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Events, deaths, births, of FEB 23

[For Feb 23 Julian go to Gregorian date
(leap years one day earlier) 1583~1699: Mar 051700s: Mar 061800s: Mar 071900~2099: Mar 08]
On a 23 February:
2001 In No. 00-5081 Elouise Pepion Cobell, et al., Appellees v. Gale A. Norton, Secretary of the Interior, et al., Appellants, the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit rules in favor of the 300'000 Amerindians in a class action suit againsn the Department of the Interior, confirming the lower court decision requiring Interior to remedy the long-standing mismanagement of Amerindian trust funds. [Site of the Amerindian plaintiffs].
2000 El presidente de Mozambique pide ayuda para los más de 800'000 damnificados por las recientes inundaciones.

^ 2000 Case against three men arrested for Walking While Black is dismissed.
      On 18 October 1999 Bryonn Bain had been arrested by NY police officer Ronald Connelly (badge 1727) together with his younger brother Kristofer Bain and his cousin Kyle Vazquez for no other reason than that they were Black men close to where someone else had broken a window. At last, after four court appearances over five months, the D.A.'s case against them is dismissed. No affidavits or other evidence were produced to support the charges against them. The experience makes Bryonn realize something that they had not taught him at Harvard law school, namely what is

The Bill of Rights for Black Men
Amendment I:
Congress can make no law altering the established fact that a Black person is a nigger.
Amendment II:
The right of any White person to apprehend a nigger will not be infringed.
Amendment III:
No nigger shall, at any time, fail to obey any public authority figures—even when beyond the jurisdiction of their authority.
Amendment IV:
The fact that a Black man is a nigger is sufficient probable cause for him to be searched and seized.
Amendment V:
Any nigger accused of a crime is to be punished without any due process whatsoever.
Amendment VI:
In all prosecutions of niggers, their accuser shall enjoy the right of a speedy apprehension. While the accused nigger shall enjoy a dehumanizing and humiliating arrest.
Amendment VII:
Niggers must remain within the confines of their own neighborhoods. Those who do not are clearly looking for trouble.
Amendment VIII:
Wherever niggers are causing trouble, arresting any nigger at the scene of the crime is just as good as arresting the one actually guilty of the crime in question.
Amendment IX:
Niggers will never be treated like full citizens in the US, no matter how hard they work to improve their circumstances.
Amendment X:
A nigger who has no arrest record just hasn't been caught yet.
^ 1999 Clinton impeachment aftermath
(1) Matt Drudge Reports:
NBC NEWS has taken its interview with Jane Doe #5 out of the freezer — and has put it into the oven!
On Wednesday night at 8 pm ET [Family Hour?] NBC NEWS will broadcast an exclusive television interview with Juanita Broaddrick, a woman who has accused Bill Clinton of rape.
"This was the hardest day of my life since I lost my father in '71," Broaddrick told a producer from NBC NEWS after her five hour interview.
The interview was scheduled to air on Jan. 29, at the height of the impeachment trial in the Senate, but it hit resistance from NBC NEWS executives.
One month later, NBC NEWS has announced that it will now air that interview — an interview that made one NBC NEWS superstar physically sick after he watched it!
The DRUDGE REPORT has learned that NBC NEWS Washington Bureau chief Tim Russert got sick to his stomach when he viewed the five hour session between NBC NEWS reporter Lisa Myers and Broaddrick.
Russert told associates that Broaddrick's story left him speechless and upset him physically after he viewed raw tapes of the interview.
Broaddrick tells NBC NEWS, in graphic detail, how Bill Clinton raped her back in 1978.
Broaddrick had denied under oath that such an assault occurred.
Clinton lawyer David Kendall issued a denial last week.
"Any allegation that the president assaulted Mrs. Broaddrick more than 20 years ago is absolutely false," Kendall said.
"NBC is just trying to compete with the GRAMMY AWARDS," one White House source told the DRUDGE REPORT on Tuesday afternoon.
"This is a sweeps stunt!" charged another Clinton supporter.
NBC NEWS reporter Lisa Myers was en route to New York from Washington late Tuesday night, according to network sources.
Myers will anchor her Broaddrick story in-studio for DATELINE.
A source close to Broaddrick on Tuesday evening questioned if NBC NEWS has edited out the most dramatic moments of the interview.
"Juanita was told that she could view the finished product," explained the Broaddrick confidant.
"They've never shown it to her. We don't want it to be all on the editing floor with fill ins."

(2) President Clinton's $850'000 check to settle the Paula Jones sexual harassment case against him has been deposited with a federal court in Little Rock.
  • The January 12 check was sent to a California lawyer for Jones, William N. McMillan III. It was made out to Jones, McMillan, the Dallas law firm of Rader, Campbell, Fisher & Pyke, and Virginia lawyers Joseph Cammarata and Gilbert Davis.
  • Cammarata and Davis claim Jones owes them $874'571. They represented Jones between April 1994 and the summer of 1997. They asked to withdraw in September 1997 after Jones did not want to accept a settlement offer from Clinton. She went on to hire the Dallas firm.
  • US District Judge Susan Webber Wright also sets a March 3 hearing in a dispute between Jones' former and current lawyers over how the money will be distributed.
  • Iwo Jima monument 1999 A jury in Jasper, Texas, convicts White Supremacist John William King of murder by dragging of a Black man, James Byrd Jr.
    1998 La península de Florida (Estados Unidos) vive el peor temporal de su historia.
    1998 El Ayuntamiento de Amsterdam inaugura las primeras tres "narco-salas" europeas, centros donde pueden acudir los drogadictos sin hogar.
    1997 Scientists in Scotland announce that they have succeeded in cloning an adult mammal, producing a lamb named "Dolly." The animal seems normal, but would age prematurely. — Un grupo de científicos británicos en Glasgow consigue crear por primera vez en la historia una oveja clónica, conocida como "la oveja Dolly", a partir de una célula de otra adulta.
    ^ 1996 Netscape security flaw found
          Netscape confirmed that computer researchers at Princeton University had found a potential security flaw in Netscape's browser. Netscape Navigator supposedly prevented Java applets from connecting to computers other than the one that downloaded the applet from the Internet. But Princeton's researchers found a way to maneuver applets onto other computers in a network, which theoretically could give hackers the ability to read confidential documents. Netscape acknowledged the flaw, which it called minor, and agreed to post a fix on the Internet.
    1995 Antoine Nduwayo appointed Premier of Burundi
    1995 Dow Jones closes above 4000 for first time (4003.33)
    1995 Iwo Jima memorial monument [photo >] is dedicated in Newington, Connecticut, in memory of the 6821 US military men who died in the Iwo Jima battle. (The national monument is in Arlington, Virginia, and was dedicated on 11 November 1954, to all Marines who have died in defense of the US since 1775. This one is the largest cast-bronze statue in the world: 10-meter-tall figures erecting an 18-meter-tall flagpole).
    1994 La Duma (Cámara Baja del Parlamento ruso) concede la amnistía a Valentín Pavlov y todos los encausados en el golpe de agosto de 1991, que alejo del poder a Mijail Gorbachov.
    1993 Gary Coleman wins $1'280'000 lawsuit against parents for high fees.
    1991 US insists that Iraq publicly announce it is leaving Kuwait by 12 PM EST. It does not. So President Bush announces that the allied ground offensive against Iraqi forces had begun. (Because of the time difference, it is already the early morning of 24 February in the Persian Gulf.)
    1991 Military coup in Thailand, Premier Choonhaven arrested.
    1990 Las fuerzas armadas toman el poder en Tailandia, arrestan al primer ministro, Chatichai Choonhaven, suspenden la Constitución y controlan el país con la ley marcial.
    1990 El Soviet Supremo de la República báltica de Estonia adopta el multipartidismo.
    1988 Haim Herzog, elegido presidente de Israel (oficio principalmente ceremonial).
    1987 Supernova 1987A in LMC first seen; first naked-eye supernova since 1604.
    1985 US Senate confirms Edwin Meese III as Attorney General.
    1982 Duros enfrentamientos en el norte de Siria entre la Hermandad Musulmana y las fuerzas gubernamentales del presidente Assad.
    ^ 1981 Spanish rebels storm parliament
          In Spain, Lieutenant Colonel Antonio Tejero Molina and two hundred members of the civil guard burst into the Spanish parliament building in Madrid, firing shots into the air as they take the democratic government of Spain hostage. The right-wing military coup, organized by Tejero and Captain General Milans del Bosch of Valencia, follows elections that confirmed Leopoldo Calvo Sotelo of the Union of the Democratic Center as prime minister of Spain. Over the next eighteen hours, Spain's four-year-old system of democracy is held in suspense, as citizens watch the tense events unfold on live television. King Juan Carlos, who succeeded dictator Francisco Franco as the leader of Spain in 1975, appeals to the rebels and other military leaders to end the coup, and during the next morning, makes a forceful statement on national television against the rebels. At noon on February 24, the coup attempt is called off after eighteen hours, and Spain's fragile new democracy is preserved.
    — Intento de golpe de Estado en España. Unos 200 guardias civiles, al mando del teniente coronel Antonio Tejero Molina, irrumpen en el Congreso de los Diputados durante la investidura de Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo y Bustelo como presidente del Gobierno y mantienen secuestrados a los diputados más de 20 horas.
    1973 Gold goes up $10 overnight to record $95 an ounce in London
    1971 Lieutenant Calley confesses and implicates Captain Medina
    ^ 1971 South Vietnamese advance into Laos is stopped
          In Operation Lam Son 719, the South Vietnamese advance into Laos grinds to a halt. The operation began on February 8. It included a limited incursion by South Vietnamese forces into Laos to disrupt the communist supply and infiltration network in Laos along Route 9 adjacent to the two northern provinces of South Vietnam. The operation was supported by US airpower (aviation and airlift) and artillery (firing across the border from firebases inside South Vietnam). Observers described the drive on Hanoi's supply routes and depots as some of the "bloodiest fighting" of the war. Enemy resistance was initially light as a 12'000-man spearhead of the South Vietnamese army thrust its way across the border into the communists' deepest jungle stronghold, with the town of Tchepone, a major enemy supply center on Route 9 in Laos, as the major objective. However, resistance stiffened in the second week as the North Vietnamese rushed reinforcements to the area. On this day, the big push bogged down about 26 km from the border, after bloody fighting in which the communist troops overran two South Vietnamese battalions.
    1970 Holy Eucharist given by women for first time in Roman Catholic service
    1970 Guyana becomes a republic (National Day)
    1967 25th amendment (Presidential succession) declared ratified
    1967 US troops begin largest offensive of Vietnam War
    1966 Aldo Moro forms Italian government
    1966 Military coup in Syria ends Bitar government
    1966 Premier Obote seizes power in Uganda
    1966 The US military headquarters in Saigon announces that 90'000 South Vietnamese deserted in 1965, almost 14% of the South Vietnamese army and was twice the number of those who deserted in 1964. Fewer than 20'000 Viet Cong are estimated to have defected in 1965.
    1959 Primera reunión del Tribunal Europeo de Derechos Humanos.
    ^ 1958 Car racer kidnapped by Cuban rebels
          Argentine racing champion Juan Manuel Fangio is kidnapped by Communist guerrillas in Havana, Cuba, one day before the second Havana Grand Prix. Members of the Movimiento 26 de Julio (M-26-7) and followers of Fidel Castro and Che Guevara, the kidnappers hoped to make a political statement by kidnapping the world-famous Fangio before he could defend his title at the Havana Grand Prix. "We wanted to show that Cuba was living in a situation of war against the Bautista tyranny," explained Arnol Rodriguez, a member of the kidnapping team. In a moment fit for a Blake Edwards film, revolutionary Manuel Uziel, holding a revolver, approached Fangio in the lobby of his hotel and ordered the racecar driver to identify himself. Fangio reportedly thought it was a joke until Uziel was joined by a group of men carrying submachine guns. Fangio reacted calmly as the kidnappers explained to him their intention to keep him only until the race was over. After his release to the Argentine Embassy, Fangio revealed a fondness for his kidnappers, refusing to help identify them and relaying their explanation that the kidnapping was a political statement. In the meantime, the Havana Grand Prix had been marred by a terrible accident, leading Fangio to believe that he had been spared for a reason. Years later, Fangio would return to Havana on a work mission. He was received as a guest of the state, and he expressed his gratitude with quiet eloquence, "Two big dreams have come true for me: returning to Cuba and meeting Fidel Castro." Fangio was famous for winning races; he became legendary by missing one.
    1958 Arturo Frondizi elected President of Argentina
    1956 20th Congress of CPSU closes in Moscow
    1956 Russian party leader Khrushchev attacks memory of Stalin
    ^ 1955 Southeast Asia Treaty Organization council's first meeting
          In the first council meeting of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, Secretary of State John Foster Dulles declares the United States is committed to defending the region from communist aggression. The meeting, and American participation in SEATO, set the stage for the US to take a more active role in Vietnam. SEATO had been established in Manila in 1954, at a meeting called by Secretary Dulles. The United States, Great Britain, France, Australia, New Zealand, Thailand, Pakistan, and the Philippines became the member states of the regional defense organization. The US established SEATO primarily in response to what it viewed as a deteriorating situation in Southeast Asia. Earlier in 1954, the French, who had been fighting to regain control of their former colony since 1946, agreed to withdraw from Vietnam. The country was divided, and the communist forces of Ho Chi Minh took control in North Vietnam pending nationwide elections for reunification in two years. US policymakers believed that North Vietnam was the first "domino" to fall to communism in Southeast Asia, and that other nations in the region would also soon come under threat of communist control. Dulles pointed to communist China as the main threat to peace and security in the region. Communist China responded by claiming that SEATO was another part of "United States aggression against Asian nations." SEATO became more important to the United States as the situation in Vietnam eventually resulted in the commitment of US combat troops to South Vietnam in 1965. Unfortunately for US officials, only a few of the SEATO member countries actively supported the US action. Australia, New Zealand, Thailand, and the Philippines sent troops or other assistance, but Great Britain, France, and Pakistan refused to become involved. Eventually, France, Pakistan, and Australia withdrew from the organization. SEATO faded away as a component of US policy in Asia during the 1970s. It formally ceased operations in 1976.
    1955 Edgar Faure forms French government
    1954 The first mass inoculation of children against polio with the Salk vaccine begins in Pittsburgh.
    1954 Syrian army drives out President Adib el-Shishakli
    1952 El Consejo de la OTAN aprueba un plan de rearme.
    1950 Victoria laborista en las elecciones generales de Gran Bretaña.
    1945 Operation Grenade General Simpson's 9th Army crosses Ruhr.
    Iwo Jima flag raising1945 US Marines raise flag on top of Mount Suribachi at Iwo Jima, famous photo [>] and statue (conmemorated as Iwo Jima Day). The flag raisers: the front four are (left to right) Ira Hayes, Franklin Sousley, John Bradley and Harlon Block. The back two are Michael Strank (behind Sousley) and Rene Gagnon (behind Bradley). Strank, Block and Sousley would die shortly afterwards. Bradley, Hayes and Gagnon became national heroes within weeks. [a whole site devoted to this]    ^top^ 
        During the bloody Battle for Iwo Jima, US Marines from the 3rd Platoon, E Company, 2nd Battalion, 28th Division take the crest of Mount Suribachi, the island's highest peak and most strategic position, and raise the US flag. Marine photographer Louis Lowery was with them and recorded the event. American soldiers fighting for control of Suribachi's slopes cheered the raising of the flag, and several hours later more Marines headed up to the crest with a larger flag. Joe Rosenthal, a photographer with the Associated Press, met them along the way and recorded the raising of the second flag along with a motion-picture cameraman.
          Rosenthal took three photographs atop Suribachi. The first, which showed five Marines and one Navy corpsman struggling to hoist the heavy flag pole, became the most reproduced photograph in history and won for him a Pulitzer Prize. The accompanying motion-picture footage attests to the fact that the picture was not posed. Of the other two photos, the second was similar to the first but less affecting, and the third was a group picture of 18 soldiers smiling and waving for the camera. Many of these men, including three of the six soldiers seen raising the flag in the famous Rosenthal photo, were killed before the conclusion of the Battle for Iwo Jima in late March.
          In early 1945, US military command sought to gain control of the island of Iwo Jima in advance of the projected aerial campaign against the Japanese home islands. Iwo Jima, a tiny volcanic island located in the Pacific about 1100 km southeast of Japan, was to be a base for fighter aircraft and an emergency-landing site for bombers. On 19 February 1945, after three days of heavy naval and aerial bombardment, the first wave of US Marines stormed onto Iwo Jima's inhospitable shores.
          The Japanese garrison on the island numbered 22'000 heavily entrenched men. Their commander, General Tadamichi Kuribayashi, had been expecting an Allied invasion for months and used the time wisely to construct an intricate and deadly system of underground tunnels, fortifications, and artillery that withstood the initial Allied bombardment. By the evening of the first day, despite incessant mortar fire, 30'000 US Marines commanded by General Holland Smith managed to establish a solid beachhead.
          During the next few days, the Marines advanced inch by inch under heavy fire from Japanese artillery and suffered suicidal charges from the Japanese infantry. Many of the Japanese defenders were never seen and remained underground manning artillery until they were blown apart by a grenade or rocket, or incinerated by a flame thrower.
          While Japanese kamikaze flyers slammed into the Allied naval fleet around Iwo Jima, the Marines on the island continued their bloody advance across the island, responding to Kuribayashi's lethal defenses with remarkable endurance. On 23 February the crest of 170-m Mount Suribachi was taken, and the next day the slopes of the extinct volcano were secured.
          By 03 March, US forces controlled all three airfields on the island, and on 26 March the last Japanese defenders on Iwo Jima were wiped out. Only 200 of the original 22'000 Japanese defenders were captured alive. More than 6000 Americans died taking Iwo Jima, and some 17'000 were wounded.
         1945 Marines raise the flag on Mt. Suribachi On this day, during the battle for Iwo Jima, US Marines raise the American flag atop Mt. Suribachi, the highest point on the island of Iwo Jima and a key strategic point. An Associated Press photographer captured a restaging of the flag raising, and the resulting photograph became a defining image of the war.
          The amphibious landings of Marines, after severe and relentless bombing of the island, began the morning of 19 February 1945, as the secretary of the navy, James Forrestal, accompanied by journalists, surveyed the scene from a command ship offshore. As the Marines made their way onto the island, seven Japanese battalions opened fire on the 9000 Marines headed for them. By that evening, more than 550 Marines were dead and more than 1800 were wounded.
          In the face of such fierce counterattack, the Americans reconciled themselves to the fact that Iwo Jima could be taken only one yard at a time. A key position on the island was Mt. Suribachi, the center of the Japanese defense. The 28th Marine Regiment closed in and around the base of the volcanic mountain at the rate of 400 yards per day, employing flamethrowers, grenades, and demolition charges against the Japanese hidden in caves and pillboxes (low concrete emplacements for machine-gun nests). Approximately 40 Marines finally began a climb up the volcanic ash mountain, which was smoking from the constant bombardment, and at 10:00 on 23 February, a half-dozen Marines raise a US flag on the peak — but not before disposing of a Japanese officer who attempted to prevent them. A pipe was used as a flag post. With Mt. Suribachi claimed, one-third of Iwo Jima was under American control.
          Two photographers caught the flag raising on film: Marine photographer Sgt. Louis R. Lowery, and AP photographer Joe Rosenthal. Lowery's film was sent back to military headquarters for processing via ordinary army post — and took a month to arrive. Rosenthal's snapshot was of a restaged flag raising, with a much bigger and more photogenic Stars and Stripes, enacted four hours after the original event. His film was sent by seaplane to Guam, and sent from there via radio-photo to the United States. The photograph so impressed President Roosevelt that he ordered the men pictured in it to return home for a publicity tour. "The raising of the flag on Suribachi means a Marine Corps for the next 500 years," predicted Secretary Forrestal.
    1945 Canadian troops occupy Kalkar.
    1945 Operation Grenade General Simpson's 9th Army crosses Ruhr.
    1944 Mass deportation of Chechens and Ingush.    ^top^
          On February 23-24, the Chechens and their neighbors the Ingush are systematically rounded up by Russian troops and shipped off to the east in freight trains. The Soviet census of 1939 had counted 407,690 Chechens and 92,074 Ingush; altogether some 400,000 Chechens and Ingush are deported to Soviet Central Asia, the majority to Kazakhstan. It is estimated that 30% or more died during their detention and transport from the Caucasus or within the first year of their forcible resettlement.
          This action was reasoned as follows: "During the Great Patriotic War, and especially during the time the German-Fascist army was operating in the Caucasus, many Chechens and Ingush betrayed their motherland, went over to the side of the fascist occupiers, enlisted in detachments of saboteurs and spies sent by the Germans into the rear of the Red Army, in response to German orders formed armed bands to fight against Soviet power, for several years have also taken part in armed actions against the Soviet authorities, and for a long time without engaging in honest work have conducted bandit raids against the collective farms of neighboring regions, robbing and killing Soviet people. Therefore, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet orders: Deportation to other regions of the USSR of all Chechens and Ingush living on or adjacent to the territory of the Chechen-Ingush ASSR, and liquidation of the Chechen-Ingush ASSR."
          The behavior of the Chechens in exile in Kazakhstan has been described in "The Gulag Archipelago" by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn: "there was one nation that would not give in, would not acquire the mental habits of submission — and not just individual rebels among them, but the whole nation to a man. These were the Chechens. They were capable of rustling cattle, robbing a house, or sometimes simply taking what they wanted by force. They respected only rebels. And here is an extraordinary thing — everyone was afraid of them. No one could stop them from living as they did. The regime which had ruled the land for thirty years could not force them to respect its laws."
          On February 25, 1956, in Khrushchev's speech to the 20th Party Congress exposing Stalin's crimes, he mentioned the Chechens among the peoples deported toward the close of World War II, commenting: "no reasonable man can grasp how it is possible to make whole nations responsible for hostile activity, including women, children, old people, Communists and Komsomols, to use mass repression against them, and to expose them to misery and suffering for the hostile acts of individuals or groups of individuals." On July 16, 1956, the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet issued a decree abolishing the legal restrictions that had been imposed on the deported Chechens, but specifically ruled out claims for return to their homeland and restitution of confiscated property.
          On January 8, 1957, a further decree of the Presidium reconstituted the Chechen-Ingush ASSR, and cancelled the ban on the return of Chechens and Ingush. The horror of their mass deportation and the misery of their resettlement regimen in Kazakhstan and Kirghizstan have not been forgotten or forgiven by the Chechens
    1943 German troops pull back through Kasserine-pass Tunisia
    ^ 1942 Japanese sub attacks California
          In the first bombing raid against the continental United States in World War II, the Japanese submarine I-17, commanded by Captain Kozo Nishino, fires approximately thirteen shells against the Barnsdall Oil Refinery in Ellwood, California, about 20 km west of Santa Barbara. The submarine was about 1 km off shore. During the attack, which lasted about twenty minutes, one shell made a direct hit on the rigging and pumping equipment of an oil well, causing about five hundred dollars in damage. No one was injured in the attack, which was the first of only a handful of Japanese raids against the continental United States.
          On 21 June 1942, the Oregon coast was shelled, and on 09 September 1942, Japanese balloons dropped incendiaries over Oregon in an unsuccessful attempt to set fire to the forests of Oregon and Washington. There were no recorded casualties in any of these attacks. On 18 April 1942, the first squadron of US bombers dropped bombs on the Japanese cities of Tokyo, Kobe, and Nagoyo, surprising Japanese military command who believed their home islands to be out of reach of Allied air attacks. When the war ended on 14 August 1945, some 160'000 tons of conventional explosives and two atomic bombs had been dropped on Japan by the United States. Approximately half-a-million Japanese civilians were killed during these bombing attacks.
    1940 Russian troops conquer Lasi Island.
    1937 Guerra Civil española: concluye la batalla del Jarama, con un contraataque republicano dirigido por el general Miaja, que fue detenido.
    1934 Coronation of King Leopold III of Belgium. — Presta juramento el nuevo rey de los belgas, Leopoldo III.
    1927 Coolidge signs Radio Control Act The Radio Control Act created the Federal Radio Commission, the forerunner of the Federal Communications Commission. The Federal Radio Commission was a temporary body established to assign radio frequencies and to issue rules and regulations to prevent interference between stations. The Federal Communications Commission superseded the Radio Commission in 1934 and has been heavily involved with the use of new communications technology, including digital television, ever since.
    1926 Adquirida por unos joyeros franceses la corona de la emperatriz Catalina II de Rusia, puesta en venta por el Gobierno soviético.
    1921 first US transcontinental air mail flight arrives in New York NY from San Francisco CA.
    1918 Fundación del Ejército Rojo soviético.
    1917 February revolution begins in Russia
    1915 Germany sinks US ships Carib and Evelyn and torpedoes Norwegian ship Regin
    1915 Tropas británicas ocupan el Africa Sudoccidental alemana.
    1912 Comienza la guerra entre Italia y Turquía, con el bombardeo de Beirut por los italianos.
    1909 Russian tsar Nicolas II dissolves Finnish Diet
    1909 A postcard is mailed to Posey Cullen, Bethel College, Hopkinsville, Kentucky. Early in March 2001, the card is found in the Cincinnati Postal Service processing plant (built in 1938) when workers are moving machinery. Cullen graduated in 1910 from Bethel, a girls' college that closed in 1964.
    1904 Japón impone a Corea un tratado por el que este país se convierte en protectorado del primero.
    1904 Upon ratification of the Hay-Bunau-Varilla treaty, control of Panama Canal Zone acquired by US for $10 million plus an annuity of $250'000 beginning nine years later
    1903 Navy base of Guantanamo leased by Cuba to USA
    1900 Battle at Hart's Hill, South-Africa (Boers vs British army)
    ^ 1898 Zola is sentenced to prison for his J'accuse...!
          French writer Emile Zola's J'accuse...!”, was printed on 13 January 1898 in L'Aurore. The letter exposes a military cover-up regarding Captain Alfred Dreyfus. Dreyfus, a French army captain, had been accused of espionage in 1894 and sentenced in a secret military court-martial to imprisonment in a South American penal colony. Two years later, evidence of Dreyfus' innocence surfaced, but the army suppressed the information. Zola charges various high-ranking military officers and, indeed, the War Office itself of concealing the truth in the wrongful conviction of Dreyfus. Zola was prosecuted for libel and and sentenced to one year's imprisonment. In July 1899, when his appeal appeared certain to fail, he fled to England. In 1899, Dreyfus was pardoned, but for political reasons was not exonerated until 1906. Zola returned to France in June 1900. Zola's intervention in the controversy helped to undermine anti-Semitism and rabid militarism in France.
          Zola died unexpectedly on 28 September 1902, the victim of coal gas asphyxiation resulting from a blocked chimney flue. Some believe that fanatical anti-Dreyfusards arranged to have the chimney blocked.
         Born on 2 April 1840, Zola grew up in poverty and twice flunked the baccalauréat. Employed in the advertising department of Hachette, in 1865 Zola published his first novel, La Confession de Claude, a sordid, semiautobiographical tale that drew the attention of the public and the police. Zola left Hachette.
          In 1867 he published Thérèse Raquin, first published serially as Un Mariage d'Amour earlier in the same year. The sensual Thérèse and her lover Laurent murder her weak husband Camille. After marrying, they are haunted by Camille's ghost, and their passion for each other turns to hatred. They eventually kill themselves.
          In 1868 Zola published Madeleine Férat, a rather unsuccessful attempt at applying the principles of heredity to the novel.
          It was this interest in science that led Zola, in the fall of 1868, to conceive the idea of a large-scale series of novels similar to Honoré de Balzac's La Comédie humaine.. Zola's project would become the 20 volumes of the Rougon-Macquart series (deux branches d'une même famille: l'une issue d'un mariage, les riches et puissants Rougon, l'autre issue d'un adultère, les pauvres Macquart: les personages). La Fortune des Rougon was published in book form in October 1871. Zola went on to produce these 20 novels — most of which are of substantial length — at the rate of nearly one per year, completing the series in 1893.
         Les Rougon-Macquart is "the natural and social history of a family under the Second Empire." (1852-70).
          La Curée (1872)explores the land speculation and financial dealings that accompanied the renovation of Paris during the Second Empire.
          Le Ventre de Paris (1873) examines the structure of the Halles and its influence on the lives of its workers. The 10 steel pavilions that make up the market are compared alternately to a machine, a palace, and an entire city.
          Son Excellence Eugène Rougon (1876) traces the machinations and maneuverings of cabinet officials in Napoleon III's government.
          L'Assommoir (1877) shows the effects of alcoholism in a working-class neighborhood by focusing on the rise and decline of a laundress, Gervaise Macquart.
          Nana (1880) follows the life of Gervaise's daughter as her economic circumstances and hereditary penchants lead her to a career as an actress, then a courtesan.
          Au Bonheur des Dames (1883) depicts the mechanisms of a new economic entity, the department store, and its impact on smaller merchants.
          Germinal (1885) depicts life in a mining community by highlighting relations between the bourgeoisie and the working class. At the same time, the novel weighs the For a miners' strike and its aftermath in terms of those contemporary political movements (Marxism, anarchism, trade unionism) that purport to deal with the problems of the proletariat.
          L'Œuvre (1886), explores the milieu of the art world and the interrelationship of the arts by means of the friendship between an innovative Impressionist painter, Claude Lantier, and a naturalist novelist, Pierre Sandoz. Unable to realize his creative potential, the painter ends up hanging himself in front of his final painting.
          In La Terre (1887), a particularly grim portrait of peasant life, Zola shows what he considers to be the sordid lust for land among the French peasantry.
          In La Bête humaine (1890) he analyzes the hereditary urge to kill that haunts the Lantier branch of the family, set against the background of the French railway systemt.
          La Débâcle (1892) traces both the defeat of the French army by the Germans at the Battle of Sedan in 1870 and the anarchist uprising of the Paris Commune.
          In Le Docteur Pascal (1893) Zola uses the main character, the doctor Pascal Rougon, armed with a genealogical tree of the Rougon-Macquart family published with the novel, to expound the theories of heredity underlying the entire series.
          In the early '70s Zola expanded his literary contacts, meeting frequently with Gustave Flaubert, Edmond Goncourt, Alphonse Daudet, and Ivan Turgenev, all successful novelists whose failures in the theatre led them to humorously refer to themselves as auteurs sifflés ("hissed authors"). Beginning in 1878 the Zola home in Médan, on the Seine River not far from Paris, served as a gathering spot for a group of the novelist's disciples, the best-known of whom were Guy de Maupassant and Joris-Karl Huysmans, and together they published a collection of short stories, Les Soirées de Médan (1880).
          As the founder and most celebrated member of the naturalist movement, Zola published several treatises to explain his theories on art, including Le Roman expérimental (1880) and Les Romanciers naturalistes (1881). Naturalism involves the application to literature of two scientific principles: determinism, or the belief that character, temperament, and, ultimately, behavior are determined by the forces of heredity, environment, and historical moment; and the experimental method, which entails the objective recording of precise data in controlled conditions.
          Zola's final series of novels, Les Trois Villes (1894-98) and Les Quatre Évangiles (1899-1903) are generally conceded to be far less forceful than his earlier work. However, the titles of the novels in the latter series reveal the values that underlay his entire life and work: Fécondité (1899), Travail (1901), Vérité (1903), and Justice (which remained incomplete).
    Zola en-ligne en français:   
  • Germinal
  • Germinal
  • Contes à Ninon
  • J'accuse!
  • J'accuse!
  • L'Argent
  • L'Assommoir
  • L'Œuvre
  • La Bête humaine
  • La Curée
  • La Débâcle
  • La Terre
  • Le Docteur Pascal
  • Le Roman expérimental
  • Le Rêve
  • Le Ventre de Paris
  • Les Soirées de Médan
  • Lourdes
  • Nana
  • La Conquête de Plassans
  • Nouveaux Contes à Ninon
  • Pot-Bouille
  • Rome
  • Son Excellence Eugène Rougon
  • Une Page d'Amour
    Zola online in English translations:
  • Germinal,
  • Nana; The Miller's Daughter; Captain Burle;
    The Death of Olivier Becaille
  • Zola en allemand: Der große Michu
    Emile Zola téléchargeable
    (choix de Acrobat, Claris, RTF) Au bonheur des dames / Germinal / J'accuse / Jacques d'amour / La bête humaine / La curée / La faute de l'abbé Mouret / La fortune des Rougon / La mort d'Olivier Bécaille / L'attaque du moulin / L'œuvre / Naïs / Nana / Pour une nuit d'amour / Son excellence Eugène Rougon
    1886 Aluminum manufacturing process developed
    1886 London Times publishes world's first classified ad
    1883 Alabama becomes first US state to enact an antitrust law
    1870 Mississippi is re-admitted to US
    1862 Federal troops occupy Fayetteville, Arkansas
    1861 By popular referendum, Texas becomes 7th state to secede from US
    1861 President-elect Lincoln arrived secretly in Washington DC to take office, an assassination plot having been foiled in Baltimore
    1854 Great-Britain and Orange Free state sign Convention of Bloemfontein. por el que se aprueba la independencia del estado de Orange.
    1847 Battle of Buena Vista, México; Zachary Taylor defeats Mexicans under Santa Anna.
    1846 Polish revolutionaries march on Cracow, but are defeated.
    ^ 1836 Alamo is besieged.
          During the Texas War for Independence, Mexican president and general Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna orders the first assault on the fortified Alamo mission in San Antonio, Texas, held by 144 Texans and Americans under the leadership of Colonel William B. Travis, Jim Bowie, and Davy Crockett. [flag flown by the Texans at the Alamo >]
         1836 Santa Anna's Siege of the Alamo Begins Mexican President General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, leading some 4000 Mexican soldiers, begins a siege of the fortified Alamo mission in San Antonio, Texas, held by 144 Texans and Americans under the leadership of Colonel William B. Travis, Jim Bowie, and Davy Crockett. After gaining independence from Spain in 1821, Mexico welcomed foreign settlers to sparsely populated Texas, and a large group of Americans led by Stephen F. Austin settled along the Brazos River. The Americans soon outnumbered the resident Mexicans, and by the 1830s, attempts by the Mexican government to regulate these semi-autonomous communities led to rebellion. In October of 1835, residents of Gonzales, 80 km east of San Antonio, responded to Santa Anna's demand that they return a cannon loaned for defense against Indian attack by discharging it against the Mexican troops sent to reclaim it. Two months later, Texas volunteers commanded by Ben Milam drove Mexican troops out of San Antonio and settled in around the Alamo, a mission compound adapted to military purposes after the 1790s. In January of 1836, Santa Anna concentrated a force of several thousand men south of the Rio Grande and General Sam Houston, the commander of the Texas revolutionary troops, ordered the San Alamo abandoned. However, Colonel Jim Bowie realized that the Alamo's twenty-five captured cannons could not be removed before Santa Anna's arrival, so he remained entrenched with his men in order to give Houston time to raise a revolutionary army. On 02 February, Bowie and his twenty-five men were joined by a small cavalry company under Colonel William Travis, bringing the total number of Alamo defenders to about one hundred and thirty. One week later, Davy Crockett arrived in command of fourteen Tennessee Mounted Volunteers. On 23 February, Santa Anna and some 4000 Mexican troops besieged the Alamo, and the Mexican leader ordered the former mission bombarded with cannon and rifle fire for twelve days. The next day, in the chaos of the siege, Colonel Travis smuggled out a letter that read: "To the People of Texas and All Americans in the World... I shall never surrender or retreat... Victory or Death!" On 02 March, the last Texan reinforcements from nearby Gonzales broke through the enemy's lines and into the Alamo, bringing the total defenders to one hundred and eighty-five. The same day, Texas' revolutionary government formally declared its independence from Mexico. In the early morning of 06 March, Santa Anna ordered the first assault on the Alamo. Travis's artillery decimated the first and then the second Mexican charge, but within ninety minutes the Texans were overwhelmed, and the Alamo was taken. All of the Texan defenders were killed, along with some 1500 of Santa Anna's troops. The only survivors of the Alamo were a mother, her child, and a Black slave. Six weeks later, a large Texan army under Sam Houston surprised Santa Anna's army at San Jacinto. Shouting "Remember the Alamo!" the Texans defeated the Mexicans and captured Santa Anna. Texas independence was won.
          After gaining independence from Spain in 1821, Mexico welcomed foreign settlers to sparsely populated Texas, and a large group of Americans led by Stephen F. Austin settled along the Brazos River. The Americans soon outnumbered the resident Mexicans, and by the 1830s, attempts by the Mexican government to regulate these semi-autonomous communities were, in their opinion, against the 1824 Mexican constitution, and led them to rebellion. In October of 1835, residents of Gonzales, fifty miles east of San Antonio, responded to Santa Anna’s demand that they return a cannon loaned for defense against Indian attack by discharging it against the Mexican troops sent to reclaim it.
          Two months later, Texas volunteers commanded by Ben Milam drove Mexican troops out of San Antonio and settled in around the Alamo, a mission compound adapted to military purposes after the 1790s.
          In January of 1836, Santa Anna concentrated a force of several thousand men south of the Rio Grande and General Sam Houston, the commander of the Texas revolutionary troops, ordered the Alamo abandoned.
          However, Colonel Jim Bowie realized that the Alamo’s twenty-five captured cannons could not be removed before Santa Anna’s arrival, so he remained entrenched with his men in order to give Houston time to raise a revolutionary army. On February 2, Bowie and his twenty-five men were joined by a small cavalry company under Colonel William Travis, bringing the total number of Alamo defenders to about one hundred and thirty. One week later, Davy Crockett arrived in command of fourteen Tennessee Mounted Volunteers.
          On 23 February, Santa Anna and some 4000 Mexican troops besieged the Alamo, and the Mexican leader ordered the former mission bombarded with cannon and rifle fire for twelve days. The next day, in the chaos of the siege, Colonel Travis smuggled out a letter that read:
    Commandancy of the Alamo
    Bexar, Feby. 24th, 1836
    To the People of Texas and all Americans in the World —
    Fellow Citizens and Compatriots —

    I am besieged by a thousand or more of the Mexicans under Santa Anna — I have sustained a continual Bombardment and cannonade for 24 hours and have not lost a man — The enemy has demanded a surrender at discretion, otherwise the garrison are to be put to the sword, if the fort is taken — I have answered the demand with a cannon shot, and our flag still waves proudly from the walls — I shall never surrender or retreat. Then, I call on you in the name of Liberty, of patriotism and everything dear to the American character, to come to our aid with all despatch — The enemy is receiving reinforcements daily and will no doubt increase to three or four thousand in four or five days. If this call is neglected, I am determined to sustain myself as long as possible and die like a soldier who never forgets what is due to his own honor and that of his country — Victory or Death.

               William Barret Travis Lt. Col. comdt.

    P.S. The Lord is on our side — When the enemy appeared in sight we had not three bushels of corn — We have since found in deserted houses 80 or 90 bushels, and got into the walls 20 or 30 head of Beeves —

    Send this to San Felipe by Express night and day —
         On 02 March, the last Texan reinforcements from nearby Gonzales broke through the enemy’s lines and into the Alamo, bringing the total defenders to one hundred and eighty-five. The same day, Texas’ revolutionary government formally declared its independence from Mexico.
          In the early morning of 06 March, Santa Anna ordered the first assault on the Alamo. Travis’s artillery decimated the first and then the second Mexican charge, but within ninety minutes the Texans were overwhelmed, and the Alamo was taken. All 188 Texan defenders were killed, along with some 1544 of Santa Anna’s troops. The only survivors of the Alamo were a mother, her child, and an African-American slave.
          Six weeks later, a large Texan army under Sam Houston surprised Santa Anna’s army at San Jacinto. Shouting "Remember the Alamo!" the Texans defeated the Mexicans and captured Santa Anna. Texas independence was won.
    1820 Cato Street conspiracy uncovered.
    1804 Conspirators against Napoleon, for restoration of Louis XVIII.
    1778 Baron von Steuben joins the Continental Army at Valley Forge.
    ^ 1771 Réforme judiciaire en France.
          Le roi Louis XV publie un édit qui institue la gratuité des procédures judiciaires et supprime la vénalité des charges de magistrats. Désormais, les juges doivent être recrutés selon leur seul mérite. C'est la fin d'une tradition séculaire qui permettait aux juges de transmettre leur charge à leur fils en vue d'en conserver les fructueux bénéfices. Ces sources de bénéfices se tarissent avec l'abolition des «épices», en d'autres termes des pots-de-vin. L'édit prévoit de simplifier les procédures et de les uniformiser sur l'ensemble du royaume. C'est la promesse d'une plus grande égalité des Français devant la justice. Cet édit véritablement révolutionnaire est conforme à la philosophie des «Lumières» et à l'idéal de liberté dont sont épris les esprits éclairés de ce temps.
          Le chancelier René Nicolas de Maupeou est à l'origine de cet édit. Quelques semaines plus tôt, il a obtenu la suppression des anciens Parlements judiciaires, coupables d'intervenir dans le domaine politique en s'opposant à toutes les réformes et en minant l'autorité royale. Le chancelier instaure six Conseils supérieurs dans le ressort de l'ancien Parlement de Paris. Il en fait autant en province. Mais les élites du pays, insensibles au caractère progressiste de l'édit, se gaussent du «Parlement Maupeou». Beaumarchais met toute sa verve au service des opposants; privilégiés et anciens parlementaires nostalgiques de leurs «épices». Les gens du peuple ne sont pas eux-mêmes reconnaissants pour cet édit. C'est que le roi Louis XV, au crépuscule de son règne, est honni de tous et son gouvernement discrédité quoiqu'il fasse. Le souverain résistera jusqu'à sa mort aux pressions de toutes parts en faveur d'un retour à l'ancienne «justice». Mais en 1774, son successeur, le jeune roi Louis XVI, n'aura d'autre hâte que de renvoyer Maupeou et de rappeler les anciens parlementaires. Quinze ans plus tard, la Révolution instaurera pour de bon l'égalité devant la justice.
    1765 El químico y físico inglés Henry Cavendish descubre el hidrógeno, al que llama "aire inflamable".
    1689 Dutch prince William III proclaimed king of England.
    Charles XI becomes king of Sweden.
    1574 France begins 5th Holy War against Huguenots
    1455 Johannes Gutenberg prints first book, the Bible (estimated date).
    0303 Emperor Diocletian orders general persecution of Christians.
    Sgt. Lev^ Deaths which occurred on a February 23:
    2004 Patrick McSorley, 29, found dead in a friend's apartment in Boston. He was one of the earliest and most prominent accusers of Father John J. Geoghan [1935 – 24 Aug 2003], whose case started the scandal of sexual abuse by Catholic priests in the US. McSorley said that when he was 12, Father Geoghan molested him in his car as he was taking him out for ice-cream after the boy's father had committed suicide. McSorley became a drug addict. In June 2003, he was found face down and unconscious in the Neponset River.
    2004:: 13 policemen and a suicide car bomber who rammed into the last car of a convoy of policemen arriving for the morning shift at a police station in a Kurdish neighborhood of Kirkuk, Iraq. 51 persons are wounded, including a schoolboy and four girls from a nearby secondary school.
    2003 Doron Lev, 19 [photo >], Israeli sergeant of the Shimshon unit who was bringing coffee to soldiers in a guardtower (without wearing a bulletproof vest), from a single shot in the back by a sniper of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, at the Israeli headquarters in Gaza, which are frequently fired upon from Khan Yunis, a few hundred meters away.
    2003 Ahmed Afuna, 15, at about 02:00 (00:00 UT), when Israeli troops blow up the Beit Hanoun, West Bank, house of Abdullah Saba, whose son was killed on 21 February 2003 while attempting to attack Israeli troops.
    2003 Mahmoud Hawila, 27; and Muhammed Kahalot, 22; Palestinians, by gunfire from Israeli troops who start an incursion into Beit Hanoun, West Bank, at 01:45, with two dozen tanks, two armored bulldozers, and three attack helicopters.
    2003 Nasser Jaara, 14, Palestinian, of wound suffered the previous day from Israeli gunfire in the casbah of Nablus, West Bank.
    2003 “Robert King Merton”, born Meyer R. Scholnick on 04 July 1910, US sociologist who invented focus groups and terms such as “self~fulfulling prophecy” and “role models”. There is no Nobel Prize in sociology, but Robert C. Merton [31 Jul 1944~], his son, shared the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1997. R. K. Merton is the author of On the Shoulders of Giants — On Social Structure and Science (Sep 1996) — Sociology of Science — Science Technology and Society in Seventeenth Century England — Social Research and the Practicing Professions — Social Structure and Anomie — Puritanism, Pietism, and Science — The Role-Set: Problems in Sociological Theory — The Travels and Adventures of Serendipity (2003)
    2001 Christopher Divis, Nick Bourdakis, Ruth Levy, Elie Isreal (two students at UC Santa Barbara students, a Santa Barbara City College student, and a friend visiting from the San Francisco area), by David Edward Attias, 18, a student at the University of California Santa Barbara, ramming his Saab sedan at close to 100 km/h into a crowd of college-age pedestrians on Sabado Tarde Road in the Isla Vista area of Santa Barbara. Mentally ill Attias, who had stopped taking his medication (but used hallucinogenic illegal drugs), then shouts that he is the "angel of death.". On 12 June 2002 Attias would be found guilty of four counts of second degree murder. But on 20 June 2002 the jury would decide that he was insane at the time of the attack, so that he would go to a hospital instead of a prison.
    2001 Alexandr Terekhov, animal trainer crushed by elephant in its pen after the evening performance at Moscow's Durov's Little Corner animal theater.
    1997 A person and a Palestinian man who shoots himself after firing at people on the observation deck of New York City's Empire State Building. Six persons are wounded.
    1996 Saddam Kamel al-Majid and Lt. Gen. Hussein Kamel al-Majid, brothers, sons-in-law of Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein, killed by Saddam Hussein's clan men. The brothers and their wives had defected in August 1995 (staying in Jordan) and had returned to Iraq three days earlier, lured back by Saddam Hussein's promise of immunity. Two of their attackers die in the shoot-out and would be given the next day in Baghdad a staged funeral as heroes and martyrs. Saddam Hussein's wife protests bitterly against the murders of the sons-in-law, so she is placed under house arrest.
    1996 Tosca Dieperink, 39, Dutch tourist, in a holdup at a Miami service station. Two men later pleaded guilty to the slaying and were sentenced to prison.
    1990 José Napoleón Duarte, 64, former President of Salvador (1984-89)
    1984 Enrique Casas, senador socialista y parlamentario vasco, asesinado por ETA en San Sebastián.
    1969 Abd al-Aziz Abd al-Rahman al-Faisal al-Saud, 67, King of Saudi Arabia
    1966 Melchor Fernández Almagro, historiador español.
    1958 Carlos Sáenz de Tejada, pintor español.
    1955 Paul Claudel, 86, French poet/playwright (L'otage)
    1945 Aleksei Tolstoi, 62, Russian poet/writer (Pjotr Peroyj)
    1942 Stefan Zweig, 60, suicide, Austrian pacifist, writer (Die Welt von Gestern)
    ^ 1940 Day 86 of Winter War: USSR aggression against Finland.
    More deaths due to Stalin's desire to grab Finnish territory.

    Finnish Government receives precise statement of Soviet peace terms

          The commander of the Army of the Isthmus orders his group commanders to prepare for withdrawal to the backline defensive positions.
          A Finnish force in Viipurinlahti bay retakes Lasisaari island, but the general situation forces it to withdraw from the island in the evening and during the night.
          The enemy mounts a forceful attack on Petäjäsaari island in Lake Ladoga and takes control of the southern tip of the island for 24 hours.
          In the far north, army intelligence reports that the enemy has 23 fighter aircraft and 49 bombers in Petsamo.
          In Ladoga Karelia the enemy attacks in Pitkäranta across the entire breadth of the front, but without success.
          During the afternoon Foreign Minister Tanner receives a communication from Stockholm containing a precise statement of the Soviet Union's terms for peace. The terms are a shock, and the shock is further compounded by Sweden's refusal to allow Allied troops to pass through Sweden en route to Finland.
          The Soviet Union responds to Sweden's protest over the bombing of Pajala in northern Sweden. The TASS news agency describes the reports of the bombings by Soviet aircraft as "mendacious and malicious allegations".
          In Moscow, the Red Army celebrates its 22nd anniversary with exceptionally little pomp and without the traditional parade through Red Square.
          Izvestija, the chief organ of the Soviet Government, praises the achievements of the Soviet forces in the Finnish war by saying that despite the "treachery" of the Finns the Red Army will in the end prevail.

    ^ Suomen hallitus saa Neuvostoliiton täsmälliset vaatimukset rauhanehdoille Talvisodan 86. päivä, 23.helmikuuta.1940
           Kannaksen Armeijan komentaja antaa yhtymänkomentajille valmistautumiskäskyn taka-asemaan siirtymiseksi.
          Viipurinlahdella suomalaisjoukot valtaavat takaisin Lasisaaren, mutta joutuvat yleistilanteen takia vetäytymään takaisin illalla ja yöllä.
          Vihollinen tekee voimakkaan hyökkäyksen Laatokalla sijaitsevaa Petäjäsaarta vastaan ja saa vuorokaudeksi saaren eteläkärjen haltuunsa.
          Tiedustelumme ilmoittaa, että vihollisella on Petsamossa 23 hävittäjää ja 49 pommikonetta.
          Pitkärannan suunnassa vihollinen hyökkää koko rintamaosan leveydeltä, mutta hyökkäykset torjutaan.
          Ulkomisteri Tanner vastaanottaa iltapäivällä tiedon Tukholmasta, jossa Suomen hallitus saa Neuvostoliiton täsmälliset vaatimukset rauhanehdoille. Rauhanehdot ovat tyrmistyttävät. Tyrmistystä lisää Ruotsin kielteinenvastaus Suomen pyyntöön myöntää kauttakulkuoikeus länsi- liittoutuneiden avustusjoukoille.
          Neuvostoliitto vastaa Ruotsin noottiin koskien vastalausetta Pohjois-Ruotsin Pajalassa tapahtunutta neuvostokoneiden pommitusta. Neuvostoliiton virallinen uutistoimisto TASS kumoaa tiedot neuvostokoneiden suorittamista pommituksista. Sitaatti: "valheellisina ja pahansuopina väitteinä."
          Puna-armeija viettää 22. vuosipäiväänsä Moskovassa poikkeuksellisen pidättyvästi ilman Moskovan torilla pidettyä paraatia.
          Moskovan hallituksen pää-äänenkannattaja Izvestija ylistää neuvostoarmeijan saavutuksia Suomen sodassa seuraavasti: "Suomalaisten kavaluudesta huolimatta Puna-armeija selviytyy taistelusta voittajana."

    ^ Regeringen får Sovjetunionens exakta krav gällande fredsvillkoren Vinterkrigets 86 dag, den 23 februari 1940
          Kommendören för armén på Näset ger gruppkommendören order om att förbereda förflyttningen av den bakre ställningen.
          I Viborgska viken återerövrar de finska trupperna ön Lasisaari, men är tvungna att dra sig tillbaka under kvällen och natten på grund av det allmänna läget.
          Fienden går till häftigt anfall mot ön Petäjäsaari i Ladoga och besitter öns södra spets ett dygn framåt.
          Våra spaningstrupper uppger att fienden har 23 jaktplan och 49 bombplan i Petsamo.
          I riktning Pitkäranta anfaller fienden längs hela frontavsnittet, men anfallen avvärjs.
          Utrikesminister Tanner tar på eftermiddagen emot ett meddelande från Stockholm i vilket Finlands regering får Sovjetunionens exakta krav för fredsvillkoren. Fredsvillkoren är chockerande. Chocken förvärras av att Sverige ger ett nekande svar på Finlands anhållan om att de västallierades biståndstrupper skulle beviljas rätt att resa genom Sverige.
          Sovjetunionen svarar på Sveriges not som gällde protesten mot att sovjetiska plan bombade byn Pajala i norra Sverige.
          Sovjetunionens officiella nyhetsbyrå TASS bestrider uppgifterna om de ryska planens bombardemang. Citat: "?lögner och illvilliga påståenden."
          Röda Armén firar sin 22-årsdag i Moskva med ovanligt anspråkslösa ceremonier utan parad på torget i Moskva.
          Moskvaregeringens huvudsakliga språkrör Izvestija lovordar den ryska arméns prestationer i kriget mot Finland: "Trots finnarnas lömska intriger avgår den Röda Armén ur striderna med seger."
    1934 Augusto Sandino Nicaraguan patriot, assassinated by National Guard.
    1934 Edward Elgar, compositor británico.
    1924 Thomas Woodrow Wilson 28th US President (1913-21)
    1922 Henri Landru executed for having 11 wives, in France
    1917 Gaston Darboux, mathematician.
    1916 entire French 72nd division, killed by French artillery, at Samogneux, Verdun
    ^ 1911 Quanah Parker, 65, near Fort Sill, Okladoma
         He was an aggressive Comanche leader who mounted an unsuccessful war against white invaders in southeast Texas (1874-1875); he later became the main spokesman and peacetime leader of the Indians in that area, a role he performed for 30 years.
          Quanah was the son of Chief Peta Nocone and Cynthia Ann Parker, a white woman captured by the Comanches as a 9-year-old (and recaptured by whites at age 33, when Quanad was 15, and forcibly kept with relatives against her will, as she considered herseld a Comanche. After ten years of separation from her Comanche family, she starved herself to death). Quanah added his mother's surname to his own. He was a member of the fierce Kwahadi band — particularly bitter enemies of the buffalo hunters who had appropriated their best land on the Texas frontier. In order to stem the onslaught of Comanche attacks on settlers and travelers, the US government assigned the Indians to reservations in 1867.
          Parker and his band, however, refused to cooperate and continued their raids. In June 1874 Parker gathered some 700 warriors from among the Comanche, Cheyenne, and Kiowa and attacked about 30 white buffalo hunters quartered at Adobe Walls, Texas. The US military retaliated in force, but Parker's group held out on the Staked Plains for almost a year before he finally surrendered at Fort Sill.
          Eventually agreeing to settle on the reservation in southwestern Oklahoma, Parker persuaded other Comanche bands to conform. During the next three decades he was the main interpreter of white civilization to his people, encouraging education and agriculture and becoming a successful businessman while maintaining his own Indian culture
    1901: 130 personas al hundirse el vapor inglés City of Río de Janeiro en la entrada del puerto de San Francisco.
    1887 Some 2000 in French and Italian Riviera earthquake. — Se registra un terremoto entre Cannes y la ciudad italiana de La Spezia: graves daños materiales y numerosas víctimas.
    1855 Carl Friedrich Gauss, 77, mathematician.
    1848 John Quincy Adams, 80, 6th US President (1825-1829), of a stroke
    1844 Duncan Gregory, mathematician.
    1821 John Keats, 25, Romantic poet, of tuberculosis in Rome.
    1800 (or 24 Feb 1800, or 30 Jun 1798) Simon Julien, French artist born on 28 October 1735. — more
    1794 Carlos José Gutiérrez de los Ríos conde de Fernán Núñez, político, músico y literato español.
    1792 Sir Joshua Reynolds, British painter specialized in Portraits, born on 16 July 1723. — MORE ON REYNOLDS AT ART “4” FEBRUARY with links to images.
    1766 Stanislaw Leszcynski duke of Lutherans/king of Poland
    before 1667 Stanger Cornelis Stangerus, Dutch artist born in 1616.
    1660 Charles X Gustaaf, 37, king of Sweden (1654-1660)
    1606 Santo Toribio Alonso de Mogrovejo, santo español.
    1560 Lax, mathematician.
    1554 Henry Grey Duke of Suffolk, Lady Jane Grey's father, executed
    1468 John Gutenberg German inventor (boekdrukkunst)
    1447 Eugene IV [Gabriello Condulmaro], 58, Pope (1431-1447)
    0155 Polycarp, 86, disciple of Apostle John and early Church Father, burned at the stake.
    Births which occurred on a February 23:
    1951 Mori, mathematician.
    1947 Bowen, mathematician.
    1945 Allan Boesak, South African activist.
    1927 The US Federal Radio Commission, forerunner of the Federal Communications Commission, is created by a bill which President Coolidge signs.
    1926 Fernando Vizcaíno Casas, escritor y abogado español.
    1924 Allan MacLeod Cormack, South African-born US Nobel Prize-winning physicist who died on 07 May 1998.
    ^ 1919 Fascist party of Italy is founded by Mussolini
         Benito Mussolini, an Italian World War I veteran and publisher of Socialist newspapers, breaks with the Italian Socialists and establishes the nationalist Fasci di Combattimento, named after the Italian peasant revolutionaries, or "Fighting Bands," from the nineteenth century. Commonly known as the Fascist Party, Mussolini's new, right-wing organization advocates Italian nationalism, has black shirts for uniforms, and launches a program of terrorism and intimidation against its leftist opponents.
          On 28 October 1922, Mussolini leads the Fascists on a march on Rome, and Italian King Victor Emmanuel III, who has little faith in Italy's parliamentary government, asks Mussolini to form a new government. Initially, Mussolini, who is appointed prime minister at the head of three-member Fascist cabinet, cooperates with the Italian parliament, but, with the assistance of his brutal police organization, he soon becomes the effective dictator of Italy.
          In 1924, a socialist backlash is suppressed, and on 03 January 1925, the Fascist State is official proclaimed with Mussolini as Il Duce, or the "Leader" (i.e. dictator). Although Mussolini appeals to Italy's former Western allies for new treaties, his brutal 1935 invasion of Ethiopia ends all hope of alliance with the Western democracies. In 1936, Mussolini joins Nazi leader Adolf Hitler in his support of Francisco Franco's Nationalist forces in the Spanish Civil War, prompting the signing of a treaty of cooperation in foreign policy between Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany in 1937. Although Adolf Hitler's Nazi revolution was modeled after the rise of Mussolini and the Italian Fascist Party, Fascist Italy and its Il Duce prove overwhelmingly the weaker partner in the Berlin-Rome Axis during World War II.
    1905 The Rotary Club is founded.
    1904 William Shirer, US journalist, historian, and novelist, who died on 28 December 1993.
    1896 Tootsie Roll is introduced by Leo Hirshfield.
    1881 Karl Jaspers, German psychiatrist and Existentialist philosopher who died on 26 February 1969.
    1879 Norman Lindsay, Australian artist and novelist who died on 29 November 1969.
    ^ 1893 Diesel engine
          Rudolf Diesel receives a German patent for the diesel engine. It burns fuel oil rather than gasoline and differs from the gasoline engine in that it uses the heat of compression in the cylinder rather than a spark to ignite the fuel. Diesel engines were used widely in Europe for their efficiency and power, and are still used today in most heavy industrial machinery. In 1977, GM became the first American car company to introduce diesel-powered automobiles. The diesel-powered Olds 88 and 98 models were 40 percent more fuel-efficient than their gas-powered counterparts. The idling and reduced power efficiency of the diesel engine is much greater than that of the spark engine. Diesel cars never caught on in the US, partly because the diesel engine’s greater efficiency is counter-balanced by its higher emissions of soot, odor, and air pollutants. Today, the argument over which engine is more environmentally friendly is still alive; some environmentalists argue that in spite of the diesel engine’s exhaust pollution, its fuel efficiency may make it more environmentally sound than the gasoline engine in the long run.
    DuBois ^ 1868 William Edward Burghardt DuBois, Black civil rights activist.
          W.E.B. DuBois is born in Great Barrington, Massachusetts. A brilliant scholar, DuBois was an influential proponent of civil rights. DuBois' childhood was happy, but during adolescence he became aware of a "vast veil" separating him from his white classmates. He devoted most of his life to studying the position of blacks in America from a sociological point of view. He took his doctorate at Harvard but was unable to get a job at a major university, despite his impressive academic achievements and the publication of his doctoral thesis, about the slave trade to the United States in the mid-1800s. He taught at Wilberforce College in Ohio, then spent a year at the University of Pennsylvania, where he wrote his first major book, The Philadelphia Negro: A Social Study (1899). The book was the first sociological case study of a black community. DuBois came to national attention with the publication of The Souls of Black Folk (1903). The book explored the thesis that the "central problem of the Twentieth Century is the problem of the color line." One controversial essay attacked the widely respected Booker T. Washington, founder of Tuskegee Institute in Alabama, which trained blacks in agricultural and industrial skills. DuBois accused Washington of selling out blacks by advocating silence in civil rights issues in return for vocational training opportunities for blacks.
          In 1909, DuBois helped found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. He edited the association's journal, The Crisis, from 1910 to 1934, reaching an audience of more than 100,000 readers.
         DuBois's support for woman suffrage through the vehicle of The Crisis reached its pinnacle in August 1915 when DuBois devoted the entire issue to "Votes for Women." This issue included articles by a number of prominent men and women including Mrs. Paul Lawrence Dunbar and Mrs. Mary Church Terrell.
        DuBois resigned after an ideological rift with the NAACP. In 1935, he published Black Reconstruction, a Marxist interpretation of the post-Civil War era. At Atlanta University, where he later taught, he founded a review of race and culture called Phylon in 1940 and the same year published Dusk at Dawn, in which he examined his own career as a case study of race dynamics. He rejoined the NAACP from 1944 to 1948 but broke with the group permanently after a bitter dispute. He joined the Communist Party in 1961 and moved to Ghana, where he had been invited by President Kwame Nkrumah to edit the Encyclopedia Africana. DuBois became a citizen of Ghana in 1963. He died on 27 August 1963.
    DUBOIS ONLINE: The Souls of Black FolkStrivings of the Negro PeopleOf the Training of Black MenA Negro Schoolmaster in the New SouthThe Freedmen's Bureau
    1866 José Joaquín Casas Castañeda, escritor y político colombiano.
    1863 Franz von Stuck, German Symbolist / Expressionist painter, sculptor, engraver and architect who, after being responsible for a Murderer, would get stuck with fame because of a Sin which followed his Sensuality. He would survive for many year the Kiss of the Sphinx, but eventually die on 30 August 1928. — MORE ON VON STUCK AT ART “4” FEBRUARY with links to images.
    1863 Luigi Capotosti, Italian; ordained a Catholic priest in 1885; appointed Bishop of Modigliana on 08 April 1906 and consecrated a bishop on 31 May 1906; appointed Secretary of the Sacred Congregation for the Discipline of the Sacraments on 08 June 1914; made a cardinal on 21 June 1931; died on 16 February 1938; died on 16 February 1938..
    1861 Mathews, mathematician.
    1831 Hendrik Mesdag, Dutch painter specialized in Maritime Scenes, who died on 10 July 1915. — MORE ON MESDAG AT ART “4” FEBRUARY with links to images.
    1822 Boston is granted a charter to incorporate as a city.
    1817 George Frederic Watts, English Pre-Raphaelite / Symbolist painter and sculptor, who died on 01 July 1904. — MORE ON WATTS AT ART “4” FEBRUARY with links to images.
    1801 Pierre Asthasie Théodore Senties, French artist.
    1795 Antonio José de Sucre, héroe de la independencia hispanoamericana, venezolano.
    1787 Hippolyte-Jean-Baptiste Garneray, French artist who died on 07 January 1858.
    1779 Pieter Frans de Noter, Belgian artist who died on 22 November 1843.
    1756 Juan Pablo Forner y Sagarra, escritor español.
    1744 Jan van Os, Dutch artist who died on 07 February 1808. — more with links to images.
    ^ 1743 Mayer Amschel Rothschild, founder of a banking dynasty
          February 23rd marks the birthday of Mayer Amschel Rothschild, founder of Europe's most prominent banking empire. Born in Frankfurt, Germany, Mayer Rothschild was initially groomed to become a rabbi, rather than a banking bigwig. But, the early passing of his parents led Rothschild to enter the realm of high finance, first as an apprentice to a bank. He rapidly ascended to the upper regions of the banking world, and, along with his five sons who were stationed in spots around Europe, set about establishing the Rothschild name. The family exploited the French Revolution and other upheavals in Europe for their financial gain, serving as key lenders to royal families, as well as agents for the trade (both official and illegal) of various goods. By the time Mayer Rothschild passed away in 1812, he had laid the groundwork for his family's dominance, which became more pronounced through their growing involvement in government finance, as well as their savvy investments in assorted sectors of the Industrial Revolution.
    1739 Peter Adolphe Hall, Swedish artist who died on 15 May 1793. — more
    1685 George Friedrich Händel, Halle, Germany, English organist and Baroque composer (Messiah). He died on 14 April 1759.
    1670 Matthäus Arents Terwesten, Dutch artist who died on 11 June 1757.
    1663 (Julian date: go to 05 Mar Gregorian) Samuel Pepys
    1583 Jean-Baptiste Morin, mathematician.
    1417 Paul II [Pietro Barbo], Italy, Pope (1464-1471)
    Brunei : National Day
    Santos Marta, Policarpo, Ordoño y Félix. / Saint Lazare est un moine byzantin du IXe siècle. Il peint des icônes, ce qui lui vaut d'être torturé par les iconoclastes. L'iconoclasme est un mouvement religieux très violent en Orient au Moyen Age. Il voit dans la vénération des images pieuses une forme d'idôlatrie. Une impératrice de Constantinople, Théodora, met provisoirement un terme à l'iconoclasme.
    Thoughts for the day: "A good man can be stupid and still be good. But a bad man must have brains." — Maxim Gorky, Russian writer [1868-1936].
    “A good writer can make a stupid statement and still be a good writer.”
    “A good writer is a dead writer, in most cases; and if he isn't, he will be.”
    “A good writer is, or will be a dead writer much longer than a live one.”
    “A stupid man can be good and still be stupid.
    “ A schoolmaster ought to be a skill master, not a fact force feeder.”
    “A schoolmaster can be stupid and still be a fine fanatic freakish fact force feeder forever fooling folks.”
    “A school administrator can be stupid, in fact it seems to be a requirement.”
    “A bad man is stupid if he doesn't have brains.”
    “The smartest man in the world is the one who relies on the advice of men smarter than he is.”
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