<< Aug 29|       HISTORY “4” “2”DAY        |Aug 31 >>
Events, deaths, births, of AUG 30

[For Aug 30 Julian go to  Gregorian date: 1583~1699: Sep 091700s: Sep 101800s: Sep 111900~2099: Sep 12]
On an 30 August:
2001 First free elections in East Timor, for the 88-member assembly that will write the country's constitution. The Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor (Fretilin), which led the country's independence struggle, wins 55 seats in the assembly. This leaves Fretilin short of the 60 seats it would need to pass its draft constitution without support from other parties. In second place, the Democratic Party wins seven seats in the assembly, and third the Social Democratic Party with six seats. The election is a key step in preparing East Timor for independence after centuries of Portuguese colonial rule, 24 years of Indonesian occupation, and two years of a transitional U.N. government. The United Nations will gradually turn over the running of the government to the new authorities over the next six to eight months. After the constitution is adopted, Xanana Gusmao, leader of the resistance guerrilla army against the Indonesian occupiers, is expected to be elected president.
1999 East Timor votes for independence from Indonesia. The Indonesian military and their militia allies will be soon to react by massacres during September 1999, until.a multinational peacekeeping force arrives to restore order and force the Indonesian withdrawal.
1995 Un centenar de aviones de la OTAN, durante la intervención más importante de la Alianza Atlántica en el conflicto de los Balcanes, bombardean objetivos serbios en Sarajevo, Mostar, Tuzla, Pale y Gorazde, en represalia por la masacre serbia en un mercado de Sarajevo.
1994 IBM drops opposition to trademark “Windows”
      IBM announces that it will not oppose Microsoft's attempt to trademark the name "Windows." Microsoft had lobbied for four years to trademark the term. The words "windows" and "windowing" had become common in the software industry to describe the portioning off of the monitor screen to display several different programs simultaneously.
      In February 1993, the US Patent and Trademark Office had rejected Microsoft's attempt to register the trademark. The agency reversed its decision in December 1993. Several major software companies including IBM, Novell, and Sun indicated they might oppose the move, but Novell and Sun chose not to oppose the matter. IBM's decision to drop the issue cleared the way for Microsoft's trademark.
1991 El Soviet Supremo de Azerbaiyán aprueba la declaración de su independencia de la URSS, perdida en 1920, y levanta el estado de emergencia.— Azerbaijan declared its independence, joining the stampede of republics seeking to secede from the Soviet Union.
1991 Mike Powell establece en Tokio la plusmarca mundial de salto de longitud en 8,95 metros, en los Campeonatos del Mundo de Atletismo.
1986 Soviet authorities arrested Nicholas Daniloff (US News World Report)
1982 El presidente de la OLP, Yasir Arafat, es obligado a salir de Líbano por las tropas de ocupación israelíes.
1979 Bunny attack on Carter makes headlines. The news comes out that on 20 April 1979, while President Carter was taking a few days off in Plains, Georgia, he was fishingin a pond from a canoe when he spotted a killer rabbit swimming straight toward him. hissing menacingly, its teeth flashing and nostrils flared. The Secret Service not having noticed the intruder, the president bravely defended himself with his paddle and the rabbit swam away. The leak came from presidential press secretary Jody Powell talking to AP reporter Brooks Jackson.
1979 1st recorded occurrence — comet hits sun (energy=1 mil hydrogen bombs)
1970 Vietnam: Elections held in South Vietnam An estimated 6 million South Vietnamese cast ballots for 30 seats at stake in the Senate elections. While the voting was going on, Communist forces attacked at least 14 district towns, a provincial capital, and several polling places. Fifty-five civilians were reported killed and 140 wounded.
1969 Vietnam: Ho Chi Minh responds to Nixon letter Ho Chi Minh's reply to President Nixon's letter of July 15 is received in Paris. Ho accused the United States of a "war of aggression" against the Vietnamese people, "violating our fundamental national rights" and warned that "the longer the war goes on, the more it accumulates the mourning and burdens of the American people." Ho said he favored the National Liberation Front's 10-point plan as "a logical and reasonable basis for the settlement of the Vietnamese problem." Ho demanded that the United States "cease the war of aggression," withdraw its troops from Vietnam and allow self-determination for the Vietnamese people. President Nixon would not reveal that he had received this communication until his speech to the nation on November 3.
1967 US Senate confirms Thurgood Marshall as 1st black Supreme Court justice
1966 Vietnam: China agrees to provide aid to North Vietnam Hanoi Radio announces that Deputy Premier Le Thanh Nghi has signed an agreement with Peking whereby the People's Republic of China will provide additional economic and technical aid to North Vietnam. China had already been providing support to the Communists in Vietnam since the war against the French. When the US became decisively involved after the Gulf of Tonkin incident, China increased the support to both North Vietnam and the insurgents in South Vietnam. It was this support and that provided by the Soviet Union that permitted the North Vietnamese to prosecute the war against South Vietnam and the US forces there.
1963 US-USSR hot line goes into operation.      ^top^
      The US Defense Department announced that a direct communications link between Washington and Moscow was operational. The Teletype line from the Pentagon to the Kremlin was better known as the "Hot Line." It was established as a safety precaution against nuclear war after communication delays hindered negotiations during the Cuban Missile Crisis.
      Two months after signing an agreement to establish a 24-hour-a-day "hot line" between Moscow and Washington, the system goes into effect. The hot line was supposed to help speed communication between the governments of the United States and the Soviet Union and help prevent the possibility of an accidental war.
      In June 1963, American and Russian representatives agreed to establish a so-called "hot line" between Moscow and Washington. The agreement came just months after the October 1962 Cuban missile crisis, in which the United States and Soviet Union came to the brink of nuclear conflict. It was hoped that speedier and more secure communications between the two nuclear superpowers would forestall such crises in the future. In August 1963, the system was ready to be tested. American teletype machines had been installed in the Kremlin to receive messages from Washington; Soviet teletypes were installed in the Pentagon. (Contrary to popular belief, the hot line in the United States is in the Pentagon, not the White House.)
      Both nations also exchanged encoding devices in order to decipher the messages. Messages from one nation to another would take just a matter of minutes, although the messages would then have to be translated. The messages would be carried by a 16'000~km~long cable connection, with "scramblers" along the way to insure that the messages could not be intercepted and read by unauthorized personnel. On 30 August the United States sent its first message to the Soviet Union over the hot line: "The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog's back 1234567890." The message used every letter and number key on the teletype machine in order to see that each was in working order. The return message from Moscow was in Russian and showed that all of the keys were functioning on the Soviet teletype also.
      The hot line was never really necessary to prevent war between the Soviet Union and the United States, but it did provide a useful prop for movies about nuclear disaster, such as Fail Safe and Dr. Strangelove. Its significance at the time was largely symbolic. The two superpowers, who had been so close to mutual nuclear destruction in October 1962, clearly recognized the dangers of miscommunication or no communication in the modern world.
      After the end of the Cold War, the hot line would continue in operation between the United States and Russia. It would be supplemented in 1999 by a direct secure telephone connection between the two governments.
1961 President John F. Kennedy appoints General Lucius D. Clay as his personal representative in Berlin.
1957 In an effort to stall the Civil Rights Act of 1957 from passing, Senator Strom Thurmond (D-S.C.) filibusters for over 24 hours. The bill passed, but Thurmond's filibuster becomes the longest in Senate history.
1956 White mob prevents enrollment of blacks at Mansfield HS, Texas
1945 Hong Kong liberated from Japan.
1945 MacArthur lands in Japan.      ^top^
      Just over two weeks after Japan announced its unconditional surrender in World War II, US General Douglas MacArthur, 65, lands in Tokyo to inaugurate the Allied occupation of the country. MacArthur, the most highly regarded American general of the Pacific War, joins a division of US Marines who had landed the previous day to pave the way for him and his staff.
      On September 2, aboard the USS. Missouri in Tokyo Bay, MacArthur would preside over the signing of the official surrender document by representatives of the Japanese government and military. According to its terms, Emperor Hirohito and the Japanese government were now subject to the authority of the Supreme Allied Commander of occupied Japan, General MacArthur. Four days later, the Supreme Commander made his way by automobile toward the American Embassy in the heart of Tokyo, which would be his home for the next five and a half years.
      The occupation was officially to be an Allied enterprise, but increasing Cold War division left Japan firmly in the American sphere of influence. From his General Headquarters in the Dai Ichi Insurance Building in central Tokyo, overlooking the Imperial Palace, MacArthur oversaw an extremely productive reconstruction of Japanese industry and society along American models. MacArthur, his staff, and advisors helped a devastated Japan rebuild itself, instituted a democratic government, and charted a course that later made Japan one of the world's leading industrial powers.
      Although admired by the Japanese people, MacArthur never broke his promise to "never break bread" with his former enemy, and his wife and children often attended ceremonies and made goodwill journeys in his place. In 1949, MacArthur restored many responsibilities to local authorities, and in 1951, a formal peace treaty was signed in San Francisco, California, between Japan and the United States. On April 28, 1952, the treaty went into effect and Japan again assumed full sovereignty.
     . The career of Douglas MacArthur is composed of one striking achievement after another. When he graduated from West Point, MacArthur's performance, in terms of awards and average, had only been exceeded in the institution's history by one other person — Robert E. Lee. His performance in World War I, during combat in France, won him more decorations for valor and resulted in his becoming the youngest general in the Army at the time. The low point in his career came on 29 July 1932, when he chased the Bonus Army out of Washington, D.C.
      He retired from the Army in 1934, only to be appointed head of the Philippine Army by its president (the Philippines had US commonwealth status at the time). When World War II broke out, MacArthur was called back to active service-as commanding general of the US Army in the Far East. Because of MacArthur's time in the Far East, and the awesome respect he commanded in the Philippines, his judgment had become somewhat distorted and his vision of US military strategy as a whole myopic. He was convinced that he could defeat Japan if it invaded the Philippines. In the long term, he was correct. But in the short term, the United States suffered disastrous defeats at Bataan and Corregidor. By the time US forces were compelled to surrender, he had already shipped out, on orders from President Roosevelt. As he left, he uttered his immortal line, "I shall return."
      Refusing to admit defeat, MacArthur took supreme command in the Southwest Pacific, capturing New Guinea from the Japanese with an innovative "leap frog" strategy. MacArthur, true to his word, returned to the Philippines in October 1944, and once again employed an unusual strategy of surprise and constant movement that still has historians puzzled as to its true efficacy to this day. He even led the initial invasion by wading ashore from a landing craft-captured for the world on newsreel footage.
      With the help of the US Navy, which succeeded in destroying the Japanese fleet, leaving the Japanese garrisons on the islands without reinforcements, the Army defeated adamantine Japanese resistance. On March 3, 1945, MacArthur handed control of the Philippine capital back to its president. On 30 August 1945, MacArthur landed at Atsugi Airport in Japan and proceeded to drive himself to Yokohama. Along the way, tens of thousands of Japanese soldiers lined the roads, their bayonets fixed on him. One last act of defiance — but all for naught. MacArthur would be the man who would reform Japanese society, putting it on the road to being a peaceful democracy and an economic success.
     When the Korean War started in 1950, MacArthur was put in command of the United Nations forces, but on 11 April 1951, President Harry S. Truman relieved MacArthur of his commands because of the general's insubordination and unwillingness to conduct a limited war. On 19 April 1951, Congress invited MacArthur to address a joint session, and, after stating that "in war there is no substitute for victory," he ended his speech with:
     "I am closing my fifty-two year of military service. When I joined the Army even before the turn of the century, it was the fulfillment of all my boyish hopes and dreams. The world has turned over many times since I took the oath on the plain of West Point and the hopes and dreams have long since vanished. But I still remember the refrain of one of the most popular ballads of that day which proclaimed most proudly that:
          "Old soldiers never die — they just fade away."
And like the old soldier of that ballad, I now close my military career and just fade away — an old soldier who tried to do his duty as God gave him the light to see that duty.

      MacArthur didn't just fade away, he did die, on 5 April 1964.
     — Aceptada la rendición de Japón, el general en jefe estadounidense McArthur entra en Tokio.
1944 Ploesti, the center of the Rumanian oil industry, falls to Soviet troops.
1944 Soviet troops enter Bucharest Romania
1941 Siege of Leningrad by Nazi troops begins during WW II
1939 NY Yankee Atley Donald pitches a baseball a record 152 km/h.
1935 Soak-the-Rich law     ^top^
      President Franklin Roosevelt's Revenue Act, which aimed to take a cut out of the nation's fattest pocketbooks, was passed into law. Aptly referred to as the Wealth Tax Act, the legislation increased taxes on rich citizens and big business, while lowering taxes for small businesses. Though the taxes were a seeming boon to a nation mired in the Depression, they raised the hackles of business leaders and the wealthy elite. The president, himself a child of affluence, was branded a "traitor to his class," as well as a Communist. The Revenue Act hardly paved the way for a wholesale redistribution of wealth, but it did seek to rectify the imbalances in the American economy. "Our revenue laws have operated to the unfair advantage of the few," FDR reasoned when the act passed. "They have done little to prevent an unjust concentration of wealth and economic power."
1932 Fat Hitler henchman Hermann Goering is elected president of the Reichstag.      ^top^
    You probably know what is a henchman, but what is a hench? Is it something your henchman brings you, just as the mailman brings you your mail? Or is a hench something on which to sit, as the chair of a chairman? Or perhaps a hench is a device, something like the brake is to the brakeman? Would the hench be a law-enforcement agency to which the henchman belongs, as the policeman belongs to the police? Or part of a wheel, as the spokes of a spokesman? A way of transmitting information, as the signalman's signals? In all these words the "man" part does not necessarily connote a male, as mistakenly assumed nowadays, but any human, male or female. By the way "human" means the species that discriminates against its own kind based on the hue of their skin. And what does "woman" have to do with woe? I will let someone braver than me answer that one.
     According to Merriam-Webster a henchman was originally more like a horseman, or rather a servant who cared for your horses. In the case of Goering, he did have charge of Hitler's airforce.
     Other "-men" at the end of a word: seaman, yatchman, yeoman, steersman, boatman, helmsman, longshoreman, frogman, fisherman, businessman, workman, airman, wingman, shaman, strongman, Alabaman, alderman, anchorman, Norman, German, artilleryman, assemblyman, woodsman, lineman, baseman, batman, barman, bogeyman, bondsman, Brahman, Burman, bushman, caiman, talisman, cameraman, cavalryman, caveman, Chinaman, clergyman, churchman, coachman, townsman, committeeman, corpsman, councilman, countryman, craftsman, salesman, subhuman, crewman, Doberman, deliveryman, doorman, adman, draftsman, Dutchman, statesman, Englishman, everyman, fireman, watchman, tradesman, fellowman, flagman, weatherman, footman, foreman, showman, Frenchman, frontiersman, garageman, garbageman, gentleman, workingman, guardsman, lumberman, handiman, swordsman, gunman, rifleman, triggerman, hangman, congressman, herdsman, Herman, snowman, highwayman, warehouseman, husbandman, woodsman, huntman, infantryman, inhuman, Irishman, journeyman, kinsman, Klansman, layman, laundryman, madman, marksman, merchantman, middleman, midshipman, militiaman, milkman, minuteman, moneyman, motorman, newsman, newspaperman, nobleman, nurseryman, patrolman, pitchman, stuntman, plainclothesman, plainman, plowman, Roman, radioman, repairman, selectman, sandman, serviceman, upperclassman.
1926 El nadador alemán Ernst Vierkotter cruza el Canal de la Mancha en el tiempo récord de 12 horas y 42 minutos.
1918 Lenin shot, survives vengefully      ^top^
      After speaking at the Michelson factory in Moscow, Soviet dictator Vladimir Lenin is shot by Fanya Kaplan and her sister Dora, both supposedly members of the Social Revolutionary Party. Lenin is only wounded, but the assassination attempt sets off a wave of reprisals by the Bolsheviks against the Social Revolutionaries and other political opponents. Thousands would be executed as Russia falls deeper into civil war.
      Born Vladimir Ilich Ulyanov in 1870, Lenin was drawn to the revolutionary cause after his brother was executed in 1887 for plotting to assassinate Czar Alexander III. He studied law and took up practice in Petrograd (now St. Petersburg), where he associated with revolutionary Marxist circles. In 1895, he helped organize Marxist groups in the capital into the "Union for the Struggle for the Liberation of the Working Class," which attempted to enlist workers to the Marxist cause. In December 1895, Lenin and the other leaders of the Union were arrested. Lenin was jailed for a year and then exiled to Siberia for a term of three years.
      After the end of his exile, in 1900, Lenin went to Western Europe, where he continued his revolutionary activity. It was during this time that he adopted the pseudonym Lenin. In 1902, he published a pamphlet titled What Is to Be Done? which argued that only a disciplined party of professional revolutionaries could bring socialism to Russia. In 1903, he met with other Russian Marxists in London and established the Russian Social-Democratic Workers' Party (RSDWP). However, from the start there was a split between Lenin's Bolsheviks (Majoritarians), who advocated militarism, and the Mensheviks (Minoritarians), who advocated a democratic movement toward socialism. These two groups increasingly opposed each other within the framework of the RSDWP, and Lenin made the split official at a 1912 conference of the Bolshevik Party.
     After the outbreak of the Russian Revolution of 1905, Lenin returned to Russia. The revolution, which consisted mainly of strikes throughout the Russian empire, came to an end when Nicholas II promised reforms, including the adoption of a Russian constitution and the establishment of an elected legislature. However, once order was restored, the czar nullified most of these reforms, and in 1907 Lenin was again forced into exile.
     Lenin opposed World War I, which began in 1914, as an imperialistic conflict and called on proletariat soldiers to turn their guns on the capitalist leaders who sent them down into the murderous trenches. For Russia, World War I was an unprecedented disaster: Russian casualties were greater than those sustained by any nation in any previous war. Meanwhile, the economy was hopelessly disrupted by the costly war effort, and in March 1917 riots and strikes broke out in Petrograd over the scarcity of food. Demoralized army troops joined the strikers, and on March 15 Nicholas II was forced to abdicate, ending centuries of czarist rule. In the aftermath of the February Revolution (known as such because of Russia's use of the Julian calendar), power was shared between the ineffectual Provisional Government and the soviets, or "councils," of soldiers' and workers' committees.
      After the outbreak of the February Revolution, German authorities allowed Lenin and his lieutenants to cross Germany en route from Switzerland to Sweden in a sealed railway car. Berlin hoped (correctly) that the return of the anti-war Socialists to Russia would undermine the Russian war effort, which was continuing under the Provisional Government. Lenin arrive in Petrograd on 16 April 1917 and called for the overthrow of the Provisional Government by the soviets, and he was condemned as a "German agent" by the government's leaders. In July, he was forced to flee to Finland, but his call for "peace, land, and bread" met with increasing popular support, and the Bolsheviks won a majority in the Petrograd soviet. In October, Lenin secretly returned to Petrograd, and on November 7 the Bolshevik-led Red Guards deposed the Provisional Government and proclaimed soviet rule.
      Lenin became the dictator of the world's first Marxist state. His government made peace with Germany, nationalized industry, and distributed land but beginning in 1918, had to fight a devastating civil war against czarist forces. In 1920, the czarists were defeated, and on 30 December 1922 the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was established. Upon Lenin's death in early 1924, his body was embalmed and placed in a mausoleum near the Moscow Kremlin. Petrograd was renamed Leningrad in his honor. After a struggle of succession, fellow revolutionary Joseph Stalin succeeded Lenin as dictator of the Soviet Union.
1916 Paul Von Hindenburg becomes chief-of-General-Staff in Germany
1904 Henry James returns to the US.      ^top^
      It is just for a long visit. He finds the country much changed since he left it some twenty years earlier to live abroad. He would die in London on 28 February 1916. (He was born in New York City)
     James was born to a wealthy and eccentric philosopher father on 15 April 1843 in New York, N.Y. His older brother, William, became the country's first distinguished psychologist as well as a well-known philosopher. The brothers and their younger siblings were taken abroad by their parents for four years to study European culture during their teens. The family roamed England, Switzerland, and France, visiting galleries, museums, theaters, and libraries. A back injury exempted James from serving in the Civil War, and he briefly attended Harvard Law School.
      He began writing fiction in his teens, and his first story was published when he was 21. He soon became a regular contributor of essays, reviews, and stories to Atlantic Monthly and other important periodicals. In 1873, James moved to England and continued publishing reviews while writing many more novels, including The American (1877) and the popular Daisy Miller (1878). In 1881, he published his masterpiece The Portrait of a Lady. Like many of his other works, it deals with naïve, young Americans moving in sophisticated European circles. He wrote nonfiction as well as fiction, and the prefaces to new editions of his novels were collected in The Art of the Novel (1834).
  • The Altar of the Dead
  • The Ambassadors
  • The Ambassadors
  • The American
  • The Aspern Papers
  • The Aspern Papers
  • The Awkward Age
  • The Beast in the Jungle
  • The Beast in the Jungle
  • The Bostonians
  • A Bundle of Letters
  • Complete On-Line Works
  • Confidence
  • The Coxon Fund
  • Daisy Miller
  • Daisy Miller
  • The Death of the Lion
  • The Diary of a Man of Fifty
  • Eugene Pickering
  • The Europeans
  • The Figure in the Carpet
  • The Finer Grain
  • Glasses
  • The Golden Bowl
  • Hawthorne
  • In the Cage
  • In the Cage
  • An International Episode
  • The Ivory Tower
  • The Jolly Corner
  • The Jolly Corner
  • The Lesson of the Master
  • A Little Tour in France
  • The Madonna of the Future
  • The Outcry (zipped)
  • The Portrait of a Lady
  • The Portrait of a Lady
  • The Real Thing, and Other Stories
  • Roderick Hudson
  • The Sacred Fount
  • The Turn of the Screw
  • The Turn of the Screw
  • Washington Square
  • Watch and Ward
  • What Maisie Knew
  • The Wings of the Dove
  • 1904 Thomas Edison (11 Feb 1847 – 18 Oct 1931) applies for a US patents for a “Method and Apparatus for Making Sound-Records” (#970615), which would be granted to him on 20 September 1910.
    1892 The Moravia, a passenger ship arriving from Germany, brings cholera to the United States.
    1887 Thomas Edison receives one of his US patents for a “system of electrical distribution” (#369280) for which he had applied on 5 February 1880.
    1885 13'000 meteors seen in 1 hour near Andromeda
    1881 Thomas Edison applies for US patents for a “dynamo~electric machine” (#251537), an “electric lamp” (#251543), a “system of electric lightning” ( #251551), a “webermeter” ( #252558). They would be granted to him, under the numbers shown, on 27 December 1881. He applies also for patents on an “electric chandelier” (#263137), a “Magneto or Dynamo Electric Machine” (#263143), a “vacuum apparatus” (#263147) which would be granted to him on 22 August 1882. He applies also for patents on an “incandescent electric lamp” (#264657, one of his many), which would be granted to him on 19 September 1882; for “electric~lighting systems” (#439389) which would be granted to him on 28 October 1890.
    1879 Thomas Alva Edison presenta su primer aparato telefónico, que superó el antiguo sistema de Felipe Heiss, perfeccionado por Alexander Graham Bell.
    1878 Thomas Edison receives US patent # 203015, one of his several for “speaking telegraphs.” He had applied for it on 28 August 1877.
    1862 Battle of 2nd Manassas — Pope defeated by Lee.
    1862 Battle of Altamont — Confederates beat Union forces in Tennessee
    1862 Battle of Richmond, Kentucky      ^top^
          Confederates under Edmund Kirby Smith rout a Union army at Richmond, Kentucky, in one of the most lopsided engagements of the Civil War. As part of an attempt by the Confederates to drive the Yankees from central Tennessee and Kentucky, Smith moved toward Lexington, Kentucky, with about 19'000 soldiers in search of supplies. Facing him was a Union force under General Horatio Wright, who was sitting atop a palisade along the Kentucky River just south of Lexington. Part of Wright's force, under the command of General Mahlon D. Manson, did not receive orders to fall back to the river. Instead, Manson placed his 6500 soldiers on high ground around Richmond, further south of the Kentucky River.
          On the morning of 30 August Smith's force collide with Manson's south of Richmond. The Confederates soon rout the Yankees, many of whom were new soldiers with no battle experience. After retreating three kilometers, Manson's troops mount a counterattack but are repulsed. The Union force retreat again, and the Confederates follow with a withering attack. This time, the Yankee retreat was cut off by Colonel John Scott's Confederate cavalry force. The loss was complete for the Yankees. Fewer than 1200 of the 6500 Federals escaped, and more than 4300 were captured. Confederate losses stood at 98 killed, 492 wounded, and 10 missing out of 6800. Among those captured were Manson and his entire staff. The Confederates captured Lexington two days later.
    1862 Battle of Second Manassas (Bull Run), Virginia concludes
    1861 Emancipation of Missouri rebels' slaves      ^top^
          Major General John Charles Frémont, commanding the Western Department of the Army of the United States, feeling that the country is drifting toward destruction, and that the Administration has not adopted a policy which would reverse the trend, issues the following proclamation, on his own authority:
          "All persons who shall be taken with arms in their hands within these lines shall be tried by court martial, and, if found guilty, will be shot. The property, real and personal, of all persons in the State of Missouri, who shall take up arms against the United States, or who shall be directly proven to have taken active part with their enemies in the field, is declared to be confiscated to the public use, and their slaves, if any they have, are hereby declared free men."
          Shortly afterwards, President Abraham Lincoln would order the removal of Major General Frémont, and the annulling of the proclamation. Many felt the President had given unintentional "aid and comfort" to the enemy and hindered the movement to crush the rebellion.
    1861 Siege of Fort Wagner, Charleston Harbor, South Carolina continues
    1860 The first British tramway is inaugurated at Birkenhead by not-quite-aptly surnamed George Francis Train, of the US.
    1850 Honolulu, Hawaii, becomes a city
    Executing a conspiracy conceived by Gabriel Prosser, more than 1000 armed slaves mass for a rebellion near Richmond, but are thwarted by a violent rainstorm. The slaves are forced to disband, and 35 would be hanged, including Gabriel.
    French fleet arrives in the Chesapeake Bay to aid the American Revolution.
    1757 Battle of Gross-Jaegersdorf:
    in the Seven Years War, Russians under General Apraksin defeat the Prussians force under von Lehwaldt.
    1743 William Paley baptized, a little more than one month old.      ^top^
        A clumsy youth, he turned to study. His father thought that the boy had the clearest head he had ever seen. Although Paley was sufficiently good at mathematics to become first wrangler of his school (that is, he placed highest in math exams), he became a clergyman. Paley wrote popular apologetics for Christianity. So well-organized were his works that they became standard textbooks. View of the Evidences of Christianity was an immediate hit and so was its successor Natural Theology, in which there is his famous "watchmaker" argument:
          If a savage were to find a watch in the middle of the jungle, he would at once suppose it the work of an intelligent being. Nature is far more complex and elaborate than a watch and therefore also requires a designer.
          View of the Evidences of Christianity argues for the credibility of biblical miracles. None of Paley's works were highly original. He freely admitted that he borrowed whatever he could use from others. However, Paley's ideas in a third book Principles of Moral and Political Philosophy anticipated thinkers who came after.
          "The general consequence of any action may be estimated by asking what would be the consequence if the same actions were generally permitted."
          "We should carry out those actions which promote the general happiness and avoid those which diminish it."
    1721 Peace of Nystad ends the Second Northern War between Sweden and Russia, giving Russia considerably more power in the Baltic region.
    1645 Dutch and Amerindians sign peace treaty.
    1617 Rosa de Lima of Peru becomes the first American saint to be canonized.
    0257 St Sixtus II begins his reign as Pope.
    — 31 -BC- Origin of Era of Augustus.
    Deaths which occurred on an 30 August:      ^top^
    2002 Rajaa Ibrahim, 18, Palestinian woman, killed late in the day by al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades militants in Tulkarem, West Bank, who say that she planted a bomb given to her by Israeli secret services, which killed their local leader Raed Karmi on 13 January 2002.
    2002 Paulo Roberto Freitas Tavares, pilot; Paulo Roberto Nascimento, co-pilot; Kátia Regina Figueiredo Barbosa, flight attendant; and passengers Ildefonço Cordeiro, 56; his wife Arlete Soares de Souza; Luís Marciel Costa; José Waldeir Rodrigues Gabriel; Francisco Darichen Campos; Maria de Fátima Soares de Oliveira; Walter Teixeira da Silva; Francisco Cândido da Silva; Ailton Rodrigues de Oliveira; Carina Matos de Pinho; José Edilberto Gomes de Souza; Maria Alessandra de Andrade Costa; Geane de Souza Lima; Rosimeire dos Santos Lobo; Raimundo Araújo Souza; Maria Raimunda Iraide Alves da Silva; Maria José Pessoa Miranda; João Alves de Melo; Rosângela Pimentel Cidade Figueira; Clenilda Nogueira; aboard a Brazilian-made Embraer EMB-120 Brasilia bimotor turboprop of Rico Linhas Aereas, which crashes at 18:30 in heavy rain and wind in Bujari, 1.5 km from the runway at Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil, where it was about to land. The flight originated from Cruzeiro do Sul. Cordeiro was a Congressman of the centrist Social Democratic Party of Brazil (PSDB). The 8 survivors, who are injured, were in the rear of the plane. They are: Maria Célia Rocha (advogada médica, grave), João Gaspar (empresário e candidato a deputado estadual, grave), Napoleão Silva, Racene Cameli, Teodorico Melo Neto (empresario), Maria de Fátima Almeida,Maria José Albuquerque, Luiz Wanderlei Silva.
    2002 Tadayoshi Saito and all other 13 passengers and 2 crew members aboard a small An-28 plane which crashes 3 km south-west of Ayan, Russia, on the Okhotsk Sea, while attempted to land there in heavy fog, proceeding from Khabarovsk, 827 km to the south. Two children, ages 8 and 12, are among the dead. Saito was Japanese.
    1991 Jean Tinguely, escultor kinético y pintor suizo que nació el 22 de mayo de 1925. — Swiss sculptor and experimental artist, noted for his machinelike kinetic sculptures that destroyed themselves in the course of their operation. — LINKS
    1986 Urho Kaleva Kekkonen, ex presidente de Finlandia.
    1981 Mohammad Ali Rajai and Mohammad Javad Bahonar president and prime minister of Iran, assassinated with a bomb. — El presidente y el primer ministro de Irán, Alí Rayai y Mohamed Bahonar, respectivamente, mueren al estallar una bomba en la sede de la jefatura del Gobierno en Teherán.
    1974: 153 persons as express train runs full speed into Zagreb, Yugoslavia, rail yard.
    1967 Ad[olph Frederick] Reinhardt, US Abstract Expressionist / Minimalist painter, born on 24 December 1913. — LINKS .
    1935 Henri Barbusse, French author. — BARBUSSE ONLINE: (in English translation): Under Fire: The Story of a Squad
    1932 Emma Wolf, author. EMMA WOLF ONLINE: Other Things Being Equal
    1930 William H Taft 27th US President
    1928 Franz von Stuck, German Symbolist / Expressionist painter, sculptor, engraver and architect, born on 23 February 1863. MORE ABOUT STUCK  AT ART “4” 2~DAYLINKS SensualityThe MurdererSinThe Kiss of the Sphinx Franz and Mary Stuck as a God and GoddessThe Kiss of the SphinxBoy Bacchus Riding on a PantherPietàFighting Fauns  — Innocence  — The Guardian of Paradise  — Wild Chase
    1928 Wien, mathematician.
    1914 The fallen of the 5th and last day of the Battle of Tannenberg, which started on 26 August and in which the Russian Second Army under Aleksandr Vasilyevich Samsonov is enveloped and crushed by the Germans under P.K. Rennenkampf. 13'000 Germans and 30'000 Russians were killed or wounded. Samsonov commited suicide on 29 August 1914. The Germans captured 92'000 Russians, 400 cannons, and other matériel.
    1908 Giovanni Fattori, Italian painter born on 25 October 1825.MORE ABOUT  FATTORI AT ART “4” 2~DAY Maria Stuarda a CrookstoneSoldati francesi del '59Ritratto della cugina ArgiaCarica di cavalleria a MontebelloLe macchiaioleSilvestro Lega che dipinge sugli scogliDiego Martelli a CastiglioncelloIn vedettaBarrocci romaniL'araturaRitratto della figliastraGiornata grigia
    1895 Ely Samuel Parker, 67, Iroquois chief (Hasanoanda) and Union officer. A lifelong friend and trusted aide of Ulysses S. Grant, Ely Parker rose to the top in two worlds, that of his native Seneca Indian tribe and the white man's world at large. Through the Civil War and Reconstruction he strove to serve both worlds as best he could. Collaborated with anthropologist Lewis Henry Morgan in the research for League of the Ho-de-no-sau-nee, or Iroquois (1851)
    1888: 1070 grouse, killed by Lord Walsingham in a single day
    1885 Joseph Alden, author. ALDEN ONLINE: Alden's Citizen's Manual: A Text-Book on Government, For Common Schools, A Text-Book of Ethics for Union Schools and Bible Classes
    1883 Más de 30'000 personas en Java y otras islas del archipiélago de la Sonda al abrirse 16 nuevos volcanes que hundieron en el mar islas enteras.
    1813 Over 500 whites massacred by Creek Indians, at Fort Mims Alabama.
    1880 Apache Chief Diablo, in battle with enemy Amerindians.      ^top^
          Diablo, a chief of the Cibecue Apache, is killed during a battle with a competing band of Amerindians. Known as Eskinlaw to his own people, Diablo was a prominent chief of the Cibecue Apache, who lived in the White Mountains of Arizona. Initially, Diablo had attempted to cooperate with the increasing number of whites who were encroaching on the Apache homeland. In July 1869, he traveled to Fort Defiance, the first American military post in Arizona, in hopes of establishing good relations. Three white men returned with Diablo and regular visits between the two groups began.
          Tensions, however, continued amongst the Apache themselves, many of whom were less welcoming to the Americans. In 1873, a warrior from a competing band of Apaches led by Eshkeldahsilah killed a white man working at the army's Fort Apache. Diablo tracked down the offending warrior and killed him, winning the Americans' praise but Eshkeldahsilah's increased enmity. To avoid further violence, the commander of Fort Apache ordered all the surrounding tribes to move closer to the fort. This may have decreased the attacks on the Americans, but it increased the tensions between the Apache bands. The government further angered Diablo in July 1875, when it ordered that all of the Apaches in the region move to the San Carlos Reservation east of present-day Phoenix. In apparent frustration at the imperious behavior of the Americans, Diablo finally turned against the whites. In January 1876, he attacked the camp near Fort Apache, and he killed at least one white civilian. He also began attacking a competing band of White Mountain Apache who continued to cooperate with the Americans. Eventually, the White Mountain Apache got their revenge on Diablo. On this day in 1880, the two bands of Apache fought a fierce battle near Fort Apache. By the time the American military arrived on the site, Diablo's opponents had killed him.
    1617 Isabel Flores, santa Rosa de Lima, patrona de América.
    1483 Louis XI, 60, king of France (1461-83)
    — 30 -BC- Cleopatra, 7th queen of Egypt, suicide by viper.
          — Elle fut reine d'Égypte à l'âge de dix sept ans. c'est l'une des figures les plus romantiques de l'histoire universelle. Éprise de Jules César, puis de Marc Antoine qui lui succède à la tête de l'Empire d'Orient, Cléopâtre après la mort du chef romain, se fait mordre par un serpent venimeux.
          — Cleopatra, queen of Egypt and lover of Julius Caesar and Mark Antony, takes her life following the defeat of her forces against Octavian, the future first emperor of Rome. Cleopatra, born in 69 B.C., was made Cleopatra VII, queen of Egypt, upon the death of her father, Ptolemy XII, in 51 B.C. Her brother was made King Ptolemy XIII at the same time, and the siblings ruled Egypt under the formal title of husband and wife. Cleopatra and Ptolemy were members of the Macedonian dynasty that governed Egypt since the death of Alexander the Great in 323 B.C. Although Cleopatra had no Egyptian blood, she alone in her ruling house learned Egyptian. To further her influence over the Egyptian people, she was also proclaimed the daughter of Re, the Egyptian sun god. Cleopatra soon fell into dispute with her brother, and civil war erupted in 48 B.C.
          Rome, the greatest power in the Western world, was also beset by civil war at the time. Just as Cleopatra was preparing to attack her brother with a large Arab army, the Roman civil war spilled into Egypt. Pompey the Great, defeated by Julius Caesar in Greece, fled to Egypt seeking solace but was immediately murdered by agents of Ptolemy XIII. Caesar arrived in Alexandria soon after and, finding his enemy dead, decided to restore order in Egypt.
          During the preceding century, Rome had exercised increasing control over the rich Egyptian kingdom, and Cleopatra sought to advance her political aims by winning the favor of Caesar. She traveled to the royal palace in Alexandria and was allegedly carried to Caesar rolled in a rug, which was offered as a gift. Cleopatra, beautiful and alluring, captivated the powerful Roman leader, and he agreed to intercede in the Egyptian civil war on her behalf.
          In 47 B.C., Ptolemy XIII was killed after a defeat against Caesar's forces, and Cleopatra was made dual ruler with another brother, Ptolemy XIV. Julius and Cleopatra spent several amorous weeks together, and then Caesar departed for Asia Minor, where he declared "Veni, vidi, vici" (I came, I saw, I conquered), after putting down a rebellion. In June 47 B.C., Cleopatra bore a son, whom she claimed was Caesar's and named Caesarion, meaning "little Caesar."
          Upon Caesar's triumphant return to Rome, Cleopatra and Caesarion joined him there. Under the auspices of negotiating a treaty with Rome, Cleopatra lived discretely in a villa that Caesar owned outside the capital. After Caesar was assassinated in March 44 B.C., she returned to Egypt. Soon after, Ptolemy XIV died, likely poisoned by Cleopatra, and the queen made her son co-ruler with her as Ptolemy XV Caesar.
          With Julius Caesar's murder, Rome again fell into civil war, which was temporarily resolved in 43 B.C. with the formation of the second triumvirate, made up of Octavian, Caesar's great-nephew and chosen heir; Mark Antony, a powerful general; and Lepidus, a Roman statesman. Antony took up the administration of the eastern provinces of the Roman Empire, and he summoned Cleopatra to Tarsus, in Asia Minor, to answer charges that she had aided his enemies.
          Cleopatra sought to seduce Antony, as she had Caesar before him, and in 41 B.C. arrived in Tarsus on a magnificent river barge, dressed as Venus, the Roman god of love. Successful in her efforts, Antony returned with her to Alexandria, where they spent the winter in debauchery. In 40 B.C., Antony returned to Rome and married Octavian's sister Octavia in an effort to mend his strained alliance with Octavian. The triumvirate, however, continued to deteriorate. In 37 B.C., Antony separated from Octavia and traveled east, arranging for Cleopatra to join him in Syria. In their time apart, Cleopatra had borne him twins, a son and a daughter. According to Octavian's propagandists, the lovers were then married, which violated the Roman law restricting Romans from marrying foreigners.
          Antony's disastrous military campaign against Parthia in 36 B.C. further reduced his prestige, but in 34 B.C. he was more successful against Armenia. To celebrate the victory, he staged a triumphal procession through the streets of Alexandria, in which he and Cleopatra sat on golden thrones, and Caesarion and their children were given imposing royal titles. Many in Rome, spurred on by Octavian, interpreted the spectacle as a sign that Antony intended to deliver the Roman Empire into alien hands.
          After several more years of tension and propaganda attacks, Octavian declared war against Cleopatra, and therefore Antony, in 31 B.C. Enemies of Octavian rallied to Antony's side, but Octavian's brilliant military commanders gained early successes against his forces. On 02 September 31 BC, their fleets clashed at Actium in Greece. After heavy fighting, Cleopatra broke from the engagement and set course for Egypt with 60 of her ships. Antony then broke through the enemy line and followed her. The disheartened fleet that remained surrendered to Octavian. One week later, Antony's land forces surrendered.
          Although they had suffered a decisive defeat, it was nearly a year before Octavian reached Alexandria and again defeated Antony. In the aftermath of the battle, Cleopatra took refuge in the mausoleum she had commissioned for herself. Antony, informed that Cleopatra was dead, stabbed himself with his sword. Before he died, another messenger arrived, saying Cleopatra still lived. Antony had himself carried to Cleopatra's retreat, where he died after bidding her to make her peace with Octavian. When the triumphant Roman arrived, she attempted to seduce him, but he resisted her charms. Rather than fall under Octavian's domination, Cleopatra committed suicide on 30 August 30 BC, possibly by means of an asp, a poisonous Egyptian serpent and symbol of divine royalty.
          Octavian then executed her son Caesarion, annexed Egypt into the Roman Empire, and used Cleopatra's treasure to pay off his veterans. In 27 B.C., Octavian became Augustus, the first and arguably most successful of all Roman emperors. He ruled a peaceful, prosperous, and expanding Roman Empire until his death in 14 AD at the age of 75.
    Births which occurred on an 30 August:
    1969 First networking machine      ^top^
          BBN, the company contracted by the Defense Department to build networking machines to serve as the backbone of ARPANET, the Internet's precursor, ships its first machine on this day in 1969 to the University of California at Los Angeles. Over the next several months, the company would ship several more machines, and the beginnings of the Internet would be established.
    1945 First post-war Hudson car
          A pale green Super Six coupe rolled off the Hudson Company’s assembly line, the first post-World War II car to be produced by the auto manufacturer. Like all other US auto manufacturers, Hudson had halted production of civilian cars in order to produce armaments during the war. The Super Six boasted the first modern, high-compression L-head motor, though it garnered its name from the original Hudson-manufactured engine produced in 1916. The name stayed, though the engines became more sophisticated.
    1943 R. Crumb, cartoonist.
    1930 Warren Buffett author (The Midas Touch)
    1918 Leonor Fini, Italian artist who died in 1996.
    1913 John Richard Nicholas Stone, británico, Premio Nobel de Economía.
    1906 Taussky-Todd, mathematician
    1901 Roy Wilkins, civil rights leader: Executive Director of NAACP
    1901 John Gunther Chicago Ill, author/host (John Gunther's High Road)
    1896 Raymond Massey, (The President's Plane is Missing, McKenna's Gold, How the West was Won. The Great Impostor, Battle Cry, The Naked and the Dead, East of Eden, Abe Lincoln in Illinois, Dr. Kildare)
    1893 Huey Pierce Long Winn Parish La, Louisiana Democrat who served as governor and US senator, known as "The Kingfish."
    1891 Jacques Lipchitz, Lithuanian~French cubist sculptor who died on 27 May 1973. — LINKS
    1884 Theodor Svedberg Sweden, chemist, worked with colloids (Nobel '26)
    1883 (or 03 August?) Christian Emil Marie Küpper “Theo Van Doesburg”, Dutch Neoplasticist painter, decorator, poet, and art theorist, a leader of the de Stijl movement, who died on 07 March 1931. MORE ABOUT KÜPPER AT ART “4” 2~DAY LINKSComposition XIComposition XXIICountercompositionSimultaneous CountercompositionComposition in Gray (Rag-time) — (Contra-Compositie XIII)
    1881 Agustín González de Amezua, escritor español.
    1879 Llewellyn Lloyd, Italian [?!] artist who died in 1950.
    1871 Ernest Lord Rutherford, England, physicist who discovered and named alpha, beta and gamma radiation and was the first to achieve a man-made nuclear reaction. — físico neozelandés.
    1870 Maria Montessori (educator: The Montessori School)
    1856 Carle Runge Runge worked on a procedure for the numerical solution of algebraic equations and later studied the wavelengths of the spectral lines of elements.
    1852 Jacobus Henricus van't Hoff Neth, physical chemist (Nobel 1901)
    1852 Julian Alden Weir, US painter who died on 08 December 1919. MORE ABOUT WEIR  AT ART “4” 2~DAYLINKS Alex Webb WeirThe Muse of Music LandscapeLady with a Mandolin51 prints at FAMSFThe Oldest Inhabitant
    1828 (or 1831) Pierre Henri Théodore Tetart van Elven, Dutch artist who died on 5 January 1908.
    1819 Serret, mathematician
    1811 Théophile Gautier, periodista, poeta y novelista francés.
    1797 Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin, would become Mrs. Mary Shelley      ^top^
          Poet Percy Bysshe Shelley (04 Aug 1792 – 08 Jul 1822), although already married, would fall in love with Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin, 17, daughter of prominent reformer and early feminist writer Mary Wollstonecraft (27 Apr 175910 Sep 1797). The pair would flee to Europe, arriving in France on 28 July 1814, and would marry on 30 December 1816, after Shelley's wife drowned herself.
           Shelley's inheritance did not pay all the bills, and the couple spent much of their married life abroad, fleeing Percy Shelley's creditors. While living in Geneva, the Shelleys and their dear friend Lord Byron challenged each other to write a compelling ghost story. Only Mary Shelley finished hers, later publishing the story as Frankenstein, or the Modern Prometheus (1818). The Shelleys had five children but only one lived to adulthood. After Shelley drowned in a sailing accident on 18 July 1822, when Mary Shelley was only 24, she edited his Posthumous Poems (1824), Poetical Works (1839), and his prose works. She lived on a small stipend from her father-in-law, Lord Shelley, until her surviving son inherited his fortune and title in 1844. She died on 01 February 1851 at the age of 53. Although she was a respected writer for many years, only Frankenstein and her journals are still widely read.
  • Frankenstein (1818): scientist creates artificial human monster.
  • Frankenstein (another site)
  • The Last Man (1826), her best novel: future destruction of the human race by a plague.
  • The Mortal Immortal
  • Valperga (1823)
  • 1797 Julien-Léopold “Jules” Boilly, French artist who died on 14 June 1874.
    1748 Jacques-Louis David, French Neoclassical painter, specialized in Historical Subjects, who died on 29 December 1825. — MORE ABOUT DAVID AT ART “4” 2~DAY LINKSLaure-Emilie-Felicité David, La Baronne MeunierLa Bonne AventureNapoléon in His StudyMadame Seriziat with toddler — Self PortraitLa Mort de Marat Le Serment du Jeu de PaumeParis et HélèneMonsieur et Madame LavoisierLa Mort de SocrateLe Serment des HoracesAndromache Mourning HectorAlphonse LeroyThe Lictors Bring to Brutus the Bodies of His SonsMadame RécamierThe Sabine Women Enforcing Peace by Running Between the CombatantsThe Battle Between Mars and Minerva
    1735 Thomas-Germain-Joseph Duvivier, French artist who died on 04 April 1814.
    1734 Gaetano Gandolfi, Italian artist who died on 30 June 1802. — LINKS
    1589 Abraham Govaerts, Flemish artist who died on 9 September 1626. — LINKS
    1334 Pedro I, llamado "el Cruel", rey de Castilla y León.
    Holidays Afghanistan : Children's Day / Gibraltar : Bank Holiday / Turkey : Victory Day (1922)

    Religious Observances RC : St Fiacre, Irish hermit, patron of gardeners / Old RC : St Rose of Lima, patron of Latin America / Santas Gaudencia, Rosa y Tecla. Santos Arsenio, Bonifacio, Félix, Pelayo y Silvano.
    Thoughts for the day : “The less a politician amounts to, the more he loves the flag.” [When he sinks even lower, it's the Confederate flag]
    “Don't burn the flag, use it to gag a no-good politician.”
    “Don't burn a cross, clobber a grand dragon with it.”
    “To every problem there's a worse solution.”
    “To every reaction, there is an opposite and equally questionable action.”
    “Every silver lining has a cloud.”
    “Every cloud has a silver lightning.”
    “Everyone knows that no one knows what everyone knows.”
    “Baseball is not unlike a war.” —
    Ty Cobb (1886-1961), who made his major league batting debut on 30 August 1905, for the Detroit Tigers.
    “War is hell.” —
    William T. Sherman
    “Baseball is not unlike Hell.” — (Cobb+Sherman)
    “Take Me Out to the Ball Game”1909 song by Jack Norworth.
    “When you tell someone to go to Hell, be prepared to show the way.”
    “When you tell someone to go to Hell, you are leading the way.”
    “Don't tell people to go to Hell, tell them you'll take them out to the ball game.”
    “Don't ask to be taken out to the ball game, you can go to Hell all by yourself.”
    “You can go to Hell all by yourself, but not to Heaven.”
    “If you think that baseball is not unlike Hell, you should try cricket!”
    “Don't jump from the frying pan into the fire, go jump in the lake.”
    updated Sunday 16-Feb-2003 6:03 UT
    safe site
    site safe for children safe site