a 23 August:
2000 Negotiators for Verizon and more than 35'000 telephone workers reached tentative agreement on a new contract, ending an 18-day strike.
1996 (after sunset it is already 9~4[Rabi II]~1417 A.H.) Osama Bin Laden issues a Declaration of Jihad outlining his organization's goals: drive US forces from the Arabian Peninsula, overthrow the Government of Saudi Arabia, liberate Muslim holy sites, and support Islamic revolutionary groups around the world. He declares that Saudis have the right to strike at US troops in the Persian Gulf.
1996 President Clinton imposed limits on peddling cigarettes to children as he unveiled Food and Drug Administration regulations declaring nicotine an addictive drug. The same day, a jury in Indianapolis found cigarette companies were not responsible for the lung cancer death of a 52-year-old lawyer who began smoking at age 5.
1989 Un millón y medio de habitantes de las Repúblicas Bálticas forman una cadena humana de 650 Km. de longitud, coincidiendo con el 50 aniversario de la firma del pacto Molotov-Ribbentrop, en demanda de la restitución de la independencia de Estonia, Letonia y Lituania.
1987 Se producen numerosas manifestaciones anti-soviéticas en los países bálticos, lo que aceleró la disgregación de la URRS.
1984 Restos comunes al hombre y al mono que datan de hace 18 millones de años son hallados en Kenia por científicos estadounidenses.
1982 Lebanon's parliament elected Christian militia leader Bashir Gemayel president. (However, Gemayel was assassinated some three weeks later.)
1960 World's largest frog (3.3 kg) caught (Equatorial Guinea)
Sally falls in love with Linus ^top^
Sally Brown's brother, Charlie Brown, was so pleased and proud when she was born that he passed out chocolate cigars. Since then he's been trying to understand her. She always looks for the easy way out, particularly at school, where her view of life reflects much of the frustration and confusion kids experience. Her speech is riddled with malapropisms. Uninhibited, and precocious, the very next day after her first appearance in the comic strip, she gets a schoolgirl crush on Linus, her "Sweet Babboo." She may never win Linus' heart, but she has her big brother wrapped around her little finger. Sally, writing letters or doing homework, causes pain and joy to her fans in roughly equal proportions
| 1950 Up to 77'000 members of the US Army Organized Reserve
Corps are called involuntarily to active duty to fight the Korean War.
1948 During its Amsterdam Assembly (22 Aug to 04 Sep), the newly-formed World Council of Churches (147 churches from 44 countries) officially ratified its Constitution.
1944 In Romania, Iuliu Maniu and King Michael overthrow the dictatorship of general Ion Antonescu, allied to Nazi Germany, and establish a new government committed to the Allies. Romania is considered liberated by the Red Army from Nazi occupation (National Day 1944-1990)
1944 German SS engineers begin placing explosive charges around the Eiffel Tower in Paris. Adolf Hitler had decreed that Paris should be left a smoking ruin.
1942 Batalla aeronaval entre estadounidenses y japoneses en las islas Salomón.
1940 II Guerra mundial: Aviones alemanes bombardean sistemáticamente Londres.
1939 Lloyd's of London increases war-risk insurance rates as the Nazis threaten to invade Poland and Europe braces itself for war. The Dow Jones Industrial Average drops by 3.25 points to a close of 131.82.
1924 Mars' closest approach to Earth since the 10th century
1914 Japan declares war on Germany in World War I.
1914: Battle of Mons, Battle of Le Cateau: the advancing French collide with the invading Germans and are pushed back.
1914 Japón declara la guerra a Alemania, alegando que quiere impedir que la contienda se extienda al continente asiático.
1913 Cars allowed in Yosemite National Park, California, for the first time, marking a huge change in the national park system. Prior to 1913, most park visitors traveled by train to the park and then took scheduled stagecoach tours. The advent of motor tourism changed the face of Yosemite forever, for it demanded modern, high-quality park roads. The National Park Service’s landscape architects, along with the Bureau of Public Roads, developed a systematic approach to the design and construction of park roads. From the mid-1920s through World War II, a “Golden Age” of park road development flourished as designers attempted to create roads that would “lie lightly on the land.”
1902 Buffalo Bill (William Frederick Cody) es nombrado por el Gobierno de EE.UU. responsable de la salvaguarda del bisonte en todo el territorio nacional.
1877 Texas Ranger John Armstrong (outside of his jurisdiction) arrests John Wesley Hardin in a Pensacola, Florida, rail car, returning the outlaw to Texas to stand trial for murder of Deputy Sheriff Charles Webb..
1866 Treaty of Prague ends Austro-Prussian war
1864 Fort Morgan, at the entrance to Mobile Bay, Alabama, falls to the Federals
1863 Union batteries cease their first bombardment of Fort Sumter, leaving it a mass of rubble but still unconquered by the Northern besiegers.
1863 Siege of Fort Wagner, Charleston Harbor, South Carolina continues
1711 A British attempt to invade Canada by sea fails.
1617 1st one-way streets established (London)
1244 Turks expel the crusaders under Frederick II from Jerusalem.
3'469'997'998 BC Asteroid 20 km across (and, like asteroids in general, rich in iridium) crashes into Earth vaporizing itself and rocks which, after encircling the globe, fall as a snow of glass particles (rich in iridium). At the same time it causes a tsnunami of more than 1 km in height to circle the globe repeatedly, swamping what little dry land there is. This does not cause the dinosaurs to become extinct, because there are no dinosaurs. There are no living beings other than bacteria. So there is no one to keep calendars, thus the year given here is approximate (give or take 2'000'000 years) and the date is arbitrary, but it is exactly 3'470'000'000 years to the day on which an article in Science (p. 1325) appears reporting the cataclysmic event to have occured 3.47 billion years earlier, as deduced from iridium-rich layers of rock discovered in Australia and South Africa.
Abstract of the article by Gary R. Byerly, Donald R. Lowe, Joseph L. Wooden, and Xiaogang Xie:
An Archean Impact Layer from the Pilbara and Kaapvaal Cratons
The Barberton greenstone belt of South Africa and the eastern Pilbara block of Western Australia provide information about Earth's surface environments between 3.2 and 3.5 billion years ago, including evidence for four large bolide impacts that likely created large craters, deformed the target rocks, and altered the environment. We have obtained identical single-zircon uranium-lead ages of 3470 ± 2 million years ago for the oldest impact events from each craton. These deposits represent a single global fallout layer that is associated with sedimentation by an impact-generated tsunami and in Western Australia is represented by a major erosional unconformity.
which occurred on an August 23: ^top^
2003 John J. Geoghan, 68, two hours after being strangled by Darrin Smiledge “Joseph L. Druce”, 37. Both were prisoners at the Souza-Baranowski Correction Center in Massachusetts. Druce, an extremist hater of Blacks, Jews, and homosexuals, was sentenced in 1989 to life in prison for the 1988 murder George Rollo (of Gloucester MA), 51, armed robbery, and other counts. On 21 February 2002 Geoghan was sentenced to a 9-to-10 years in prison (with parole possible after 6 years), having been convicted on 18 January 2002 of squeezing the buttocks of a 10-year-old boy in a swimming pool in late 1991. He was a Catholic priest of the Boston archdiocese and had been secularized in 1998. In civil lawsuits, more than 130 persons have claimed that Geoghan sexually abused them as children during his three decades as a parish priest. In most cases criminal prosecution was not possible because the statute of limitations had expired, though two criminal cases were pending. The Geoghan case led to the revelation of sexual abuse by other Catholic priests and to the failure of bishops to take appropriate corrective measures.
2002 Two of three Palestinians dressed in Israeli army uniforms and armed with assault rifles and grenades whose attempt to infiltrate, just before daybreak, the Jewish enclave settlement of Kfar Darom, in central Gaza, is foiled by the Israeli soldiers who shoot them.
2001 Mahmoud Zourab, 11, Palestinian shot through the heart by Israeli troops in the Gaza Strip in a clash following the funeral of a Palestinian killed a day earlier. Palestinian youths were throwing stones at an Israeli enclave settlement.
2001 Francisco de Assis Santana Chico Quele, 56, a Xukuru Amerindian, is hit in the morning by two blasts from a 12-gauge shotgun near the village of Pe de Serra, Pernambuco state. The Catholic Church-linked Indigenous Missionary Council says that Santana was on a list of Amerindian leaders targeted by some militant settlers resisting their removal from the Xukuru Indian reservation about 2000 km northeast of Rio de Janeiro. Santana was instrumental in the Xukurus' long-running battle to have their ancestral lands set aside an Indian reservation. For many years he worked closely with chief Xicao Xukuru, whao was fatally shot in 1998. Tensions between Amerindians and non-Amerindians who settled on the ancestral Xukuru lands have often led to violence. Brazil's government recognized the 275-square-kilometer Xukuru reservation earlier in 2001, but nearly 300 settlers remain on the land, saying that they want compensation from the federal government before they leave. The gunmen ran in the direction of a ranch whose owner, Jose Cordeiro de Santana, is said to have planned Xicao Xukuru's killing.
1989 Yusef Hawkins, 16, shot by 30 Whites in the Bensonhurst section of Brooklyn. because he's Black 1989, in a case that inflamed racial tensions in New York City.
1986 Más de 2000 personas en Camerún por las emanaciones tóxicas del Lago Nios, situado sobre un volcán.
1973 Hellmuth Kneser, German mathematician born on 16 April 1898.
1960 Oscar Hammerstein II, 65, Broadway librettist, in Doylestown, Pa.
1952 Frederick George Kenyon, 89, British archaeologist and language scholar. Kenyon devoted his life to discovering biblical parallels in ancient Greek papyri, convincing critics that science does not disprove the Bible.
1949 Domingo Díaz Arosemena, presidente de Panamá.
1902 [23 Aug perhaps Julian, which would be 5 Sep Gregorian] Henryk Siemiradzki, in Rome, Polish Academic painter born on 24 October 1843. — Photo of Siemiradzki MORE ON SIEMIRADZKI AT ART 4 AUGUST LINKS — Christ and the Samaritan Woman _ detail — Phryne at the Festival of Poseidon in Eleusin _ main detail _ close detail — Rest _ detail — By a Spring _ detail Following the Example of the Gods Vendeur d'Amulettes At the Spring Szkic do Obrazu Zebrak U Zródla Roman Idyll Christian Dirce
1865 Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller, Austrian Baroque era painter born in Vienna on 15 January 1793. MORE ON WALDMÜLLER AT ART 4 AUGUST LINKS György Gaál Portraits of Eleonore Feldmüller and her husband, sailing-master Matthias Feldmüller Children Making Their Grandmother a Present on Her Name Day Der Alte Und Die Kuchenmagd The Center of Attention — A Dog By A Basket Of Grapes In A Landscape
1806 Charles Augustin de Coulomb, French mathematician and physicist, born on 14 June 1736, who worked on applied mechanics but he is best known for his work on electricity and magnetism.
1591 Fray Luis de León, poeta y teólogo español.
1367 Gil Alvarez de Albornoz, cardenal y estadista español.
1305 William Wallace, Scottish patriot, hanged, drawn, beheaded, and quartered in London.
which occurred on an August 23: ^top^
1955 Jaume Plensa, escultor y pintor español.
1932 Mark Russell Buffalo NY, political satirist / pianist (Real People)
1931 Hamilton O. Smith, molecular biologist credited with helping 'open the door' on genetic enginering Premio Nobel de Medicina y Fisiología 1978.
1930 Michel Rocard, Courbevoie, France, Prime Minister of France. Michel Rocard, dirigente socialista francés.
1928 Israel Gohberg, Jewish Russian mathematician.
1924 Robert Merton Solow, profesor estadounidense, Premio Nobel de Economía 1987.
1912 Keith Vaughan, British artist who died in 1977.
1908 John Arthur Todd, English mathematician who died on 22 December 1994.
1908 Arthur Adamov Kislovodsk Russia, dramatist (Paolo Paoli)
1904 Automobile tire chain patented
1898 Albert Claude, biologist who won the 1974 Nobel for his work on the sub-structure of the cell. He never graduated from high school.
1883 Jonathan Wainwright, US general who fought against the Japanese on Corregidor in the Philippines and was forced to surrender.
1849 William Ernest Henley, author. HENLEY ONLINE: Poems co-author of: The Plays of W. E. Henley and R. L. Stevenson
1842 Osborne Reynolds, English applied mathematician, specialized in fluid dynamics, who died on 21 February 1912.
1840 Gabriel Cornelius von Max, Czech-German artist who died on 24 November 1915.
1829 Moritz Benedikt Cantor, German historian of mathematics who died on 09 April 1920.
1797 Adhémar-Jean-Claude Barré de Saint-Venant, French civil engineer and mathematician who died on 06 January 1886.
1785 Oliver Hazard Perry, would grow up to be a naval hero (Battle of Lake Erie: "We have met the enemy, and they are ours.") and die on 34th birthday.
1778 Josef Hoëné “de Wronski”, Polish French, who would write on the philosophy of mathematics. He died on 08 August 1853.
1683 Giovanni Poleni, Italian astronomer, physicist, mathematician, who died on 15 November 1761.