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Events, deaths, births, of FEB 18

[For Feb 18 Julian go to Gregorian date: 1583~1699: Feb 281700s: Mar 011800s: Mar 021900~2099: Mar 03]
On an 18 February:
2001 Robert Philip Hanssen, 56, FBI agent for about 27 years, and ostensibly a practicing Catholic, is arreseted on charges of spying for Russia since October 1985
2000 Iranians voted in an election that gave reformers a majority in the parliament, long a bastion of hard-liners. Nevertheless a small group of mullahs keep its theocratic rule of the country through the army, the police, and the judiciary.
— Las elecciones parlamentarias convocadas en Irán dan la mayoría parlamentaria a los aperturistas partidarios del presidente Mohammad Jatamí.
1999 Dimiten tres ministros griegos tras la detención del líder kurdo Abdulá Öcalan, que había permanecido en territorio griego durante dieciséis días.
^ 1999 Clinton impeachment aftermath.
(1) Matt Drudge Reports:
Completely frustrated that NBC NEWS has refused to air her interview, Juanita Broaddrick, aka Jane Doe #5, opens herself up to Friday's WALL STREET JOURNAL!
"Juanita Broaddrick Meets the Press," is the title of the story written by Dorothy Rabinowitz.
Broaddrick tells the WALL STREET JOURNAL that Bill Clinton raped her back in 1978!
In a Little Rock hotel room, Bill Clinton, she says, forced her onto a bed where he "held her down forcibly and bit her lips."
Rabinowitz writes: "The sexual entry itself was not without some pain, Mrs. Broaddrick recalls, because of her stiffness and resistance. When it was over, she says, he looked down at her and said not to worry, he was sterile — he had had mumps when he was a child.
"'As though that was the thing on my mind — I wasn't thinking about pregnancy, or about anything,' she says. 'I felt paralyzed and was starting to cry.' As he got to the door, she remembers, he turned. 'This is the part that always stays in my mind — the way he put on his sunglasses. Then he looked at me and said, 'You better put some ice on that.' And then he left.'"
The WALL STREET JOURNAL story runs for thousands of words.
The DRUDGE REPORT was first to reveal that NBC was sitting on an explosive interview with Broaddrick in a series of exclusive reports last month.
Mrs. Broaddrick now tells the WALL STREET JOURNAL that NBC told her its investigators were waiting for the White House to answer some 40 questions relating to this matter.
"Asked for a response to Mrs. Broaddrick's charges, a White House spokesman told this writer yesterday that the story was so old that Mr. Clinton's personal lawyer, David Kendall, was the one to answer it. After repeated phone calls, Mr. Kendall's assistant said he was unavailable for comment."
Rabinowitz continues: "In the meantime Mrs. Broaddrick gets intermittent calls from NBC investigators, still hanging out at the Capital Hotel in Little Rock, waiting. In the meantime, too, spokesmen for NBC News still announce their intention to make certain the story is solid — a heartening testimony to the elevated standards of journalism that have now apparently seized the network. Mrs. Broaddrick laughs, noting that NBC is still seeking answers and working on the program, which the network may one day air — an event for which she is not holding her breath."
Impacting hard on Friday.
    Attorney General Janet Reno is considering whether to appoint a special investigative prosecutor to conduct the Justice Department's inquiry into charges of possible misconduct by Kenneth Starr, the NEW YORK TIMES is set to report in Friday editions.
    According to publishing sources, TIMES all-star Don Van Natta Jr. is building a story around the possible appointment of a "US attorney, possibly one with solid Republican credentials, who would supervise a team of Justice Department prosecutors and FBI agents" in an investigation of the investigator!
    In recent days, Ken Starr has suggested that the Justice Department could not be trusted to conduct an unbiased inquiry of his office, the TIMES reports. There has been an "exchange of rancorous correspondence" between department officials and lawyers in Starr's office. "In a letter to Ms. Reno late last week, Starr criticized what he regarded as unauthorized disclosures to the news media about the Justice Department's inquiry," Van Natta reveals.
    With its latest exclusive, the NEW YORK TIMES continues to lead the way with news coverage of the post-impeachment scandal scene.
    "Don has all but cornered the market on Starr's office," bragged one high-level newspaper staffer Thursday afternoon.
    "Sue Schmidt down at the [WASHINGTON] POST is busy trying to put together her book... other reporters have been left reacting to our reports, choking on our ink!"
    The DRUDGE REPORT previously reported that the NEW YORK TIMES has now become the newspaper of choice for Washington insiders who have scandal stories to tell. The WASHINGTON POST is perceived as being too anti-Clinton by several well-placed individuals in Washington — individuals who have direct information concerning ongoing investigations. Individuals who have NEW YORK TIMES reporter Don Van Natta's phone number on speed dial!
    If Reno appoints a special investigative prosecutor to conduct an investigation of the investigator, the new prosecutor would almost certainly ask Starr's prosecutors to turn over highly sensitive information about how they investigated the president, reports the TIMES.
    Impacting Friday...

    (2) Judge Susan Webber Wright, the judge who presided over the Paula Jones case will stay on to consider contempt charges against President Bill Clinton, as lawyers for both sides say they won't seek her removal.
  • The judge had given both Clinton's attorneys and the Jones legal team the opportunity to ask for her recusal because of her contact with House impeachment manager Rep. Asa Hutchinson (R-Arkansas) during Clinton's Senate trial. Both sides decide not to do so.
  • The only request that Wright step aside comes from Judicial Watch, a legal group representing Dolly Kyle Browning, a witness in Mrs. Jones' case who said she had an affair with Clinton before he became president. Judicial Watch says that Wright could be a witness against the president and that her stepping aside now would eliminate one ground for possible appeal later.

    (3) CNN reports that former White House intern and presidential paramour Monica Lewinsky has received permission from Kenneth Starr's Office of Independent Counsel (OIC) to grant an interview to ABC's Barbara Walters.
  • According to the terms of her July 28, 1998 immunity agreement, Lewinsky had to get the OIC's permission to speak to the media. The document, which protects Lewinsky from prosecution, states that "pending a final resolution of this matter, neither Ms. Lewinsky nor her agents will make any statements about this matter to ... representatives of the news media, without first obtaining the OIC's approval."
  • When Lewinsky sits down with ABC's Barbara Walters for her first interview with the news media, Independent Counsel Ken Starr's office will be listening very carefully.
  • Sources familiar with negotiations between Starr and Lewinsky tell The Associated Press the OIC did not want Lewinsky to go beyond what she has said in her interviews with prosecutors and in her grand jury testimony.
  • More specifically, there are a number of areas still under investigation that, one of the sources says, the OIC wanted to be off limits to Lewinsky.
  • In recent days Starr has stated that his investigation into the president continues, despite the Senate's acquittal of the president on two articles of impeachment. The grand jury Starr used to investigate the perjury and obstruction-of-justice allegations against Clinton met twice this week.
  • The Walters' interview will start taping in the coming days, two sources tell CNN. ABC's "20/20" is tentatively planning to air the interview on March 3.
  • Lewinsky's book, "Monica's Story," a collaboration with Princess Diana biographer Andrew Morton, will be released March 4, according to a publicist for St. Martin's Press.

    (4) In his first post-acquittal news conference, President Bill Clinton says the 13-month Monica Lewinsky controversy taught him personal lessons and reinforced his respect for both the US Constitution and the American people.
  • At a joint White House press conference with French President Jacques Chirac, Clinton is asked what the controversy had taught him and what advice he would have for future presidents. "Well, of course I've learned a lot of personal lessons, most of which I have already discussed, and presidents are people, too," Clinton says. "I have learned again an enormous amount of respect for our Constitution, our framers and for the American people."
  • As for his advice for future presidents, Clinton says he would only tell them to decide what they need to do for the American people "and focus on it and work hard." If they do that, Clinton said, the American people will respond.
  • Clinton says he does not think the institution of the presidency was harmed by his impeachment and trial. "I think the Constitution has been in effect re-ratified," he says. "And I hope that the presidency has not been harmed. I don't believe it has been. I can't say that I think this has been good for the country, but we will see," Clinton adds. "I expect to have two good years here. I think the American people expect the Congress and me to get back to work, expect us either not to have any destructive feelings, or if we do, not to let them get in the way of doing their business ... And I don't believe that any of us can afford to let what has happened get in the way of doing our best for our own people and for the future. And I'm going to do my very best to do that," Clinton says. "And I think that we should all discipline ourselves with that in mind." ^top^
  • 1998 After more than a year's delay, Slate, an online magazine owned by Microsoft, begins charging subscription fees. Slate, which started in June 1996, had announced its intention to charge for subscriptions more than a year earlier but had delayed the move several times. By initiating fees, Slate joined a small group of online publications charging subscription fees, including The Wall Street Journal. The fees coincided with a move by Microsoft to tighten up its online offerings: During the same period, the company shut down numerous Web content offerings.
    1998 Rival modem makers 3Com Corporation and Rockwell International announced a new standard for 56K modems, ending the standards war in high-speed modems that had confused consumers and temporarily cooled the modem market. Industry experts claimed the new standard would boost industry sales from 50 million in 1997 to 75 million by the year 2000.
    1998 In Russia, money shortages resulted in the shutting down of three plants that produced nuclear weapons.
    1994 Hearst Corporation says that it will introduce ten interactive products, including an online computer service and CD-ROMs. The service, called HomeNet, evolved over the next year into HomeArts, an umbrella Web site incorporating Hearst magazines Popular Mechanics, House Beautiful, Good Housekeeping, and others.
    1991 Iraqi Foreign Minister Tariq Aziz held talks in Moscow with Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev, who presented a proposal for ending the Persian Gulf War.
    1989 Se crea en Marrakech (Marruecos) la Unión del Magreb Árabe (UMA), acuerdo entre los jefes de Estado de Marruecos, Libia, Argelia, Túnez y Mauritania.
    1989 Arnaldo Forlani sustituye a Luigi Ciriaco de Mita en la secretaría general de la Democracia Cristiana italiana.
    1988 El Politburó soviético destituye a Boris Nikolaievich Yeltsin en la pugna sostenida por la implantación de la Perestroika.
    1988 Anthony M. Kennedy is sworn in as the 104th justice of the US Supreme Court.
    1984 Revised concordat between Italy and the Vatican signed.
    1983 La dimisión de Landelino Lavilla Alsina como presidente de UCD (Unión de Centro Democrático) hace presagiar el fin de este partido español.
    1982 El partido Fianna Fàil se convierte en la primera fuerza política de la Asamblea de la República de Irlanda, al obtener 81 de los 166 escaños.
    1982 Comienza en España el juicio contra los implicados en el golpe de Estado del 23-F.
    1981 US President Ronald Reagan's State of the Union address.
    ^ 1981 Publisher buys phony Hitler Diaries.
          Writer Gerd Heidemann meets in secret with the directors of German publishing conglomerate Gruner + Jahr. He tells the executives that he has received Adolph Hitler's diaries from a confidential source. Gruner + Jahr agree to pay approximately $2 million for the volumes. Two years later, the diaries would be revealed as a fraud that fooled not only publishers around the world, but also some of the leading handwriting authentication experts. The first experts that Gruner + Jahr selected to authenticate the diaries operated under a severe disadvantage. The samples of handwriting that they were comparing to the diaries were themselves forgeries. Thus, it was no surprise when these experts declared that Heidemann's diaries were genuine. Gruner + Jahr filled bags full of cash for Heidemann to deliver to his source.
          Amazingly, the executives failed to notice that Heidemann himself began to acquire expensive cars and homes at the same time. Apparently, they were too busy selling the international rights to the Hitler diaries. Rupert Murdoch bought the rights for $3.75 million in April 1983. Murdoch hired Hugh Trevor-Roper, the world's foremost Hitler historian, to examine the diaries. Despite some misgivings, Trevor-Roper prepared an article for Murdoch's newspapers declaring the authenticity of the Hitler diaries. However, the West German police were conducting their own independent investigation at the same time. They were focusing on the paper and ink rather than the handwriting and their conclusions revealed the hoax.
          On 06 May 1983, just two weeks after Trevor-Roper's article, scientists revealed that the diaries were obvious forgeries. The paper included a whitening agent, blankophor, which had not been used until after World War II. Threads attached to the fake seals were made from polyester, also not used before Hitler's death. Finally, ink tests demonstrated that the writing was less than a few years old. Heidemann, who hadn't passed on all the money to his confidential source, now betrayed him again by identifying the forger as Konrad Kujau, a lifelong petty criminal. In 1985, Heidemann and Kujau both received four-year sentences for their role in defrauding the publishing company.
    1980 Pierre Elliott Trudeau's Liberal Party wins Canada's elections.
    1979 Snow falls in the Sahara Desert
    1979 President Zia ur-Rahmans National Party wins elections in Bangladesh
    1975 Italy broadens abortion law. — El Tribunal Constitucional italiano admite el aborto terapéutico.
    1973 54-kg octopus measuring 7 meter across captured in Hood Canal, Washington
    1972 The California Supreme Court strikes down the state's death penalty.
    1970 US President Nixon launches "Nixon-doctrine"
    1970 The "Chicago Seven" defendants are found not guilty of conspiring to incite riots at the 1968 Democratic national convention.
    1970 Father William Wakefield Baum [21 Nov 1926–] is appointed Bishop of Springfield-Cape Girardeau. He would be appointed Archbishop of Washington DC on 05 March 1973 and made a cardinal on 24 May 1976.
    1968 British adopt year-round daylight savings time.
    ^ 1965 US sounds friendly nations on forthcoming Vietnam bombing.
          The State Department sends secret cables to US ambassadors in nine friendly nations advising of forthcoming bombing operations over North Vietnam, and instructs them to inform their host governments "in strictest confidence" and to report reactions. President Lyndon Johnson wanted these governments to be aware of what he was planning to do in the upcoming bombing campaign. Johnson made the controversial decision to undertake the sustained bombing of North Vietnam because of the deteriorating military conditions in South Vietnam. Earlier in the month, he had ordered Operation Flaming Dart in response to communist attacks on US installations in South Vietnam. It was hoped that these retaliatory raids would cause the North Vietnamese to cease support of Viet Cong forces in South Vietnam, but they did not have the desired effect. Out of frustration, Johnson turned to a more extensive use of airpower. Called Operation Rolling Thunder, the bombing campaign was designed to interdict North Vietnamese transportation routes in the southern part of North Vietnam and thereby slow infiltration of personnel and supplies into South Vietnam. The first Rolling Thunder mission took place on March 2, 1965, when 100 US Air Force and Republic of Vietnam Air Force (VNAF) planes struck an ammunition dump 100 miles southeast of Hanoi. The operation would continue, with occasional suspensions, until President Johnson, under increasing domestic political pressure, halted it on October 31, 1968.
    1965 Gambia gains independence from Britain (National Day) en el seno de la Commonwealth.
    1965 Giulio Bevilacqua IOSFN (priest of the Oratory of Saint Philip Neri) [14 Nov 1881 – 06 May 1965], who was spiritual director of the future Pope Paul VI while he studied in Brescia, is consecrated a bishop (without a see). He would be made a cardinal on 22 February 1965.
    ^ 1964 US imposes futile sanctions on nations trading with Cuba
          The United States cuts off military assistance to Britain, France, and Yugoslavia in retaliation for their continuing trade with the communist nation of Cuba. The action was chiefly symbolic, but represented the continued US effort to destabilize the Cuban regime of Fidel Castro. The amount of aid denied was miniscule — approximately $100'000 in assistance to each nation. None of the nations indicated that the aid cut-off would affect their trade with Cuba in the least. America's decision to terminate the trade, therefore, hardly had a decisive effect. Many commentators at the time concluded that the US action was largely a result of frustration at not being able to bring down the Castro government. Since Castro came to power in 1959, the United States had tried various methods to remove him and his communist government. First, the US severed diplomatic relations and enacted a trade embargo. In 1961, it unleashed a force of Cuban exiles (which it had armed, trained, and financed) against Castro in the unsuccessful Bay of Pigs invasion. In 1962, the United States set up a naval blockade around Cuba to prevent the shipment of Soviet missiles to the island. Rumors also flew fast and furious about other US efforts, including talks with the Mafia about assassinating the Cuban leader. Despite all of these efforts, Castro survived and prospered, simply replacing most US trade and aid with the same from the communist bloc. The American obsession with Castro provoked the New York Times to observe that the US policies toward Cuba "suggest an extraordinary sensitivity that does not in fact correspond to basic policy judgments." The decision to cut off military assistance to Britain, France, and Yugoslavia did little to help in this regard. The three nations continued their trade with Cuba and expressed their resentment at the US action. Castro stayed in power and rules communist Cuba to this day.
    1964 Papandreou government takes power in Greece
    1955 Baghdad Pact signed, making Turkey and Iraq a defense alliance.
    1954 La actuación del Comité de Actividades Antinorteamericanas, presidido por el senador Joseph Raymond McCarthy, produce enfrentamientos con el Ejército.
    ^ 1948 Eamon de Valera resighs as Irish prime minister.
          After 16 years as head of independent Ireland, Eamon de Valera steps down as the taoiseach, or Irish prime minister, after his Fianna Fáil Party fails to win a majority in the Dáil Éireann (the Irish assembly). As a result of the general election, the Fianna Fáil won 68 of the 147 seats in the Dáil, and de Valera resigned rather than lead a coalition government. In his place, John A. Costello, leader of the Fine Gael Party, joins with several smaller groups to achieve a majority and becomes Irish prime minister.
          Eamon de Valera, the most dominant Irish political figure of the 20th century, was born in New York City in 1882, the son of a Spanish father and Irish mother. When his father died two years later, he was sent to live with his mother's family in County Limerick, Ireland. He attended the Royal University in Dublin and became an important figure in the Irish-language revival movement. In 1913, he joined the Irish Volunteers, a militant group that advocated Ireland's independence from Britain, and in 1916 participated in the Easter Rising against the British in Dublin. He was the last Irish rebel leader to surrender and was saved from execution because of his American birth. Imprisoned, he was released in 1917 under a general amnesty and became president of the nationalist Sinn Féin Party.
          In May 1918, he was deported to England and imprisoned again, and in December Sinn Féin won an Irish national election, making him the unofficial leader of Ireland. In February 1919, he escaped from jail and fled to the United States, where he raised funds for the Irish Republican movement. When he returned to Ireland in 1920, Sinn Féin and the Irish Republican Army (IRA) were engaged in a widespread and effective guerrilla campaign against British forces. In 1921, a truce was declared, and in 1922 Arthur Griffith and other former Sinn Féin leaders broke with de Valera and signed a treaty with Britain, which called for the partition of Ireland, with the south becoming autonomous and the six northern counties of the island remaining part of the United Kingdom. In the period of civil war that followed, de Valera supported the Republicans against the Irish Free State (the new government of the autonomous south), and was imprisoned by William Cosgrave's Irish Free State ministry.
          In 1924, he was released and two years later left Sinn Féin, which had become the unofficial political wing of the underground movement for northern independence. He formed Fianna Fáil, and in 1932 the party gained control of the Dáil Éireann and de Valera became Irish prime minister. For the next 16 years, de Valera pursued a policy of political separation from Great Britain, including the introduction of a new constitution in 1937 that declared Ireland the fully sovereign state of Éire.
          During World War II, he maintained a policy of neutrality but repressed anti-British intrigues within the IRA. In 1948, he narrowly lost re-election due to a negative public reaction against his party's long monopoly of power. Out of office, he toured the world advocating the unification and independence of Ireland. His successor as taoiseach, John Costello, officially made Ireland an independent republic in 1949 but nonetheless lost the prime minister's office to de Valera in the 1951 election. The relative Irish economic prosperity of the 1940s declined in the 1950s, and Costello began a second ministry in 1954, only to be replaced again by de Valera in 1957. In 1959, de Valera resigned as prime minister and was elected Irish president — a largely ceremonial post. On 24 June 1973, de Valera, then the world's oldest head of state, retired from Irish politics at the age of 90. He passed away two years later.
    1951 Nepal becomes a constitutional monarchy.
    1946 Are made cardinals: Grégoire-Pierre XV Agagianian (Patriarch Emeritus of Cilicia (Armenian), Lebanon) [18 Sep 1895 – 16 May 1971] — Benedetto Aloisi Masella (Official Emeritus of Roman Curia) [29 Jun 1879 – 30 Sep 1970] — Manuel Arce Ochotorena (Archbishop of Tarragona, Spain) [18 Aug 1879 – 16 Sep 1948] — Manuel Arteaga y Betancourt (Archbishop of San Cristobal de la Habana, Cuba) [28 Dec 1879 — 20 Mar 1963] — Giuseppe Bruno (Prefect of Apostolic Signatura, Roman Curia) [30 Jun 1875 – 10 Nov 1954] — Antonio Caggiano (Archbishop Emeritus of Buenos Aires, Argentina) [30 Jan 1889 – 23 Oct 1979] — José María Caro Rodríguez (Archbishop of Santiago de Chile) [23 Jun 1866 – 04 Dec 1958] — Jaime de Barros Câmara (Archbishop of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) [03 July 1894 – 18 Feb 1971] — Teodosio Clemente de Gouveia (Archbishop of Lourenço Marques, Mozambique) — Jan de Jong (Archbishop of Utrecht, Netherlands) — Carlos Carmelo de Vasconcelos Motta (Archbishop of Aparecida, Sao Paulo, Brazil) — Joseph Frings (Archbishop Emeritus of Köln, Germany) — Norman Thomas Gilroy (Archbishop Emeritus of Sydney, Australia) — John Joseph Glennon (Archbishop of Saint Louis, Missouri, USA) — Bernard William Griffin (Archbishop of Westminster, England, Great Britain) — Juan Gualberto Guevara (Archbishop of Lima, Peru) — James Charles McGuigan (Archbishop Emeritus of Toronto, Ontario, Canada) — Clemente Micara (Official Emeritus of Roman Curia) — József Mindszenty (Archbishop Emeritus of Esztergom, Hungary) — Edward Francis Mooney (Archbishop of Detroit, Michigan, USA) — Agustín Parrado García (Archbishop of Granada, Spain) — Pierre-André-Charles Petit de Julleville (Archbishop of Rouen, France) — Enrique Pla y Deniel (Archbishop of Toledo, Spain) — Konrad von Preysing Lichtenegg-Moos (Bishop of Berlin, Germany) — Clément Emile Roques (Archbishop of Rennes (, Dol, e Saint-Melo), France) — Ernesto Ruffini (Archbishop of Palermo, Italy) — Jules-Géraud Saliège (Archbishop of Toulouse (-Narbonne-Saint Bertrand de Comminges-Rieux), France) [24 Feb 1870 – 05 Nov 1956] — Adamo Stefano Sapieha (Archbishop of Kraków, Poland) [14 May 1867 – 21 Jul 1951] — Francis Joseph Spellman (Archbishop of New York, New York, USA) [04 May 1889 – 02 Dec 1967] — Samual Alphonsius Stritch (Pro-Prefect of Propagation of the Faith, Roman Curia) [17 Aug 1887 – 26 May 1958] — Thomas Tien Ken-sin, S.V.D. (Archbishop of Peking [Beijing], China) — Clemens August Graf von Galen (Bishop of Münster, Germany)
    ^ 1943 Nazis arrest German resistance leaders
          Hans Scholl and his sister Sophie, the leaders of the German youth group Weisse Rose (White Rose), are arrested by the Gestapo for opposing the Nazi regime. The White Rose was composed of university (mostly medical) students who spoke out against Adolf Hitler and his regime. The founder, Hans Scholl, was a former member of Hitler Youth who grew disenchanted with Nazi ideology once its real aims became evident. As a student at the University of Munich in 1940-41, he met two Roman Catholic men of letters who redirected his life. Turning from medicine to religion, philosophy, and the arts, Scholl gathered around him like-minded friends who also despised the Nazis, and the White Rose was born. During the summer of 1942, Scholl and a friend composed four leaflets, which exposed and denounced Nazi and SS atrocities, including the extermination of Jews and Polish nobility, and called for resistance to the regime. The literature was peppered with quotations from great writers and thinkers, from Aristotle to Goethe, and called for the rebirth of the German university. It was aimed at an educated elite within Germany. The risks involved in such an enterprise were enormous. The lives of average civilians were monitored for any deviation from absolute loyalty to the state. Even a casual remark critical of Hitler or the Nazis could result in arrest by the Gestapo, the regime's secret police. Yet the students of the White Rose (the origin of the group's name is uncertain; possibly, it came from the picture of the flower on their leaflets) risked all, motivated purely by idealism, the highest moral and ethical principles, and sympathy for their Jewish neighbors and friends. (Despite the risks, Hans' sister, Sophie, a biology student at her brother's university, begged to participate in the activities of the White Rose when she discovered her brother's covert operation.) On February 18, 1943, Hans and Sophie left a suitcase filled with copies of yet another leaflet in the main university building. The leaflet stated, in part: "The day of reckoning has come, the reckoning of our German youth with the most abominable tyranny our people has ever endured. In the name of the entire German people we demand of Adolf Hitler's state the return of personal freedom, the most precious treasure of the Germans which he cunningly has cheated us out of." The pair were spotted by a janitor and reported to the Gestapo and arrested. Turned over to Hitler's "People's Court," basically a kangaroo court for dispatching dissidents quickly, the Scholls, along with another White Rose member who was caught, were sentenced to death. They were beheaded — a punishment reserved for "political traitors" — on 23 February, but not before Hans Scholl proclaimed "Long live freedom!"
    1942 Japanese troop land on Bali
    1932 Japan declares Manchuria independent (Japanese puppet, really).
    1931 El almirante Aznar forma nuevo Gobierno español por encargo del rey Alfonso XIII.
    ^ 1930 Planet Pluto discovered
          Pluto, which on its excentric orbit is most of the time the ninth most distant planet from the sun, is discovered at the Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona, by astronomer Clyde W. Tombaugh. The existence of an unknown ninth planet was first proposed by Percival Lowell, who theorized that wobbles in the orbits of Uranus and Neptune were caused by the gravitational pull of an unknown planetary body. Lowell calculated the approximate location of the hypothesized ninth planet and searched for more than a decade without success. However, in 1929, using the calculations of Powell and W.H. Pickering as a guide, the search for Pluto was resumed at the Lowell Observatory in Arizona.
          On 18 February 1930, Tombaugh discovers the tiny, distant planet by use of a new astronomic technique of photographic plates combined with a blink microscope. His finding was confirmed by several other astronomers, and on 13 March 1930 — the anniversary of Lowell's birth and of William Hershel's discovery of Uranus — the discovery of Pluto was publicly announced. With a surface temperature estimated at approximately -220ºC, Pluto was appropriately given the Roman name for the god of the underworld in Greek mythology [so much for the fires of Hades!]. Pluto's average distance from the sun is some six million kilometers, and it takes approximately 248 years to complete one orbit. It also has the most elliptical and tilted orbit of any planet, and at its closest point to the sun it passes inside the orbit of Neptune, the eighth planet. After its discovery, some astronomers questioned whether Pluto had sufficient mass to affect the orbits of Uranus and Neptune. In 1978, a solution to this problem came when James Christy and Robert Harrington discovered Pluto's only known moon, Charon, which was determined to have a diameter of 1186 km to Pluto's 3698 km. Together, Pluto and Charon form a double-planet system of ample enough mass to cause wobbles in Uranus' and Neptune's orbits.
    1929 Leon Trotski solicita asilo político en Francia y Alemania, por caducar su permiso de estancia en Turquía el 01 mayo.
    1927 Juan Campisteguy es proclamado presidente de la república de Uruguay.
    Nude Descending a Staircase1924 US Secretary of the Navy Edwin Denby ends term due to Teapot Dome-scandal.
    1921 British troops occupy Dublin.
    1915 Germany begins a blockade of England.
    ^ 1913 French painting Nude Descending a Staircase No.2 (1912) by Marcel Duchamp, causes a scandal at the 1913 Armory Show in New York City. [click on thumnail for zoomable full-sized picture >]
          A major proponent of Dada, Marcel Duchamp (28 July 1887 - 02 October 1968) was one of the most influential figures of avant-garde 20th-century art. — MORE ON DUCHAMP AT ART “4” FEBRUARY LINKSUn site DuchampPortrait of his father
    1908 Bernhard Dernburg, primer secretario de Estado en la oficina colonial del Reich, pide en el Reichstag una mejor atención médica para la población de las colonias.
    1907 The United States sends 600'000 tons of grain to Russia to help relieve the country's widespread famine.
    1900 British troops occupy Monte Christo, Natal
    1899 Loubet Président: Ancien député républicain modéré, Emile Loubet a été sénateur, président du Sénat, président du Conseil et ministre de l'Intérieur. Il succède à Felix Faure qui vient de mourir.
    ^ 1895 Gauguin repart définitivement pour Tahiti.
          Un des oncles de Paul Gauguin [07 Jun 1848 — 08 May 1903] est mort, lui laissant une somme suffisante pour s’installer un atelier à Paris. Une fois de plus, il se rend dans sa chère Bretagne. Au cours d’une rixe entre matelots, dans un cabaret de Concarneau, il a une cheville brisée. Il regagne Paris pour y trouver son atelier cambriolé. Toutes ses affaires ont disparu. Cette succession de catastrophe finit par avoir raison de l’indomptable énergie de l’artiste. Tout se retourne contre lui. Ses amis organisent alors, pour lui venir en aide, une vente des tableaux que le peintre a ramenés de Tahiti, mais elle n’a guère de succès. Paul Gauguin trouve juste assez d’argent pour payer la traversée jusqu’à Tahiti car il a décidé de repartir. Le 18 février 1895, il quitte la France et fait route vers les mers du Sud où il vivra huit années encore et peindra ses plus beaux chefs-d'oeuvre.
    329 Gauguin images Self-Portrait (1896) — Self Portrait with Spectacles (1903) — Scenes from Tahitian Life (1895) — Te Arii Vahine (The Queen of Beauty) (1896, oil) — Te Arii Vahine (1897, watercolor) — No te aha oe Riri? (Why are You Angry?) (1896) — Nave Nave Mahana (Delightful Day) (1896) — The Canoe; A Tahitian Family (1896) — Three Tahitian Women (1896) — Eilaha Ohipa (Not Working) (1896) — Te tamari no atua (Nativity) (1896) — Baby (The Nativity) (1896) — Christmas Night (1896) — Still Life with Teapot and Fruit (1896) — Thatched Hut under Palm Trees (1897) — Where do We Come From? What are We Doing? Where Are We Going? (1897) — Rave te htit aamy (The Idol) (1898) — Tahitian Woman and Boy (1899) — Tahitian Woman and Two Children (1901) — Horsemen on the Beach (1902) — Riders on the Beach (1902) — The Magician of Hivaoa (1902)
    1884 General Charles Gordon arrives in Khartoum
    1879 Arabs capture Egyptian premier Nabar Pasha
    ^ 1873 Oakes Ames found guilty in the Credit Mobilier scandal
          During the latter half of the nineteenth century, America's railroads heeded Horace Greely's call and headed West. However, companies often resorted to bribes and corruption to fund the furious construction of the nation's transcontinental rail line. The Credit Mobilier scandal typified these practices. One incident stemmed from the Federal government's decision to grant land and building rights to Union Pacific Railroad for the construction of a rail line that stretched west from Nebraska. Union Pacific farmed out the construction of the line to the Credit Mobilier Company. Enterprising Massachusetts Representative Oakes Ames had hastily formed Credit Mobilier in the wake of the government's grant to Union Pacific and then proceeded to dole out bribes to various officials to win the construction job. Simply winning the lucrative assignment was not enough to sate Ames; he also charged the government $100 million for the job, which was double what the rail line had cost to construct. The government soon got wise to Ames's swindle and marshaled an investigation into the affair. On February 18, 1873, the House found Ames guilty of charges of bribery and recommended his expulsion from the House. But, perhaps swayed by public opinion or fears that the scandal would expose the shifty dealings of other high-ranking government officials, legislators opted instead to censure Ames. The case against Credit Mobiler lived on, eventually making it to the Supreme Court, which ruled for Ames's company on the grounds that the government couldn't marshal a lawsuit until Credit Mobilier's debt matured in 1895.
    ^ 1871 Belfort se rend après 103 jours de siège
          La maladresse de l'empereur Napoléon III a provoqué en juillet 1870 une guerre entre la France et la Prusse. Les Français sont contraints de signer un armistice le 28 janvier 1871. Mais au sud de l'Alsace, la ville fortifiée de Belfort continue de résister à l'envahisseur. Le colonel Pierre Denfert-Rochereau, gouverneur de la ville, n'accepte de rendre les armes que sur un ordre exprès du gouvernement de la Défense nationale, présidé par Adolphe Thiers. Le gouverneur se rend enfin le 18 février 1871, après un siège de 103 jours. Belfort sauve l'honneur de l'armée française, sali par la défaite piteuse de MacMahon et Napoléon III à Sedan et par la reddition ignonimieuse de Bazaine, à Metz. Thiers demande que la ville et son territoire restent à la France, à la différence du reste de l'Alsace. Mais en contrepartie, il doit céder au vainqueur un morceau supplémentaire de la Lorraine. Eu égard à sa glorieuse résistance, le territoire de Belfort acquiert le statut de département. En 1879, Auguste Bartholdi sculpte dans le grès rouge de la falaise un lion blessé et rugissant (il tourne le dos à l'Allemagne pour éviter toute provocation). La statue mesure 22 mètres de long et 11 mètres de haut. Elle est devenue le symbole de la ville. Une réplique en bronze de 2/3 plus petite est érigée à Paris, sur la place d'Enfer, opportunément rebaptisée Denfert-Rochereau. Devenu député du Haut-Rhin puis de la Charente, le colonel Pierre Denfert-Rochereau ne cessera de dénoncer la cession de l'Alsace-Lorraine par le traité de Francfort du 10 mai 1871.
    1865 Evacuation of Charleston SC; Sherman's troops burn the city
    1865 Union troops force Confederates to abandon Fort Anderson NC
    1865 Battle of Ft Moultrie SC occupied by Federals
    1861 Jefferson Davis inaugurated as provisional President of the Confederate States of America, in Montgomery, Alabama.
    1861 King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia becomes first king of Italy. — El rey de Italia, Víctor Manuel II, inaugura el primer Parlamento italiano, establecido en el palacio Carignano de Turín.
    ^ 1859 Occupation de Saïgon par les Français
          Une flotte française remonte une rivière au sud du Vietnam. Après un bref bombardement par les navires de l'escadre, les compagnies de débarquement de l'amiral Rigoult de Genouilly s'emparent de Saïgon, qui deviendra la capitale de l'Indochine coloniale. Les contacts entre la France et le Vietnam remontent au XVIIe siècle avec l'arrivée des premiers missionnaires. C'est un jésuite français, Alexandre de Rhodes, qui. transcrivit la langue vietnamienne dans l'écriture latine aujourd'hui en usage dans le pays. Au XVIIIe siècle, l'empereur Gia-long, de la dynastie Nguyen, unifia le pays avec l'aide des volontaires français envoyés par Louis XVI. Mais les massacres perpétrés par son successeur, Tu Duc, contre les chrétiens incitent Napoléon III à monter une entreprise de conquête. Après l'occupation de Saigon, les Français vont conquérir la Cochinchine, le grenier à riz de l'empire vietnamien. Ils imposeront ensuite un protectorat à l'empereur puis créeront l'Union indochinoise avec les deux autres protectorats du Cambodge et du Laos. La Chine devra renoncer à sa suzeraineté sur le Vietnam. Les derniers militaires français quitteront le Vietnam en 1956.
    ^ 1858 La Vierge apparaît de nouveau à Bernadette Soubirous.
          À l'âge de quatorze ans, Bernadette Soubirous, paysanne d’une des familles les plus démunies de la localité, eut des apparitions de la Vierge Marie. Celle-ci lui annonça qu'elle avait donné des pouvoirs miraculeux à une source près d'une grotte de Lourdes. Le 18 février, lors de la deuxième apparition, la Vierge lui demanda de revenir tous les jours pendant les 15 jours suivants, ce qu’elle fit. Les apparitions furent déclarées authentiques par l'Église catholique et la grotte de Lourdes devint un lieu de pèlerinage. En 1866, Bernadette entra chez les sœurs de la charité de Nevers. Elle prononça ses vœux en 1867, fut béatifiée en 1925 et canonisée en 1933. Sa fête, longtemps célébrée le 16 avril, a été translatée au 18 février.
    ^ 1856 Know-Nothings convene in Philadelphia
          The American Party, also known as the "Known-Nothing Party," convenes in Philadelphia to nominate its first presidential candidate. The Know-Nothing movement began in the 1840s, when an increasing rate of immigration led to the formation of a number of so-called nativist societies to combat "foreign" influences in American society. Roman Catholic immigrants from Ireland and Italy, who were embraced by the Democratic Party in eastern cities, were especially targeted. In the early 1850s, several secret nativist societies were formed, of which the "Order of the Star-Spangled Banner" and the "Order of United Americans" were the most significant. When members of these organizations were questioned by the press about their political platform, they would often reply they knew nothing, hence the popular name for the Know-Nothing movement. In 1854, the Know-Nothings allied themselves with a faction of Whigs and ran for office in several states, calling for legislation to prevent immigrants from holding public office. By 1855, support for the Know-Nothings had expanded considerably, and the American Party was officially formed. In the same year, however, Southerners in the party sought to adopt a resolution calling for the protection of slavery, and some anti-slavery Know-Nothings defected to the newly formed Republican Party. On February 18, 1856, the American Party met to nominate it first presidential candidate and to formally abolish the secret character of the organization. Former president Millard Fillmore of New York was chosen, with Andrew Donelson of Tennessee to serve as his running mate. In the subsequent election, Fillmore succeeded in capturing only the state of Maryland, and the Know-Nothing movement effectively ceased to exist.
    1849 First regular steamboat service to San Francisco CA starts: gold rush prospectors from east coast
    1841 First continuous filibuster in US Senate began, lasting until 11 March. The Whig majority used it to dismiss the Senate's contract printers, who had been appointed by a previous Democratic majority.
    1841 Se proclama la República de El Salvador y se aprueba su primera constitución política.
    1815 US treaty of peace with Great Britain is proclaimed.
    1800 La escuadra inglesa de Horace Nelson derrota a la francesa cerca de Malta.
    1787 Austrian emperor Jozef II bans children under 8 from labor
    1745 Bonnie Prince Charlie's troops occupy Inverness Scotland
    1688 At a monthly meeting in Germantown, PA, a group of Quakers and Mennonites became the first white body in English America to register a formal protest against slavery. The historic "Germantown Protest" denounced both slavery and the slave trade.
    1536 France and Turkey sign military/trade agreement against King Charles V
    1519 Hernan Cortez quitte Cuba avec une petite troupe de soldats. Contre l'avis du gouverneur espagnol de l'île, il gagne la côte du Mexique avec l'idée de conquérir les royaumes mystérieux qui s'y trouvent. C'est le début de la pénétration européenne sur le continent américain. — Hernán Cortés, con una flota de once naves y un millar de hombres, emprende en La Habana su gran expedición para conquistar México.
    1405 Timur Lenk, whose violent conquests in the late fourteenth century ranged from China to the Mediterranean, died while leading an expedition to China.
    1129 Jerusalem taken by Emperor Frederik II.
    3102 -BC- Origin of Kali Era (India)
    Deaths which occurred on a February 18:
    2004 Mojtaba Farahmand-Nekou and at least 308 other persons, by explosions as burning derailed freight train cars explode among firefighters, rescuers, and onlookers, at the Khayyam, Iraq, station. At 04:00, 51 cars had rolled out unattended out the Abu Muslim train station 20 km away, near Neyshabur. 17 of the cars were loaded with sulfur, six with gasoline, seven with fertilizer, and 10 with cotton. At Khayyam 48 of the cars derailed and caught fire, the explosion came hours later, causing a Richter 3.6 earth tremor and a 15-meter deep crater. 182 of the dead were firefighters who had almost extinguished the blaze. The dead also include top city officials, including Neyshabur's governor Mojtaba, the mayor, and the fire chief, as well as the head of the energy department, and the director-general of the provincial railways, who had all gone to the site of the derailment. The explosions devastated five villages, especially Dehnow (500 meters away) and Hashemabad. Some 460 persons are injured.
    2004 Twelve Iraqis, including two suicide truck bombers at 07:15 outside Polish military base Camp Charlie in the Hayy Babil neighborhood of.Hillah, Iraq. More than 100 wounded include 32 Iraqis and 26 Poles, as well as Hungarians, Bulgarians, Filipinos and one US person.
    2003 Quentin Anderson, 90, eldest son of playwright Maxwell Anderson [15 Dec 1888 – 28 Feb 1959]. Quentin Anderson was a US literary critic, cultural historian, and professor of US literature. He was the father of Maxwell L. Anderson [1956~], director of the Whitney Museum since 1998. Author of The American Henry James (1957) — The Imperial Self: An Essay in American Literary and Cultural History (1971) — Making Americans: An Essay on Individualism and Money (1992).
    2003 Tamer al-Qata; Sa'id Elhilo, 19, and Al'a Elhilo, 20, his brother; Palestinians, by the collapse of their homes dynamited by Israeli troops after 23:00 in Gaza City.
    2003 Mundir al-Safdi, and Mohammed Sahalov, Palestinians shot by Israeli troops after 23:00 in Gaza City.
    2003 Ta'ar Zakarana, 20, Fatah activist, by bomb exploding inside a stolen car, in Jenin, West Bank.
    2003 Muhammad Suliman Abed Murr, 25, shot by Israeli troops in the early morning, in Yatta, near Hebron, West Bank.
    2003 Hamad bin Abdel Rahman al-Wardi, 50, riddled with bullets from a gunman, at 06:45, as he is driving to his work of deputy governor of Jouf province, Saudi Arabia. Wardi was a well-known academic who had worked at various Saudi government departments including the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs. He was appointed deputy governor in January 1999.

    ^ 2003
    Some 200 persons, including the four women Min Shim-eun, 26; and Kang Yeon-ju, 21; Lee Chung Sook, 35; Kim Hyong Chin, 23, and her brother Kim Chul Hwan, 21,
    in the central Namil-dong district of Taegu (= Daegu), South Korea, at the Jungang-ro station of the city's single subway line, in a fire starting at 09:55 when passengers in the fifth car of a stopped train unsuccessfully attempt to stop a deranged man, Kim Dae-han, 56, from igniting with a lighter a milk carton filled with paint thinner. The fire, feeding on seat fabric and plastic floor tiles, spreads to the whole train and then to an arriving train which stops alongside and four of whose cars' doors remain shut (most of the dead are in that train), and toxic gases and smoke fill the station, killing people there too. It takes more than 1300 firefighters until 13Q30 3 hours to put out the fire. 145 persons are injured. There were about 200 passengers in each train of six cars. Kim was angry about the left-side paralysis he suffers since brain surgery he received for a stroke in 2001. He had repeatedly told his family members that he would set the hospital on fire. Instead he settles for this mass-murder-suicide (which he survives with burns).
    [front of charred subway trains]

    [smoke rises out of the subway station as ambulances wait]
    2002 Salah Furad, 34, and Leila Kadawi, 25, Palestinians, by gunfire from Israeli troops raiding the Balata refugee camp near Nablus, West Bank
    2002 Three Israelis and Palestinian attacker Mohammed Kasser, 22, of Gaza City, at about 19:00. The terrorist opened fire at short-range on a convoy of Israeli cars, and threw handgrenades at the cars, between the Gush Katif bloc of Jewish enclave settlements in Gaza and the Kissufim crossing into Israel, some 2 km from the crossing. After Israeli troops arrived the Palestinian blew himself up. using either an explosives belt or a bomb he was carrying.
    2002 Ahmed Mazarib, 32, Israeli policeman, and a Palestinian, whose car the policeman and his partner stopped, the driver got out of the car, the police pulled out their guns, and the Palestinian activated the car bomb by remote control, near Ma'aleh Adumin, not far from the Al-Azayam roadblock.
    2001 Count Balthasar Klossowski de Rola “Balthus”, French painter. — Balthus, pintor francés de origen polaco, nacido en 1908. — LINKS
    ^ 2001: 12 presos mortos em 29 prisões do Brasil.     ^top^
          Uma rebelião articulada pela organização autodenominada Primeiro Comando da Capital (PCC) eclodiu ao meio-dia em 29 das 73 penitenciárias do estado de São Paulo, mobilizando 43 mil detentos e 7 mil reféns.
         Uma megarrebelião estourou em 29 prisões do Estado de São Paulo. Por volta das 12 horas - em pleno horário de visitação - , presos que integram a organização criminosa Primeiro Comando da Capital (PCC) deram o aviso para deflagrar a revolta, numa ação inédita que mobilizou em torno de 43 mil detentos no estado - de um total de 93 mil -, começando pela Casa de Detenção e pela Penitenciária do Estado, ambas no Complexo do Carandiru, na Zona Norte da cidade.
         Às 17h20, a tensão aumentou quando policiais da tropa de choque entraram no presídio para tentar controlar a situação. Houve tiros, correria e um dos pavilhões pegou fogo.
         Os presos reivindicavam com o motim a volta de cinco companheiros que foram transferidos do Carandiru na semana passada, além da exoneração do secretário de Administração Penitenciária, Nagashi Furokawa.
          O secretário de Segurança Pública, Marco Vinícius Petrelluzzi, reconheceu em entrevista coletiva a organização dos presos. ''É inegável que a organização (criminosa) tem um nível de articulação. Mas, se eles controlassem as cadeias, estariam do lado de fora'', afirmou Petrelluzzi. Já o juiz corregedor dos presídios de São Paulo, Octávio Machado, disse que os presos estão mais organizados que a polícia. Segundo Petrelluzzi, a polícia foi orientada para não atirar. ''A não ser quando o policial corra risco de vida'', disse ele.
         A rebelião estava programada desde quinta-feira e as autoridades estavam cientes. Os criminosos estavam muito bem organizados, dispõem de muito dinheiro e telefones celulares.
         A organização do PCC quer a volta de seus principais líderes: Jonas, Macarrão, Flavinho, Boleti, Ildemir Carlos Ambrósio - o Sombra - levados para a Casa de Custodia de Taubaté, considerada prisão de segurança máxima, e o bandido Marcola transferido para uma prisão em Porto Alegre. O líder da rebelião, conhecido como Tio, disse em entrevista à Bandeirantes que 30 presos tinham granadas presas ao corpo. Num dos pátios da Casa de Detenção, os bandidos escreveram em letras garrafais: ''Paz. Liberdade. Justiça.''
         Ainda na capital, os cadeiões Dois e Três, na região de Pinheiros, além da penitenciária do Belém, na Zona Leste, também se rebelaram. Em Guarulhos, o levante foi realizado na Penitenciária Dois, na Região Metropolitana de São Paulo.
    (Uma rebelião, no dia 2 de outubro de 1992, terminou com 111 presos mortos na Casa de Detenção em São Paulo, no episódio conhecido como massacre do Carandiru.)
    Tracie McBride
    1997 Enrique Peralta Azurdia, military President of Guatemala (1963-1966)

    1996 A member of the IRA blew himself up and wounded nine other people when the briefcase bomb he was carrying detonated accidentally on a double-decker bus in London's West End.

    1995 Pvt. Tracie Joy McBride, 19 [photo >], late in the night, beaten to death with a tire iron by Louis Jones, Jr, after he kidnapped her from a a laundry room at the San Angelo, Texas, Air Force base, and raped her. He would be sentenced to death in a US federal court, and executed on 18 March 2003.

    1991 A commuter, by a bomb exploding in a London rail station. The Irish Republican Army claims responsibility.
    Oppenheimer and bomb^ 1967 J Robert Oppenheimer, “father of the atomic bomb,” in Princeton, New
    click for photo by Karsh      Oppenheimer was born on 22 April 1904. An expert in quantum theory and nuclear physics, he was enlisted into the fledgling US atomic weapons program in 1941. In 1942, the "Manhattan Project," as the program became known, was greatly expanded, and Oppenheimer was asked to establish and direct a secret laboratory to carry out the assignment. He chose Los Alamos, a site in the New Mexico desert that he had visited earlier in life, and together with some of the world's top physicists began work on the bomb.
          On 16 July 1945, the world's first atomic bomb was exploded at the "Trinity" test site in Alamogordo, New Mexico, and only three weeks later the United States dropped the first of two bombs on Japan. Over 200'000 Japanese eventually perished as a result of the atomic attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Oppenheimer regretted the use of the terrible weapon he had helped build, and he worked with the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) to win approval for international control of atomic energy. The USSR refused to support the US plan, and in 1949 the Soviets successfully detonated their first atomic weapon. The loss of US atomic supremacy, coupled with revelations that Los Alamos scientist Klaus Fuchs had given nuclear secrets to the Soviets, led President Harry S. Truman to approve development of the hydrogen bomb. Oppenheimer strongly opposed development of the H-bomb, which was theorized to be hundreds of times more powerful than the bombs dropped on Japan.
          On 01 November 1952, the first “superbomb” was successfully detonated in the Pacific. In 1953, because of both his opposition to the hydrogen bomb and his admitted leftist leanings in the 1930s, Oppenheimer lost his security clearance and was ousted from the AEC. The case stirred wide controversy, and many people came to his defense. After leaving the government, he returned to teaching.
    1963 Todd "Hugh" Gaitskell, 56, leader British Labour Party.
    1952 Enrique Jardiel Poncela, dramaturgo español.
    1949 Niceto Alcalá Zamora y Torres, político español.
    ^ 1940 Day 81 of Winter War: USSR aggression against Finland.
    More deaths due to Stalin's desire to grab Finnish territory.
    BR> Over 200 enemy bombers hit Viipuri

           Viipuri suffers unprecedentedly ferocious enemy bombing. The first aircraft appear over the city at 8.45 in the morning. The air raid continues without a break until evening. During the course of the day over 200 enemy aircraft are in action over the city. The old town suffers the worst damage, including the 500-year-old garrison church and the old cathedral containing the grave of the Finnish Lutheran reformer Mikael Agricola. Numerous medieval buildings are damaged in the bombing. The electricity and water mains are cut, the newspapers fail to appear, and the last civilians finally leave Karelia's devastated capital.
          There is growing pressure from Soviet troops around Viipurinlahti bay, and the defending Finnish troops are forced to evacuate the mainland for the islands on the eastern side of the bay. The departing Finnish troops set fire to the houses in the municipality of Johannes.
          Eastern Isthmus: the enemy launches a massive assault on the Finnish defences in Taipale. In Kirvesmäki the infantry assault is preceded by a brief preliminary bombardment from the enemy artillery. The Finnish front line has just been replenished with troops from the 21st Division in their clean snow suits and freshly painted white vehicles. The new arrivals are quickly dubbed the 'porcelain division'. The artillery bombardment kills the commanding officers of the strongholds, and enemy bombers cripple most of the Finnish machine guns. Soon the whole front line is in enemy hands.
          Ladoga Karelia: Finnish troops take the 'regimental motti' formed to the north of Lake Ladoga on February 9. After several unsuccessful attempts, the breakthrough finally came this morning with an assault preceded by a relatively mild preliminary artillery bombardment. The Finns take charge of a considerable quantity of enemy war materiel: around 20 assault tanks, 35 pieces of artillery, 25 lorries, 17 tractors, 200 other vehicles and 32 field kitchens. Also captured is the enemy division's flag embroidered in gold and silver. Enemy dead number between 1000 and 1200 men, in addition to which around 250 are taken prisoner, including two officers and two political instructors. 166 Finnish troops die in the battle, equivalent to 30% of the unit's combat strength.
          Karelian Isthmus: Soviet tanks break through the intermediary positions in two places.
          Northern Finland: in Kuhmo, around 1,000 enemy troops attack the Kuusijoki line with the support of artillery and assault tanks.
          300 Danish volunteer metal workers have arrived in Finland.
          France: the leader of the Garibaldi League, General Marabini is assembling a force of Garibaldi legionnaires for Finland.

    ^ Viipurin yllä yli 200 vihollisen lentokonetta Talvisodan 81. päivä, 18.helmikuuta.1940
           Viipuri joutuu ennenkokemattoman kovan vihollisen pommituksen kohteeksi. Ensimmäiset vihollisen pommikoneet ilmestyvät kaupungin ylle klo 8.45. Vihollisen ilmahyökkäykset jatkuvat herkeämättä iltaan saakka. Kaupungin yllä on päivän aikana yli 200 vihollisen lentokonetta. Suurimmat tuhot kärsii vanha kaupunki ja siellä yli 500 vuotta vanha Varuskunnan kirkko sekä entinen Vanha tuomiokirkko, jonne on haudattu mm. Mikael Agricola. Monet keski-aikaiset rakennukset vaurioituvat Viipurissa. Viipurin sähkö- ja vesijohtoverkot rikkoutuvat, päivälehdet lakkaavat ilmestymästä ja viimeisetkin siviilit poistuvat raunioituneesta Karjalan pääkaupungista.
          Neuvostojoukkojen paine kasvaa Viipurinlahden suunnassa: suomalaiset joutuvat vetäytymään mantereelta Viipurinlahden itärannikon saarille. Suomalaiset sytyttävät vetäytyessään Johanneksen kunnassa talot palamaan.
          Taipaleessa vihollinen aloittaa voimakkaan hyökkäyksen suomalaisten asemien murtamiseksi. Kirvesmäessä jalkaväen hyökkäys alkaa lyhyellä tulivalmistelulla. Suomalaisten etulinjassa on juuri saapuneita 21. Divisioonan joukkoja, joilla on puhtaat lumipuvut ja juuri valkoisiksi maalatut ajoneuvot. Joukkoa kutsutaan Posliinidivisioonaksi. Tulivalmistelussa tukikohtien päälliköt saavat surmansa ja lentopommitukset vaurioittavat suurinta osaa konekiväärejä. Pian koko etulinja on vihollisen hallussa.
          Laatokan Karjalassa kukistuu niin sanottu rykmenttimotti. Suomalaiset ovat yrittäneet useaan otteeseen vallata tätä 9. helmikuuta syntynyttä mottia. Vaatimattomalla tulivalmistelulla alkanut suomalaisten hyökkäys tuottaa aamulla tulosta: motti laukeaa. Suomi saa huomattavan sotasaaliin: parikymmentä hyökäysvaunua, 35 tykkiä, 25 autoa, 17 traktoria ja 200 muuta ajoneuvoa sekä 32 kenttäkeittiötä. Suomalaiset saavat sotasaaliiksi vihollisen divisioonan kulta- ja hopealangoin ommellun lipun. Vihollinen menettää kaatuneina 1000-1200 miestä, vankeja saadaan noin 250, joiden joukossa on kaksi upseeria ja kaksi politrukkia. Suomalaiset menettävät taistelussa 166 miestä kaatuneina, joka on30% taisteluvahvuudesta.
          Neuvostopanssarit murtautuvat Kannaksen väliaseman läpi kahdesta kohtaa.
          Kuhmossa vihollinen hyökkää Kuusijoki-linjaa vastaan tykistönja hyökkäysvaunujen tukemana noin 1000 miehen vahvuisin joukoin.
          300 vapaaehtoista tanskalaista metallityömiestä on matkustanut Suomeen vapaaehtoistyöhön.
          Ranskassa Garibaldi-liigan puheenjohtaja, kenraali Marabini kerää Garibaldin legioonalaisista vapaaehtoisia Suomeen.

    ^ Drygt 200 plan över Viborg Vinterkrigets 81 dag, den 18 februari 1940
          Viborg är föremål för fiendens hittills värsta bombardemang. De första fientliga jaktplanen uppenbarar sig över staden kl. 8.45. Flygattackerna fortsätter utan uppehåll ända till kvällen. Över 200 fientliga plan rör sig över staden under dagen. Gamla stan och den över 500 år gamla garnisonskyrkan och den före detta Gamla domkyrkan, där bl.a. Mikael Agricola är begraven, lider de största skadorna. Många medeltida byggnader skadas i Viborg. Stadens el- och vattenledningar söndras, dagstidningarna upphör med sin verksamhet och de sista civilpersonerna flyr den ruinerade karelska huvudstaden.
          Sovjettruppernas tryck växer i riktning Viborgska viken: finnarna tvingas återtåga från fastlandet till öarna på Viborgska vikens östra kust. Under återtåget tänder finnarna eld på hus i S:t Johannes kommun.
          I Taipale går fienden till häftigt anfall för att krossa de finska ställningarna. I Kirvesmäki inleds infanteriets anfall efter en kort eldförberedning. Den 21. Divisionens trupper har nyligen anlänt till den finska främsta linjen. Soldaterna har rena snödräkter och nymålade vita fordon - man kallar dem Porslinsdivisionen. Vid eldförberedningen omkommer kommendörerna för baserna och flygbombardemanget skadar största delen av maskingevären. Snart har fienden tagit hela främre linjen i besittning.
          I Ladoga-Karelen får den så kallade Regementsmottin ge sig. Finnarna har upprepade gånger försökt inta den här mottin som uppstod den 9 februari. Finnarnas anfall som började med en anspråkslös eldförberedelse ger resultat: mottin upplöses. Finland får ett betydande krigsbyte: ett tjugotal pansarvagnar, 35 kanoner, 25 bilar, 17 traktorer och 200 andra fordon samt 32 fältkök. Som krigsbyte får finnarna också den fientliga divisionens flagga som är dekorerad med guld- och silvertrådar. Ungefär 1000-1200 ryska soldater stupar, ungefär 250 tas tillfånga, bland vilka två officerare och två politruker. I striderna stupar 166 man, vilket är 30 % av stridskraften.
          Sovjetpansrar bryter igenom mellanställningen på två ställen på Näset. I Kuhmo anfaller fienden Kuusijokilinjen med en styrka på 1000 man och med stöd av artilleri och stridsvagnar.
          300 frivilliga danska metallarbetare har rest till Finland för att arbeta. I Frankrike samlar ordföranden för Garibaldiligan, general Marabini frivilliga legionärer till Finland. ^top^
    1938 Leopoldo Lugones, escritor argentino.
    1937 Enrique Alfredo Olaya Herrera, político colombiano.
    1932 Frederik Augustus III, 66, King of Saxony (1904-18)
    1921 Rafael Reyes Prieto, militar y político colombiano.
    1917 Charles Emile Auguste Durand “Carolus-Duran”, French painter specialized in Portraits, born on 04 July 1837. — His students included John Singer Sargent and Irving Wiles. — LINKSMarie-Anne Carolus-Duran (The artist's little girl, with dog) — N. M. PolovtsovaMargaret Anderson, Wife of the Honorable Ronald Grenville
    1907 José Peón y Contreras, poeta mexicano.
    1900 Hundreds of British soldiers at battle at Paardeberg, (1270 British killed or wounded)
    1899 M. Sophus Lie, 56, Norwegian mathematician.
    1891 Cornelis Springer, Dutch artist born on 25 May 1817. — LINKSView of The Hague from the Delftse Vaart in the 17th Century _ study for itZuiderhavendijk, EnkhuizenFigures in a Street in Delft
    1890 Ellison Mounts executed for Alifair McCoy's murder in the January 1, 1888 raid by Hatfield supporters on the McCoy home. The famous feud nears its end.
    1890 Julius Andrássy Sr, 66, earl/premier of Hungary (1867-71)
    ^ 1878 John Tunstall is murdered, igniting Lincoln County War
          Long simmering tensions in Lincoln County, New Mexico, explode into a bloody shooting war when gunmen murder the English rancher John Tunstall. Tunstall had established a large ranching operation in Lincoln County two years earlier in 1876, stepping into the middle of a dangerous political and economic rivalry for control of the region.
          Two Irish-Americans, J.J. Dolan and John Riley, operated a general store called The House, which controlled access to lucrative beef contracts with the government. The big ranchers, led by John Chisum and Alexander McSween, didn't believe merchants should dominate the beef markets and began to challenge The House. Tunstall, a wealthy young English emigrant, soon realized that his interests were with Chisum and McSween in this conflict, and he became a leader of the anti-House forces. He won Dolan's and Riley's lasting enmity by establishing a competing general merchandise store in Lincoln.
          By 1877, the power struggle was threatening to become overtly violent, and Tunstall began to hire young gunmen for protection, including the soon-to-be-infamous William Bonney, better known as Billy the Kid. Early the next year, The House used its considerable political resources to strike back at Tunstall, winning a court order demanding that Tunstall turn over some of his horses to pay an outstanding debt. When Tunstall refused to turn over the horses, the House-controlled Lincoln County sheriff dispatched a posse to take them with William Morton, another House supporter, at the head. Billy the Kid and several other Tunstall hands were working on the ranch when they spotted the approaching posse. Outnumbered, the men fled, but they had not gone far before they saw Tunstall gallop straight up to the posse to protest its presence on his property. As Billy and the others watched, Morton pulled his gun and shot Tunstall dead with a bullet to the head.
          Although he had not worked for Tunstall long, Billy the Kid deeply resented this cold-blooded murder, and he immediately began a vendetta of violence against The House and its allies. Lincoln County became a war zone, and both sides began a spree of vicious killings. By July, The House was prevailing, having added McSween to its lists of victims. However, fighting would continue to erupt sporadically until 1884, when Chisum died of natural causes, and The House finally regained full control of Lincoln County. By that time, Billy the Kid had already been dead for three years, gunned down by Lincoln County Sheriff Pat Garrett.
    1871 Jaime de Barros Câmara, Brazilian born on 03 July 1894; ordained a Catholic priest on 01 January 1920; appointed Bishop of Mossoro on 19 December 1938 and consecrated a bishop on 02 February 1936. Appointed Archbishop of Belém do Pará on 15 September 1941 and of Rio de Janeiro on 03 July 1943; made a cardinal on 18 February 1946; president of the Conference of Catholic Bishops of Brazil (1958-1963).
    1851 Karl Gustav Jacob Jacobi, 46, German mathematician.
    1794 Josef Adam von Mölk (or Mölckh), Austrian artist born in 1714.
    1683 Nicolaes (or Claes) Pieterzoon Berchem van Haarlem, Dutch painter born on 01 October 1620. — MORE ON BERCHEM AT ART “4” FEBRUARY with links to images.
    1682 Pierre Dupuis (or Dupuy), French artist born on 03 March 1610.
    1587 Mary Stuart, 44, Queen of Scots (1560-87), beheaded
    1571 Fray Batista Segura and other Spanish Jesuits, murdered by Amerindians they had come six months earlier to convert, in the Chesapeake Bay area. The massacre led ultimately to the withdrawal of all Jesuits living in Florida as well.
    ^ 1564 Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni, 89, Italian painter, sculptor, architect, and poet [Rime] born on 06 March 1475. — MORE ON MICHELANGELO AT ART “4” FEBRUARY with links to images.
    1563 François De Guise, general shot by huguenot Jean Poltrot de Méré.
    Martin Luther, 62, leader of the Protestant Reformation in Germany
    1546 Martin Luther, fondateur du protestantisme. ^top^
          Martin Luther. En 1537, la santé de Luther avait commencé à se détériorer et il avait été accablé par le renouveau de la papauté et par ce qu'il ressentait comme une tentative des juifs d'exploiter la confusion chez les chrétiens pour reposer la question du messianisme du Christ. Se sentant responsable de cette situation, il s'engagea dans une polémique violente contre les juifs ainsi que contre la papauté et l'aile radicale des réformateurs, les anabaptistes. Pendant l'hiver 1546, on demanda à Luther d'arbitrer une controverse entre deux jeunes comtes qui régnaient sur la région de Mansfeld où il était né. Vieux et malade, il mourut après ce voyage à Eisleben.
    1478 Duke of Clarence forced drowning in a wine barrel
    1455 Fra Angelico, 55 , Italian painter of the early Renaissance who combined the life of a devout friar with that of an accomplished painter. He was called Angelico and Beato because the paintings he did were of calm, religious subjects and because of his extraordinary personal piety. — MORE ON FRA ANGELICO AT ART “4” FEBRUARY with links to images.
    0999 Gregory V [Bruno] first German Pope
    0901 Thabit, mathematician
    Births which occurred on a February 18:
    1995 El Museo de Arte Moderno de San Francisco, diseñado por el arquitecto Mario Botta, se inaugura.
    1948 José María Fidalgo Velilla, sindicalista español.
    1938 Louis-Marie Billé, French, ordained a Catholic priest on 25 March 1962; appointed Bishop of Laval on 10 March 1984 and consecrated a bishop on 19 May 1984; appointed Archbishop of Aix, Arles, and Embrun on 05 May 1995; President of Conference of Bishops of France (05 Nov 1996 – 06 Nov 2001); appointed Archbishop of Lyon on 10 July 1998; made a cardinal on 21 February 2001; died on 12 March 2002.
    ^ 1931 Chloe Anthony Wofford “Toni” Morrison, Nobel Prize-winning novelist, in Lorain, Ohio.
          Morrison was born Chloe Anthony Wofford to a welder father and homemaker mother. She graduated from Howard University in 1953, then took a master's in literature at Cornell. She married architect Howard Morrison and had two sons. After she and her husband divorced, Morrison taught English and worked as one of the very few black editors at Random House. She published her first novel, The Bluest Eye, in 1969, followed by Sula in 1973. She first came to national attention in 1978, however, when she won the National Book Critics Circle Award for Song of Solomon. After the publication of her breakthrough novel, she published Tar Baby (1981). Her 1987 novel, Beloved, the story of a 19th-century slave who escapes bondage but is forced to kill her own baby, won the Pulitzer Prize in 1988. Morrison won the Nobel Prize in 1993, becoming the first US Black to win the award, as well as the first US woman in general to win in more than 50 years. The same year, a fire destroyed her Nyack, New York, home-fortunately, she'd left the manuscript of her next novel, Paradise, in her office at Princeton University, where she was teaching creative writing. The book, published in 1998, explored the dynamics of an all-Black town in the late 1960s.
    1922 Helen Gurley Brown (feminist; publisher: Cosmopolitan; author: Sex and the Office)
    1909 Wallace Stegner, US author who died on 13 April 1993.
    1903 Nikolaj V Podgorny President of USSR (1965-77)
    1901 Dust removing suction cleaner is patented by H Cecil Booth.
    1899 Sir Arthur Bryant, English historian and biographer who died on 02 January 1985.
    ^ 1898 Enzo Anselmo Ferrari, car racer and manufacturer, in Modena.
         After fighting in the First World War, where he lost both his brother and his father, Ferrari became a professional driver with the Costruzioni Meccaniche Nazional (CMN.) The following year, Ferrari moved to Alpha Romeo, establishing a relationship that would span two decades and take Ferrari from test driver to the director post of the Alpha Racing Division. In 1929, Enzo founded Scuderia Ferrari, an organization that began as a racing club but that by 1933 had absorbed the entire race-engineering division at Alpha. For financial reasons Alpha took back control of their racing division from Ferrari in 1939. His pride wounded, Ferrari left Alpha Romeo in 1940, transforming the Scuderia into an independent manufacturing company, the Auto Avio Costruzioni Ferrari.
          Construction of the first Ferrari vehicle was delayed until the end of World War II. Like Ferdinand Porsche, Enzo Ferrari suffered during the war, as his factory was bombed on numerous occasions. Still, Ferrari persisted with his work. In 1949, Ferrari’s 166 won the 24 Hours at Le Mans, Europe’s most famous car race. Ferrari would not look back. His passion for racing drove his company to become one of the world’s premier racecar builders. Ferrari cars would win twenty-five world titles and over 5,000 individual races during Enzo’s forty-year reign. Off the track the company faired just as well. Responding to Ferrari’s personal demand that his engineers create the finest sports car in the world, the company produced the F40 in 1987. With a top speed of 201 MPH and a 0 to 60 time of 3.5 seconds (mean acceleration of nearly 1 g), the F40 may have been Ferrari’s crowning achievement. Enzo Ferrari died on 14 August 1988.
    1896 André Breton, Orne departement, France, surrealist poet/writer (founder of surréalism)
    1895 Semjon Timoshenko Russian marshal/inspector-general (WWII)
    1892 Wendell Lewis Wilkie (lawyer, politician: US presidential nominee: Republican Party [1940]) . His book, One World (1943), largely an outgrowth of his travels, made a strong plea for postwar cooperation and was influential in turning many Republicans away from isolationism. He died on 08 October 1944
    1890 Boris L Pasternak Russian poet/writer (Dr Zhivago)
    ^ 1885 Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain , 49, is published.
          Samuel Langhorne Clemens was born in Hannibal, Missouri, and was apprenticed to a printer at age 13. He later worked for his older brother, who established the Hannibal Journal.
         On 09 April 1859, Clemens, 23, receives his steamboat pilot's license. Clemens had signed on as a pilot's apprentice in 1857 while on his way to Mississippi. He had been commissioned to write a series of comic travel letters for the Keokuk Daily Post, but after writing five, decided he'd rather be a pilot than a writer. He piloted his own boats for two years, until the Civil War halted steamboat traffic. During his time as a pilot, he picked up the term "Mark Twain," a boatman's call noting that the river was only two fathoms deep, the minimum depth for safe navigation.
          When Clemens returned to writing in 1861, working for the Virginia City Territorial Enterprise, he wrote a humorous travel letter signed by "Mark Twain" and continued to use the pseudonym for nearly 50 years.
          In 1864, Twain moved to San Francisco to work as a reporter. There he wrote the story that made him famous, The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County. In 1866, he traveled to Hawaii as a correspondent for the Sacramento Union. Next, he traveled the world writing accounts for papers in California and New York, which he later published as the popular book The Innocents Abroad (1869).
          In 1870, Clemens married the daughter of a wealthy New York coal merchant and settled in Hartford, Connecticut, where he continued to write travel accounts and lecture. In 1875, his novel Tom Sawyer was published, followed by Life on the Mississippi (1883) and his masterpiece Huckleberry Finn (18 February 1885). Bad investments left Clemens bankrupt after the publication of Huckleberry Finn, but he won back his financial standing with his next three books. In 1903, he and his family moved to Italy, where his wife died. Her death left him sad and bitter, and his work, while still humorous, grew distinctly darker. He died in 1910.
  • The Pirates of Penzance
  • The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
  • The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
  • The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1st ed.)
  • Huckleberry Finn
  • The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
  • The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
  • The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
  • Tom Sawyer
  • Tom Sawyer, Detective
  • Tom Sawyer Abroad
  • The Prince and the Pauper
  • The Prince and the Pauper
  • The Prince and the Pauper
  • Extracts From Adam's Diary
  • Extracts From Adam's Diary
  • Extracts From Adam's Diary
  • What is Man? and Other Essays
  • What is Man? and Other Essays
  • What Is Man?
  • Songs of a Savoyard
  • A Dog's Tale
  • Eve's Diary
  • A Horse's Tale
  • A Horse's Tale
  • A Horse's Tale
  • The Innocents Abroad
  • A Tramp Abroad
  • The Bridge-Builders
  • Life on the Mississippi
  • Life on the Mississippi
  • Life on the Mississippi
  • Life on the Mississippi
  • The Mysterious Stranger
  • The Mysterious Stranger
  • Roughing It
  • Roughing It
  • A Tramp Abroad
  • 1601
  • Concerning the Jews
  • Concerning the Jews
  • Christian Science
  • A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court
  • A Connecticut Yankee
  • The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County, and Other Sketches
  • Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc
  • Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc volume 1 / volume 2
  • A Double-Barrelled Detective Story
  • The $30,000 Bequest, and Other Stories
  • The $30,000 Bequest, and Other Stories
  • The Tragedy of Pudd'nhead Wilson
  • The Man That Corrupted Hadleyburg
  • The Man that Corrupted Hadleyburg
  • Extract From Captain Stormfield's Visit to Heaven
  • Captain Stormfield
  • Following the Equator: A Journey Around the World
  • Is Shakespeare Dead? From My Autobiography
  • Is Shakespeare Dead? From My Autobiography
  • Chapters From My Autobiography
  • King Leopold's Soliloquy: A Defense of His Congo Rule
  • Mark Twain's Speeches
  • translator of Hoffmann's Struwwelpeter (there in German, English, and French)
  • Engaged
  • 1885 Henri Laurens, French artist who died in 1954. — LINKS
    1885 Yule, mathematician.
    1862 Charles M. Schwab, US entrepreneur who pioneered Bethlehem Steel and died on 18 September 1939.
    1862 Albert Welti, Swiss painter who died on 07 June 1912. — The House of Dreams
    1859 Sholem Aleichem [Solomon Rabinowitz], author (Fiddler on the Roof).
    1860 Anders Leonard Zorn, Swedish painter, etcher, and sculptor, who died on 22 August 1920. — MORE ON ZORN AT ART “4” FEBRUARY with links to images.
    1857 Max Klinger, German genre and history Symbolist painter, sculptor and engraver who died on 05 July 1920. — LINKS 81 prints at FAMSF
    1853 Charles William Wyllie, British artist who died on 28 July 1923.
    1848 Louis Comfort Tiffany, US Art Nouveau Stained Glass artist who died on 17 January 1933. — LINKS
    1844 Lueroth, mathematician.
    1836 Swami Ramakrishna [Gadadhar Chatterji], Hooghly, Bengal, Hindu religious leader (preached unity of all religions). He died on 16 August 1886.
    1834 The Man, first US labor newspaper, begins publication, New York NY
    1817 Johannes Bosboom, Dutch painter who died on 13 September 1891. — LINKSChurch in the Hague
    1800 Dalmacio Vélez Sarsfield, jurisconsulto y político argentino.
    1795 George Peabody South Danvers MA, merchant/philanthropist.
    1755 Nicolas-Didier Boguet, French artist who died on 01 April 1839.
    1751 Adolf Ulrik Wertmuller, Swedish artist who died on 05 August 1811. — LINKS
    1745 Count Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta, physicist and inventor (battery). He died on 05 March 1827. — A Côme (Italie), naissance du physicien Alexandre Volta On lui doit l'invention, au début du XIXème siècle, de la première pile électrique, constituée de petits disques de cuivre et de zinc séparés par un morceau de drap et plongés dans de l'acide sulfurique. Cette réalisation allait faire accomplir des progrès énormes à l'étude des phénomènes électriques. Le nom de Volta a été attribué à une unité électrique : le volt.
    ^ 1678 Pilgrim's Progress by John Bunyan is first published, in England. Bunyan was frequently imprisoned for preaching without a license. During these sequestered times, between 1660-72, Bunyan collected the ideas enabling him to pen this masterpiece of Christian literature. ,
          The English Puritan clergyman and writer was born on 28 November 1628. Imprisoned several times between 1660 and 1672, Bunyan used these periods of isolation to write his two literary masterpieces, Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners (1666) and The Pilgrim's Progress (1678). He died on 31 August 1688 from a cold caught riding through the rain to reconcile a father and son. ^top^
  • The Pilgrim's Progress
  • The Pilgrim's Progress (another site)
  • A Book for Boys and Girls
  • Christian Behaviour
  • A Discourse Upon the Pharisee and the Publican
  • The Doctrine of the Law and Grace Unfolded
  • Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners
  • The Holy War
  • The Holy War (another site)
  • Christ a Complete Saviour: or, The Intercession of Christ, and Who Are Privileged in It
  • Come and Welcome to Jesus Christ: or, A Plain and Profitable Discourse on John 6:37
  • I Will Pray With the Spirit, and I Will Pray With the Understanding Also
  • The Life and Death of Mr. Badman
  • The Resurrection of the Dead and Eternal Judgment
  • The Saints' Knowledge of Christ's Love: or, The Unsearchable Riches of Christ
  • Seasonable Counsel: or, Advice to Sufferers
  • The Strait Gate: or, Great Difficulty of Going to Heaven
  • A Treatise of the Fear of God
  • The Work of Jesus Christ as an Advocate
  • 1677 Jacques Cassini French astronomer (rings of Saturn)
    1602 Pieter Meulener (or Meulenaer, Molenaer), Dutch artist who died on 27 November 1654.
    1516 Mary I Tudor “Bloody Mary” (1553-58), first reigning queen of Great Britain. She died on 17 November 1558.
    1404 Leone Alberti, mathematician.
    1201 Nasir al_Tusi, mathematician

    Santos Simeón, Secundino, Eladio y Flaviano. / Sainte Bernadette La petite bergère du Béarn a 14 ans quand elle assiste du 11 Feb au 16 Jul 1858 à dix-huit apparitions de la Vierge Marie, la Mère de Jésus-Christ, l'«Immaculée Conception». Bernadette Soubirous est à l'origine du pèlerinage de Lourdes. Entrée au couvent, la jeune femme y meurt à 35 ans, le 16 avril 1879, sans jamais se départir de sa simplicité et de son équilibre. ^top^
    Thoughts for the day: “Only a fool tests the depth of the water with both feet.” — African proverb
    “Nothing great in the world has been accomplished without passion.”
    - Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, German philosopher [1770-1831]
    “The one who throws the stone forgets; the one who is hit remembers forever.” — Angolan proverb.
    A man walks into a bar and he's really steaming. The bartender gives him a drink and asks what the problem is. All he says is, “Lawyers and crooks, it's all the same.” A man sitting in the corner shouts, “I take offense to that!” The irate guy asks him, “Why? Are you a lawyer?” He replies, “No, I'm a crook.”

    Listing in the 2001-2002 Southwestern Bell El Paso (Area Code 915) Yellow Pages, page 68, under Attorneys (misspelling and all):
       109 N Oregon St — — — — — — — — — — 544~4529
    updated Thursday 19-Feb-2004 13:21 UT
    safe site
    site safe for children safe site