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Events, deaths, births, of FEB 10

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On a February 10:
^ 1999 Clinton impeachment trial in US Senate: censure?

In what might be an indication of languishing attempts to come up with a censure resolution, Sen. Dianne Feinstein (D-California) says she and the other colleagues who were pushing censure now may simply pass the proposal around among other senators to be signed and released as a statement.
  • Feinstein indicates that the statement idea is one of two possibilities to be explored after Congress returns from its President's Day recess. The other would be to try and attach a statement of censure to other legislation, also after the recess.
  • Some members promise to try and keep a formal censure resolution off the floor of the Senate either before or after the vote on the articles of impeachment.
  • The White House fully expects acquittal at the end of the trial, but is not commenting on a censure resolution. White House Press Secretary Joe Lockhart says the president would be open to such a resolution, but it is up to the Senate to decide what to do about censure.
(2) According to sources, the president does plan to address the public after the votes on the articles of impeachment. He is expected at that time to apologize to the American people for what the country has gone through. The White House has said there will be no celebration following the vote.
(3) After a second full day of closed-door impeachment deliberations, it grows even more certain that President Bill Clinton will not be removed from office as three moderate Senate Republicans announce they would not support either article of impeachment. Sens. James Jeffords of Vermont, Arlen Specter of Pennsylvania and John Chafee of Rhode Island say they will not support the charges of perjury and obstruction of justice alleged in the articles of impeachment passed by the House.
  • Chafee says he had only recently made his decision in what he called a "deeply troubling case." "Overshadowing all has been the president's reckless, tawdry behavior, coupled with misleading statements that have undermined the dignity of the presidency, and brought about a divisive and unpleasant chapter in our history," Chafee says. But he concludes, "Absent the proof that I find necessary to justify the removal of a president, I will vote to acquit on both articles."
  • Specter cites Scottish law, saying there could be "three possible verdicts: guilty, not guilty, not proved." "Given the option in this trial, I suspect many senators would choose 'not proved' instead of 'not guilty,'" Specter says.
  • In an interview, Jeffords says he did not think either impeachment count against Clinton would get a simple majority in the 100-member Senate. Jeffords says he would vote against both articles and believed as many as 12 Republican moderates would join him. The Vermont Republican says he hoped that neither charge would get a majority "because of the question of precedent setting. If the vote is more than 50 percent, half of the Senate will say you have a legitimate reason to throw the president out of office." Jeffords says it is clear there was not the two-thirds vote required — 67 votes — to remove Clinton office. His concern, Jeffords said, now centered around the precedents that would be set for future presidents.
1998 America OnLine announces increase in monthly flat rate Internet access from $19.95 to $21.95
1997 Comet Shoemaker-Holt 2 Closest Approach to Earth (1.9245 AU)
1997 Lemrick Nelson found guilty in the fatal stabbing on Hasidic Jew Yankel Rosenbaum in Crown Heights Brooklyn in 1991
1997 O. J. Simpson jury reaches decision on $25 million in punitive damages
1996 US President Clinton signed a $265 billion defense bill, but said he would battle for repeal of a section forcing the discharge of service members with the AIDS virus.
^ 1996 Computer beats world chess champion
      IBM's chess-playing computer program, Deep Blue, wins the first game of a six-game match against Gary Kasparov, the world's champion chess grandmaster. The computer evaluates 200 million chess moves per second. No computer had ever before defeated the top human player under championship conditions. Kasparov would go on to win the match, winning three games and tying two. (Kasparov loses on 10 Feb Game 1 — wins on 11 Feb Game 2 — draws on 13 Feb Game 3 — draws on 14 Feb Game 4 — wins on 16 Feb Game 5 — wins on 17 Feb Game 6)
      From 02 May to 11 May 1997, Kasparov would lose a 6-game rematch against Deep Blue. Not only would this be the first time a computer defeats in a tournament a reigning human world chess champion — it is also the first time Kasparov ever loses a multigame match against any opponent
      From 26 January to 07 February 2003, Kasparov would draw a 6-game match against the Israeli computer chess program Deep Junior.
1993 US officially backs peace plan in Bosnia.
1991 Lithuania votes for independence from USSR
1990 Perrier Water pulls product from shelf due to benzene in water
^ 1989 Brown elected chairman of the US Democratic Party
      Ronald H. Brown, a former Supreme Court lawyer and leader of the National Urban League, is elected chairman of the Democratic Party National Committee. He was the first African American to hold the top position in a major political party in the United States. Brown, born in Washington, D.C., in 1941, was raised in New York City's Harlem, where he worked as a welfare caseworker before joining the US Army. After holding important positions in the National Urban League, an advocacy group for the renewal of inner cities, he became a member of the US Supreme Court bar and served as chief counsel for the Senate Judiciary Committee. As chairman of the Democratic Party, Brown played a pivotal role in securing the 1992 election of Bill Clinton, the first Democratic president in 12 years. In 1993, he was appointed America's first African American secretary of commerce by President Clinton, a capacity in which he served until 03 April 1996, when he and 32 other Americans were killed when their plane crashed into a mountain in Croatia. Brown had been leading a delegation of business executives to the former Yugoslavia to explore business opportunities that might help rebuild the war-torn region.
1988 3-judge panel of 9th US Circuit Court of Appeals in San Francisco strikes down Army's ban on homosexuals (later overturned by appeal)
1988 Rocky Malebane-Metsing coup in Bophuthatswana fails
1974 Iran/Iraqi border fight breaks out
1974 Silver futures hit record $4.81½ an ounce in London
1972 Ras al Khaima joins the United Arab Emirates
^ 1967 The 25th Amendment to the US Constitution, dealing with presidential disability and succession, is ratified, Minnesota and Nevada completing the necessary number of 39 states. It had been passed by Congress on 06 July 1965..
Article XXV
Section 1.
In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.
Section 2.
Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.
Section 3.
Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.
Section 4.
Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.
      Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office.
1966 Harmel government in Belgium resigns.
^ 1962 USSR–US spy exchange.
     Francis Gary Powers, a US pilot who was shot down over the Soviet Union while flying a CIA spy plane in 1960, is released by the Soviets in exchange for the US release of a Russian spy. The exchange concluded one of the most dramatic episodes of the Cold War. Powers had been a pilot of one of the high altitude U-2 spy planes developed by the United States in the late-1950s. Supposedly invulnerable to any Soviet antiaircraft defense, the U-2s flew numerous missions over Russia, photographing military installations. On 01 May 1960, Powers' U-2 was shot down by a Soviet missile. Although Powers was supposed to engage the plane's self-destruct system (and commit suicide with poison furnished by the CIA), he and much of the plane were captured.
      The United States at first denied involvement with the flight, but had to admit that Powers was working for the US government when the Soviets presented incontrovertible evidence. In retaliation, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev called off a scheduled summit with President Dwight D. Eisenhower. Powers was put on trial, convicted of espionage, and sentenced to 10 years imprisonment. In February 1962, the Soviet Union announced that it was freeing Powers because of a petition from the prisoner's family. US officials made it quite clear, however, that Abel was being exchanged for Powers — a spy-for-a-spy trade, not a humanitarian gesture on the part of the Soviet Union.
      The US government announced that in exchange for Powers, it would release Col. Rudolf Ivanovich Abel, a Russian convicted of espionage in the United States. On 10 February Abel and Powers were brought to the Gilenicker Bridge that linked East and West Berlin for the exchange. After the men were successfully exchanged, Powers was flown back to the United States.
      The Soviet Union declared that its release of Powers was partially motivated by "a desire to improve relations between the Soviet Union and the United States." US officials were cautious in evaluating the Soviet overture, but did note that the action could certainly help lessen Cold War tensions. The exchange was part of the ongoing diplomatic dance between Khrushchev and President John F. Kennedy. Both men seemed earnestly to desire better relations, and the February 1962 exchange was no doubt part of their efforts. Just a few months later, however, the Cuban Missile Crisis, in which the Soviets helped construct missile bases in Cuba, erased the memory of these diplomatic overtures and brought the two powers to the brink of nuclear conflict.
     American spy pilot Francis Gary Powers is released by the Soviets in exchange for Soviet Colonel Rudolf Abel, a senior KGB spy who was caught in the United States five years earlier. The two men were brought to separate sides of the Glienicker Bridge, which connects East and West Berlin across Lake Wannsee. As the spies waited, negotiators talked in the center of the bridge where a white line divided East from West. Finally, Powers and Abel were waved forward and crossed the border into freedom at the same moment — 08:52 Berlin time. Just before their transfer, Frederic Pryor — an American student held by East German authorities since August 1961 — was released to American authorities at another border checkpoint. In 1957, Reino Hayhanen, a lieutenant colonel in the KGB, walked into the American embassy in Paris and announced his intention to defect to the West. Hayhanen had proved a poor spy during his five years in the United States and was being recalled to the USSR, where he feared he would be disciplined. In exchange for asylum, he promised CIA agents he could help expose a major Soviet spy network in the United States and identify its director. The CIA turned Hayhanen over to the FBI to investigate the claims. During the Cold War, Soviet spies worked together in the United States without revealing their names or addresses to each other, a precaution in the event that one was caught or, like Hayhanen, defected. Thus, Hayhanen initially provided the FBI with little useful information. He did, however, remember being taken to a storage room in Brooklyn by his superior, whom he knew as "Mark." The FBI tracked down the storage room and found it was rented by one Emil R. Goldfus, an artist and photographer who had a studio in Brooklyn Heights. Emil Goldfus was Rudolf Ivanovich Abel, a brilliant Soviet spy who was fluent in at least five languages and an expert at the technical requirements of espionage. After decorated service as an intelligence operative during World War II, Abel assumed a false identity and entered an East German refugee camp where he successfully applied for the right to immigrate to Canada. In 1948, he slipped across the Canadian border into the United States, where he set about reorganizing the Soviet spy network.
      After learning of Hayhanen's defection, Abel fled to Florida, where he remained underground until June, when he felt it was safe to return to New York. On 21 June 1957, he was arrested in Manhattan's Latham Hotel. In his studio, FBI investigators found a hollow pencil used for concealing messages, a shaving brush containing microfilm, a code book, and radio transmitting equipment. He was tried in a federal court in Brooklyn and in October was found guilty on three counts of espionage and sentenced to 30 years imprisonment. He was sent to the federal penitentiary in Atlanta, Georgia. Less than three years later, on 01 May 1960, Francis Gary Powers took off from Peshawar, Pakistan, at the controls of an ultra-sophisticated Lockheed U-2 high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft. Powers, a CIA-employed pilot, was to fly over some 3000 km of Soviet territory to Bodö military airfield in Norway, collecting intelligence information en route. Roughly halfway through his journey, he was shot down over Sverdlovsk in the Ural Mountains. Forced to bail out at 5000 meters altitude, he survived the parachute jump but was promptly arrested by Soviet authorities.
      On 05 May, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev announced that the American spy aircraft had been shot down and two days later revealed that Powers was alive and well and had confessed to being on an intelligence mission for the CIA. On 07 May, the United States acknowledged that the U-2 had probably flown over Soviet territory but denied that it had authorized the mission.
      On 16 May, leaders of the United States, the USSR, Britain, and France met in Paris for a long-awaited summit meeting. The four powers were to discuss tensions in the two Germanys and negotiate new disarmament treaties. However, at the first session, the summit collapsed after President Dwight D. Eisenhower refused to apologize to Khrushchev for the U-2 incident. Khrushchev also canceled an invitation for Eisenhower to visit the USSR. In August, Powers pleaded guilty to espionage charges in Moscow and was sentenced to 10 years imprisonment — three in prison and seven in a prison colony. At the end of his 1957 trial, Rudolf Abel escaped the death penalty when his lawyer, James Donovan, convinced the federal judge that Abel might one day be used either as a source of intelligence information or as a hostage to be traded with the Soviets for a captured US agent. In his five years in prison, Abel kept his silence, but the latter prophecy came true in 1962 when he was exchanged for Powers in Berlin. Donovan had played an important role in the negotiations that led to the swap.
      Upon returning to the United States, Powers was cleared by the CIA and the Senate of any personal blame for the U-2 incident. In 1970, he published a book, Operation Overflight, about the incident and in 1977 was killed in the crash of a helicopter that he flew as a reporter for a Los Angeles television station. Abel returned to Moscow, where he was forced into retirement by the KGB, who feared that during his five years of captivity US authorities had convinced him to become a double agent. He was given a modest pension and in 1968 published KGB-approved memoirs. He died in 1971.
1954 Eisenhower warns against US intervention in Vietnam.
1948 Greek General Markos' guerrilla army bombs Saloniki.
1947 WWII peace treaties signed.
1947 Italy cedes most of Venezia Giulia to Yugoslavia.
1947 Province of Petsamo returned to Soviet Union by Finland.
1944 U-666/U-545/U-283 sink off Ireland.
^ 1942 Japanese sub shells Midway
     A Japanese submarine attacks Midway, a coral atoll used as a US Navy base. It was the fourth bombing of the atoll by Japanese ships since 07 December. The capture of Midway was an important part of the broader Japanese strategy of trying to create a defensive line that would stretch from the western Aleutian Islands in the north to the Midway, Wake, Marshall, and Gilbert Islands in the south, then west to the Dutch West Indies. Occupying Midway would also mean depriving the United States of a submarine base and would provide the perfect launching pad for an all-out assault on Hawaii. Adm. Isoroku Yamamoto, mastermind of the Pearl Harbor attack and commander in chief of the Japanese combined fleet, knew that only the utter destruction of US naval capacity would ensure Japanese free reign in the Pacific. Japanese bombing of the atoll by ship and submarine failed to break through the extraordinary defense put up by Admiral Chester Nimitz, commander of the US Navy in the Pacific, who used every resource available to protect Midway and, by extension, Hawaii. Yamamoto persevered with an elaborate warship operation, called Mi, launched in June, but the Battle of Midway was a disaster for Japan, and was the turning point for ultimate US victory in the Pacific.
1938 King Carol II of Romania drives out dictator Goga.
1934 1st Jewish immigrant ship to break the English blockade in Palestine.
1931 New Delhi becomes capital of India.
1930 Grain Stabilization Corporation is authorized by US Congress.
1916 Conscription begins in Britain.
1906 State of siege proclaimed in Zululand.
1904 Japan & Russia declares war after Japan's surprise attack on Russian fleet at Port Arthur disabled 7 Russian warships
1899 US-Spain peace treaty signed by President McKinley; US gets Puerto Rico & Guam.
1897 The New York Times begins printing "All the news that's fit to print" on its front page.
1890 About 4.5 million hectares, which US had forced Sioux to give up, open for settlement by non-Amerindians.
1880 Pope Leo XIII publishes encyclical Arcanum about Christian marriage.
1879 Henry Morton Stanley departs to the Congo.
1878 Peace of Zanjón.
1859 General Horsford defeats Begum of Oude & Nana Sahib in Indian mutiny.
1855 US citizenship laws amended all children of US parents born abroad granted US citizenship.
1846 British defeat Sikhs in battle of Sobraon, India.
^ 1846 Mormons begin exodus to Utah
      Their leader assassinated and their homes under attack, the Mormons of Nauvoo, Illinois, begin a long westward migration that eventually brings them to the valley of the Great Salt Lake in Utah. The members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints had been persecuted for their beliefs ever since Joseph Smith founded the church in New York in 1830. Smith's claim to be a modern-day prophet of God and his acceptance of polygamy proved controversial wherever the Mormons attempted to settle.
      In 1839, Smith hoped his new spiritual colony of Nauvoo in Missouri would provide a permanent safe haven for the Saints, but anti-Mormon prejudice there proved virulent. Angry mobs murdered Smith and his brother in June 1844 and began burning homes and threatening the citizens of Nauvoo. Convinced that the Mormons would never find peace in the United States, Smith's successor, Brigham Young, made a bold decision: the Mormons would move to the still wild territories of the Mexican-controlled Southwest. Young had little knowledge of the geography and environment of the West and no particular destination in mind, but trusting in God, he began to prepare the people of Nauvoo for a mass exodus.
      On this day, Young abandons Nauvoo and began leading 1600 Mormons west across the frozen Mississippi in temperatures of -20ºC or below to a temporary refuge at Sugar Grove, Iowa. Young planned to make the westward trek in stages, and he determined the first major stopping point would be along the Missouri River opposite Council Bluffs. He sent out a reconnaissance team to plan the route across Iowa, dig wells at camping spots, and in some cases, plant corn to provide food for the hungry emigrants.
      The mass of Mormons made the journey to the Missouri River, and by the fall of 1846, the Winter Quarters were home to 12'000 Mormons. After a hard journey across the western landscape, Young and his followers emerged out onto a broad valley where a giant lake shimmered in the distance. With his first glimpse of this Valley of the Great Salt Lake, Young reportedly said, "This is the place." That year, some 1600 Mormons arrived to begin building a new civilization in the valley.
      The next year, 2500 more made the passage. By the time Young died in 1877, more than 100'000 persons were living in the surrounding Great Basin, the majority of them Mormons. Young, however, had not escaped the troubles that plagued the Church in the East. By early 1848, the Mormons' haven became a US territory after the US victory in the Mexican War. The Mormons had finally found a permanent home along the Great Salt Lake, but its isolation and freedom from persecution was short-lived.
1824 Simon Bolívar named dictator by the Congress of Perú
^ 1763 The 7-Years (= French and Indian) War ends
      The Seven Years' War, a global conflict known in America as the French and Indian War, ends with the signing of the Treaty of Paris by France, Great Britain, and Spain. France cedes Canada to England.
      In the early 1750s, France's expansion into the Ohio River valley repeatedly brought the country into armed conflict with the British colonies. In 1756, the British formally declared war against France. In the first year of the war, the British suffered a series of defeats at the hands of the French and their broad network of Native American alliances. However, in 1757, British Prime Minister William Pitt (the older) recognized the potential of imperial expansion that would come out of victory against the French and borrowed heavily to fund an expanded war effort. Pitt financed Prussia's struggle against France and her allies in Europe and reimbursed the colonies for the raising of armies in North America. By 1760, the French had been expelled from Canada, and by 1763 all of France's allies in Europe had either made a separate peace with Prussia or had been defeated. In addition, Spanish attempts to aid France in the Americas had failed, and France also suffered defeats against British forces in India. The Seven Years' War ended with the signing of the treaties of Hubertusburg and Paris in February 1763. In the Treaty of Paris, France lost all claims to Canada and gave Louisiana to Spain, while Britain received Spanish Florida, Upper Canada, and various French holdings overseas. The treaty ensured the colonial and maritime supremacy of Britain and strengthened the 13 American colonies by removing their European rivals to the north and the south. Fifteen years later, French bitterness over the loss of most of their colonial empire contributed to their intervention in the American Revolution on the side of the Patriots.
1749 10th (final) volume of Fielding's "Tom Jones" is published
1716 Scottish pretender to the throne James III Edward returns to France
1549 Tomé de Sousa appointed Governor-General of Brazil
1535 12 nude Anabaptists run through Amsterdam streets
1098 Crusaders defeat Prince Redwan of Aleppo at Antioch
0385 Pope Saint Siricius answers a letter, in which questions were asked on fifteen different points concerning baptism, penance, church discipline, and the celibacy of the clergy, which had arrived to Rome addressed to Pope Saint Damasus I (who had died in December 384) by Bishop Himerius of Tarragona, Spain. Siricius gives his decisions as to the matters in question, exercising with full consciousness his supreme power of authority in the Church. This letter of Siricius is of special importance because it is the oldest completely preserved papal decretal. It is, however, certain that before this earlier popes had also issued such decretals, for Siricius himself in his letter mentions "general decrees" of Pope Liberius (Damasus's immediate predecessor) that the latter had sent to the provinces; but these earlier ones have not been preserved. Saint Siricius was born in 334; died on 26 November 399. He was elected pope and then, on 17 December 384, consecrated bishop.
0060 St Paul thought to have been shipwrecked off Malta.
Wreck of Kish planeDeaths which occurred on a February 10:

2004 All but 3 of the 40 passengers and 6 crew members aboard a Fokker-50 plane of Kish Air[< the wreckage], which crashes at 11:40, 3 km short of its destination in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. The dead are 19 Iranians, 12 Indians, 4 Egyptians, 2 Filipinos, 2 Algerians, 1 Syrian, 1 Chinese, 1 Nigerian, and 1 Bangladeshi. The three survivors are severely injured. The flight originated in Kish island, Iran. Foreign workers in the UAE use such flights to nearby destinations to meet the exit and entry requirement for renewal of their visa, which takes two or three days to process. Many of those workers are Indian, Pakistani, Filipino, and other Asian laborers and maids. Visas are not needed to enter Kish, and tickets and hotels are cheap, and the extremist fundamentalist Islamic laws of mainland Iran are not fully enforced.

2004:: 53 persons and suicide truck bomber at 09:15 at police station in Iskandariyah, Iraq, where job applicants were in a waiting line. Some 60 others are injured.

The Birds poster
2003 Ron Ziegler, born on 12 May 1939, of a heart attack. He was press secretary to crooked US president Nixon from 1968 until 1974. On 19 June 1972, Ziegler said of the 17 June 1972 Watergate burglary that it was a “third-rate burglary”. He did not state what were his criteria for rating burglaries, nor what made him an expert at it.

2003 Nineteen sheep killed during the previous two weeks by some 60 ravens living by a garbage dump near Loerrach, Germany, according to a Reuters news story published today. The sheep are among the 500 (worth $100 each) of shepherd Juergen Fritz, who is prohibited from shooting the ravens, a protected species. Much of the area is covered with snow so that the raven find no other food. The birds bring to mind those in the 1963 Hitchcock movie The Birds, which terrorize a US village.

2002 Two Palestinians attackers and Lt. Keren Rothstein, 20, and Cpl. Aya Malachi, 18,
Israeli women soldiers sitting at outdoor tables of Avraham Baldinger's pastry shop across the street from the Israeli Southern Command headquarters in Beersheba, at about 13:30. The The Izz a-din el Kassam (military wing of Hamas) gunmen are then shot by Israeli soldiers. One of them wore an undetonated explosive belt. Some half-dozen persons are wounded.
^ 2001: 27 persons shot in a shanty town near Berrouaghia, 100 km south of Algiers.
      Among the dead are 13 children between 6 months and 18 years old. In the evening, a night watchman at a nearby factory heard gunfire and sounded an alarm that drew government security forces. The attackers fled into a forested area after setting fire to three of the dead.
      The area is a stronghold of the radical Armed Islamic Group. Violence in Algeria has claimed more than 100'000 lives since an insurgency started in 1992, when the army canceled elections that a now-banned Islamic party was set to win. In January 2001, Algerian President Abdelaziz Bouteflika threatened to fight militants "with an iron fist." But the ongoing insurgency has been a failure for Bouteflika, who came to office in April 1999 pledging to stamp out the violence. New deaths are reported on an almost daily basis.
1998 Buddy the Wonder Dog (Air Bud), 9, of cancer
1998 Maurice Schumann, French foreign minister (1969-73)
1997 Milton Cato, PM of San Vincent & Grenadines (1979-84)
1995 Paul Monette, 49, writer
1995 S. van der Linde, 89, church historian
1995 Kenton Kilmer, 85, poet/translator
1993 Maurice Bourges-Maunoury, PM of France (1957)
1992 Thomas Graftdijk, Dutch writer (Dr Faustus)
1992 Wim Ramaker, Dutch director/writer (On Death Track)
1992 Alex Haley, 70, US writer (Autobiography of Malcolm X, Roots)
1987: 17 civilians massacred by Philippine troops—Lupao Massacre
1983 Emil Greenzweig
, by grenade thrown by right-wing extremist Yona Avrushmi at Peace Now demonstration near the bank of Israel, Jerusalem, which Greensweig was leading in opposition to Ariel Sharon's dirty Lebanon war.
^ 1971 Larry Burrows, Kent B. Potter, Henri Huet, and Keisaburo Shimamoto, journalists, a South Vietnamese army photographer, two senior officers and the four-man crew, in helicopter shot down in Laos.
      Four journalists, including British photographer Burrows, 44, of Life magazine, Potter, 24, of Philadelphia, United Press International correspondent, Vietnam-born French photographer Huet, 43, of the Associated Press, and Japanese photographer Shimamoto, 34, of Newsweek, die in a South Vietnamese helicopter operating in Laos.
      The journalists were covering Operation Lam Son 719, a massive cross-border invasion by US-backed Saigon forces to cut the jungled Ho Chi Minh Trail network in the Laos panhandle bordering Vietnam, that fed men and arms to North Vietnamese forces in the south. Their US-built UH-1 Huey helicopter and three others became lost while accompanying a general's tour of the fighting area. It was one of two that were shot down within minutes by hidden anti-aircraft guns. It exploded in a fireball, killing all 11 aboard.
     Burrows, a Briton, and Huet, who was French-Vietnamese, were among the top combat photographers of the war. Both won the prestigious Robert Capa Award, named for another photographer killed in the French Indochina war.
      Vietnam was one of the most reported conflicts in the history of warfare. In 1964, when the massive American buildup began, there were roughly 40 US and foreign journalists in Saigon. By August 1966, there were over 400 news media representatives in South Vietnam from 22 nations. The Vietnam War correspondents in the field shared the same dangers that confronted the front-line troops, risking their lives to witness and report the realities of the battlefield. Sixteen Americans lost their lives while covering the war. American journalists are among the 42 US civilians still missing in action and unaccounted for in Southeast Asia, including NBC News correspondent Welles Hangen and Time photographer Sean Flynn, both of whom disappeared while covering the war in Cambodia.
^ 1971 Joseph Ray Pietrzak, and Mark J. Robertson, shot down over Vietnam.
      Sgt. Pietrzak (born 03 September 1944), of Roseville, Ohio, observer, and Warrant Officer Robertson (born 16 August 1949), of Detroit, pilot, were flying aboard an OH6A helicopter on a visual reconnaissance mission in Thua Thien Province, South Vietnam. At 16º20'25"N, 107º06'47"E, the helicopter is hit by heavy 51 caliber machine gun fire in the power compartment and fuel section. It bursts into flames, falls vertically, and explodes on impact. Both men belonged to Troop B, 2nd Squadron, 17th Cavalry, 101st Airborne Division.
1970 Dry powder avalanche moving at 120 mph smashes into youth hostel killing 40 Belgian, French, & German youths (Val d'Isere, France)
1968 Pitirim Alexandrovich Sorokin, Russian US sociologist born on 21 January 1889. Author of The Crisis of Our Age (1992) — Fads and Foibles in Modern Sociology and Related Sciences (1976) — On the Practice of Sociology (1998) — Principles of Rural-Urban Sociology (1969) — Social and Cultural Dynamics (1970) — Altruistic Love : A Study of American Good Neighbors and Christian Saints (1968) — The Basic Trends of Our Times (1964) — Crisis of Our Age the Social and Cultural Outlook (1941) — Explorations in Altruistic Love and Behavior (1970) — Hunger As a Factor in Human Affairs (1975) — Long Journey : the Autobiography of Pitirim A. Sorokin (1963) — Reconstruction of Humanity (1948) — Social and Cultural Mobility (1959) [short extract] — Society, Culture, and Personality: Their Structure and Dynamics (1962) — Sociological Theries of Today (1979) — Sociology of Revolution (2000)
1966 Gary Douglas Hopps USN/O3 (born 28 August 1936), of Coral Gables, killed in action over North Vietnam at 17º12'58"N, 106º34'59"E.aboard A1H#137627.
^ 1965: 23 die as Viet Cong blow up US barracks
      Viet Cong guerrillas blow up the US barracks at Qui Nhon, 120 km east of Pleiku on the central coast, with a 50 kg explosive charge under the building. A total of 23 US personnel were killed, as well as two Viet Cong. In response to the attack, President Lyndon B. Johnson ordered a retaliatory air strike operation on North Vietnam called Flaming Dart II. This was the second in a series of retaliations launched because of communist attacks on US installations in South Vietnam. Just 48 hours before, the Viet Cong struck Camp Holloway and the adjacent Pleiku airfield in the Central Highlands. This attack killed eight US servicemen, wounded 109, and destroyed or damaged 20 aircraft. With his advisors advocating a strong response, President Johnson gave the order to launch Operation Flaming Dart, retaliatory air raids on a barracks and staging areas at Dong Hoi, a guerrilla training camp in North Vietnam, 60 km north of the 17th parallel. Johnson hoped that quick and effective retaliation would persuade the North Vietnamese to cease their attacks in South Vietnam. Unfortunately, Operation Flaming Dart did not have the desired effect. The attack on Qui Nhon was only the latest in a series of communist attacks on US installations, and Flaming Dart II had very little effect.
^ Lumumba1961 Patrice Lumumba, 34, first premier of Congo, his murdered body is discovered. [< portrait by Safran]
     Lumumba was nationalist leader who served briefly as the first prime minister of the Republic of the Congo in 1960. Lumumba helped bring independence to the colony of Belgian Congo but fell victim to the chaos independence created. Patrice Hemery Lumumba was a member of the small Batetela tribe born on 02 July 1925 in Onalua, province of Kasai, Belgian Congo. He received a Protestant missionary school education and was strongly influenced by the writings of Karl Marx and Jean-Paul Sartre.
      Lumumba worked for the Belgian colonial administration for 11 years, mainly as a postal clerk in the northeastern city of Stanleyville (later renamed Kisangani). He wrote newspaper articles and organized local movements advocating Congolese independence from Belgium. Following a 1956 visit to Belgium, he was imprisoned for a year for embezzling money from the post office. Upon his release, Lumumba moved to the capital, Léopoldville (later renamed Kinshasa), and worked as the sales manager of a brewery while continuing to campaign for independence. A dynamic speaker in several languages, he founded in October 1958 the Mouvement National Congolais (MNC), a multiethnic political party. As MNC president, he attended the December 1958 All-African Peoples' Conference in Accra, Ghana. Inspired by Ghanaian leader and pioneer African nationalist Kwame Nkrumah, Lumumba was converted to the ideas of militant anticolonialism and Pan-Africanism.
      The anticolonial movements in the Belgian Congo were largely split between nationalists led by Lumumba who favored strong central government and those led by Joseph Kasavubu, who pressed for federalism. After a 30 October 1959 riot in Stanleyville (later renamed Kisangani) in which 30 died, Lumumba was arrested for inciting violence and brutally beaten in prison. Meanwhile, the Belgian plan (announced on 13 January 1959 by the King in a radio address) for the gradual introduction of self-government (by puppets, it was suspected) to the colony collapsed under increased Congolese pressure for immediate independence. Lumumba was taken from prison and flown to Brussels in January 1960. There negotiations with Congolese activists led to the scheduling of unconditional independence for the colony which was almost totally unprepared, as Belgium had prevented the higher education of the natives and their access to officer ranks in the army..
      The Republic of the Congo officially became independent on 30 June 1960, and Lumumba became prime minister, with Kasavubu as president. Within days the army mutinied against its Belgian officers and Belgium evacuated almost all Europeans from the Congo, leaving the country with virtually no technicians, professionals, or administrators. Simultaneously, the mineral-rich Katanga province in the southeast, led by Moïse Tshombe, seceded with Belgian assistance. Violent chaos tore the country apart, and UN “blue helmet” peacekeeping forces requested by Lumumba were sent to the Congo. However, stability was not restored, and Lumumba appealed for further aid from Ghana and the USSR. The latter appeal only served to undermine his international reputation. Western governments viewed him with distrust as a dangerous pro-Soviet radical, although he had never described himself as a Communist.
     Kasavubu swiftly turned against Lumumba and dismissed him on 05 September 1960. However, Lumumba rejected the legality of the dismissal and lobbied the legislature to remove Kasavubu from office. The Congolese government was deadlocked. On 14 September 1960 both leaders were overthrown by army chief of staff Joseph Désiré Mobutu (who later renamed himself Mobutu Sese Seko and the country Zaïre), who placed Lumumba under house arrest. Captured on 02 December 1960 while trying to escape to his supporters in Stanleyville, Lumumba is delivered on 17 January 1961 to Tshombe's secessionist regime in Katanga, where he is murdered. A fervent, though often imprudent, nationalist, Lumumba was declared a national hero and martyr in 1966, and he continues to serve as an inspiration for African nationalists and leftists. One of Lumumba's supporters, Laurent-Désiré Kabila, overthrew Mobutu's dictatorship in May 1997, Zaïre was rename the Democratic Republic of the Congo and was engulfed in strife anew..
1957 Laura Ingalls Wilder, US author of children's fiction (Little House on Prarie), born on 07 February 1867.
1951 Miller, mathematician.
1942 Normandie, former French liner, capsizes in New York Harbor the day after it caught fire while being refitted for the US Navy.
^ 1940 Day 72 of Winter War: USSR aggression against Finland.
More deaths due to Stalin's desire to grab Finnish territory.

Heavier fighting in Taipale
      Central Isthmus: the commander of the Finnish 3rd Division says the main defensive position in Summa is under attack from three Soviet divisions and a tank brigade. The Soviet infantry has broken through in the Merkki sector. Finnish troops successfully repulse the enemy assaults in Marjapellonmäki, but are unable to retake the Karhu stronghold.
      Eastern Isthmus: the fighting in Taipale continues with increasing ferocity. The enemy artillery opens fire at 10.30 in the morning. At 12 minutes past noon the enemy infantry launches its assault with the support of six assault tanks. At 2.30 p.m. Major Saarelainen announces that the enemy assault has been successfully repulsed and four of their assault tanks destroyed.
      Mikkeli: Prime Minister Ryti, Foreign Minister Tanner and Commander-in-Chief of the Defence Forces, Marshall Mannerheim discuss possible terms for peace. Mannerheim urges the Government to seek peace.
      Ladoga Karelia: in the Aittojoki sector, troops belonging to Detachment Pajari carry out a new assault on the River Kuukkausjoki. After fierce close combat the Finnish troops manage to clear the enemy from the west bank of the river by the evening.
      Viipuri: enemy bombing destroys the Dominican monastery built in 1481 and currently serving as the church for the rural congregation around Viipuri.
      Abroad: a train from the Finnish Centre for Nordic Aid arrives in Stockholm with 300 Finnish children.
      A Danish officer, Colonel Tretow-Loof is travelling to Finland to lead the Danish volunteer battalion.
      An association called 'Wings for Finland' is founded in New York to procure aircraft for Finland. -

^ Taipaleessa taistelu jatkuu entistä voimakkaampana Talvisodan 73. päivä, 10.helmikuuta.1940
       3. Divisioonan komentajan mukaan suomalaisten puolustusasemaa vastaan Summassa hyökkää kolme neuvostodivisioonaa ja panssariprikaati. Neuvostojalkaväki pääsee murtoon Merkin lohkolla. Marjapellonmäessä vihollisen hyökkäykset torjutaan, mutta Karhun tukikohtaa ei onnistuta valtaamaan takaisin.
      Taipaleessa taistelu jatkuu entistä voimakkaampana. Vihollisen tykistö avaa tulen klo 10.30. Klo 12.12 vihollisen jalkaväki hyökkää kuuden hyökkäysvaunun tukemana. Klo 14.30 majuri Saarelainen ilmoittaa, että vihollisen hyökkäykset on torjuttu ja neljä hyökkäysvaunua on tuhottu.
      Pääministeri Ryti, ulkoministeri Tanner ja puolustusvoimien ylipäällikkö Mannerheim neuvottelevat rauhan ehdoista Mikkelissä. Mannerheim kehottaa pyrkimään rauhaan.
      Osasto Pajarin joukot tekevät uuden hyökkäyksen Aittojoen suunnassa Kuukkausjoella.
      Rajujen lähitaistelujen jälkeen suomalaiset saavat iltaan mennessä joen länsirannan puhdistetuksi vihollisista.
      Viipurissa tuhoutuu vihollisen pommituksessa vuonna 1481 rakennettu dominikaaniluostarina toiminut nykyinen Maaseurakunnan kirkko.
      Suomen Avun Keskuksen juna, jossa on 300 suomalaislasta saapuu Tukholmaan.
      Tanskalainen eversti Tretow-Loof matkustaa Suomeen johtaakseentanskalaisista koottua vapaaehtoispataljoonaa.
      New Yorkissa perustetaan "Wings for Finland"-yhdistys, jonka tavoitteena on lentokoneiden hankkiminen Suomelle. -

^ I Taipale tar kampen allt blodigare former Vinterkrigets 73 dag, den 10 februari 1940
      Enligt kommendören för den 3. Divisionen anfaller tre ryska divisioner och en pansarbrigad de finska försvarsställningarna vid Summa. Det ryska infanteriet lyckas bryta in vid Merkkiavsnittet. Vid Marjapellonmäki avvärjs fiendens anfall men försöken att återerövra Karhubasen misslyckas.
      I Taipale tar kampen allt blodigare former. Fiendens artilleri öppnar eld kl. 10.30. Kl. 12.12 anfaller fiendens infanteri med stöd av sex stridsvagnar. Kl. 14.30 meddelar major Saarelainen att fiendens anfall har avvärjts och fyra stridsvagnar har förintats.
      Statsminister Ryti, utrikesminister Tanner och försvarsmaktens överbefälhavare Mannerheim förhandlar om fredsvillkoren i S:t Michel. Mannerheim anser att man borde eftersträva fred.
      Avdelning Pajaris trupper anfaller på nytt i riktning Aittojoki vid Kuukkausjoki.
      Efter häftiga närkamper lyckas finnarna framåt kvällen rensa flodens västra strand från inkräktare.
      I Viborg förstörs landsförsamlingens kyrka som byggdes år 1481 och som tidigare fungerade som dominikankloster.
      Finlandshjälpens tåg med 300 finska barn anländer till Stockholm.
      Den danska översten Tretow-Loof reser till Finland för att leda en bataljon bestående av danska frivilliga.
      Föreningen "Wings for Finland" grundas i New York. Föreningens mål är att skaffa flygplan åt Finland.
1939 Pius XI [Ambrogio D A Ratti], Italian Pope (1922-39), dies at 81
1932 Richard Horatio Edgar Wallace, British novelist, playwright, journalist, born on 01 April 1875. He who produced popular detective and suspense stories and was in his time "the king" of the modern thriller. Wallace's literary output - 175 books, 24 plays, and countless articles and review sketches - have undermined his reputation as a fresh and original writer. . — WALLACE ONLINE: The Clue of the Twisted CandleThe Green Rust (1919)
1927 Greenhill, mathematician.
1927 Gustav Gunnar Nils Wentzel, Norwegian painter born on 07 October 1859. MERE OM WENTZEL PÅ KUNST FOR FEBRUAR with links to images.
1923 Wilhelm Konrad von Rontgen, 77, physicist (Nobel 1901)
1918 Abdül-Hamid II, 34th sultan of Turkey (lost Serbia/Egypt), 65
1912 Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister, surgeon (pioneer of antiseptic)
1901 Telemaco Signorini, Italian artist born on 18 August 1835.
1891 Sofia Kovalevskaya, 40, mathematician.
1887 Ellen Price (Mrs. Henry Wood) “Johnny Ludlow”, 73, English author of whodunits born on 17 January 1814. WOOD ONLINE: East Lynne.
1883: 71 persons in fire at un-insured New Hall Hotel in Milwaukee Wisconsin.
^ click for portrait1862 Mrs. Rossetti, of laudanum overdose, painter~poet's wife.       ^top^
click for "Beata Beatrix"      Poet and painter Rossetti returns from a night out with his fellow poet Algernon Charles Swinburne and finds his wife dead from an overdose of laudanum. He had married the beautiful but already invalid model Elizabeth Siddal [click image for portrait >] only two years earlier, after a fraught and prolonged courtship since 1850 when he first met her. She was the model for many of his pictures, such as The First Anniversary of the Death of Beatrice: Dante Drawing the Angel (1853) and Dante's Vision of Rachel and Leah (1855), and some by Hunt and Millais’s Ophelia. Although Elizabeth's death was an accident, the thought that his wife had committed suicide haunted Rossetti for the rest of his life.
     Devastated by his lost, Rossetti buried the only complete manuscript of his poetry with her. The manuscript was later recovered and published eight years later, in 1870, 12 years before Rossetti's own death. Rossetti considered his love for his wife similar to Dante's for Beatrice. This is evidenced in his painting Beata Beatrix.
      Dante Gabriel Rossetti was born on 12 May 1828 into an extraordinarily talented family. His sister, Christina Rossetti, became a well-known poet, and his brother, William, became a prominent art critic and editor. Dante Rossetti, put off by his father's passionate politics, came to believe that art and literature should pursue beauty for beauty's sake and not try to be moral, instructive, or politically useful.
click for "Ophelia"      Rossetti was already writing poetry and translating Italian verse by the time he was 20. He studied art and became a founder of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, a group of painters embracing art for art's sake. Rossetti contributed poems to the group's magazine, The Germ, and published a translation called Early Italian Poems, which brought him modest recognition and success. In 1881, Rossetti published Ballads and Sonnets, including his sonnet sequence "The House of Life." He died on 09 April 1882.
ROSSETTI ART LINKSBeata Beatrix (86x66cm) _ Painted as a memorial to Rossetti's wife. Rossetti had in fact begun the picture many years before, but took it up again in 1864 and completed it by 1870. It is one of his most intensely visionary, Symbolist pictures, and marks a new direction in his art. The painting represents the death of Beatrice in Dante's Vita Nuova. Beatrice sits in a death-like trance, while a bird, the messenger of Death, drops a poppy into her hands. In the background the figures of Love and Dante gaze at each other, with the Ponte Vecchio and the Duomo of Florence silhouetted behind them.
— WRITINGS BY ROSSETTI ONLINE: The Blessed Damozel The House of Life Jenny Poems (1870, illustrated) — Selected Works and Criticism.
1861 Francis Danby, British artist born on 16 November 1793. MORE ON DANBY AT ART “4” FEBRUARY with links to images.
1837 (29 January Julian) Alexandr Sergeyevich Pushkin, Russian poet, novelist, dramatist, and short-story writer; he has often been considered his country's greatest poet and the founder of modern Russian literature. He was born on 06 June (26 May Julian) 1799. — Biography (in Russian) — Portraits of Pushkin by: KiprenskyTropininSerovBruni — PUSHKIN ONLINE: (in Russian) Complete WorksComplete WorksSelected WorksSelected Works — (in English translation): Marie: A Story of Russian Love
1829 Leo XII [Annibale Sermattei], 68, Italian Pope (1823-29).
1810 Abraham-Louis-Rodolphe Ducros (or Ducroz), Swiss artist born in April 1748.
1772 Louis Tocqué, French artist born on 19 November 1696. MORE ON TOCQUÉ AT ART “4” FEBRUARY with links to images.
1772 Jozef Wenceslas, 75, monarch of Liechtenstein / general.
1765 Jean-Baptiste Henri Deshays de Colleville “le Romain”, French artist born in December 1729. MORE ON DESHAYS AT ART “4” FEBRUARY with links to images.
1720 Hendrik Govaerts (or Goovaerts), Flemish artist born on 21 July 1669.
1711 Lukas Fencer, 22, Dutch poet (Meleager & Atalante)
1685 David Teniers III, Flemish artist born on 10 July 1638.
1676 All men in Lancaster, Massachusetts, killed by Wampanoag Indians under King Philip.
1674 Leonaert Bramer, Dutch genre and history painter born on 24 December 1596. MORE ON BRAMER AT ART “4” FEBRUARY with links to images.
1667 Juan Bautista Martínez del Mazo, Spanish painter born in 1612. MORE ON DEL MAZO AT ART “4” FEBRUARY with links to images.
1660 (burial) Judith Leyster, Dutch Baroque painter, baptized as an infant on 28 July 1609. MORE ON LEYSTER AT ART “4” FEBRUARY with links to images.
1657 Sebastian Stoskopff, German artist born in some year from 1596 to 1599.
1567 Lord Darnley Stuart, husband of English queen Mary, murdered.
1526 Bernardino Zenale, Italian painter born in 1436. — LINKS
1495 Sir William Stanley, English lord chamberlain, executed for conspiracy
1258 The Mongols conquer Baghdad, killing and burning.
^ Births which occurred on a February 10:
2002 Sextuplets, prematurely to Idalina Santos, 31, in her 23rd week of' pregnancy. The mother, from the island of Madeira, had undergone fertility treatment after losing triplets during an earlier pregnancy. She also has an eight-year-old son. The babies are put on a respirator since their lungs are not fully formed. But they all die of respiratory complications, the biggest one, a boy who weighed 570 g at birth, dying last, on 22 Feb 2002, at Alfredo da Costa maternity hospital in Lisbon (where the aptly surnamed head of neonatology is Dr. Odilia Nascimento).
1961 George Stephanopoulos, presidential adviser (to Clinton)
1957 The styrofoam cooler is invented.
1953 John Shirley, US, sci-fi author (Eclipse Penumbra, Eclipse Corona)
1951 Roxanne Pulitzer, Glendale CA, author (The Prize Pulitzer)
1938 National Mortgage Association of Washington (name changed later in 1938 to Federal National Mortgage Association, familiarly “Fannie Mae”) The National Housing Act, enacted on 27 June 1934 as one of several economic recovery measures, provided for the establishment of a Federal Housing Administration (FHA) to be headed by a Federal Housing Administrator. Title II of the Act provided, as one of the principal functions of the FHA, for the insurance of home mortgage loans made by private lenders. Title III of the Act provided for the chartering of national mortgage associations by the Administrator. These associations were to be private corporations regulated by the Administrator, and their chief purpose was to buy and sell the mortgages to be insured by FHA under Title II. Only one association was ever formed under this authority: the FNMA, as a subsidiary of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, a government corporation. By amendments made in 1948, the charter authority of the FHA Administrator was repealed and Title III became a statutory charter for the Federal National Mortgage Association. By revision of Title III in 1954, Fannie Mae was converted into a mixed-ownership corporation, its preferred stock to be held by the government and its common stock to be privately held. It was at this time that Section 312 was first enacted, giving Title III the short title of Federal National Mortgage Association Charter Act. By amendments made in 1968, the Federal National Mortgage Association was partitioned into two separate entities, one to be known as Government National Mortgage Association (Ginnie Mae), the other to retain the name Federal National Mortgage Association. Ginnie Mae remained in the government, and Fannie Mae became privately owned by retiring the government-held stock. Ginnie Mae has operated as a wholly owned government association since the 1968 amendments.
1931 Thomas Bernhard, writer
1927 Jakov Lind, German/British author (Counting My Footsteps)
1920 Alexander Comfort, English poet/writer (Wreath for the Living) [Was there any Comfort for the dying?]
1910 Dominique Pire, Belgium, educator, aided WWII refugees (Nobel 1958)
1906 Henry Phelps Brown, historian/economist
1906 HMS Dreadnought, Great Britain's first modern and largest battleship is launched
1902 Armand Bernier, Belgian poet (Sorcier Triste)
1902 Walter H Brattain, Amoy China, US physicist (Nobel 1956-transistor)
1901 Brauer, mathematician.
1898 Bertolt Brecht Germany, poet, playwright (Mother Courage) and composer who died on 14 August 1956.
1898 Joseph Kessel French journalist/writer (Army of the Shadows)
1897 John Franklin Enders Connecticut, micro-biologist (polio-Nobel 1954)
1894 [Maurice] Harold MacMillan London, (C) British PM (1957-63) He died on 29 December 1986.
1891 Harold 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis, Governor-General of Canada (1945-52)
1890 Boris Leonidovich Pasternak Russian Jewish novelist and poet (Dr Zhivago, Nobel 1958). He died on 30 May 1960.
1889 Howard Spring British author/novelist/writer/critic (O Absalom)
1888 Brodetsky, mathematician.
1888 G Ungaretti, writer.
1888 Wilhelm Thöny, Austrian artist who died in 1949.
1887 [Fran J] Vital Celen Flemish literary/author
1879 1st electric arc light used (California Theater)
1878 Otto Eduard Pippel, German artist who died in 1960.
1870 YWCA (Young Women's Christian Association) is founded (New York NY)
1868 William Allen White, US journalist and author who died on 29 January 1944. — WHITE ONLINE: — The Martial Adventures of Henry and Me (illustrated) — The Real Issue: A Book of Kansas Stories
1866 Rafael Altamira Crevea Spanish lawyer/historian
1863 First US fire extinguisher patent, it is granted to Alanson Crane, Virginia.
1795 Ary Scheffer, French artist who died on 15 June 1858. MORE ON SCHEFFER AT ART “4” FEBRUARY with links to images.
1793 Léon-Matthieu Cochereau, French artist who died on 10 August 1817. — Interior of the Studio of David
1785 Navier, mathematician.
1775 Charles Lamb London England, critic / poet / essayist who died on 27 December 1834. — LAMB ONLINE: The Adventures of Ulysses Beauty and the BeastBeauty and the Beast (illustrated) — Elia: Essays Which Have Appeared Under That Signature in the London Magazine The Last Essays of Elia — co-author with Mary Lamb of: Tales from ShakespeareTales from ShakespeareTales from Shakespeare (illustrated) — Tales from Shakespeare (searchable, illustrated ) — Tales from Shakespeare (illustrated)
1755 Tonnay Nicolas Antoine Taunay (or Tonnay), French artist who died on 20 March 1830. — LINKS
1747 Aida, mathematician.
1685 Aaron Hill, English poet, dramatist, and essayist who died on 08 February 1750. His 1736 ("The Tragedy of Zara") and 1749 adaptations of Voltaire's plays Zaïre of 1732 and Mérope enjoyed considerable success.
1670 William Congreve, English Restoration writer — CONGREVE ONLINE: The Double-Dealer Incognita: or, Love and Duty Reconcil'd Love for Love The Old Bachelor Semele: An Opera (libretto only)The Way of the WorldThe Way of the World — co-translator of Ovid's Metamorphoses
1670 Norbert Cefalus van Bloemen (or Blommen), Flemish artist who died in 1746.
1635 Académie Française is founded in Paris (by Cardinal Richelieu)
1609 Sir John Suckling, English Cavalier poet/dramatist/courtier.
Religious Observances: / Christian World: Mardi Gras (Shrove Tuesday) in 1891, 1959, 1964, 1970, 2043, 2054, 2065, 2111, 2116, 2122 — Ash Wednesday in 1875, 1880, 1937, 1948, 2027, 2032, 2100

DICTIONNAIRE TICRANIEN: tonnerre: la lettre qui suit ton Q.
Thought for the day: “Now and then an innocent man is sent to the legislature.”
“Be nice to people on the way up. They're the same people you'll pass on the way down.”
— Jimmy Durante [1893-1980]
“Amor skondi tempu perdi.” — proverbio papiamentu.
updated Tuesday 10-Feb-2004 21:19 UT
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