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Events, deaths, births, of 03 DEC
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Bishop Delly 03 Dec 2003On a December 03:
2003 Archbishop of Baghdad Emmanuel-Karim Delly [photo >] is appointed patriarch of Babylon, spiritual leader of the estimated 1 million Chaldean Catholics around the world. He takes the name Emmanuel III Delly. He was born on 06 October 1927 and ordained a priest on 21 December 1952. He was first appointed bishop (Auxiliary of Babylon) on 07 December 1962. He succeeds Raphaël I Bidawid [07 Apr 1922 – 07 Jul 2003] who had been appointed patriarch on 21 May 1989.
2002 At Christie's in London is held the auction “100 Years of the Teddy Bear” in which hundreds of vintage teddy bears are sold. The top price, $51'520, is paid by the Canadian museum Ydessa Hendeles Art Foundation for a very rare hot-water bottle teddy bear made by the German firm Steiff. It has blonde mohair, black boot button eyes, pronounced clipped muzzle, black stitched nose, mouth and claws, swivel head, jointed elongated limbs with felt pads, hump, opening at front seam fastened with brass hooks, brown lace and rare original water canister --50cm high (hand pads replaced, missing one top hook, some thinning to face, chest, left arm and left foot and two holes in left foot pad). This novelty teddy was expected to be a great success, but surprisingly there was very litte interest in the bear, only 90 examples were made from 1907 to 1914. It is believed that this is the only example outside of the Steiff archive to still have his original water canister.
     For $44'300 is sold an exceptionally rare Steiff black teddy bear an exceptionally rare Steiff black teddy bear with long black mohair, boot button eyes with red felt disc backing, pronounced clipped muzzle with black stitched nose, mouth and claws, swivel head, jointed elongated limbs with beige felt pads, hump and button in ear -- 50 high (generally very good condition with minor wear, nose restitched except for two strands, slight thinning to muzzle, very minor thinning to front of body and seam of hump, right arm thinning between central claws, small patch inside arm 1cm. diameter, left arm with small bald patch at top of wrist and tip of paw, both ankles have some repair, but plenty of fur to cover any damage, very slight bald patches and thinning to heels and tips of feet, large holes in all pads, patched from the inside retaining all remaining original pad). It was made after the 14 April 1912 sinking of the Titanic, when England. was in mourning. This teddy bear is one of only 50 dozen black Steiff bears ordered for England during this sad period. Everything and everyone was in black, including this bear.
1997 Delegates from 131 countries met in Ottawa, Canada, to sign the Convention on the Prohibition, Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines. 123 nations signed, but not the United States, Russia, nor China.
1997 El Fondo Monetario Internacional concede el mayor préstamo de su historia, un total de $55'000 millones, a Corea del Sur, con el fin de aliviar la crisis financiera que atraviesa el país.
1997: 700'000 trabajadores israelíes secundan una huelga para protestar por los planes de privatización y la reforma del sistema de pensiones llevados a cabo por el gobierno de Benjamín Netanyahu, lo que deja al país prácticamente paralizado.
1995 El presidente de Estados Unidos, Bill Clinton; el de la Comisión Europea, Jacques Santer; y el presidente de turno de la Unión Europea, Felipe González Márquez, firman en Madrid la Nueva Agenda Transatlántica, que regirá las relaciones entre Estados Unidos y la Unión Europea en el umbral del siglo XXI.
1995 South Korean police arrested former president Chun Doo Hwan on charges of orchestrating the December 1979 military coup that brought him to power.
1993 El gobernador de Barcelona, Ferrán Cardenal, sustituye a Luis Roldán Ibáñez como director de la Guardia Civil.
1992 The U.N. Security Council voted unanimously to authorize a US-led multinational force to Somalia.
1992 Roman Catholic officials in Boston agree to pay compensation to 68 persons who claimed they were sexually abused 25 years earlier by priest James Porter.
1991 El Gobierno de Kenia acepta la legalización de los partidos de la oposición, tras décadas de monopartidismo.
1990 Mary Robinson es nombrada presidenta de Irlanda.
1990 Soldiers seized Argentina's army headquarters two days before President Bush was due to visit. The rebellion is quickly put down. — El Ejército argentino aplasta la rebelión del coronel Seineldín y sus militares carapintadas.
1989 US-USSR summit presages Cold War's end
      Meeting off the coast of Malta, President George Bush and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev issue statements strongly suggesting that the long-standing animosities at the core of the Cold War might be coming to an end. Commentators in both the United States and Russia went farther and declared that the Cold War was over.
      The talks were part of the first-ever summit held between the two leaders. Bush and his advisers were cautiously optimistic about the summit, eager to follow up on the steps toward arms control taken by the preceding Reagan administration. Gorbachev was quite vocal about his desire for better relations with the United States so that he could pursue his domestic reform agenda and was more effusive in his declarations that the talks marked an important first step toward ending the Cold War. The Russian leader stated, "The characteristics of the Cold War should be abandoned. “ He went on to suggest that, "The arms race, mistrust, psychological and ideological struggle, all those should be things of the past. “ Bush was somewhat more restrained in his statement: "With reform underway in the Soviet Union, we stand at the threshold of a brand-new era of US-Soviet relations. It is within our grasp to contribute each in our own way to overcoming the division of Europe and ending the military confrontation there. “
       Despite the positive spin of the rhetoric, though, little of substance was accomplished during the summit. Both sides agreed to work toward a treaty dealing with long-range nuclear weapons and conventional arms in 1990. Gorbachev and Bush also agreed that another summit would take place in June 1990, in Washington DC.
1979 The last Pacer is produced by the American Motor Company.
1978 Luis Herrera Campins es elegido presidente de la República de Venezuela.
1975 Laos falls to communist forces; Lao People's Democratic Republic proclaimed
1970 Comienza en España el proceso de Burgos, que duró veintiséis días y en el que se dictó sentencia de muerte para seis miembros de ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna).
1969 La Cámara de Representantes de Estados Unidos aprueba el plan de paz del presidente Richard Milhous Nixon para el Vietnam.
1968 Costa Rica cierra su frontera con Panamá a causa de la presencia de guerrilleros partidarios del depuesto presidente Arnulfo Arias.
1967 The Twentieth Century Limited, the famed luxury train, completes its final run from New York to Chicago.
1967 First successful human heart transplant.
     Lewis Washkansky, 53, receives the first human heart transplant, at Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa. Washkansky, a South African grocer dying from chronic heart disease, received the transplant from Denise Darvall, 25, who died fatally injured in a car accident. Surgeon Christiaan Barnard, who trained at the University of Cape Town and in the United States, performed the revolutionary medical operation. The technique Barnard employed had been initially developed by a group of American researchers in the 1950s. American surgeon Norman Shumway had achieved the first successful heart transplant, in a dog, at Stanford University in California in 1958.
      After Washkansky's surgery, he was given drugs to suppress his immune system and keep his body from rejecting the heart. These drugs also left him susceptible to sickness, however, and 18 days later he died from double pneumonia. Despite the setback, Washkansky's new heart had functioned normally until his death.
      In the 1970s, the development of better anti-rejection drugs made transplantation more viable. Dr. Barnard continued to perform heart transplant operations, and by the late 1970s many of his patients were living up to five years with their new hearts. Worldwide, as of April 2000, the longest-living heart transplant recipient was still well 23 years later. Successful heart transplant surgery continues to be performed today, but finding appropriate donors is extremely difficult.
Première succès de greffe d'un cœur humain.
      Une greffe du cœur est effectuée pour la première fois au monde. L'événement se produit dans un hôpital du Cap (Afrique du Sud). Du jour au lendemain, le professeur Chris Barnard devient mondialement célèbre. Son patient, Louis Washkansky, ne survivra cependant que 18 jours. En France, la première greffe du coeur sera effectuée l'année suivante par le professeur Christian Cabrol. Son patient ne survivra que deux jours. Mais très vite, grâce à une plus grande maîtrise technique et à de meilleurs médicaments anti-rejets, les nouveaux greffés gagnent en délai de survie. Le record appartient à un Américain qui a survécu 21 ans à la greffe et à un Français, Emmanuel Vitria, décédé près de 20 ans après l'opération.
— Christian Barnard realiza con notable éxito en Ciudad del Cabo (Sudáfrica) el primer trasplante de corazón en seres humanos de la historia; el paciente, Philip Blaiber (???), vivió 594 días después de la operación.
1967 Se realiza la primera prueba de vuelo del prototipo francoinglés "Concorde 001".
1965 Conditions for Vietnam bombing halt
      In a confidential memorandum to Defense Secretary Robert McNamara, Assistant Secretary of Defense John McNaughton outlines the terms that should precede any permanent bombing halt. He said that North Vietnam must not only cease infiltration efforts, but also take steps to withdraw troops currently operating in South Vietnam. In addition, the Viet Cong should agree to terminate terror and sabotage activities and allow Saigon to exercise "governmental functions over substantially all of South Vietnam. “ McNaughton did not believe that these conditions would soon be obtained, however, as they amounted to "capitulation by a communist force that is far from beaten. “
1962 Report: Viet Cong prepared for long war
      Roger Hilsman, director of the State Department Bureau of Intelligence and Research, sends a memorandum to Secretary of State Dean Rusk pointing out that the communist Viet Cong fighters are obviously prepared for a long struggle. While government control of the countryside had improved slightly, the Viet Cong had expanded considerably in size and influence, both through its own efforts and because of its attraction to "increasingly frustrated non-communist, anti-Diem elements. “ According to Hilsman, successfully eradicating the Viet Cong would take several years of greater effort by both the United States and the South Vietnamese government of President Ngo Dinh Diem. Real success, he noted, depended upon Diem gaining the support of the South Vietnamese people through social and military measures, which he had so far failed to implement. Hilsman felt that a noncommunist coup against Diem "could occur at any time," and would seriously disrupt or reverse counterinsurgency momentum. As it turned out, Hilsman was eventually proven correct. On November 1, 1963, dissident South Vietnamese generals led a coup resulting in the murder of Diem. His death marked the end of civilian authority and political stability in South Vietnam. The succession of military juntas, coups, and attempted coups in 1964 and early 1965 weakened the government severely and disrupted the momentum of the counterinsurgency effort against the Viet Cong.
1958 Antoni Tàpies es galardonado con el premio Carnegie de pintura.
1951 Duros enfrentamientos entre soldados ingleses y egipcios en el canal de Suez.
1950 Las fuerzas de la ONU se retiran de Corea. (???)
1948 First news of the Whittaker Chambers spy case: microfilm of secret American documents was found in a pumpkin on the former magazine editor's Maryland farm, allegedly from Alger Hiss for delivery to a Communist power.
1944 Greek Civil War starts in Athens
      In Athens, Greece, the Committee of the People's Army (ELAS), a resistance group made up of Greek Communists, launches an offensive against Greece's democratic government and British troops, six weeks after the city was liberation from German occupation. Greece had been in Axis hands since German and Italian forces defeated tough Greek opposition in 1941, prompting the establishment of two underground Greek resistance groups--the National Democratic Greek Army (EDES) and the ELAS. Athens, the capital of Greece, was liberated on October 14, 1944, by British forces assisted by the EDES. By November 11, the liberation of Greece was complete and British and Greek authorities demanded the demobilization of the EDES and the ELAS. The EDES complied, but the ELAS refused. The Greek Communists had been bribed with arms by the Germans not to assist in the British liberation and on December 3 they turned their German weapons against Greece's liberators. Over the next few weeks, the ELAS rebels succeed in capturing a large portion of Athens and the city of Piraeus before two British squadrons arrive from the Italian front to suppress the Communist uprising. By January 11, 1945, only a few isolated Communist positions remain in the mountains, and the ELAS rebels are forced to surrender.
1933 Santiago Alba y Bonifaz es nombrado en Madrid presidente de las nuevas Cortes de mayoría derechista.
1932 Kurt von Schleicher es nombrado canciller de Alemania.
1929 US President Herbert Hoover, very mistakenly, declares to Congress that the nation has shaken off the impact of the recent stock market crash and regained its faith in the economy.
1929 The Ford Motor Co. raised the pay of its employees from $5 to $7 a day despite the collapse of the American stock market.
1924 Estalla en Perú un movimiento revolucionario dirigido por Oscar Raimundo Benavides.
1920 Turkey and Armenia agree to peace treaty.
1918 En España, Manuel García Prieto presenta la dimisión de su Gobierno a consecuencia de las discrepancias sobre la petición de autonomía de Cataluña.
1916 El general francés Joseph Joffre dimite como comandante en jefe del Ejército, y es reemplazado por el general Robert Georges Nivelle, tras el fracaso de la ofensiva aliada en el Somme, en el contexto de la Primera Guerra Mundial.
1912 First Balkan War ends
      Bulgaria, Serbia, and Montenegro sign an armistice with Turkey, ending the first Balkan War. During the brief conflict, a military coalition between Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria, and Montenegro expelled Turkey from all of the Ottoman Empire's former European possessions, except Constantinople. In 1913, the Second Balkan War begins after Serbia demands that Bulgaria cede to it portions of Macedonia. Bulgaria is subsequently defeated by a loose alliance between Serbia, Romania, Greece, and Turkey, and Macedonia is partitioned between the four victors. However, nationalist tension persists in the Balkans and in 1914 hostility between Serbia and the Austria-Hungary Empire over Austria's possession of Bosnia-Herzegovina reaches a breaking point, precipitating the outbreak of World War I. On 28 June, Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip assassinates Austrian archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to a declaration of war against Serbia by Austria-Hungary one month later, which sets off a chain reaction in Europe that brings every major power into the war by August.
1906 El Gobierno de Segismundo Moret y Prendergast, recién constituido en España, presenta la dimisión; el liberalismo español entra así en crisis.
1903 Se firma en París el acta final de la Conferencia Sanitaria Internacional sobre las Epidemias.
1901 Theodore Roosevelt urges control of conglomerates
      Theodore Roosevelt took the House floor on 03 December 1901 to deliver a 20'000-word consideration of business conglomerations. Roosevelt called on Congress to curb the nation's trusts, though he urged the need for legislation that stayed "within reasonable limits. “ Despite this caveat, Roosevelt is often remembered as an ardent trust buster who crusaded against the rise of big business. In fact, Roosevelt was hardly a constant foe of the business community: He came from a wealthy family and neither disdained money nor the growth of business combinations. Rather, he plied a more conservative approach and sought policy which balanced free market principles with the "best interests" of the US public, allowing trusts to exist, albeit within carefully measured limits.
1883 48th US Congress (1883-85) convenes
1868 Trial of Jefferson Davis starts; 1st blacks on US trial jury
1847 Frederick Douglass publishes 1st issue of his newspaper "North Star"
1863 Siege of Knoxville, Tennessee concludes.
1855 Se decreta en Perú la abolición de la esclavitud.
1842 Baldomero Espartero ordena el bombardeo de Barcelona para acabar con la sublevación contra su Gobierno.
1836 Tras dos días de debates, las Cortes Españolas acuerdan negociar el reconocimiento de la independencia de los Nuevos Estados de la América Española.
1828 Andrew Jackson is elected 7th president of US
1818 Illinois admitted as 21st US state
      Illinois achieves statehood. Though Illinois presented unique challenges to immigrants unaccustomed to the soil and vegetation of the area, it grew to become a bustling and densely populated state.
      The strange but beautiful prairie lands east of the Mississippi and north of Lake Michigan presented a difficult challenge to the tide of westward-moving immigrants. Accustomed to the heavily forested lands of states like Kentucky and Tennessee, the early immigrants to Illinois did not know what to make of the vast treeless stretches of the prairie. Most pioneers believed that the fertility of soil revealed itself by the abundance of vegetation it supported, so they assumed that the lack of trees on the prairie signaled inferior farmland. Those brave souls who did try to farm the prairie found that their flimsy plows were inadequate to cut through prairie sod thickly knotted with deep roots. In an "age of wood," farmers also felt helpless without ready access to the trees they needed for their tools, homes, furniture, fences, and fuel. For all these reasons, most of the early Illinois settlers remained in the southern part of the state, where they built homes and farms near the trees that grew along the many creek and river bottoms.
      The challenge of the prairies slowed emigration into the region; when Illinois was granted statehood in 1818, the population was only about 35'000, and most of the prairie was still largely unsettled. Gradually, though, a few tough Illinois farmers took on the difficult task of plowing the prairie and discovered that the soil was far richer than they had expected. The development of heavy prairie plows and improved access to wood and other supplies through new shipping routes encouraged even more farmers to head out into the vast northern prairie lands of Illinois.
      By 1840, the center of population in Illinois had shifted decisively to the north, and the once insignificant hamlet of Chicago rapidly became a bustling city. The four giant prairie counties of northern Illinois, which were the last to be settled, boasted population densities of 18 people per square mile. Increasingly recognized as one of the nation's most fertile agricultural areas, the vast emptiness of the Illinois prairie was eagerly conquered by both pioneers and plows
1812 Las tropas francesas ocupan Madrid por segunda vez en el contexto de la Guerra de la Independencia.
1810 Los ingleses se apoderan de la isla Mauricio, en el Océano Indico.

1800 L'armée française du Rhin bat les autrichiens.
      Les Autrichiens sont défaits à Hohenlinden, en Bavière, par l'armée du Rhin, sous le commandement de Jean-Victor. Cette bataille décisive vient après bientôt la victoire de Desaix et Bonaparte à Marengo, en Italie, le 18 juin 1800. Elle met fin à la deuxième coalition européenne contre la France. L'Autriche signe la paix à Lunéville, le 09 Feb 1801. L'Angleterre, de son côté, signe la paix à Amiens le 25 mars 1802. Jaloux du prestige acquis par le vainqueur de Hohenlinden, le Premier consul Napoléon Bonaparte le tient à l'écart. Le général Moreau se laisse alors entraîner dans un complot royaliste. Exilé, il finit par se faire tuer au service du tsar en 1813.
     Les soldats français battent les Autrichiens à Hohenlinden, en Bavière. C'est la fin de la deuxième coalition européenne contre la France de la Révolution. Le Premier consul Bonaparte a remporté, à Marengo, en Italie, une victoire sur le fil. Mais ce succès s'est révélé insuffisant.
      Pendant ce temps, en Allemagne, le général Moreau progresse prudemment à la tête de l'armée du Rhin. Ses 60'000 hommes se retranchent près d'une grande forêt, à 30 kilomètres de Munich, non loin du village de Hohenlinden. Jean, un jeune archiduc d'Autriche, tente de les bousculer avec ses 55'000 combattants. Mais la neige fondue et le terrain marécageux gênent ses mouvements. Pris entre deux feux, les Autrichiens sont repoussés dans la forêt. 11'000 sont faits prisonniers et à peu près autant sont tués ou blessés.
      Fort de sa victoire inattendue, le général Moreau poursuit son chemin vers la capitale des Etats autrichiens. Il arrive à Salzbourg. Pris de panique à la perspective de perdre Vienne, l'empereur François II se résigne à négocier contre l'avis de ses alliés anglais. La paix est signée à Lunéville, en Lorraine, le 9 février 1801... Mais l'Europe attendra encore quinze ans pour une paix durable.

1685 Charles II bars Jews from settling in Stockholm Sweden
1621 Galileo perfects the telescope
1586 Sir Thomas Herriot introduces potatoes to England, from Colombia
1563 Se celebra la vigésimo quinta y última sesión del Concilio de Trento.
1557 Under the leadership of John Knox, the Protestants of Scotland sign their "First Covenant" at Edinburgh, uniting Presbyterians under the name: "Congregation of the Lord. “
1170 Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Becket, 52, returns to England after six years of exile in France. (Becket would be martyred on December 29th of this year killed by soldiers sent by his former friend, English King Henry II.)
0741 St Zachary begins his reign as Pope.
Deaths which occurred on a December 03:
2003 Richard Chester “Jeff” Brown, 77, of a heart attack while walking near home. He was a New York City magazine editor and short-story writer who authored the children's books Flat Stanley (1964) , Stanley and the Magic Lamp, Stanley in Space, Stanley's Christmas Adventure, Invisible Stanley, and Stanley, Flat Again!.
2002 Fatima Mohammad Hasson Abeid, 95, Palestinian woman from Ramallah, shot in the back by an Israeli soldier who fired 17 shots while running after the taxi in which she was, on the dirt road between the Surda and Ayosh junctions north of Ramallah, because it was heading toward a road forbidden to Palestinians, though it posed no threat to anyone.
Gwendolyn Brooks2000 Gwendolyn Brooks, 83, poet, of cancer.
      Gwendolyn Brooks promoted an understanding of Black culture through her candid, compassionate poetry and became the first African-American to win a Pulitzer Prize. She wrote hundreds of poems, had more than 20 books published, and had been Illinois' poet laureate since 1968. Her poetry delved into poverty, racism and drugs among black people.
      “I believe that we should all know each other, we human carriers of so many pleasurable differences," she said in an interview not long before her death. “To not know is to doubt, to shrink from, sidestep or destroy. “
      The poet dies at her home, surrounded by friends and family members who had been taking turns reading to her.
      Her Pulitzer was awarded in 1950 for her second book of poetry, Annie Allen. One of her most famous poems is We Real Cool, from the 1960 collection The Bean Eaters. The short poem sums up hopelessness in eight lines:
      "We real cool. We/Left school. We/Lurk late. We/Strike straight. We/Sing sin. We/Thin gin. We/Jazz June. We/Die soon”
      Brooks continued to write throughout her life and had completed her most recent volume of poems late in the 2000 summer. Her activity regarding her creative muse was very high. She continued to speak and read and do all sorts of appearances.
      In 1989, Brooks received a lifetime achievement award from the National Endowment for the Arts. She was named the 1994 Jefferson Lecturer by the National Endowment for the Humanities, the highest honor bestowed by the federal government for work in the humanities.
      Brooks was born in Topeka, Kan., in 1917, but grew up in Chicago. She began writing at 11 when she mailed several poems to a community newspaper in Chicago to surprise her family. Her early works were mostly autobiographical, detailing the death of friends, her relationship with her family and their reaction to war and racism.
      After a number of her poems had been published in Chicago's Black newspapers, Brooks sent 19 poems to a list of publishers. “I said to myself, I'm going to go straight down that list until somebody takes these poems," she said. Harper & Bros., now HarperCollins, was at the top of the list. Its editors suggested she needed more poems, then published the collection in 1945 in a book called A Street in Bronzeville. Annie Allen followed four years later.
      Brooks often referred to her works as her family, which also included Black people in general. “If you have one drop of Blackness blood in you — yes, of course it comes out red — you are mine," she once said. “You are a member of my family. “ But she was quick to point that she wasn't exclusionary, noting that she had the liveliest interest in other families.
      Brooks was also known as a tireless teacher, promoter and advocate of creative writing in general and poetry in particular. “She mentored literally three generations of poets - black, white, Hispanic, Native American," said longtime friend, poet and literature professor Haki Madhubuti, who founded the Gwendolyn Brooks Center for Creative Writing and Black Literature at Chicago State University. “She was all over the map sharing her gifts. “
      She used her prestige as Illinois' poet laureate to inspire young writers, establishing the Illinois Poet Laureate Awards in 1969 to encourage elementary and high school students to write. She said she found it intoxicating and exciting to see young talent. She would attend poetry slams in Chicago, where aspiring poets would line up to read their works, and she often financed awards to the poet voted the best reader by the audience. Brooks once said of the awards she received — including having a bronze sculpture of her placed in the National Portrait Gallery — that there was only one that meant a great deal to her: "In December 1967, at a workshop called the Kumuba Workshop in a rundown theater in Chicago, I was given an award for just being me, and that's what poetry is to me — just being me. “
      Survivors include her daughter, Nora Brooks Blakely, son Henry Blakely III, and a grandson. Her husband, poet and writer, Henry Blakely Jr., died in 1996.
— Gwendolyn Elizabeth Brooks, escritora estadounidense.
1999 Edmond Safra, banquero multimillonario, uno de los hombres más ricos del planeta, muere en Montecarlo (Mónaco), asesinado por su mayordomo.
1989 Melissa Brannen, 5, abducted and murdered by Caleb Hughes, who would be convicted based on the evidence of fibers found in his car matching Melissa's clothing. Her body would never be found.
1984: 2889 die from Union Carbide poison gas emission in Bhopal, India
      In the early morning hours, one of the worst industrial disasters in history begins when a pesticide plant located in the densely populated region of Bhopal in central India leaks a highly toxic cloud of methyl isocyanate into the air. Of the nearly one million people living in Bhopal at the time, 2889 people are killed immediately, at least 300'000 are injured, and as many as 8000 have died since. The leak was caused by a series of mechanical and human errors in the pesticide producing plant, operated by the Union Carbide Corporation. For a full hour, the plant's personnel and safety equipment failed to detect the massive leak, and when an alarm was finally sounded, most of the harm had already been done. To make matters worse, local health officials had not been educated on the toxicity of the chemicals used at the Union Carbide plant and therefore there were no emergency procedures in place to protect Bhopal's citizens in the event of a chemical leak. After the disaster, a civil suit filed against Union Carbide eventually results in a settlement awards of between five hundred and one thousand dollars to the most seriously injured survivors, although at least 100,000 people whose health was adversely affected by the accident do not receive compensation.
1979 Eleven persons in a crush of fans at Cincinnati's Riverfront Coliseum, where the British rock group The Who was performing.
1957 Frank E Gannett, 81, newspaper publisher dies at 81
1956 Felix Bernstein, mathematician.
1956 Alexandr Mikhailovich Rodchenko, Russian painter, sculptor, designer, and photographer born on 05 December (23 November Julian) 1891, an important member of the Constructivist movement. — LINKS
1952 Rudolf Slansky et 13 autres, pendus à Prague après un procès stalinien.
      L'un des plus spectaculaires procès de l'ère stalinienne s'achève à Prague par la pendaison de 14 prévenus et la dispersion de leurs cendres. Leur chef de file est Rudolf Slansky, ex-secrétaire général du Parti communiste tchécoslovaque, un communiste qui a eu le tort de déplaire à Staline. Les prévenus ont dû avouer des crimes fantaisistes et les accusateurs ne se sont pas privés d'exploiter l'antisémitisme à leur encontre. Arthur London, survivant du procès, racontera celui-ci dans L'Aveu. Le roman deviendra un film à succès de Costa Gavras, avec Yves Montand dans le rôle principal.
1948 Some 1000 die as Chinese refugee ship Kiangya explodes in E China Sea
1939 Day 4 of Winter War: USSR aggression against Finland. [Talvisodan 4. päivä]
More deaths due to Stalin's desire to grab Finnish territory.
  • Soviet naval detachments shell the outer islands and occupy Iso Tytärsaari island.
  • General Headquarters moves from Helsinki to Mikkeli.
  • The covering force withdraws towards the main defensive position.
  • Karelian Isthmus: Rautu, Valkjärvi and Uusikirkko fall to the enemy.
  • Foreign Minister Tanner announces that the waters around Åland have been mined to protect the islands.
  • Church services are cancelled in the cities and other main centers of population because of the danger of air raids. Large numbers of civilians leave Helsinki, Viipuri, Turku, Kotka and many other cities for the safety of the interior.
  • 1919 Pierre Auguste Renoir, French Impressionist painter born on 25 February 1841. — MORE ON RENOIR AT ART “4” DECEMBER with links to many images.
    1894 Robert Louis Balfour Stevenson, 44, Scottish novelist and poet, author of Treasure Island and Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, in Scotland.
          Born on 13 November 1850, Stevenson studied civil engineering and law, but decided to pursue a career as a writer and began publishing essays and travel pieces. His decision alienated his parents, who expected him to follow the family trade of lighthouse keeping. The family wasn't reconciled for years.
          In 1876, Stevenson fell in love with an American woman named Fanny Vandegrift Osbourne, who was separated from her husband. When she returned to San Francisco in 1879, Stevenson followed her. The couple married and returned to Scotland in 1880. Stevenson published a collection of essays in 1881, and Treasure Island, one of his most popular books, in 1883. In 1885, he published the first version of the popular nursery-rhyme book A Child's Garden of Verses. In 1846, he published Kidnapped, and in 1886 he published The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde.
          In 1888, the family set off for the South Seas, seeking a healthier climate for Stevenson's tuberculosis. The family finally settled in Samoa, where Stevenson died.
    —     D'abord étudiant en droit, il se met ensuite à écrire des livres pour enfants dont " L'Île au Trésor ", c'est un vrai chef d'oeuvre. Puis, c'est "Le cas du docteur Jekyll et de Mr Hyde " . En raison de sa santé, il se retire dans l'île de Samoa, dans le Pacifique, où il devient l'ami des indigènes, et où il mourra en 1894.
  • Treasure Island
  • Treasure Island
  • Treasure Island
  • Treasure Island
  • Treasure Island
  • Kidnapped
  • Kidnapped
  • Across the Plains
  • Across the Plains
  • The Art of Writing
  • Ballads
  • The Black Arrow
  • Catriona
  • Essays of Travel
  • Fables
  • In the South Seas
  • An Inland Voyage
  • An Inland Voyage
  • Underwoods
  • Vailima Letters
  • Lay Morals, and Other Papers
  • The Master of Ballantrae
  • The Master of Ballantrae
  • Memoir of Fleeming Jenkin
  • Memories and Portraits
  • The Merry Men
  • Moral Emblems
  • New Arabian Nights
  • New Poems
  • Prince Otto: A Romance
  • Prince Otto: A Romance
  • Records of a Family of Engineers
  • The Silverado Squatters
  • The Silverado Squatters
  • Songs of Travel and Other Verses
  • St. Ives
  • Edinburgh: Picturesque Notes
  • The Beach of Falesa
  • Familiar Studies of Men and Books
  • Island Nights' Entertainments
  • The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde
  • The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde
  • A Child's Garden of Verses
  • A Child's Garden of Verses, and Underwoods; with Life of R. L. Stevenson by Alexander Harvey
  • Tales and Fantasies (includes The Story of a Lie)
  • Travels with a Donkey in the Cevennes
  • Virginibus Puerisque and Other Papers
  • The Weir of Hermiston: An Unfinished Romance
  • A Footnote to History: Eight Years of Trouble in Samoa
  • A Footnote to History: Eight Years of Trouble in Samoa
  • The Pocket R.L.S., Favourite Passages from Stevenson
  • Prayers Written at Vailima, and A Lowden Sabbath Morn
  • The Letters of R. L. Stevenson, volume 1 , volume 2
    co-author of:
  • The Dynamiter
  • The Dynamiter
  • The Ebb-Tide
  • The Wrecker
  • The Wrong Box
  • The Plays of W. E. Henley and R. L. Stevenson
  • 1890 Carl Hilgers, German artist born on 14 April 1818.
    1853 Nicolás Rodríguez Peña, político argentino.
    1851 Le représentant Baudin, sur une barricade en tentant, mais en vain, de soulever le peuple de Paris contre le coup d'Etat de Louis-Napoléon.
    1789 Claude Joseph Vernet, French painter born on 14 August 1714. . — MORE ON VERNET AT ART “4” DECEMBER with links to images.
    1719 François Marot (or Maret), French artist born in 1666.
    1552 Saint Francis Xavier, Jesuit missionary, in China, where he contracted a fever while waiting for permission to preach.
    1352 Clement, pope, by lightning. He acquired Avignon in France for the papacy. He defended the Franciscans against their enemies, preached a failed crusade, treated the Jews with kindness, raised taxes to support a luxurious papal court, and showed courage during the Black Death.
    1154 Anastasius IV,.the pope who restored the Pantheon building.
    0780 San Virgilio, obispo y apóstol irlandés.
    Births which occurred on a December 03:
    inventor Kamen"IT"
    2001 Segway Human Transporter “IT” is introduced.

         “IT“ (temporary code name: the permanent name is not likely to be the initials of Segway Human Innovative Transporter) is a standup vehicle on one axle wiith a T-shaped handle. Gyroscopes keep it steady and its computer and sensors responds to the rider action on the handle so as to go forward, backward, faster, slower, turn even on one spot (one wheel going forward and the other backward), or stop. Pilot models are demonstrater on the ABC TV show Good Morning America [photo >].
         It will run all day on an overnight charge of its battery (by plugging it in to an ordinary wall outlet), at a maximum speed of 20 km/h. The US Postal Service intends to test the first heavy-duty production models (at 36 kg and $8000 each) for its letter carriers. Consumer models will come later, weighing 30 kg and costing $3000).
         Just what couch potatoes need to keep completely out of shape, by now eliminating even walking.
         It is the creation of inventor Dean Kamen [< 16 March 2001 photo], 50, who holds roughly 100 US patents, including those for a heart stent, a wheelchair that can climb stairs, and the first portable kidney dialysis machine.
    1960 Camelot, the musical, opens on Broadway.
    1953 Kismet, the musical, opens on Broadway.
    1952 Mel Smith author (Morons From Outer Space) [Has anyone thought of writing Mormons From Outer Space ?]
    1949 La Alta Comisaría de las Naciones Unidas para los Refugiados (ACNUR) se crea.
    1947 A Streetcar Named Desire, play by Tennessee Williams, opens on Broadway.
    1946 Poemas de Alberto Caeiro y Odas de Ricardo Reis, de Fernando Antonio Nogueira Pessoa, se publican.
    1934 Nicolas Coster London, (Lionel-Santa Barbara, Electric Horseman)
    1926 El huésped del sevillano, zarzuela del maestro Jacinto Guerrero y Torres, se estrena en el teatro Apolo de Madrid.
    1924 John Backus, mathematician, inventor of the FORTRAN computer language.
    1917 Manuel Solís Palma, político panameño.
    1917 Quebec Bridge opens. At the time, it was the world's longest cantilever truss span, (in which stiff trusses extend from the bridge piers, without additional support).
    1915 Manuel Tuñón de Lara, historiador español.
    1908 C.F.D. Moule, Anglican clergyman and New Testament scholar. He authored numerous autographs on Biblical studies, including The Phenomenology of the New Testament (1967).
    1903 John von Neumann, mathematician.
          Although mathematician John von Neumann is best known for his work on the Manhattan Project, helping develop the atomic bomb, he also played a critical role in the history of the electronic computer. After consulting with John Mauchly and Presper Eckert (developers of ENIAC, one of the first electronic computers), von Neumann proposed a method for adding memory to an electronic computer and wrote a 101-page proposal detailing EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer), an electronic computer with memory. The proposal, which also described in detail the thinking behind ENIAC, later became an important piece of evidence in the patent suit that ultimately denied Mauchly and Eckert patents on ENIAC.
    1903 Goldstein, mathematician.
    1902 Mitsuo Fuchida, the pilot who flew the lead plane in Japan's air attack on Pearl Harbor (12/7/1941). Following WWII, through representatives of the Pocket Testament League, Fuchida was converted to Christianity in 1950.
    1900 Richard Kuhn Austria, biochemist, worked with vitamins (Nobel '38)
    1896 Tabulating Machine Company (future IBM) is incorporated.
          Hermann Hollerith incorporated the Tabulating Machine Company on this day in 1896. At age twenty-nine, Hollerith, who had worked at the Census Bureau in 1880, won a competition to develop the most efficient counting system for the 1890 census. His tabulating machine counted punched cards, inspired by a card system developed by Joseph Jacquard of France to program patterns into textile looms. Through a series of mergers and reorganizations, the Tabulating Machine Company eventually became IBM.
    1895 Anna Freud, psicoanalista austriaca.
    1889 Los amantes del miserable, poema de Juan Ramón Jiménez Mantecón, casi adolescente, se publica y le abre las puertas de la fama.
    1883 Anton (Friedrich Wilhelm) von Webern Vienna Austria, 12-tone composer
    1879 The electric light bulb is demonstrated by Edison
          In 1878, while on an expedition to measure a solar eclipse, Thomas Edison boasted that he could create a safe, cheap, electric light: Although electric arc lights had existed for more than ten years, their high intensity made them a fire hazard. Financiers, including J.P. Morgan and the Vanderbilt family, took Edison at his word and established the Edison Electric Light Company later that year. After more than a year of experiments, Edison and his young assistant, Francis Upton, finally developed a carbon filament that would burn in a vacuum in a glass bulb for forty hours. They demonstrated the light bulb to their backers on Dec. 3, 1879, and by the end of the month, were exhibiting the invention to the public. On December 31, 1879, the Pennsylvania Railroad ran special trains to Edison's Menlo Park laboratory to let the public witness a demonstration of the invention.
    1857 Salvador Rueda, poeta
    1857 Józef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowskij "Joseph Conrad" 
         Born of Polish parents, Conrad would become one of the greatest English novelist and short-story, whose works include the novels Lord Jim (1900), Nostromo (1904), and The Secret Agent (1907) and the short story Heart of Darkness (1902).
         Józef spent his early childhood in northern Russia, where his father, a Polish poet and patriot, had been exiled. His parents both died of tuberculosis when he was 12. An uncle raised Joseph for the next five years. At age 17, Korzeniowskij set out for Marseilles, France, where he joined the merchant marine and sailed to the West Indies. His many harrowing adventures at sea set the scene for much of his work.
          In 1878, when Korzeniowskij was 21, he traveled to England as a deck hand on a British freighter. He perfected his English during six voyages on a small British trade boat and spent 16 years with the British merchant navy. He had numerous adventures around the world, became a British subject in 1886, and got his first command in 1888. In 1889 he commanded a Congo River steamboat for four months, which set the stage for his well-known story Heart of Darkness(1902).
          Korzeniowskij began writing in the late 1890s and used the name Conrad. His first novel, Almayer's Folly, was published in 1895. In 1896 he married an English woman and gave up the sea to write full time. His work evolved from hearty sea-adventure tales to sophisticated and pessimistic explorations of morals, personal choices, and character. His best-known works, including Lord Jim, Nostromo and The Secret Agent, were published between 1900 and 1911, and brought him financial security.
         In A Personal Record (also titled Some Reminiscences)Conrad relates that his first introduction to the English language was at the age of eight, when his father was translating the works of Shakespeare.
         In July 1876 he sailed to the West Indies, as a steward on the Saint-Antoine. On this gunrunning voyage, Conrad sailed along the coast of Venezuela, memories of which were to find a place in Nostromo. The first mate of the vessel, a Corsican named Dominic Cervoni, was the model for the hero of that novel and was to play a picturesque role in Conrad's life and work.
         In April 1881 Conrad joined the Palestine, a bark of 425 tons. This move proved to be an important event in his life; it took him to the Far East for the first time, and it was also a continuously troubled voyage, which provided him with literary material that he would use later. Beset by gales, accidentally rammed by a steamer, and deserted by a sizable portion of her crew, the Palestine nevertheless had made it as far as the East Indies when her cargo of coal caught fire and the crew had to take to the lifeboats; Conrad's initial landing in the East, on an island off Sumatra, took place only after a 13-1/2-hour voyage in an open boat. In 1898 Conrad published his account of his experiences on the Palestine, with only slight alterations, as the short story Youth, a remarkable tale of a young officer's first command.
         In 1883 Conrad joined the Narcissus at Bombay. This voyage gave him material for his novel The Nigger of the "Narcissus,", the story of an egocentric black sailor's deterioration and death aboard ship.
         In February 1887 Conrad sailed as first mate on the Highland Forest, bound for Semarang, Java. Her captain was John McWhirr, whom he later immortalized under the same name as the heroic, unimaginative captain of the steamer Nan Shan in Typhoon. He then joined the Vidar, a locally owned steamship trading among the islands of the southeast Asian archipelago. During the five or six voyages he made in four and a half months, Conrad was discovering and exploring the world he was to re-create in his first novels, Almayer's Folly, An Outcast of the Islands, and Lord Jim, as well as several short stories.
         After leaving the Vidar Conrad unexpectedly obtained his first command, on the Otago, sailing from Bangkok, an experience out of which he was to make his stories The Shadow Line and Falk.
         In London in the summer of 1889, Conrad began to write Almayer's Folly. He interrupted that to go to the Congo Free State, which was four years old as a political entity and already notorious as a sphere of imperialistic exploitation. Conrad obtained the command of a Congo River steamboat. What he saw, did, and felt in his 4 months in the Congo are largely recorded in Heart of Darkness, his most famous, finest, and most enigmatic story, the title of which signifies not only the heart of Africa, the dark continent, but also the heart of evil--everything that is corrupt, nihilistic, malign--and perhaps the heart of man. The story is central to Conrad's work and vision, and it is difficult not to think of his Congo experiences as traumatic. He may have exaggerated when he said, "Before the Congo I was a mere animal," but in a real sense the dying Kurtz's cry, "The horror! The horror!" was Conrad's. He suffered psychological, spiritual, even metaphysical shock in the Congo, and his physical health was also damaged; for the rest of his life, he was racked by recurrent fever and gout.
          Almayer's Folly was published in April 1895. It was as the author of this novel that he adopted the name Conrad. Almayer's Folly was followed in 1896 by An Outcast of the Islands, which repeats the theme of a foolish and blindly superficial character meeting the tragic consequences of his own failings in a tropical region far from the company of his fellow Europeans. These two novels provoked a misunderstanding of Conrad's talents and purpose which dogged him the rest of his life. Set in the Malayan archipelago, they caused him to be labeled a writer of exotic tales, a reputation which a series of novels and short stories about the sea--The Nigger of the Narcissus (1897), Lord Jim (1900), Youth (1902), Typhoon (1902), and others--seemed only to confirm. But, as he wrote about the Narcissus, in his view "the problem . . . is not a problem of the sea, it is merely a problem that has risen on board a ship where the conditions of complete isolation from all land entanglements make it stand out with a particular force and colouring. “ This is equally true of his other works; the latter part of Lord Jim takes place in a jungle village not because the emotional and moral problems that interest Conrad are those peculiar to jungle villages, but because there Jim's feelings of guilt, responsibility, and insecurity--feelings common to mankind--work themselves out with a logic and inevitability that are enforced by his isolation.
         Conrad's finest novels are considered to be Lord Jim (1900), Nostromo (1904), The Secret Agent (1907), and Under Western Eyes (1911), the last being three novels of political intrigue and romance
         Nostromo (1904) is a story of revolution, politics, and financial manipulation in a South American republic. It centers, for all its close-packed incidents, upon one idea--the corruption of the characters by the ambitions that they set before themselves, ambitions concerned with silver, which forms the republic's wealth and which is the central symbol around which the novel is organized. The ambitions range from simple greed to idealistic desires for reform and justice. All lead to moral disaster, and the nobler the ambition the greater its possessor's self-disgust as he realizes his plight.
          Heart of Darkness,(one of the Two Other Stories in Youth and Two Other Stories, the third one being The End of the Tether) which follows closely the actual For Conrad's Congo journey, tells of the narrator's fascination by a mysterious white man, Kurtz, who, by his eloquence and hypnotic personality, dominates the brutal tribesmen around him. Full of contempt for the greedy traders who exploit the natives, the narrator cannot deny the power of this figure of evil who calls forth from him something approaching reluctant loyalty.
          The Secret Agent (1907) is a sustained essay in the ironic and one of Conrad's finest works. It deals with the equivocal world of anarchists, police, politicians, and agents provocateurs in London.
          Victory describes the unsuccessful attempts of a detached, nihilistic observer of life to protect himself and his hapless female companion from the murderous machinations of a trio of rogues on an isolated island.
         Conrad died on 3 August 1924.
    CONRAD ONLINE:   [Conrad links]
  • Amy Foster
  • Chance
  • Falk
  • Lord Jim
  • Lord Jim
  • Lord Jim
  • Lord Jim
  • Lord Jim (zipped)
  • Nostromo
  • Nostromo
  • Typhoon
  • Typhoon
  • Victory
  • A Set of Six
  • A Set of Six
  • To-morrow
  • The Rover
  • The Rover Part 1   Part 2
  • Almayer's Folly
  • The Arrow of Gold
  • The Arrow of Gold
  • A Personal Record
  • A Personal Record
  • Some Reminiscences
  • The Secret Agent
  • The Secret Agent
  • The Secret Agent
  • The Secret Sharer
  • The Secret Sharer
  • The Secret Sharer
  • Tales of Unrest
  • Tales of Unrest
  • Under Western Eyes
  • 'Twixt Land and Sea
  • The Mirror of the Sea
  • The Nigger of the Narcissus
  • Notes on Life and Letters
  • An Outcast of the Islands
  • Heart of Darkness
  • Heart of Darkness
  • Heart of Darkness
  • The Heart of Darkness (magazine version)
  • The Rescue: A Romance of the Shallows
  • The Shadow Line: A Confession
  • Youth and Two Other Stories
  • Within the Tides
  • End of the Tether
  • The Informer: An Ironic Tale
  • An Anarchist: A Desperate Tale
  • co-author of The Inheritors
  • 1851 Gustav Schönleber, German artist who died on 01 February 1917.
    1843 Daniele Ranzoni, Italian artist who died on 20 October 1889. more with links to images.
    1830 Lord Frederick Leighton, English Pre-Raphaelite painter and sculptor who died on 25 January 1896. — MORE ON LEIGHTON AT ART “4” DECEMBER with links to images.
    1826 George McClellan, future Union General, is born in Philadelphia.
          Although McClellan emerged early in the US Civil War as a Union hero, he failed to effectively prosecute the war in the East. McClellan graduated from West Point in 1846, second in his class. He served with distinction in the Mexican War under General Winfield Scott, and continued in the military until 1857. After retiring from the service, McClellan served as president of the Illinois Central Railroad, where he became acquainted with Abraham Lincoln, who was then an attorney for the company.
          When the war began, McClellan was appointed major general in charge of the Ohio volunteers. In 1861, he command Union forces in western Virginia, where his reputation grew as the Yankees won many small battles and secured control of the region. Although many historians have argued that it was McClellan's subordinates who deserved most of the credit, McClellan was elevated to commander of the main Union army in the east, the Army of the Potomac, following that army's humiliating defeat at the First Battle of Bull Run.
          McClellan took command in July 1861 and did an admirable job of building an effective force. He was elevated to general-in-chief of all Union armies when his commander during the Mexican War, Scott, retired at the end of October. McClellan was beloved by his soldiers but was arrogant and contemptuous of Lincoln and the Republican leaders in Congress. A staunch Democrat, he was opposed to attacking the institution of slavery as a war measure. While his work as an administrator earned high marks, his weakness was revealed when he took the field with his army in the spring of 1862.
          McClellan lost to Robert E. Lee during the Seven Days' battles, and as a field commander he was sluggish, hesitant, and timid. President Lincoln then moved most of McClellan's command to John Pope, but Pope was beaten badly by Lee at the Second Battle of Bull Run. When Lee invaded Maryland in September 1862, Lincoln restored McClellan's command. Though the president had grave misgivings about McClellan's leadership, he wrote during the emergency that "we must use the tools we have...There is no man in the Army who can man these fortifications and lick these troops into shape half as well as he."
          McClellan pursued Lee into western Maryland, and on 17 September 1862 the two armies fought to a standstill along Antietam Creek. Heavy loses forced Lee to return to Virginia, providing McClellan with a nominal victory. Shortly after the battle, Lincoln declared the Emancipation Proclamation, which converted the war into a crusade against slavery, a measure bitterly criticized by McClellan. The general's failure to pursue Lee into Virginia led Lincoln to order McClellan's permanent removal in November. The Democrats nominated McClellan for president in 1864. He ran against his old boss, but managed to garner only 21 of 233 electoral votes. After the war, he served as governor of New Jersey. He died on 29 October 1885, in Orange, New Jersey.
    1793 William Clarkson Frederick Stanfield, English painter who died on 18 May 1867. — MORE ON STANFIELD AT ART “4” DECEMBER with links to images.
    1755 Gilbert Stuart, US painter specialized in portraits, who died on 09 July 1828. — MORE ON STUART AT ART “4” DECEMBER with links to images.
    1729 Padre Antonio Soler Olot Spain, composer (Fandango)
    1684 Ludvig Baron Holberg, a founder of Danish & Norwegian literature
    1621 Pieter Gysels (or Gheysels, Gyzens, Gysen), Flemish painter who died in 1690. — more with links to images.
    1368 Charles VI [the Well-Beloved], king of France (1380-1422)
    Holidays Illinois : Admission Day (1818) / Philatelists : Sir Rowland Hill Day (1795/1840) / World : Heart Transplant Day (1967)

    Religious Observances RC : St Cassian of Tangier, patron of stenographers / Luth, RC : St Francis Xavier, apostle of India and Japan / Santos Francisco Javier, Agrícola, Casiano, Claudio, Crispín, Julio y Víctor; santas Atalia e Hilaria. / Saint François-Xavier Issu de la noblesse basque, François Xavier va étudier à Paris. En pension au collège Sainte Barbe, il fait la rencontre de son compatriote Ignace de Loyola. Ensemble, ils vont fonder l'ordre des Jésuites (ou Compagnie de Jésus) en 1534. L'ordre jouera un grand rôle dans la rénovation de l'Eglise catholique après le schisme protestant. Ordonné prêtre, François Xavier sera désigné pour convertir les peuples de l'Orient. De Goa (Inde) au Japon, il va se montrer jusqu'à sa mort un missionnaire infatigable. Ses restes reposent à Goa.

    DICTIONNAIRE TICRANIEN: soupape: trône du Souverain Pontife.
    Thoughts for the day: “An honest politician: one who, when bought, stays bought.”
    “Il ne faut pas couper les cheveux en quatre quand on les trouve dans la soupe.”
    updated Sunday 07-Dec-2003 23:27 UT
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