats each fired one torpedo at the Maddox, but two missed and the third failed to explode. US gunfire hit one of the North Vietnamese boats, and then three US Crusader jets proceeded to strafe them. Within 20 minutes, Maddox gunners sunk one of the boats and two were crippled; only one bullet hit the Maddox and there were no US casualties. The Maddox was ordered to withdraw and await further instructions.
      In Washington, President Lyndon B. Johnson, alarmed by this situation, at first rejected any reprisals against North Vietnam. In his first use of the "hot line" to Russia, Johnson informed Khrushchev that he had no desire to extend the conflict. In the first US diplomatic note ever sent to Hanoi, Johnson warned that "grave consequences would inevitably result from any further unprovoked offensive military action" against US ships "on the high seas." Meanwhile, the US military command took several critical actions. US combat troops were placed on alert and additional fighter-bombers were sent to South Vietnam and Thailand. The carrier USS Constellation was ordered to the South China Sea to join the USS Ticonderoga. Admiral US Grant Sharp, commander of the Pacific Fleet, ordered a second destroyer, the USS C. Turner Joy, to join the Maddox on station and to make daylight approaches to within 13 km of North Vietnam's coast and 6 km of its islands to "assert the right of freedom of the seas."
1961 El Gobierno argentino cancela los poderes concedidos al Ejército para poner fin a las actividades subversivas.
1950 Ford gears up for military production for the Korean war.      ^top^
      The Ford Motor Company created the Defense Products Division in order to handle the large number of government contracts related to the Korean War. The conversion from automobile manufacture to weapons production had already been made several times in history, including during World War II, when civilian automobile production in the US virtually ceased as manufacturers began turning out tanks instead.
1950 The US First Provisional Marine Brigade arrives in Korea from the United States.
1945 Potsdam Conference concludes      ^top^
      The last wartime conference of the "Big Three" — the Soviet Union, the United States, and Great Britain — concludes after two weeks of intense and sometimes acrimonious debate. The conference failed to settle most of the important issues at hand and thus helped set the stage for the Cold War that would begin shortly after World War II came to an end. The meeting at Potsdam was the third conference between the leaders of the Big Three nations. The Soviet Union was represented by Joseph Stalin, Britain by Winston Churchill, and the United States by President Harry S. Truman. This was Truman's first Big Three meeting. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, who died in April 1945, attended the first two conferences — in Tehran in 1943 and Yalta in February 1945.
      At the Potsdam meeting, the most pressing issue was the postwar fate of Germany. The Soviets wanted a unified Germany, but they also insisted that Germany be completely disarmed. Truman, along with a growing number of US officials, had deep suspicions about Soviet intentions in Europe. The massive Soviet army already occupied much of Eastern Europe. A strong Germany might be the only obstacle in the way of Soviet domination of all of Europe. In the end, the Big Three agreed to divide Germany into three zones of occupation (one for each nation), and to defer discussions of German reunification until a later date. The other notable issue at Potsdam was one that was virtually unspoken. Just as he arrived for the conference, Truman was informed that the United States had successfully tested the first atomic bomb. Hoping to use the weapon as leverage with the Soviets in the postwar world, Truman casually mentioned to Stalin that America was now in possession of a weapon of monstrously destructive force. The president was disappointed when the Soviet leader merely responded that he hoped the United States would use it to bring the war with Japan to a speedy end.
      The Potsdam Conference ended on a somber note. By the time it was over, Truman had become even more convinced that he had to adopt a tough policy toward the Soviets. Stalin had come to believe more strongly that the United States and Great Britain were conspiring against the Soviet Union. As for Churchill, he was not present for the closing ceremonies. His party lost in the elections in England, and he was replaced midway through the conference by the new prime minister, Clement Attlee. Potsdam was the last postwar conference of the Big Three.
1943 JFK's courage after the sinking of PT-109
      Near the Solomon Islands, a US Navy torpedo boat, under the command of Lieutenant John F. Kennedy, was rammed and cut in half by the Japanese destroyer Amagiri. The PT-109 torpedo boat was attached to an Allied convoy in the Blackett Strait, and had attempted an attack on the Japanese destroyer early in the morning when it was rammed.
      Kennedy, 27, son of Joseph P. Kennedy, the former US ambassador to Great Britain, directed the rescue of the crew and personally saved one man who was seriously injured. After five hours of swimming, Kennedy led the survivors came to an island. There, they tended their wounds and then swam to a second island where they were more likely to be seen. When nobody spotted them there, Kennedy and another sailor swam to a third island, where they met two natives who carried a message that Kennedy carved on a coconut to an Australian coast watcher.
      Six days after the accident, a US Navy vessel rescued them. For his heroism Kennedy was promoted to full lieutenant and awarded the Navy and Marines Corps Medal. Honorably discharged from the US Navy in 1945, he served as a journalist before being elected to the House of Representatives as a Massachusetts Democrat in 1946. In 1952, he moved up to the Senate, and in 1960, was elected the thirty-fifth president of the United States.
1942 "Mexican biological tendency to murder" means racism in LA
      Twenty-two Mexican men are arrested in Los Angeles for conspiring to kill José Diaz, whose body was found the previous night at the Sleepy Lagoon reservoir. Despite a lack of evidence, 24 Mexicans would eventually be prosecuted for beating Diaz to death. The trial and subsequent convictions characterized a period of racial prejudice and injustice in Los Angeles during World War II.
      Media coverage surrounding the trial was particularly racist. The Los Angeles Examiner referred to young Mexican Americans as "juvenile delinquents." A captain from the Los Angeles Sheriff's office told a grand jury that Mexicans had a "biological tendency" to be violent since they were descendants of Indian tribes who practiced human sacrifice. He went on to say that they had a "total disregard for human life" and an inbred "desire to use a knife or some lethal weapon. In other words, a Mexican's desire is to kill, or at least, let blood."
      Despite the concerted efforts of a defense committee that had been put together by liberal activists and Hollywood actors, 12 of the accused were convicted and sent to San Quentin prison. Over the course of the following year, hostility between Caucasians and Hispanics became so inflamed by the press, police, and city officials that the so-called "zoot suit riots" broke out the next summer.
      Allegedly, 11 sailors had been attacked by a group of Mexicans wearing zoot suits-long coats with exaggerated shoulder pads and loose pleated pants. On 04 June 1943, 200 Navy sailors responded by combing the streets in cabs, stopping to beat anyone wearing the popular Hispanic outfit. These unprovoked attacks continued for several days. On 07 June, The Los Angeles Examiner reported that Mexicans would be out to retaliate, causing a civilian panic.
      The following day, the Los Angeles City Council passed an ordinance that made wearing a zoot suit a misdemeanor. Finally, on 09 June, US military commanders restricted military personnel to their bases in Los Angeles, and the turmoil ended.
      A court of appeals eventually overturned the convictions of all 12 of the defendants in the Sleepy Lagoon case, and they were released after two years in prison.
1941 Jews are expelled from Hungarian Ruthenia.
1939 Einstein urges US atomic action
      From his home in Long Island, New York, German-born physicist Albert Einstein writes to President Franklin D. Roosevelt, urging "watchfulness and, if necessary, quick action" on the part of the United States in atomic research. Einstein, a lifelong pacifist, feared that Nazi Germany had begun work on an atomic bomb. Einstein's theories of special and general relativity drastically altered man's understanding of the universe, and his work in particle and energy theory helped make possible quantum mechanics and early atomic research. As a German-born Jew, Einstein fled Germany for the United States after Nazi leader Adolf Hitler seized power in 1934. In the summer of 1939, fellow expatriate physicists Leo Szilard, Eugene Wigner, and Edward Teller, profoundly disturbed by the lack of American atomic action, enlisted the aid of Einstein, hoping that a letter from such a renowned scientist would help attract Roosevelt's attention. Einstein agreed to the venture because of his fear of sole Nazi possession of the deadly weapon, a possibility that became especially troubling after Germany ceased the sale of uranium ore from occupied Czechoslovakia. After reading Einstein's letter, Roosevelt created the Uranium Committee, and in 1942 the highly secret US and British atomic program became known as the Manhattan Project. Einstein had no role in the Allied atomic bomb program. On 16 July 1945, an international team of scientists successfully tested the world's first atomic bomb in the New Mexico desert. Three weeks later, two US atomic bombs were dropped on Japan, one on 06 August and one on 09 August, resulting in the eventual deaths of more than 200'000 people. Albert Einstein deplored the use of the deadly weapon against the population centers of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and after the war he urged international control of atomic weapons.
1939 Hatch Act prohibits political activity by US federal workers.
1934 first airborne train: plane tows 3 mail gliders behind it.
1934 Hitler becomes Führer      ^top^
      Chancellor Adolf Hitler becomes sole master of Germany, following the death of President Paul von Hindenburg. The German Army swore allegiance to the Führer, who was intent on the rearmament of Germany and territorial expansion. In less than a decade, the Nazis had risen from a splinter party to a dominant ruling party that had won a 90% approval vote in 1932, allowing Hitler to seize powers previously divided among president, chancellor, and the Reichstag.
      With the death of German President Paul von Hindenburg, Chancellor Adolf Hitler becomes absolute dictator of Germany under the title of Führer, or "Leader." The German army took an oath of allegiance to its new commander-in-chief, and the last remnants of Germany's democratic government were dismantled to make way for Hitler's Third Reich. The Führer assured his people that the Third Reich would last for a thousand years, but Nazi Germany collapsed just 11 years later.
      Adolf Hitler was born in Braunau am Inn, Austria, on 20 April 1889. As a young man he aspired to be a painter, but he received little public recognition and lived in poverty in Vienna. Of German descent, he came to detest Austria as a "patchwork nation" of various ethnic groups, and in 1913 he moved to the German city of Munich in the state of Bavaria. After a year of drifting, he found direction as a German soldier in World War I, and was decorated for his bravery on the battlefield. He was in a military hospital in 1918, recovering from a mustard gas attack that left him temporarily blind, when Germany surrendered.
      He was appalled by Germany's defeat, which he blamed on "enemies within" — chiefly German communists and Jews — and was enraged by the punitive peace settlement forced on Germany by the victorious Allies. He remained in the German army after the war, and as an intelligence agent was ordered to report on subversive activities in Munich's political parties. It was in this capacity that he joined the tiny German Workers' Party, made up of embittered army veterans, as the group's seventh member. Hitler was put in charge of the party's propaganda, and in 1920 he assumed leadership of the organization, changing its name to Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (National Socialist German Workers' party), which was abbreviated to Nazi.
      The party's socialist orientation was little more a ploy to attract working-class support; in fact, Hitler was fiercely right-wing. But the economic views of the party were overshadowed by the Nazis' fervent nationalism, which blamed Jews, communists, the Treaty of Versailles, and Germany's ineffectual democratic government for the country's devastated economy. In the early 1920s, the ranks of Hitler's Bavarian-based Nazi party swelled with resentful Germans. A paramilitary organization, the Sturmabteilung (SA), was formed to protect the Nazis and intimidate their political opponents, and the party adopted the ancient symbol of the swastika as its emblem.
      In November 1923, after the German government resumed the payment of war reparations to Britain and France, the Nazis launched the "Beer Hall Putsch" — an attempt at seizing the German government by force. Hitler hoped that his nationalist revolution in Bavaria would spread to the dissatisfied German army, which in turn would bring down the government in Berlin. However, the uprising was immediately suppressed, and Hitler was arrested and sentenced to five years in prison for treason.
      Imprisoned in Landsberg fortress, he spent his time there dictating his autobiography, Mein Kampf (My Struggle), a bitter and rambling narrative in which he sharpened his anti-Semitic and anti-Marxist beliefs and laid out his plans for Nazi conquest. In the work, published in a series of volumes, he developed his concept of the Führer as an absolute dictator who would bring unity to German people and lead the "Aryan race" to world supremacy.
      Political pressure from the Nazis forced the Bavarian government to commute Hitler's sentence, and he was released after nine months. However, Hitler emerged to find his party disintegrated. An upturn in the economy further reduced popular support of the party, and for several years Hitler was forbidden to make speeches in Bavaria and elsewhere in Germany.
      The onset of the Great Depression in 1929 brought a new opportunity for the Nazis to solidify their power. Hitler and his followers set about reorganizing the party as a fanatical mass movement, and won financial backing from business leaders, for whom the Nazis promised an end to labor agitation. In the 1930 election, the Nazis won six million votes, making the party the second largest in Germany. Two years later, Hitler challenged Paul von Hindenburg for the presidency, but the 84-year-old president defeated Hitler with the support of an anti-Nazi coalition.
      Although the Nazis suffered a decline in votes during the November 1932 election, Hindenburg agreed to make Hitler chancellor in January 1933, hoping that Hitler could be brought to heel as a member of his cabinet. However, Hindenburg underestimated Hitler's political audacity, and one of the new chancellor's first acts was to exploit the burning of the Reichstag (parliament) building as a pretext for calling general elections. The police under Nazi Hermann Goering suppressed much of the party's opposition before the election, and the Nazis won a bare majority. Shortly after, Hitler took on dictatorial power through the Enabling Acts.
      Chancellor Hitler immediately set about arresting and executing political opponents, and even purged the Nazis' own SA paramilitary organization in a successful effort to win support from the German army. With the death of President Hindenburg on 02 August 1934, Hitler united the chancellorship and presidency under the new title of Führer. As the economy improved, popular support for Hitler's regime became strong, and a cult of Führer worship was propagated by Hitler's capable propagandists.
      German remilitarization and state-sanctioned anti-Semitism drew criticism from abroad, but the foreign powers failed to stem the rise of Nazi Germany. In 1938, Hitler implemented his plans for world domination with the annexation of Austria, and in 1939 Germany seized all of Czechoslovakia. Hitler's invasion of Poland on 01 September 1939, finally led to war with Germany and France. In the opening years of World War II, Hitler's war machine won a series of stunning victories, conquering the great part of continental Europe. However, the tide turned in 1942 during Germany's disastrous invasion of the USSR.
      By early 1945, the British and Americans were closing in on Germany from the west, the Soviets from the east, and Hitler was holed up in a bunker under the chancellery in Berlin awaiting defeat. On April 30, with the Soviets one kilometer from his headquarters, Hitler committed suicide with Eva Braun, his mistress whom he married the night before.
      Hitler left Germany devastated and at the mercy of the Allies, who divided the country and made it a major battlefield of Cold War conflict. His regime exterminated nearly six millions Jews and an estimated 250'000 Gypsies in the Holocaust, and an indeterminable number of Slavs, political dissidents, disabled persons, homosexuals, and others deemed unacceptable by the Nazi regime were systematically eliminated. The war Hitler unleashed upon Europe took even more lives — close to 20 million persons killed in the USSR alone. Adolf Hitler is reviled as one of history's greatest villains.
1931 El pueblo catalán aprueba en referéndum el Estatuto de autonomía de Cataluña.
1921 Cesa la resistencia española en Nador, triste episodio de la guerra de Marruecos.
1921 Lenin llama a los trabajadores de los países industrializados para que se movilicen urgentemente en ayuda de Rusia, amenazada por el hambre tras varios años de cosechas catastróficas.
1921 A jury in Chicago acquits several former members of the Chicago White Sox baseball team and two others of conspiring to defraud the public in the notorious "Black Sox" scandal.
1918 A British force lands in Archangel, Russia, to support White Russian opposition to the Bolsheviks.
1914 Sherlock Holmes Adventure His Last Bow
1914 Germany invades Luxembourg.
1909 Army Air Corps formed as Army takes first delivery from Wright Brothers
1909 first Lincoln head pennies minted
1907 The Vatican issued the decree Ne temere, declaring that marriages of Catholics were valid only if celebrated before a duly qualified priest and at least two witnesses.
1903 Unsuccessful uprising of Macedonians against Turkey
1869 George Eliot begins Middlemarch      ^top^
      Eliot, born Mary Ann Evans in Warwickshire, England, in 1819, attended several schools, then lived with her father in Coventry in 1841 after her mother's death. In Coventry, Eliot grew close with her neighbors, the radical intellectual Bray family. With their encouragement, Eliot began writing translations and reviews. After her father's death in 1849, she moved to London to become a freelance writer. There, she boarded with the family of John Chapman, who had published some of her work.
      In 1842 Chapman purchased the Westminster Review, which Eliot edited for three years. About this time, Eliot became involved with married journalist and writer George Henry Lewes. Divorce was extremely difficult in Victorian England, so Lewes and Eliot lived together but never married. Her polite Victorian acquaintances refused to call on her. Fearful that her unconventional relationship would provoke unfair criticism of her work, she began publishing fiction under the pseudonym George Eliot.
      Her earliest published fiction, several rural sketches, were published as a book, Scenes of Clerical Life (1858). Her first full-length novel, Adam Bede, was published in 1859. It was well received, as were most of her six other novels, including The Mill on the Floss(1869) and Silas Marner (1861). Middlemarch, published in eight parts from 1871 to 1872, was Eliot's greatest work. The novel presented a sweeping survey of all social classes in a rural town, drawing psychological insights that set the stage for the modern novel.
      After Lewes' death in 1878, Eliot married John Cross, her investment manager who was some 20 years her junior. She died seven months later
  • Adam Bede
  • Brother Jacob
  • Daniel Deronda
  • Felix Holt, The Radical
  • The Lifted Veil
  • Middlemarch
  • The Mill on the Floss
  • Romola
  • The Sad Fortunes of the Rev. Amos Barton
  • Scenes of Clerical Life
  • Selected Works.
  • Silas Marner
  • Adam Bede
  • Brother Jacob
  • The Lifted Veil
  • Middlemarch
  • Silas Marner
  • Adam Bede
  • Middlemarch (zipped)
  • The Mill on the Floss (zipped)
  • Silas Marner (zipped)
  • 1865 C.S.S. Shenandoah learns that the Civil War is over
          The captain and crew of the C.S.S. Shenandoah, still prowling the waters of the Pacific in search of Yankee whaling ships, is finally informed by a British vessel that the South has lost the war. The Shenandoah was the last major Confederate cruiser to set sail. Launched as a British vessel in September 1863, it was purchased by the Confederates and commissioned in October 1864. The 70-meter-long craft was armed with eight large guns and had a crew of 73.
          Commanded by Captain James I. Waddell, the Shenandoah steered toward the Pacific and targeted Yankee whaling ships. Waddell enjoyed great success, taking six ships in the South Pacific before slipping into Melbourne, Australia, for repairs in January 1865. Within a month, the Shenandoah was back on the loose, wreaking havoc in the waters around Alaska. The Rebel ship captured 32 additional Union vessels, most of which were burned. The damage was estimated at $1.6 million, a staggering figure in such a short period of time. Although the crew heard rumors that the Confederate armies had surrendered, Waddell continued to fight.
          He finally accepts an English captain's report on this day. The Shenandoah pulled off another remarkable feat by sailing from the northern Pacific all the way to Liverpool, England, without stopping at any ports. Arriving on November 6, Waddell surrendered his ship to British officials.
    1864 Cavalry skirmish at Hancock Maryland
    1863 Siege of Fort Wagner, Charleston Harbor, South Carolina continues
    1862 Union General John Pope captures Orange Court House, Virginia.
    1862 The Army Ambulance Corps is established by Maj. Gen. George McClellan.
    1861 First national income tax passed by the United States Congress to raise revenues for the Civil War effort. Although never enacted, it was an important fiscal innovation that paved the way for growth of the government in the 20th century.
    1847 William A. Leidesdorff launches the first steam boat in San Francisco Bay.
    1824 Fifth Avenue starts as a residential area, a fairly posh one, replete with residents who didn't take too kindly to the idea of having commercial neighbors.      
          However change would start in 1906 when Benjamin Altman moved his store into an empty space near the corner of 34th Street. The appearance of a store in their midst was resented by the area's inhabitants, so Altman attempted to appease them by making his business resemble a Florentine palace. Despite Altman's efforts — he even left the name of his store off the outside of the building — residents moved to new homes farther up the block.
          The stores, however, kept coming, many outfitted in facades meant to mesh with the tony neighborhood. Along with Oppenheim Collins (1907) and McCreeery's (1913), Tiffany's opened a jewelry store decked out with an entrance that closely echoed the Palazzo Vendramini in Venice. With the opening of the new Lord and Taylor building, which was embraced and even praised in spite of its overtly commercial facade, the era of obfuscation drew to a close. Owners of the block's small stores followed suit, retrofitting their swank exteriors with large display windows. By the dawn of World War I, however, Fifth Avenue had arrived as a hot-spot for high-class shopping; rents skyrocketed and the small businesses were all but crowded out by big stores able to afford such prime real estate.
    1819 The first parachute jump from a balloon is made by Charles Guille in New York City. >
    1814 Estalla en Cuzco un movimiento rebelde indio que estuvo a punto de conseguir la independencia de Perú.
    1802 Napoléon Bonaparte is proclaimed "Consul for Life" by the French Senate after a plebiscite from the French people.
    1798 British under Adm Horatio Nelson beat French at Battle of Nile
    1776 Formal signing of the Declaration of Independence
    1718 Se firma la Cuádruple Alianza, tratado entre Inglaterra, Holanda, Francia y Austria, para frenar la ambición de España y mantener el statu quo de los tratados de Utrecht y Radstadt.
    1704 Tropas anglo-holandesas inician el ataque del peñón de Gibraltar durante la Guerra de Sucesión española.
    1553 An invading French army is destroyed at the Battle of Marciano in Italy by an imperial army.
    1552 The treaty of Passau gives religious freedom to Protestants living in Germany.
    1492 Jews are expelled from Spain by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella
    1483 Bula de Sixto IV nombrando a fray Tomás de Torquemada inquisidor general de Castilla y León, cargo que hizo extensivo a Aragón, Cataluña y Valencia por bula de 17 de octubre del mismo año, con lo que fue el primer inquisidor general para toda España.
    1385 Primera corrida de toros en Pamplona: un cristiano y un moro, llegados de Zaragoza, lidian y matan dos toros en presencia del rey Carlos II de Navarra.
    1375 first roller skating rink opens (London)
    — 47 BC Caesar defeats Pharnaces at Zela in Syria and declares, "veni, vidi, vici," (I came, I saw, I conquered).
    — 216 BC Hannibal Barca wins his greatest victory over the Romans at Cannae. — Las tropas romanas son derrotadas en la batalla de Cannas por el ejército cartaginés de Aníbal durante la II Guerra Púnica.
    Deaths which occurred on an August 02:
    2003 Ali Hussein Saleh, by a bomb exploding in his car, in Lebanon south of Beirut. The bomb had been placed there by Israeli agents. Saleh was a Hezbollah security officer.
    2002 Nathan Maddox, 25, struck in the head by lightning at 20:35 as he watched, from the roof of a six-story building on Broome Street on the edge of Chinatown in Manhattan, a thunderstorm unusually strong for New York. He was the lead singer of experimental rock group Gang-Gang Dance in lower Manhattan.
    2001 Firas Abdel Haq, 23, Palestinian shot dead near Nablus, West Bank, by Israeli troops, who say that he was one of two trying to plant a bomb and that the other escaped.
    1994 Oscar Viale, Argentinian actor and playwright.
    1988 Raymond Carver, 50, poet and short story writer (e.g. Furious Season)
    1985: 137 persons in crash of a Delta Air Lines jetliner attempting to land at Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport.
    1980 84 personas, en un atentado realizado por neofascistas en la estación ferroviaria de Bolonia (Italia). Más de 200 personas resultan heridas
    1978 Carlos Chávez, compositor mexicano
    1976 László Kalmár, Hungarian mathematician born on 27 March 1905. He worked on mathematical logic and theoretical computer science. He was ackowledged as the leader of Hungarian mathematical logic.
    1947 Tomás Berreta, presidente de Uruguay.
    1934 Paul Von Hindenburg, 86, German field marshal during World War I and second president of the Weimar Republic (1925-34). His presidential terms were wracked by political instability, economic depression, and the rise to power of Adolf Hitler, whom he appointed chancellor in 1933, and who now takes over completely.
          Hindenburg's life was one immersed in the Prussian military tradition. His father was a Prussian officer, and Hindenburg fought in the Seven Weeks' War (with Austria) at age 19, and later in the Franco-Prussian War. He was eventually promoted to the rank of general before retiring from the military in 1911. But it was during World War I that Hindenburg came to national prominence.
          He was asked to serve as the superior to Major General Erich Ludendorff, a prominent army strategist. Ludendorff succeeded in driving Russian invaders from East Prussia-but it was Hindenburg who was given the credit. As the war progressed, Hindenburg's stature grew to epic proportions, even influencing Emperor Wilhelm II to make him commander of all land forces, despite Hindenburg's rather dubious strategic skills. In fact, severe miscalculations on Hindenburg's part resulted in Germany's defeat, which Hindenburg then blamed on Ludendorff. (And which Ludendorff and the generals then blamed on the politicians.)
          A monarchist fond of authoritarian regimes, Hindenburg nevertheless took the reigns of the postwar republican government as president in 1925. Fearful of social unrest (from both the far right and far left), in light of the Depression and the harsh terms of the Treaty of Versailles, which demanded heavy reparations from Germany as the terms of its surrender, Hindenburg authorized his chancellor, Heinrich Bruning, to dissolve the Reichstag (parliament) if necessary and call for new elections-which he did. Those new elections ushered in the Nazi Party as the second largest party in the Reichstag.
          Re-elected as president in 1932, Hindenburg had already lost the support of many of the more conservative elements in the government, who were flocking to Hitler's party, which they saw as the key to renewed German prestige and the bulwark against Bolshevism. After a succession of chancellors proved ineffectual in reversing Germany's economic slide, and gaining the Nazi support necessary to keep a coalition together, Hindenburg reluctantly named Hitler chancellor of Germany.
          Hindenburg was never an ardent Hitler supporter, but he did little to impede him as Hitler began employing terror tactics in his drive to consolidate power for the Nazis. When Hindenburg died, he was still a respected figure nationwide and was buried, with his wife, at Tannenberg, the sight of the great victory against the Russians during World War I. As World War II was came to a close, their bodies were removed so that the advancing Russians would not get at them. They were ultimately reburied by Americans at Marburg.
    1923 US President Warren G. Harding, 58, of a stroke, at Palace Hotel in San Francisco, California.
          Harding had been returning from a tour of Alaska and the West Coast, a journey that some believed he had embarked on to escape the rumors circulating in Washington of corruption in his administration.
         Harding, a relatively unremarkable US senator of Ohio, won the Republican presidential nomination in 1920 after the party deadlocked over several more prominent candidates. Harding ran pledging a "return to normalcy" after World War I and in November was elected the 29th US president in a landslide election victory.
         Conscious of his own limitations, Harding promised to appoint a cabinet representing the "best minds" in America, but unfortunately he chose several intelligent men who possessed little sense of public responsibility. In the summer of 1923, as Washington began discussing rumors of corruption in the departments of the Interior and Justice and the Veterans' Bureau, Harding departed on a speaking tour of Alaska and the West. On 02 August he dies of an embolism, perhaps brought on by worry over the political scandals about to explode on the national stage.
          Early in the morning of 03 August, Vice President Calvin Coolidge would be sworn in as president by his father, a notary public, in his family home in Plymouth, Vermont. For the rest of his first term, one of President Coolidge's principal duties would be responding to public outrage over the Teapot Dome oil leasing scandal, the revelations of fraudulent transactions in the Veterans Bureau and Justice Department, and the reports of his predecessor's multiple extramarital affairs.
         The Dow-Jones Industrial Average drops a point to close at month's low of 105.05.
    1922 Alexander Graham Bell
          Scottish-born inventor Alexander Graham Bell laid the foundation for modern communications with his work on the telephone, the telegraph, and voice recording. Bell became interested in sound during his childhood, when his father developed a system to teach deaf people to speak. Later, when the younger Bell began teaching the system himself, he became intrigued with sound transmission.
          After moving to Boston in 1872, he teamed up with the mechanically gifted Thomas Watson to create models of a speech transmission device. A few days after his twenty-ninth birthday in 1876, Bell patented the telephone. The following year, he founded Bell Telephone Company and was immediately bombarded by patent suits. Litigation against Bell persisted throughout the life of his patents, but ultimately his claims were upheld. Later in life, he invented a device for recording sound called the "Graphophone," as well as several aerial vehicles and hydrofoils.
         Alexander Graham Bell was born on 03 March 1847, in Edinburgh; and died on 02 August 1922, in Beinn Bhreagh, Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, Canada. Scottish-born American audiologist best known as the inventor of the telephone (1876). For two generations his family had been recognized as leading authorities in elocution and speech correction, with Alexander Melville Bell's Standard Elocutionist passing through nearly 200 editions in English. Young Bell and his two brothers were trained to continue the family profession. His early achievements on behalf of the deaf and his invention of the telephone before his 30th birthday bear testimony to the thoroughness of his training.
    1913 George Hitchcock, US artist active in the Netherlands, born on 29 September 1850. — MORE ON HITCHCOCK AT ART “4” AUGUST LINKSA Dream of Christmas Eve Maternité The Tulip GardenAnnunciation LiliesThe Flight into Egypt
    1908 John Roddam Spencer Stanhope, English Pre-Raphaelite painter born on 20 January 1829.MORE ON STANHOPE AT ART “4” AUGUSTLINKS Love BetrayedOur Lady of the WatergateEve TemptedThe Waters of Lethe by the Plains of ElysiumPsyche and Charon
    1884 Carlo Bossoli, Italian artist born in 1815.
    1883 Pierre Auguste Cot, French artist born on 17 February 1837. — LINKS
    1880 Juan Eugenio Hartzenbusch, escritor español.
    1876 Wild Bill Hickok, 39, shot dead (from behind).      ^top^
          Famed frontier lawman "Wild Bill" Hickok is shot from behind as he plays poker in a saloon in Deadwood, Dakota Territory. He held a pair of Aces and a pair of 8's. He dies instantly. His assailant, Jack McCall, is a local lowlife who has been enlisted by Deadwood's criminal elements to murder Hickok before he could become the town's marshal.
          Born in Troy Grove, Illinois, in 1837, James Butler Hickok at age 18 set out for the West, where he took part in the Kansas struggle preceding the Civil War. During the war, he worked for the Union in various capacities, and earned the nickname "Wild Bill" for his daring style of fighting and living. Always in possession of two handsome ivory-handled revolvers of large size, Hickok earned a reputation as a formidable gunfighter.
          After the war, he served as a feared US marshal in the Western territories. In 1871, he was appointed marshal of Abilene, Kansas, a frontier town regarded by many as the toughest in the West. In several well-publicized incidents, Hickok, an exceptionally cool marksman, drove notorious outlaws out of Abilene the hard way, and cemented his place in the annals of frontier legend.
          After clearing up Abilene, he drifted around the West, and in 1873 toured with "Buffalo Bill" Cody's Wild West Show for five months. Three years later, he married circus performer Agnes Lake, and soon after set off alone to make enough money prospecting and gambling for the two of them to settle down. Always recognized wherever he went, Hickok's presence in Deadwood, South Dakota, was not appreciated by the town's underworld.
          On 02 August 1876, during a poker game in Carl Mann's Saloon No. 10, James McCall shoots him nearly point blank in the back of the head. Hickok topples over backward, and the cards in his hand — a pair of aces and a pair of eights — drop to the floor. From thereon, in memory of Wild Bill Hickok, that combination of cards has been known to superstitious poker players as "the Dead Man's Hand."
          "Wild Bill" Hickok, one of the greatest gunfighters of the American West, is murdered in Deadwood, South Dakota. Born in Illinois in 1837, James Butler "Wild Bill" Hickok first gained notoriety as a gunfighter in 1861 when he coolly shot three men who were trying to kill him. A highly sensationalized account of the gunfight appeared six years later in the popular periodical Harper's New Monthly Magazine, sparking Hickok's rise to national fame. Other articles and books followed, and though his prowess was often exaggerated, Hickok did earn his reputation with a string of impressive gunfights. After accidentally killing his deputy during an 1871 shootout in Abilene, Texas, Hickok never fought another gun battle. For the next several years he lived off his famous reputation, appearing as himself in Buffalo Bill Cody's Wild West show. Occasionally, he worked as guide for wealthy hunters. His renowned eyesight began to fail, and for a time he was reduced to wandering the West trying to make a living as a gambler. Several times he was arrested for vagrancy. In the spring of 1876, Hickok arrived in the Black Hills mining town of Deadwood, South Dakota. There he became a regular at the poker tables of the No. 10 Saloon, eking out a meager existence as a card player. On this day in 1876, Hickok was playing cards with his back to the saloon door. At 4:15 in the afternoon, a young gunslinger named Jack McCall walked into the saloon, approached Hickok from behind, and shot him in the back of the head. Hickok died immediately. McCall tried to shoot others in the crowd, but amazingly, all of the remaining cartridges in his pistol were duds. McCall was later tried, convicted, and hanged. Hickok was only 39 years old when he died. The most famous gunfighter in the history of the West died with his Smith & Wesson revolver in his holster, never having seen his murderer. According to legend, Hickok held a pair of black aces and black eights when he died, a combination that has since been known as the Dead Man's Hand.
    1874 Heinrich Ahrens, filósofo alemán.
    1832, Sauk Indian men, women, and children, followers of Black Hawk, massacred by 1300 Illinois militia under General Henry Atkinson, at the Bad Axe River in Wisconsin.
    1823 Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot, born on 13 May 1753, dies a fugitive in exile. He was a French engineer, military officer, revolutionary and bonapartist politician, mathematician. He is best known as a geometer. In 1803 he published Géométrie de position in which sensed magnitudes were first systematically used in geometry. He was the father of Sadi Carnot [01 Jun 1796 – 24 Aug 1832]..
    1788 Thomas Gainsborough, English Rococo era and Romantic painter, specialized in Portraits, baptized as a newborn on 14 May 1727 MORE ON GAINSBOROUGH AT ART “4” AUGUSTLINKS Self-Portrait (1754 — ZOOM TO FULL PICTURE) Self-Portrait (1787)
    Duchess of DevonshireJ.-C. BachHaymaker and Sleeping GirlGirl With PigsMr. and Mrs. Andrews
    The Blue Boy (
    main detail — ZOOM TO FULL PICTURE)
    Heneage Lloyd and his Sister
    main detail — ZOOM TO FULL PICTURE)
    Mrs. Richard Brinsley Sheridan
    main detail — ZOOM TO FULL PICTURE)
    Mrs. Siddons (
    main detail — ZOOM TO FULL PICTURE)
    Molly and Peggy with Drawing Supplies
    (ZOOM IT) 
    The Artist's Daughters with a Cat
    main detail — ZOOM TO FULL PICTURE)
    Conversation in a Park
    main detail — ZOOM TO FULL PICTURE)
    Mr and Mrs William Hallett “The Morning Walk”
    (ZOOM IT)
    King George III
    (ZOOM to detail)
    The Harvest Wagon
    main detail — ZOOM TO FULL PICTURE)
    The Market Cart
    main detail — ZOOM TO FULL PICTURE)
    Johann Christian Fischer
    The CharterhouseThomas Gainsborough, with His Wife and Elder Daughter, Mary  — The Painter's Daughters, Margaret and Mary, Chasing ButterflyWilliam WollastonUpland Landscape with Figures, Riders and CattleLandscape With Country CartsEleazar Davy of the Grove, Yoxford, SuffolkMajor General Sir William DraperSamuel KilderbeeMrs. FitzherbertThe Artist's Daughters with a CatThe Marsham Children Master John HeathcoteConversation in a ParkMrs. Philip ThicknesseMary, Countess HoweThe Harvest WagonThe Hon. Mrs. Thomas GrahamThe Hon. Frances DuncombeMrs. Thomas Gainsborough, nee Margaret BurrGeorgiana, Duchess of DevonshireThe Cottage DoorMountain Landscape with Peasants Crossing a BridgeThe Woodsman
    1678 Guillam Gabron, Belgian artist who born on 28 October 1619. — [Gabron, not Cabrón]
    1644 Bernardo Strozzi “il prete Capucino Genovese”, Genoese Baroque Era painter born in 1581. — MORE ON STROZZI AT ART “4” AUGUST LINKSSt Augustine Washing the Feet of ChristBanquet at the House of Simon (detail)Madonna and Child with the Young St JohnThe CookJoseph Telling his DreamsAn Allegory of FameLute Player
    1589 King Henry II of France, stabbed by a fanatical monk, during religious war.
    1576 Lorenzo Sabbatini da Bologna, Italian artist born in 1530. — more Saint Jerome in the WildernessDancing Nymphs I and Dancing Nymphs II
    1075 John VIII Xiphilinus theologian/patriarch of Constantinople
    0686 John V, Pope
    0640 Severinus, Pope for just over 2 months, having been consecrated on 28 May 640.
    0257 Saint Stephen I, Pope
    Births which occurred on an August 02:
    1993 "Newton" inadequate hand held computer.
          Apple releases its ill-fated Newton. The press panned its unreliable handwriting recognition features. Although later versions corrected some of the problems, the Newton never caught on, despite an estimated $500 million spent in development. In the late 1990s, the Newton was overtaken by products like 3Com's PalmPilot, which sold one million units during its first two years on the market, compared with 200'000 Newtons sold in five years. Apple discontinued the product in 1998.
    1942 Isabel Allende, author of The House of the Spirits.
    1934 Francisco Regueiro, director de cine, guionista, pintor y dibujante español.
    1925 Jorge Rafael Videla Almorzo, político y militar argentino.
    1925 George Habash, secretario general del Frente Popular para la Liberación de Palestina (FPLP)
    1924 James Baldwin US writer whose works include Go Tell it on the Mountain, Notes of a Native Son, Another Country.
    1919 Ángel Palomino, escritor y periodista español.
    1913 Joaquín Ruiz-Giménez, abogado y político español.
    1902 Mina Spiegel Rees, US mathematician who died on 25 October 1997.
    1899 Ernesto Giménez Caballero, escritor español.
    1892 Jack Leonard Warner (movie mogul: one of Hollywood's famed Warner Brothers)
    1887 Oskar Johann Viktor Anderson, born in Russia, German mathematical statistician who died on 12 February 1960.
    1887 Otto Morach, Swiss artist who died in 1973.
    1884 Margarete “Marg” Moll, German artist who died in 1977.
    1884 Rómulo Gallegos Venezuela, novelist, president (1948)
    Novelas: Los Aventureros (1913) Los Inmigrantes (1913) Reinaldo Solar(1920), La Trepadora (1925) Doña Bárbara (1929) La Obra Cantaclaro (1934) Canaima (1935) Pobre Negro (1937) El Forastero (1942) Sobre la misma tierra (1943) La Brizna de paja en el viento (1952) Una posición en la vida (1954) El Ultimo Patriota (1957)
    Cuentos: La rebelión y otros cuentos (1922) Cuentos Venezolanos
    Drama: El milagro del año (1911)
    1882 Rik Wouters, Belgian painter and sculptor who died on 11 July 1916. MORE ON WOUTERS AT ART “4” AUGUSTLINKS Portrait de Rik au cigareLes rideaux rougesFemme Assise
    1881 Gustaaf van de Woestijn, Belgian artist who died in 1947.
    1871 John Sloan, US Ashcan School painter, etcher and lithographer, cartoonist, and illustrator, who died on 07 September 1951. — MORE ON SLOAN AT ART “4” AUGUST LINKSClown Making UpSouth Beach BathersRainbow NYCMcSorley's Bar [without cat] — McSorley's CatsChinese Restaurant _ Chinese Restaurant [with cat] — Six O'Clock WinterElection Night
    1859 Georges Antoine Rochegrosse, French artist who died in 1938.
    1856 Ferdinand Rudio, German mathematician who died on 21 June 1929. He worked on group theory, algebra and geometry. He is best remembered for his work in the history of mathematics.
    1820 John Tyndall, British physicist and the first scientist to explain why the sky is blue. [A very simple explanation]. TYNDALL ONLINE: Faraday as a discoverer.
    1754 Pierre Charles L'Enfant France, architect, engineer, Revolutionary War officer: designed the plan for city of Washington DC.
    1696 Mahmud I Ottoman sultan, fought Austrians and Russians
    1674 Felipe de Orleáns, regente de Francia.
    1627 Samuel van Hoogstraten, Dutch (or Flemish?) Baroque era painter who died on 19 October 1678. — MORE ON VAN HOOGSTRATEN AT ART “4” AUGUST LINKSSelf-Portrait
    View of a CorridorStill-lifeLetter BoardThe Anaemic LadyThe Virgin of the Immaculate ConceptionTobias' Farewell to His Parents
    Holidays / Costa Rica : Virgin of Angels feast / Grenada : Emancipation Day / Lesotho : National Tree Planting Day / Malawi : Bank Holiday

    Religious Observances Orth : St Elias / RC : Eusebius of Vercelli, bishop (opt) / Old RC : St Alphonsus Mary de Liguori, bishop / Nuestra Señora de los Ángeles. Santos Eusebio de Vercelli, Máximo, Pedro de Osma y Evodio.
    What is the situation of the Kurds in Syria? [look for answer in this space in tomorrow's H42DAY]
    Thoughts for the day:“The first things he does in the morning is brush his teeth and sharpen his tongue.” [Would you prefer him to brush up on a foreign tongue and sharpen his teeth?]
    “Everyone is necessarily the hero of his own life story.” — John Barth, US author. [exceptions: those in deep depression or suicidal, or both] [Don't ask whether Barth wrote his autobiography.] [Stick to the autobiographies of women] [Note to librarians: don't put autobiographies in the non-fiction section]
    updated Sunday 10-Aug-2003 12:54 UT
    safe site
    site safe for children safe site