<< Feb 10|         HISTORY “4” “2”DAY          |Feb 12 >>
Events, deaths, births, of FEB 11

[For Feb 11 Julian go to Gregorian date: 1583~1699: Feb 211700s: Feb 221800s: Feb 231900~2099: Feb 24]
Mandela dedicates his museum
On a February 11:

2001 A Palestinian military court of three judges in Hebron sentences Hassan Mohammed Hassan Musalam, 55, to death by firing squad for helping the Israel Defense Forces during the four-month-old Intifada.

2001 NY Times online publishes Chasing Mexico's Dream Into Squalor about life on the Mexican side of the border.

2000 Britain strips Northern Ireland's Protestant-Catholic government of power in to try and prevent its collapse over the IRA's refusal to disarm.

2000 On the 10th anniversary of his being freed from 27 years of political imprisonment, Nelson Mandela returns to his rural village birthplace, Umtata, to open a museum dedicated to his life. [photo >]

1999 Pluto is once again the farthest planet from the sun in our solar system (it had been closer to the Sun than Neptune since 7 February 1979).

^ 1999 Clinton's impeachment trial in US Senate: censure not likely.

(1) At the beginning of today's closed Senate deliberation session, 37 senators are still left to speak, and only eight complete their statements during the morning session. Sen. Patrick Leahy (D-Vermont) says the pace seems to accelerate later, with more and more members submitting their statements into the written record without speaking.
  • The Senate impeachment trial of President Bill Clinton will wrap up Feb. 12, with final votes on the charges against the president set for sometime after 11:00 EST.
  • Senators had hoped to vote late today, but the slow pace of the third day of deliberations makes that impossible.
  • Senate Majority Leader Trent Lott says he will be among the final speakers Feb. 12. Among the others will be Senate Minority Leader Tom Daschle (D-South Dakota) and Sen. Robert Byrd (D-West Virginia).
  • (2) Sen. Joe Lieberman (D-Connecticut) says that after the vote on the articles of impeachment against Clinton on Feb. 12, he and Sens. Dianne Feinstein (D-California) and Robert Bennett (R-Utah) plan to introduce a censure motion, even though its prospect for passage are dim.
    • Lieberman says the senators will request a "suspension of the rules", which requires a two-thirds majority for passage, and that is how they would bring the censure motion to the floor.
    • Knowing it is unlikely they can get a two-thirds vote, Lieberman says he would be "disappointed and frustrated that a parliamentary manuever is being used to block the will of the majority of the Senate."
    • Lieberman says if and when that procedure fails, the senators will look to create a "declaration of censure" that could be entered into the Congressional Record but not voted on, or be sent to the president, or both. Any senator would be able to sign on to the "declaration of censure."
    (3) Senate Majority Leader Trent Lott says he finds a New York Times report that President Bill Clinton will work to defeat his political foes in the House in 2000 "deeply troubling."
    • According to the Times report, a Clinton adviser said the president is so angry with House Republicans over his impeachment, he has vowed to work to defeat his foes in the 2000 election and help the Democrats win back the House.
    • "It is deeply troubling that the president views closure of this constitutional process as an opportunity for revenge," Lott (R-Mississippi) says.
    • White House Press Secretary Joe Lockhart dismisses the report, saying, "We're a little bit smarter than that." "I can't think of a worse, more dumb strategy than going after people based on whether they were a House manager or not," Lockhart says. "You look at the House managers and the vast majority are in safe seats or unopposed seats. We're going to go out, do the best that we can at articulating a message, and do it based on where we can win seats."
    (4) Sen. Orrin Hatch is calling for an investigation into whether Justice Department officials leaked word to the press about a potential probe of Independent Counsel Ken Starr's office.
  • Hatch, who has a meeting scheduled for Feb. 12 with Deputy Attorney General Eric Holder, puts the Justice Department's second-ranking official on notice to be prepared to discuss Starr. "Needless to say, I am very concerned," Hatch writes Holder. "These press accounts once again call into question the Department's integrity and support the impression many people have that this is a partisan Justice Department." If "there is new, credible evidence supporting any allegations of wrongdoing by the OIC," Hatch says, referring to the Office of Independent Counsel, "then an investigation should be conducted. Whether the evidence in this matter warrants investigation is unclear."
    • Hatch refers to reports that detail the focus of the potential investigation: namely, whether Starr's investigators violated Justice Department guidelines in their initial interview with Monica Lewinsky, the ex-White House intern who had a relationship with President Bill Clinton.
  • The other question is whether Starr's office withheld details about contacts with Paula Jones' attorneys when they asked Attorney General Janet Reno to investigate the Lewinsky matter.
  • The senator, a Utah Republican, also questions whether the Justice Department's Office of Professional Responsibility should conduct the probe of Starr, alleging that leaks potentially came from that office.
  • Justice officials have no immediate comment. But sources say a leaks investigation is already under way.
  • (5) Attorney General Janet Reno, without commenting directly on reports that her department is probing possible prosecutorial missteps by Independent Counsel Kenneth Starr, pledges there would be no interference with his investigation.
  • At her weekly news conference, Reno repeatedly parries questions about news reports saying the Justice Department would investigate whether Starr overstepped his boundaries in the early days of the Monica Lewinsky investigation. "As I have said all along, I try not to comment with respect to the independent counsel's function," Reno tells reporters. "I will, however, continue to look to see how I may comment in a way that is fair to all concerned, consistent with the law and consistent with ethical considerations."
  • Reno seems somewhat frustrated that she could not go further. "If I can determine a way to properly make a comment concerning this matter that would be fair to all concerned and would adhere to the law, I will do so," she says.
  • But the attorney general does say no one would impede Starr's continuing work. "I have tried my level best to do this the right way, to ensure that there was no effort whatsoever to interfere with his investigation," she says, "and I am convinced that nothing has been done, but I will continue to work to ensure that result."
  • Under the law establishing independent counsels for some political cases, the attorney general cannot take any disciplinary action against the prosecutor short of firing. Reno has stated that she would not undertake an investigation of an independent counsel unless the charges were severe enough to merit firing. Several news organizations, including The Associated Press, report that the Justice Department has advised Starr it intends to investigate the actions of his office, including the Jan. 16, 1998, offer to Ms. Lewinsky of an immunity deal conditioned on her not discussing it with her lawyer, Frank Carter.
    (6) Matt Drudge reports:
    It now appears increasingly unlikely that Starr would take the highly controversial step of indicting Clinton during the 23 months remaining in the president's term, if he were to charge him at all, the WASHINGTON POST is reporting Friday editions.
    "The recent departures of some of Starr's senior aides lends weight to the idea that there is no plan in place to pounce," Susan Schmidt and Ruth Marcus report in the POST.
    "Brett Kavanaugh and Robert Bittman, who handled the Lewinsky investigation, are leaving. Deputy Jackie Bennett and prosecutor Solomon Wisenberg, both key lawyers in the Lewinsky investigation, are also said to be hunting for jobs, suggesting that they do not expect the office to be embroiled in the first-ever prosecution of a president any time soon."
    Impacting Friday...
    Apparently tired of waiting for NBC NEWS to air an interview the went down more than 3 weeks ago, Juanita Broaddrick, aka Jane Doe #5, has given a preliminary interview to the WALL STREET JOURNAL, the DRUDGE REPORT has learned.
    Broaddrick is talking to WSJ's Dorothy Rabinowitz in Arkansas.
    Details of the conversations could not be learned Thursday night.
    FOOTNOTE: CBS's 60 MINUTES is also circling Broaddrick.
    "I did it because I am a patriot," Linda Tripp tells NBC's TODAY show in a tapped [sic] interview set to air Friday morning.
    "Lucianne Goldberg told me to go to Ken Starr," Linda Tripp tells the NEW YORK TIMES in another one set to run on Page One.
    Tripp, who has been bottled-up and ready to pop, is unloading in the nation's media outlets.
    Tripp tells TODAY's Jamie Gangel in a two-segment interview: "It was worth it to me to do what I considered to be my patriotic duty. And, yes, I would do it again."
    One insider who was present during the taping of the interview says Tripp was "strong" and "stayed calm" throughout the session.
    But according to publishing sources, Tripp broke down in tears toward the end of her two-hours with the TIMES' Don Van Natta Jr.
    "Mrs. Tripp describes herself as Ms. Lewinsky's protector, perhaps her 'only friend,'" writes Van Natta.
    Tripp tells the TIMES: "I always saw Monica as a kid, I always saw her as a lost soul. I believe she and the country will never understand that I believed this was in her best interest, and that makes me very sad."
    "I am so fond of Monica," Tripp said. "I remain as fond of her today as I always have been. And I wish her nothing but the best."
    TRIPP: "The public has absolutely no idea what Monica endured. It's not out there. As I said, the histrionics, the hysteria, the throwing of lamps, the damage to herself. These things are not out there. People think this is consensual and that I inserted myself somehow. It was not. If my daughter found herself in a situation such as this where she was being abused, used, discarded, I would hope someone would come in and help her."
    GANGEL: "Are you saying President Clinton abused Monica?"
    TRIPP: "Absolutely. Emotionally abused Monica and discarded her."
    GANGEL: "When all is said and done, Monica's life has been ruined. President Clinton remains in office. The country has gone through a year of scandal, which many people blame you for. Was it worth it?"
    TRIPP: "First of all, I take exception to the fact that I brought this all about. These were choices made by the President of the United States. For me to actively engage in a conspiracy to circumvent anyone's civil rights or to perjure myself and commit a felony, those were not an option for me. I, as a citizen, should not be afraid of my President. Was it all worth it to me? It was worth it to me to do what I considered to be my patriotic duty. And yes, I would do it all again."
    GANGEL: "So no regrets?"
    TRIPP: "Of course there are regrets. This is a tragic year for all of us. But I would do it again."
    After move 73
    In Philadelphia, one day after losing Game 1 to IBM computer “Deep Blue,” world chess champion Garry Kasparov, now with White and using the Catalan opening, defeats the machine in Game 2 and evens their six-game series in Philadelphia at one victory apiece. (Kasparov loses on 10 Feb Game 1 — wins on 11 Feb Game 2 — draws on 13 Feb Game 3 — draws on 14 Feb Game 4 — wins on 16 Feb Game 5 — wins on 17 Feb Game 6) The game:
    1.Nf3 d5 — 2.d4 e6 — 3.g3 c5 — 4.Bg2 Nc6 — 5.O-O Nf6 — 6.c4 dxc4 — 7.Ne5 Bd7 — 8.Na3 cxd4 — 9.Naxc4 Bc5 — 10.Qb3 O-O — 11.Qxb7 Nxe5 — 12.Nxe5 Rb8 — 13.Qf3 Bd6 — 14.Nc6 Bxc6 — 15.Qxc6 e5 — 16.Rb1 Rb6 — 17.Qa4 Qb8 — 18.Bg5 Be7 — 19.b4 Bxb4 — 20.Bxf6 gxf6 — 21.Qd7 Qc8 — 22.Qxa7 Rb8 — 23.Qa4 Bc3 — 24.Rxb8 Qxb8 — 25.Be4 Qc7 — 26.Qa6 Kg7 — 27.Qd3 Rb8 — 28.Bxh7 Rb2 — 29.Be4 — Rxa2 — 30.h4 — Qc8 — 31.Qf3 — Ra1 — 32.Rxa1 — Bxa1 — 33.Qh5 — Qh8 — 34.Qg4+ — Kf8 — 35.Qc8+ — Kg7 — 36.Qg4+ — Kf8 — 37.Bd5 Ke7 — 38.Bc6 Kf8 — 39.Bd5 Ke7 — 40.Qf3 Bc3 — 41.Bc4 Qc8 — 42.Qd5 Qe6 — 43.Qb5 Qd7 — 44.Qc5+ Qd6 — 45.Qa7+Qd7 — 46.Qa8Qc7 — Janet Reno47.Qa3+Qd6 — 48.Qa2f5 — 49.Bxf7e4 — 50.Bh5Qf6 — 51.Qa3+Kd7 — 52.Qa7+Kd8 — 53.Qb8+Kd7 — 54.Be8+Ke7 — 55.Bb5Bd2 — 56.Qc7+Kf8 — 57.Bc4Bc3 — 58.Kg2Be1 — 59.Kf1Bc3 — 60.f4exf3 — 61.exf3Bd2 — 62.f4Ke8 — 63.Qc8+Ke7 — 64.Qc5+ Kd8 — 65.Bd3 Be3 — 66.Qxf5 Qc6 — 67.Qf8+ Kc7 — 68.Qe7+ Kc8 — 69.Bf5+ Kb8 — 70.Qd8+ Kb7 — 71.Qd7+ Qxd7 — 72.Bxd7 Kc7 — 73.Bb5 Black Resigns

    US President Clinton appoints the first woman Attorney General, Janet Reno [< photo], who would become one more Attorney General infamous for misuses and abuses of authority. Hers were committed in at least three cases: Waco [28 Feb 93 — 19 Apr 93 followed by prosecution of victims and absolution of mass murderers], Ruby Ridge [prosecution of victims and absolution of the 21-22 Aug 1992 murderers], Elián [climaxing on 22 Apr 2000].
  • ^ 1993 Italian corruption scandal forces party leader’s resignation
          Bettino Craxi, who served as Italy's first Socialist prime minister from 1983 to 1987, resigns as leader of the Italian Socialist Party after being implicated in the country’s growing corruption scandal. In November of 1995, Craxi, who fled to Tunisia shortly after leaving politics, is indicted on corruption charges along with seventy-four other individuals, many of them present or former government officials. Silvio Berlusconi, the Italian opposition leader who held power in Italy after the Christian Democrats fell in 1994, is among those implicated. In December of 1995, Berlusconi, like Craxi before him, is forced to resign. In the subsequent trial, the intimate connection between the government and the Italian Mafia is exposed, and in some cases the differences between these two organizations are heavily blurred. In 1998, Craxi is tried in absentia, convicted, and sentenced to a four-year term and an $11.2 million fine. Berlusconi is convicted of bribery, tax evasion, and illegal contributions to Craxi’s Socialist Party, and is sentenced to approximately three years in prison and a $5.6 million fine.
    ^ 1990 Mandela released from prison
          In South Africa, Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, the leader of the opposition to the Afrikaner government’s racist policies of apartheid, is released from Robben Island prison after serving twenty-seven years. In 1944, Nelson, a lawyer, joined the African National Congress (ANC), the oldest black political organization in South Africa, where he became a leader of Johannesburg’s youth wing of the ANC. In 1952, he became deputy national president of the ANC, advocating nonviolent resistance to apartheid — South Africa’s institutionalized system of white supremacy and racial segregation. However, after the massacre of peaceful black demonstrators at Sharpeville in 1960, Nelson helped organize a paramilitary branch of the ANC to engage in guerrilla warfare against the white minority government. In 1961, he was arrested for treason, and, although acquitted, he was arrested again in 1964 for sabotage and was convicted along with several other ANC leaders at the Rivonia Trial. Sentenced to life in prison, he became a symbol of the South African and international movement to end apartheid. In 1989, F. W. de Klerk became South African president, and set about dismantling apartheid. De Klerk lifted the ban on the ANC, suspended executions, and in February of 1990, ordered the release of Nelson Mandela. Mandela subsequently led the ANC in its negotiations with the minority government for an end to apartheid and the establishment of a multiracial government. In 1993, Mandela and de Klerk were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, and in 1994, the ANC won an electoral majority in the country’s first free elections and Mandela was elected South African president.
    1989 Rev. Barbara Clementine Harris, 58, is consecrated in Boston as the first woman bishop in the Anglican Church. (In 1988 the Church of England passed the first legislation which began opening the Anglican priesthood to women.)
    1988 Anthony M Kennedy appointed to the US Supreme Court.
    1987 Philippines constitution goes into effect.
    1986 Iran begins Fajr-8 offensive against Iraq.
    1986 Rights activist Anatoly Scharansky released by USSR, leaves country.
    1985 Jordan king Hussein and PLO leader Arafat sign accord.
    1981 Polish premier Jozef Pinkowski replaced by Wojciech Jaruzelski.
    1979 Iran's premier Bakhtiar resigns, followers of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini seize power.
    1978 China lifts a ban on Aristotle, Shakespeare, and Dickens.
    1977 20.2-kg lobster caught off Nova Scotia (heaviest known crustacean)
    ^ 1975 First woman leader of UK Conservative Party
          Margaret Thatcher is elected leader of the Conservative Party, becoming the first female leader of a political party in British history. Thatcher first entered British politics in 1959 when she was elected as a Conservative MP for Finchley, an area of North London. During the 1960s, Thatcher rose rapidly in the ranks of the Conservative Party, and in 1967, joined the shadow cabinet sitting in opposition to Harold Wilson’s ruling Labor cabinet. With the victory of the Conservative Party under Edward Health in 1970, Thatcher became secretary of state for education and science. In 1974, the Labor Party returned to power, and she served as joint shadow chancellor before replacing Edward Health as the leader of the Conservative Party in February of 1975. Under her leadership, the Conservative Party shifted further right in its politics, called for privatization of nationalized industries and utilities, and promised a resolute defense of Britain’s interests abroad. In 1979, Thatcher was named Britain’s first female prime minister as the Conservatives won 399 seats in Parliament overall. Her government began a rapid program of privatization and government cutbacks, winning acclaim from some quarters, but also contributing to the most polarized British society in decades. In 1983, despite the worst unemployment figures for half a decade, Thatcher was reelected to a second term thanks to the British victory in the Falklands War with Argentina, and, in 1987, to a third term thanks to an upswing in the economy. In 1990, the unpopularity of her poll tax, coupled with her uncompromising opposition to further British integration into the European Community, led to the victory of John Major as Conservative Party leader. Following the defeat, Thatcher resigned, ending the longest continuous tenure of a British prime minister in 150 years.
    1972 McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. and Life magazine cancel plans to publish what had turned out to be a fake autobiography of reclusive billionaire Howard Hughes.
    1971 US, UK, USSR, others sign Seabed Treaty outlawing nuclear weapons.
    ^ 1970 Japan becomes 4th nation to launch a satellite.
          From the Kagoshima Space Center on the east coast of Japan’s Ohsumi Peninsula, Ohsumi, Japan’s first satellite, is successfully launched into an orbit around the earth. The achievement makes Japan the world’s fourth space power, after the Soviet Union in 1957, the United States in 1958, and France in 1965. Two months after Japan’s launching of Ohsumi, China becomes the world’s fifth space power when it successfully launches Mao 1 into space. The satellite, named after Mao Zedong, the leader of Communist China, orbits the earth broadcasting the Chinese patriotic song, The East is Red, once a minute.
    1968 Israeli-Jordan border fight.
    1964 Greek and Turks begin fighting in Limassol, Cyprus.
    1964 Taiwan drops diplomatic relations with France.
    1958 Marshal Chen Yi succeeds Chu En-lai as Communist Chinese Minister of Foreign affairs.
    1953 Russia breaks diplomatic relations with Israel.
    1953 President Eisenhower refuses clemency appeal for Rosenberg couple.
    1951 Kwame Nkrumah wins first parliamentary election on Gold coast (Ghana)
    ^ 1945 US-UK-USSR Yalta Conference ends.
         US President Franklin Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Soviet leader Josef Stalin sign the Yalta Agreement during World War II
          A week of intensive bargaining by the leaders of the three major Allied powers ends in Yalta, a Soviet resort town on the Black Sea. It was the second conference of the "Big Three" Allied leaders — US President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin — and the war had progressed mightily since their last meeting, which had taken place in Tehran in late 1943.
          What was then called the Crimea conference was held at the old summer palace of Czar Nicholas II on the outskirts of Yalta, in the Ukraine. With victory over Germany three months away, Churchill and Stalin were more intent on dividing Europe into zones of political influence than in addressing military considerations. Germany would be divided into four zones of occupation administered by the three major powers and France and was to be thoroughly demilitarized and its war criminals brought to trial. The Soviets were to administer those European countries they liberated but promised to hold free elections. The British and Americans would oversee the transition to democracy in countries such as Italy, Austria, and Greece. Final plans were made for the establishment of the United Nations, and a charter conference was scheduled to begin in San Francisco in April.
          A frail President Roosevelt, two months from his death, concentrated his efforts on gaining Soviet support for the US war effort against Japan. The secret US atomic bomb project had not yet tested a weapon, and it was estimated that an amphibious attack against Japan could cost hundreds of thousands of American lives. After being assured of an occupation zone in Korea, and possession of Sakhalin Island and other territories historically disputed between Russia and Japan, Stalin agreed to enter the Pacific War within two to three months of Germany's surrender.
          Most of the Yalta accords remained secret until after World War II, and the items that were revealed, such as Allied plans for Germany and the United Nations, were generally applauded. Roosevelt returned to the United States exhausted, and when he went to address the US Congress on Yalta he was no longer strong enough to stand with the support of braces. In that speech, he called the conference "a turning point, I hope, in our history, and therefore in the history of the world." He would not live long enough, however, to see the iron curtain drop along the lines of division laid out at Yalta. In April, he traveled to his cottage in Warm Springs, Georgia, to rest and on 12 April died of a cerebral hemorrhage.
          On 16 July, the United States successfully tested an atomic bomb in the New Mexico desert. On 06 August, it dropped one of these deadly weapons on Hiroshima, Japan. Two days later, true to its pledge at Yalta, the Soviet Union declared war against Japan. The next day, the United States dropped another atomic bomb on Nagasaki, and the Soviets launched a massive offensive against the Japanese in Manchuria. On 15 August, the combination of the US atomic attacks and the Soviet offensive forced a Japanese surrender. At the end of the month, US troops landed in Japan unopposed.
          When the full text of the Yalta agreements were released in the years following World War II, many criticized Roosevelt and Churchill for delivering Eastern Europe and North Korea into communist domination by conceding too much to Stalin at Yalta. The Soviets never allowed free elections in postwar Eastern Europe, and communist North Korea was sharply divided from its southern neighbor.
          Eastern Europe, “liberated” (actually just suffering a change of oppressors) and occupied by the Red Army, would have become Soviet satellites regardless of what had happened at Yalta. Because of the atomic bomb, however, Soviet assistance was not needed to defeat the Japanese. Without the Soviet invasion of the Japanese Empire in the last days of World War II, North Korea and various other Japanese-held territories that fell under Soviet control undoubtedly would have come under the sway of the United States. At Yalta, however, Roosevelt had no guarantee that the atomic bomb would work, and so he sought Soviet assistance in what was predicted to be the costly task of subduing Japan. Stalin, more willing than Roosevelt to sacrifice troops in the hope of territorial gains, happily accommodated his American ally, and by the end of the war had considerably increased Soviet influence in East Asia.
    1944 German troops re-conquer Aprilia Italy.
    1943 General Eisenhower selected to command the allied armies in Europe.
    1943 Transport nr 47 departs with French Jews to Nazi-Germany.
    1941 Lieutenant-General Erwin Rommel arrives in Tripoli
    ^ 1937 First union contract in the US automobile industry
          After a difficult forty-four-day sit-down strike at the Fisher Body plant in Flint, Michigan, General Motors President Alfred P. Sloan signed the first union contract in the history of the US automobile industry. Organized by the Union of Auto Workers (UAW), the strike was intended to force GM to give ground to its workers. GM workers had protested before, and they’d been fired and replaced for it. The UAW decided they needed to achieve the total shutdown of a working plant in order to bring company executives to the negotiating table. On New Year’s Eve, forty-five minutes after lunch, union leaders ordered the assembly line halted. Executives kept the belts running, but the workers wouldn’t work. GM turned to the courts, winning an injunction against the workers on the grounds that the sit-down strike was unconstitutional. The injunction was overturned when it was discovered that the judge who presided in the case owned over $200,000 of GM stock. Twelve days after the strike had begun, with the workers still dug in, Sloan ordered the heat in the building turned off and barred the workers access to food from the outside. Police, armed with tear gas and guns, surrounded the building. The police fired — first tear gas and later bullets — into the plant. Sympathetic picketers outside, many of them family members of the strikers, helped to break all the windows in the plant by hurling rocks from were they stood. Others, braver still, broke the picket line with their automobiles to form a barricade that prevented the police vehicles from overrunning the building the strikers occupied. Finally, days after the Battle of the Running Bulls, as the violent confrontation came to be known, Michigan Governor Frank Murphy called in the National Guard with the intention of quelling any further violence. The presence of the National Guard bolstered the strikers’ confidence. Realizing the futility of their position, GM executives came to the bargaining table. After a week of negotiations over which Governor Murphy personally presided, an agreement between GM and the UAW was reached.
    1935 -11ºF (-24ºC), Ifrane, Morocco (African record low)
    ^ 1933 Porsche is asked by Hitler to design a car.
          Adolf Hitler asks Ferdinand Porsche to design a car able to cruise at 100 km/h, consume no more than 6 l/100 km, an air-cooled engine, have room for five people, and have be priced at less than 1000 marks. Ferdinand agreed and started to gather his team of engineers. They soon had many ideas and theories to start the Project called "Project No. 12." They built many prototypes for the Zundapp and the NSU companies, which were very interested in this car. Porsche felt that this was an impossible act, but he turned around and accepted the challenge with the help of Wilhelm von Opel. He was also concerned about where his car would be built, since there were no plant that could produce this car. Hitler and a few others heeded to hic concern and summoned Deutsche Arbeitsfront to build a factory in Wolfsburg solely for his car, or the KdF-Wagen, as it was called then. Porsche could then see his dream starting to come true. They quickly built the chassis and the body without any trouble, but the engine was giving them a lot of trouble. Within 20 months they built and designed no fewer then a dozen different engines. Porsche explored many possiblities, but soon came to the decision of the flat four designed by Kales in 1933. With the engine and body done they had their first version of the beetle ready. In 1939 they presented the KdF-Wagen in the Berlin Motor Show. In the later years many versions of the beetle were made, many for use in Hitler's Military.
    1932: 73ºF highest temperature ever recorded in Cleveland in February.
    1926 Tokelau (Union) islands in south Pacific transfers to New Zealand.
    1922 US intervention army leaves Honduras.
    1919 Friedrich Ebert (SPD), elected President of Germany.
    1916 Emma Goldman, US anarchist and advocate of free speech, women's equality, the eight-hour day, and birth control, is arrested in New York City while giving a public lecture on family planning.
    1913. Decena Trágica. El general Victoriano Huerta, comandante militar de la ciudad de México y "fiel" al gobierno del señor Madero y del licenciado Pino Suárez, hace un simulacro de ataque a la Ciudadela, donde se encuentran sublevados (sus cómplices) los generales Félix Díaz y Manuel Mondragón. En previsión de apoyo a las nefastas maquinaciones del embajador norteamericano, Henry Lane Wilson, los buques de guerra de su país: "Virginia" y "Georgia", se dirigen a puertos mexicanos.
    1905 Pope Pius X publishes encyclical Vehementer nos on the French Law of Separation.
    ^ 1903 A trust busting victory.
          The Expedition Act, which prioritizes anti-trust suits filed in the nation's circuit courts, is passed. It is seemingly another victory for President Theodore Roosevelt in his crusade against Big Business. Starting in 1902, with his decision to support disgruntled mine workers in their cause against coal operators, Roosevelt had increasingly moved to marshal his power against business interests. Under his charge, the Justice Department filed forty-five anti-trust suits; Roosevelt also led the successful crusade to break up Standard Oil's monopoly (1907). These maneuvers proved popular with the public, not only fueling a growing distaste for the practices of Big Business, but also earning Roosevelt a sterling reputation as a tough-talking "trust-buster." However, some historians have questioned Roosevelt's trust-busting credentials, pointing out that a number of the Justice Department's anti-trust suits were dropped after business leaders plead their case to the president. Roosevelt viewed "bigness" as a fait accompli; his trust-busting stance was borne of political expediency, as well as the desire to preserve the government's tacit regulatory control of corporate America.
    1895 -17ºF (-27.2ºC) in Braemar, Grampian (UK record)
    1889 Meiji constitution of Japan adopted; first Diet convenes in 1890.
    1873 King Amadeus of Spain, 27, abdicates. First Spanish republic follows. Amadeus goes back to his native Italy.
    1868 Léon Foucault discovers first physical proof of Earth's rotation.
    1864 Skirmish at Lake City, Florida.
    1861 President-elect Lincoln takes train from Spingfield, Illinois, to Washington DC.
    1861 US House unanimously passes resolution guaranteeing noninterference with slavery in any state.
    ^ 1858 The Virgin Mary appears to St. Bernadette
          In Lourdes, France, Marie Bernarde Soubirous, 14, French peasant girl, first claims to have a vision of the Virgin Mary, the mother of Jesus Christ and a central figure in the Roman Catholic religion. The apparitions, that total eighteen before the end of the year, occur in a grotto of a huge rock promontory near Lourdes, France. Marie explains that the Virgin Mary revealed herself as the Immaculate Conception, asked that a chapel be built on the site of the vision, and told the girl to drink from a fountain in the grotto, which Marie apparently discovers by digging into the earth. Although her claims garner widespread attention, the church authorities, skeptical of her visions, subject her to severe examinations and abuse. After years of mistreatment at the hands of the authorities and the curious public, she is finally allowed to enter the convent of Notre-Dame de Nevers, where she dies of ill-heath at the age of thirty-five. The sight of the manifestations subsequently becomes the most famous modern shrine of the Virgin Mary, and in 1933, Marie Bernarde Soubirous is canonized as St. Bernadette by the Roman Catholic Church. Today, millions travel to Lourdes every year to visit St. Bernadette’s grotto.
    — Près du village pyrénéen de Lourdes, une jeune femme apparait à Bernadette Soubirous, dans une grotte appelée Massabielle. La petite bergère assistera dans les semaines qui suivirent à plusieurs apparitions du même type. Au cours de l'une d’elles, la Dame lui confia: «Je suis l'Immaculée Conception» (c'est-à-dire épargnée à la naissance par le péché originel). La bergère rapporta ces mots à son curé sans savoir que le pape Pie IX avait proclamé quatre ans plus tôt le dogme de l'Immaculée Conception de Marie, la mère du Christ. Les apparitions de la grotte miraculeuse stimulèrent la dévotion à Marie... et firent de Lourdes l'un des plus célèbres pèlerinages du monde.
    1822. Las cortes españolas reprueban los Tratados de Córdoba, los cuales desconocen a Fernando VII y rechazan la dependencia de España al trono de Napoleón.
    1814 Norway's independence proclaimed.
    1812 Massachusetts Gov. Elbridge Gerry signs a redistricting law favoring his party and giving rise to the term "gerrymandering."
    1811 President Madison prohibits trade with Britain for 3rd time in 4 years.
    1808 Anthracite coal first burned as fuel, experimentally, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania.
    1793 Prussian troops occupy Venlo Netherlands.
    1790 Society of Friends petitions Congress for abolition of slavery.
    1768 Samuel Adams letter, circulates around American colonies, opposing Townshend Act taxes.
    1766 Stamp Act declared unconstitutional in Virginia.
    1752 Pennsylvania Hospital, the first hospital in the US, opened.
    1720 Sweden and Prussia sign peace (2nd Treaty of Stockholm).
    ^ 1588 Pope Sixtus V decrees reform of the curia by Immense aeterni
          Before his pontificate, ecclesiastical business was generally discharged by the pope in consistory with the cardinals. There were, indeed, a few permanent cardinalitial congregations, but the sphere of their competency was very limited. In his Bull "Immensa aeterni Dei", of 11 February, 1588, he established fifteen permanent congregations, some of which were concerned with spiritual, others with temporal affairs. They were the Congregations: (1) of the Inquisition; (2) of the Segnatura; (3) for the Establishment of Churches; (4) of Rites and Ceremonies; (5) of the Index of Forbidden Books; (6) of the Council of Trent (7); of the Regula
    1892 Pike's Peak (Colorado) is set aside as a forest preserve. 1922 Insulin is discovered by Canadian surgeon Frederick Banting and his assistant Charles Best. 1937 General Motors agreed to recognize the United Automobile Workers Union, thereby ending the current sit-down strike against them. 1942 The comic book, "Archie" makes its debut. 1945 During World War II, the Yalta Agreement was signed by US President Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Soviet leader Josef Stalin. 1960 Jack Paar walked off while live on the air on the "Tonight Show," with four minutes left. He did this in response to censors cutting out a four-minute joke from the show the night before. 1968 The new 20,000 seat Madison Square Garden officially opened in New York. This was the fourth Garden. 1975 Margaret Thatcher becomes the first female leader of a British political party when she is elected leader of the Conservative Party. 1979 Nine days after the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini returned to Iran (after 15 years in exile) power was seized by his followers. 1984 The tenth Space Shuttle mission returned to Earth safely. 1990 After 27 years in prison, South African opposition leader Nelson Mandela is released. 1993 Janet Reno was appointed to the position of attorney general by US President Clinton. She was the first female to hold the position.
    1575 King Frederick of Denmark offers island of Hveen to Tycho Brahe
    1573 first European, Francis Drake sees the Pacific (from Panama)
    1543 Charles V and Henry VIII sign anti-French covenant
    1543 Battle at Wayna Daga: Ethiopian and Portuguese troops defeat Moslem army
    1531 Henry VIII recognized as supreme head of the Church in England
    0731 Pope Saint Gregory II is buried.
    ^ — 0660 BC- Traditional founding of Japan by Emperor Jimmu Tenno (conmemorated as Empire Day or Foundation Day)
         L'Empire japonais aurait été fondé le 11 février de l'an 660 avant JC, par Jimmu Tenno, un descendant de la déesse du soleil, Amaterasu Omikami. La déesse est honorée dans un célèbre sanctuaire d'Ise, entre Osaka et Tokyo. Elle est au centre du culte shintô, la religion traditionnelle du Japon. Shintô est un mot chinois qui dérive de shen (esprit) et tao (voie). Sa traduction japonaise est Kami no michi, ou voie des esprits. Le shintoïsme reconnaît en effet la présence d'esprits (Kami) dans les éléments de la nature (lac, rochers, grottes, forêts,...). Il y aurait 800 millions ou 800 myriades de Kami, le plus célèbre étant le volcan Fuji (le Fuji Yama). En 1867, quand l'empereur Meiji s'appropria le pouvoir absolu, il eut soin de réaffirmer sa filiation avec Amaterasu et le caractère sacré de sa dynastie. Il instaura aussi un shintô d'État au détriment du bouddhisme importé de Chine. Après la défaite de 1945, sous la pression des Américains, l'empereur Showa, connu de son vivant sous le nom de Hiro Hito, convint publiquement qu'il n'était pas d'ascendance divine. Les liens entre l'État et le culte shintô furent officiellement coupés. La date du 11 février n'en reste pas moins une fête nationale au Japon et le shintô des sanctuaires demeure très vivant. Ainsi, lorsque débutent de grands travaux comme le percement d'un tunnel, un prêtre shintoïste ne manque pas de bénir le chantier pour apaiser les esprits de la nature. Pour l'historien Odon Vallet, «le Japon demeure le seul grand pays de la planète dont la religion principale puisse être qualifiée d'animiste»
    ^ Deaths which occurred on a February 11:
    2004: At least 48 persons, including suicide car bomber, in Baghdad, Iraq, at 07:25, among volunteers were waiting to apply outside a recruitment center for the Iraqi army being organized by the US occupiers. 54 persons are wounded.
    Shmul2004 Three Palestinians (one militant and two innocent bystanders) in Israeli attack in the Rafah area along the Gaza-Egypt border, for the stated purpose of searching for arms-smuggling tunnels. There are no Israeli casualties.
    2004 Mohammed Hilles, 18; Hani Abu Skhaila; and ten other Palestinians, in the Shajaiyeh neighborhood of Gaza City, in Israeli attack with tanks which started before dawn and continue until early afternoon. The dead are ten Palestinian resistance fighters and two innocent bystanders. Shkaila was a senior Hamas activist. Mohammed Hilles was the son of Ahmed Hilles, the top leader of Fatah in Gaza. More than 40 persons are wounded. There are no Israeli casualties.
    2003 Captain Shahar Shmul, 24 [< photo], commander of a company of the Israeli armored corps, shot in Bethlehem, West Bank. Shmul's patrol had been chasing a stolen Israeli car. Near the Church of the Nativity, the driver fled on foot, leaving the engine running. Fearing that the vehicle had been booby-trapped, Shmul summoned a sapper unit. He also stationed three jeeps at the entrances to the square to prevent Palestinians from entering, so that no one would be injured if the car blew up. A few Palestinian youths threw stones at the soldiers. At about 21:00, a Palestinian ran out of one of the alleys north of the square and fired three rifle bullets from a distance of about 30 meters. Two of the bullets hit the armored jeep that Shmul was standing next to, the third hit him in the neck, severing a major blood vessel. He died almost instantly.
    2001 Tzahi Sasson, 35, Israeli shot in the head by Palestinians at 19:30 on the bridge joining the two tunnels on the Tunnel Road just south of Jerusalem. He lost control of his car and overturned. Magen David Adom paramedics treated Sasson under fire and rushed him to Hadassah Ein Karem hospital, where he died on the operating table. Sasson was a resident of Kibbutz Rosh Tzurim in Gush Etzion.
    2000 Leo, 10, bichon frisé dog, thrown into traffic after being snatched from the lap of its owner, Sara McBurnett, by the driver of another car who just had a minor collision with her near the San José, California, airport. Public indignation raises some $115'000 in reward money and leads to the identification of the perpetrator, Andrew Burnett, 26, who would be jailed from 04 January 2001 on charges connected to the disappearance of one of his employer Pacific Bell's vans, that was filled with $68'000 worth of equipment.bichon frisé On 13 July 2001, Burnett would be sentenced to the maximum penalty in California for cruelty to animals: 3 years in prison. [picture: a bichon frisé >]
          [Burnett deserved that and more. But what did the mass murderers of My Lai deserve, who never served that much in prison, for the mass murder of defenseless Vietnamese old men, women, and children, including babies? What did killer cops deserve, who were acquitted claiming that they perceived their unarmed victim as a threat?] "It wasn't just a dog to me," Sara McBurnett sobbed during the trial. "For me it was my child. He killed my baby right in front of me." [Societies for the protection of children were founded long after societies for the prevention of cruelty to animals.]
    1996 Kebby Musokotwane, prime minister of Zambia (1985-1989)
    1977 Louis J M Beel, 74, Dutch premier (1946-48, 58-59)
    1974 Smirnov, mathematician.
    1949 Christian Bérard, French artist born on 20 August 1902.
    1948 Sergey Mikhailovich Eisenstein, 50, Russian film director and theorist, born on 23 January 1898, whose work includes the three film classics Potemkin (1925), Alexander Nevsky (1938), and Ivan the Terrible (released in two parts, 1944 and 1958). In his concept of film montage, images, perhaps independent of the "main" action, are presented for maximum psychological impact.
    1944 U-424 sunk off Ireland.
    ^ 1940 Day 72 of Winter War: USSR aggression against Finland.
    More deaths due to Stalin's desire to grab Finnish territory.

    50'000 Russians attack in Summa
          Karelian Isthmus: the day begins foggy, but brightens up during the course of the morning. The temperature remains at around 20 below zero throughout the day.
          Central Isthmus: at 8.40 in the morning, the Soviet artillery begins drumfire across the entire breadth of the 3rd Division's defensive position in Summa, continuing the bombardment for four hours. A little before midday the enemy infantry begins its assault with massive air and tank support. The Russians throw 50000 troops into the attack. The defending Finns disable 72 enemy tanks [one of them in photo]. The 'Fort Poppius' fortress is lost to the enemy at 1 o'clock in the afternoon. Some of its defenders begin to panic, and by evening a Russian division has penetrated to the support line in the Lähde sector. The Finnish counterattack runs out of steam before midnight. In all other parts of Summa the enemy assault is successfully repulsed. By midnight Finnish reserves have restored the lines. The three Finnish divisions in the main defensive position successfully repulse attempted breakthroughs by at least six Soviet divisions.
          Eastern Isthmus: during the course of the day between 40'000 and 50'000 mortar rounds of varying types rain down on the front line and reserve positions in Taipale. In Kirvesmäki every single soldier in stronghold no.1 is either killed or wounded.
          Northern Finland: at Löytövaara in Kuhmo, Battalion Arponen launches an assault with shock troops at 7 o'clock in the morning. A volunteer detachment of shock troops crawls through deep snow to take the enemy dugouts by surprise. The ploy is a success, and the shock troops begin to systematically take out the Russian defences with piled-up charges, petrol bombs and machine pistols. By evening the area is in Finnish hands, with only a few of the enemy managing to escape across Lake Löytöjärvi to Riihivaara.
          Karelian Isthmus: Reserve Lieutenant Gunnar Höckert is killed on the Isthmus. Höckert won the gold medal in the men's 5,000 metres at the 1936 Berlin Olympics and ran three world record times during the course of his athletic career.
          Abroad: teams representing Sweden and Finland play an international bandy match in biting temperatures of 15 below zero in the Olympic Stadium in Stockholm. The proceeds are to be donated to the Finnish war effort. Listeners to Swedish radio can also contribute to the collection. Before the match begins the actress Ella Eronen recites the words of the Finnish national anthem in Finnish and Swedish. The game ends in a Swedish victory by 2 goals to 1. The official proceeds from the match are 475'000 krona.
          The Indianapolis Symphony Orchestra has sent $1200 dollars to the great Finnish composer Jean Sibelius, and Sibelius has decided the money should be used to help the needy families of fallen reservists.
    ^ 50'000 venäläissotilasta hyökkää Summassa Talvisodan 74. päivä, 11.helmikuuta.1940
           Sää on Karjalan kannaksella aamulla usvainen, mutta kirkastuu aamupäivän kuluessa. Pakkasta on koko päivän noin 20 astetta.
          Summassa neuvostotykistö aloittaa klo 8.40 rumputulen koko 3. Divisioonan puolustusaseman leveydeltä ja jatkaa sitä neljä tuntia. Vihollisen jalkaväen hyökkäys, jota tukevat vahvat panssari- ja ilmavoimat, alkaa vähän ennen puoltapäivää. 50'000 venäläissotilasta hyökkää Summassa. Suomalaiset tuhoavat 72 vihollisen hyökkäysvaunua. Poppiuksen linnake menetetään klo 13 kun osa sen puolustajista joutuu pakokauhun valtaan ja venäläisdivisioona tunkeutuu Lähteen lohkolla iltaan mennessä tukilinjalle. Suomalaisten vastahyökkäys tyrehtyy ennen puolta yötä. Kaikkialla muualla Summassa vihollisen hyökkäykset torjutaan. Suomalaiset reservijoukot palauttavat linjat takaisin puoleen yöhön mennessä. Pääaseman kolme suomalais-divisioonaa torjuu ainakin kuuden neuvosto-divisioonan läpimurto-yritykset.
          Taipaleen alueelle tulee päivän aikana noin 40'000 — 50'000 erilaista kranaattia etulinjaan ja reservin sijoituspaikoille. Kirvesmäessä kaatuu tai haavoittuu 1. tukikohdan miehistö kokonaan. Pataljoona Arponen aloittaa aamulla klo 7 hyökkäyksen Kuhmon Löytövaarassa tuli-iskuin. Vapaaehtoisista koottu iskuosasto ryömii syvässä lumessa vihollisenkorsujen luo. Yllätys onnistuu, ja puolustuskeskusta aletaan järjestelmällisesti puhdistaa kasapanoksin, polttopulloin ja konepistoolein. Iltaan mennessä alue on suomalaisten hallussa, vain pieni osa vihollisista pääsee pakenemaan Löytöjärven yli Riihivaaraan.
          Berliinissä vuonna 1936 pidettyjen olympialaisten 5000 metrin juoksun olympiavoittaja ja kolme maailmanennätystä juossut reservin vänrikki Gunnar Höckert saa surmansa Karjalan kannaksella.
          Ulkomailta: Tukholman Olympiastadionilla käydään kirpeässä 15 asteen pakkasessa Suomen ja Ruotsin välinen jääpallomaaottelu, jonka tuotto luovutetaan Suomen apuun. Myös Ruotsin radion kuuntelijoille on annettu mahdollisuus osallistua keräykseen. Ennen maaottelua näyttelijä Ella Eronen lausuu Johan Ludvig Runebergin Maamme-laulun suomeksi ja ruotsiksi. Ruotsi voittaa ottelun 2 -1. Ottelun virallinen tuotto on 475'000 kruunua.
          Indianapoliksen sinfoniaorkesteri on lähettänyt professori Jean Sibeliukselle 1200 dollaria. Sibelius on määrännyt rahasumman käytettäväksi kaatuneiden reserviläisten vähävaraisten perheiden avustamiseen.-
    ^ 50'000 ryska soldater anfaller i Summa Vinterkrigets 74 dag, den 11 februari 1940
          På morgonen vilar en dimma över Karelska näset, men vädret blir klarare under förmiddagen. Temperaturen ligger hela dagen kring -20 grader.
          I Summa inleder det ryska artilleriet trumeld kl. 8.40 längs hela den 3. Divisionens försvarsställningar och håller på i fyra timmar. Kort före middagstid går fiendens infanteri till attack med starkt stöd av pansarvagnar och flygplan. 50'000 ryska soldater anfaller i Summa. De finska trupperna förintar 72 av fiendens stridsvagnar. Poppiusbunkern går förlorad kl. 13 när en del av dess försvarare grips av panik och en rysk division tränger mot kvällen ända fram till stödlinjen i Lähdeavsnittet. Finlands motattack rinner ut i sanden före midnatt. På alla övriga håll i Summa lyckas man avvärja fiendens attacker. De finska reservtrupperna återställer linjerna vid midnatt. Huvudställningarnas tre divisioner avvärjer åtminstone sex ryska divisioners försök till genombrott.
          På området kring Taipale skjuts ungefär 40'000 — 50'000 olika granater mot de främre ställningarna och reservens placeringsorter. Vid Kirvesmäki stupar eller såras den första basens besättning i sin helhet. Bataljon Arponen inleder på morgonen kl. 7 ett anfall vid Löytövaara i Kuhmo med eldstötar. En stormtrupp bestående av frivilliga kryper i den djupa snön fram till fiendens bunkrar. Överraskningen lyckas och man börjar systematiskt rensa försvarsfästet med hjälp av buntladdningar, bensinbomber och maskinpistoler. När det blir kväll har finnarna området i besittning, endast en liten del av fiendens styrkor lyckas fly över sjön Löytöjärvi till Riihivaara.
          Fänrik i reserven Gunnar Höckert, som vann guld i 5000 meter löpning vid de olympiska spelen i Berlin 1936 och som sprungit tre världsrekord, omkommer på Karelska näset.
          Utrikes: En bandymatch mellan Finland och Sverige spelas på Olympiastadion i Stockholm i 15 graders bitande köld. Matchintäkterna går till Finlandshjälpen. Också Sveriges radios lyssnare har fått möjlighet att delta i insamlingen. Före landskampen reciterar skådespelerskan Ella Eronen Johan Ludvig Runebergs hymn Vårt land på finska och svenska. Sverige vinner matchen 2 -1. Matchens bringar officiellt in 475'000 kronor.
          Indianapolis symfoniorkester har sänt $1200 åt professor Jean Sibelius. Sibelius har beslutat att pengarna ska användas för att hjälpa mindre bemedlade familjer till stupade reservister.
    Richmond1923 Wilhelm Killing, mathematician.
    1921 William Blake Richmond [self~portrait >], English painter born in 1842 (or 1843?). MORE ON RICHMOND AT ART “4” FEBRUARY with links to images.
    1901 Milan I, 56, king of Serbia
    1899 George Morgan, first English motorist to die in an automobile accident.
    1894. José Tomás de Cuellar ("Facundo"), muere ciego en la ciudad de México, donde naciera, el 18 de septiembre de 1830, periodista, novelista, dramaturgo y diplomático.
    1879 Honoré de Daumier, French illustrator born on 26 February 1808. MORE ON DAUMIER AT ART “4” FEBRUARY with links to images.
    1867 Francisco Cortez, fusilado en Tizimín, Yucatán. Era un patriota quien se había levantado en armas con un considerable número de seguidores para combatir a los imperialistas de Maximiliano.
    1860 Don Manuel Eulogio Carpio Hernández, en la ciudad de México. Nació el 01 marzo de 1791 en Cosamaloapan, Veracruz. Don Manuel se distinguió como poeta, político, periodista y connotado médico dedicado a la cátedra. Formó parte del grupo que fundó la Academia de Medicina, de la que fue su primer presidente.
    1832 Jean-Antoine Laurent, French artist born on 31 October 1763. — more
    1830 Giovanni-Battista Lampi I, Italian artist born on 31 December 1751. — more
    1688 Cesare Gennari, Italian artist born on 12 October 1637.
    1650 René Descartes, 53. mathematician and philosopher "I think therefore I am", stops thinking
    1626 Cataldi, mathematician.
    1554 Lady Jane Grey, deposed Queen of England, beheaded after 9 day rule
    1543 Ahmed Gran, sultan of Adal, dies in battle
    0867 Theodora the Saint, beauty queen/empress of Byzantine.
    0824 St Paschal I, Pope
    0821 Benedict of Aniane, 73, saint
    0731 St Gregory II, Greek-Syrian Pope
    0641 Heraclius, 65, emperor of Byzantium (610-641)
    Births which occurred on a February 11:
    1945 First gas turbine propeller-driven airplane flight tested, Downey CA
    1929 State of Vatican City (world's smallest country: 0.44 sq.km) is recognized by the Lateran Treaty
    1926 Paul Bocuse, France, great chef (Legion of Honor)
    ^ Lloyd Bensen1921 Lloyd Bentsen (Senator-D-TX) (1989 Democratic Vice-Presidential nominee) Lloyd Bentsen was nominated by President Bill Clinton to be the 69th Secretary of the Treasury. He served from 20 January 1993 until 22 December 1994
         Secretary Bentsen had been a United States Senator from Texas since 1971 and Chairman of the Senate Finance Committee since 1987. He served as Chairman of the Joint Committee on Taxation and the Joint Economic Committee and was a member of the Senate Commerce, Science and Transportation Committee. In 1988, he was the Democratic Party nominee for Vice President of the United States. Bentsen received a law degree from the University of Texas School of law in 1942.
          With World War II underway, he enlisted in the US Army. After brief service as a private in intelligence work in Brazil, he became a pilot and in early 1944 began flying combat missions in B-24s from southern Italy with the 449th Bomb Group. At age 23 he was promoted to the rank of Major and given command of a squadron of 600 men. In 18 months of combat, Bentsen flew 35 missions against highly defended targets such as the Ploesti oil fields in Romania, which were critical to the German war machine. The 15th Air Force, to which the 449th was attached, is credited with destroying all the gasoline production within its range, or about half Germany's fuel on the continent. Bentsen's unit also flew against communications centers, aircraft factories, and industrial targets in Germany, Italy, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria. Bentsen participated in bombing raids in support of the Anzio campaign, and flew against targets in preparation for the landing in southern France. He was promoted to colonel in the Air Force Reserve before completing his military service.
          After the war, Bentsen returned to his native Rio Grande Valley. He served the people of his home area from 1947-55, first as Hidalgo County Judge and then as Congressman. Following three successive terms in the US House of Representatives, he declined to seek reelection in 1954 and decided to begin a career in business. For 16 years, Bentsen was a businessman in Houston. By 1970, he had become President of Lincoln Consolidated, a financial holding institution. Following his successful campaign for the Senate that year, he resigned all management positions and directorships. Secretary Bentsen was born in Mission, Texas. He and his wife, B.A., the former Beryl Ann Longino of Lufkin, Texas, have three children. http://www.ustreas.gov/opc/opc0029.html
    1920 Farouk I Cairo, last King of Egypt (1936-1952). He died on 29 January 1959.
    1915 Hamming, mathematician.
    1916 Sidney Sheldon, author.
    1909 Gustave Singier, French artist who died in 1984.
    1909 Claude Chevalley, mathematician.
    1897 Post, mathematician.
    1891 Privalov, mathematician.
    1881 Carlo Dalmazzo Carrà, Italian Futurist painter who died on 13 April 1966. MORE ON CARRÀ AT ART “4” FEBRUARY (in italiano) with links to images.
    1878 Feb 11 (or 01 Nov) Kasimir Malevich, Ukrainian Cubist Painter who died in 1935 — LINKS Self PortraitAn Englishman in Moscow The AviatorComplex Presentiment: Half-Figure in a Yellow Shirt
    1876 Harold Gilman, British painter who died on 12 February 1919. — a bit more with link to images.
    1873 Feodor Chaliapine Russian author/novelist (Pages from My Life)
    1872 Christian J. Walter, US artist who died in 1938.
    1862 Macaulay, mathematician.
    1855 Erik Theodor Werenskiold, Norwegian artist who died on 23 November 1938. — more
    ^ 1847 Thomas Alva Edison, inventor of more than 1200 patented ideas including the electric light bulb, phonograph; "Genius is 1% inspiration and 99% perspiration."
          Thomas Edison would have a tremendous impact on modern technology. During his teenage years, the only source of electricity was a few weak batteries. By the time he died in 1931, radio, telephone, and electric lights had all become everyday items, largely thanks to his own efforts. The partially deaf son of a poor family, Edison had little formal education. At age sixteen, he took a job as a telegraph operator, where his hearing problems led him to experiment with ways to improve telegraph equipment. His successful innovations eventually led him to New York City, where he consulted with various telegraph companies and eventually started his own research lab. He held a record number of patents, including more than 300 for electric light and power, nearly 200 for the phonograph, 150 for the telegraph, 141 for storage batteries, and several dozen for the telephone. He also developed key components of motion picture technology. Edison died on 18 October 1931.
    1841 Jozef von Brandt, Polish artist who died in 1915.
    1839 Gibbs, mathematician.
    1813 Otto Ludwig, German novelist, playwright, critic, who died on 25 February 1865.
    1812 Alexander Hamilton Stephens Vice President (Confederacy), died in 1883
    1805 Jean-Baptiste Charbonneau, son of Boinaiv Sacagawea Charbonneau and Toussaint Charbonneau. Carried on the back of his mom, the newborn would be the youngest member of the Lewis and Clark expedition.
    1800 Talbot, mathematician.
    1791 Francesco Hayez, Italian historical painter and printmaker who died on 12 December 1882. MORE ON HAYEZ AT ART “4” FEBRUARY with links to images.
    1746 Luis Paret y Alcazar, Spanish artist who died on 14 February 1799.
    1721 Friedrich Wilhelm Hirt, German artist who died on 19 January 1772.
    1699 François Mahé de la Bourdonnais, à Saint-Malo, navigateur et explorateur.
    1657 Bernard Le Bovier (or Bouyer), sieur de Fontenelle French mathematician, scientist, and man of letters who died on 09 January 1757. He was described by Voltaire as the most universal mind of the era of Louis XIV. His works set forth in embryonic form many of the characteristics ideas of the Enlightenment. His most famous book is Entretiens sur la pluralité des mondes (1686; 213kb _ at another site, 234kb), entertaining dialogues backing the Copernican system on the basis of the Cartesian theory of vortices which would be refuted by Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687) of Isaac Newton [04 Jan 1643 = 25 Dec 1642 Julian – 31 Mar 1727 = 20 Mar 1727 Julian]. — Portrait du Philosophe Bernard Le Bouyer de Fontenelle (1400x1120pix, 163kb) par Rigaud [bap. 18 Jul 1659 – 29 Dec 1743].
    1637 Jakob van Oost, Flemish artist who died on 29 September 1713.
    1535 Gregory XIV [Niccolò Spondrati], pope (1590-91)
    Holidays Bangladesh : Shaheed Day / Cameroon : Youth Day / Flint MI : White Shirt Day-end of blue collar sit down strike (1907) / Florida : Gasparilla Carnival-remembrance of pirates / Ft Myers FL : Pageant of Light (1884) / Italy : Giorno della Conciliazione Day (1929) / Japan (660 BC)-accession of Emperor Jimmu / Liberia : Armed Forces Day / Mauritius : Chinese Spring Festival / US : National Inventors Day
    Religious Observances: / Christian World: Mardi Gras (Shrove Tuesday) in 1902, 1975, 1986, 1997, 2059, 2070, 2081, 2097 — Ash Wednesday in 1891, 1959, 1964, 1970, 2043, 2054, 2065, 2111, 2116, 2122
    Thoughts for today: “Time is really the only capital that any human being has, and the one thing that he can't afford to lose.” — Thomas Alva Edison [1847-1931].
    “Djente blanku no ta kurason.” — proverbio papiamentu
    Teacher to student:
    Arnold what is the most frequent answer to the teacher's questions?
    I don't know, ma'am.
    updated Thursday 12-Feb-2004 13:14 UT
    safe site site safe for children safe site