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Events, deaths, births, of JAN 05
[For Jan 05 Julian go to Gregorian date: 1583~1699: Jan 151700s: Jan 161800s: Jan 171900~2099: Jan 18]
On a January 05:
2004 At all 115 US airports that handle international flights and 14 major seaports, the regime of USurper-President “Dubya” Bush puts into action a program which it calls US-VISIT by which entering foreigners from all but 29 nations will have their fingerprints scanned and their photographs taken. The regime pretends that this will protect the US from terrorists, a ludicrous claim. In reality, all it will achieve is to funnel billions of taxpayer dollars to private companies who conspire with the regime, increasing the budget deficit and denying funds to useful social projects. The exempted nations are those whose citizens are allowed to come to the United States for up to 90 days without visas: Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, France, Monaco, Italy, San Marino, Spain, Portugal, Andorra, United Kingdom, Ireland, Iceland, Slovenia, Brunei, Japan, Singapore, Australia, New Zealand. Also exempted will be most Canadians, because they usually are not required to get visas, and Mexicans who are coming briefly into the border region. Terrorists will presumably concentrate their recruiting in these 29 nations (or get false passports from them). The US regime plans to extend its program to 50 land border crossings by the end of 2005.
2004 The government of Zambia gives British citizen and long-time Zambia resident Roy Clarke, a satirical writer for the privately owned Daily Post newspaper, 24 hours to leave the country. His offense? On 01 January he referred to President Levy Mwanawasa as a "foolish elephant" and two of his ministers as "baboons". Clarke ought to come now to the US and direct his barbs at the regime of USurper-President “Dubya” Bush and its schemes for funneling taxpayer money to its supportive private companies. But he should not compare them to baboons, who have done nothing to deserve such an insult. He might call them "rogue elephants", with the understanding that this in no way refers to real pachyderms, but only to the symbol of the retrograde political party of the regime, which seems to aspire to transform the US government into a pale imitation of that of the defunct USSR, with the result that the US has replaced the USSR as the most distrusted and hated nation in the world, in the opinion of many people.
2003 The body of Faheem Williams, 7, is discovered. He died “more than a month before”, locked up in a filthy basement, of starvation, thirst, beatings, and cigarette burns. — MORE at History “4” Nov 29
2001 In an Andradina, Brazil, prison, early in the morning, rapist Santos Cruz, 23, slices off with a shaving razor the part of his body that “distances him from God, and makes him commit sin.,” as he later explains that the Bible orders. Then he flushes the part down the toilet. Urologist Aerton Barbosa Neves operates on him and states that the convict will have to urinate through a tube for the rest of his life.
2000 Touching off angry protests by Cuban-Americans in Miami, INS Commissioner Doris Meissner ruled that refugee Elian Gonzalez, 6, ''belongs with his father'' and must be returned to Cuba by 14 Jan 2000. Elian had survived the wreck of the boat in which his mother, separated from his remarried father, died while bringing him to the US. After a legal battle, the belated coming to the US of the boy's father, and the seizure of Elian at gun point from the home of his US relatives, he would be returned to Cuba in June.
1998 Ice storm knocks out electricity in Quebec & Ontario
1998 Vandals decapitate Copenhagen's Little Mermaid.
1997 Last Russian troops depart Chechnya... until next time (1999)
      Russia withdraws the last of its military personnel from the breakaway Russian republic of Chechnya, marking a formal end to an ill-fated military campaign that cost thousands of Russian lives. With the collapse of the USS.R. in 1991, Chechnya, like many of the other republics encompassed by the former Soviet Union, declared its independence. However, unlike most other former Soviet states, Chechnya, a Connecticut-sized enclave of some one million largely Muslim people, has traditionally been considered a region of the country of Russia. Russian President Boris Yeltsin, who permitted the dissolution of the Soviet Union, would not tolerate an independence movement within Russia proper. On December 11, 1994, thousands of Russian troops and hundreds of tanks poured into Chechnya in the largest Russian military offensive since the 1979 invasion of Afghanistan. By evening, Russian forces had pushed to the outskirts of the Chechen capital of Grozny, where several thousand Chechen volunteers vowed a bitter fight against the Russians. Over the next twenty-one months of fighting, Russia failed to suppress the Chechen rebels, and thousands of Russian troops were killed. In 1996, a cease-fire was declared, and in January of 1997, the last Russian troops withdrew. In the same year, Boris Yeltsin and his Chechen counterpart Aslan Maskhadov signed a formal peace agreement promising an end to hundreds of years of intermittent conflict, although no real compromise on the issue of Chechen independence was made.
1992 "Peter Pan" closes at Minskoff Theater New York City NY after 48 performances
1988 Austrian President Waldheim's war record investigated
1987 Surrogate Baby M case begins in Hackensack NJ
1982 Arkansas judge rules against obligatory teaching of creation
1977 Kenya President Jomo Kenyatta disbands parliament
1976 Cambodia is renamed "Democratic Kampuchea"
1972 West-Pakistani sheik Mujib ur-Rahman freed
1972 President Nixon signs a $5.5 billion bill for NASA to begin research on manned space shuttle.
1972 New York City NY transit fare rises from 30¢ to 35¢
1970 23'000 Belgian mine workers strike.
1970 The United Mine Workers killings
      The bodies of dissident union leader Jock Yablonski, his wife, and daughter are discovered in their Clarksville, Pennsylvania, farmhouse by his brother Kenneth. The family had been dead for nearly a week, killed on New Year's Eve by hired killers for the United Mine Workers (UMW) union leadership. Yablonski's murder eventually brought down the whole union leadership and ended the widespread corruption of Tony Boyle.
      Jock Yablonski ran against Boyle in a 1969 election for the leadership of the UMW union. He accused Boyle of nepotism and misuse of union funds, while also pushing for greater voting rights for rank-and-file members. On December 9, 1969, Boyle won the election but Yablonski asked the US Labor Department to investigate the election for possible fraud.
      At that point, Boyle sought to have Yablonski killed. Paul Gilly and Claude Vealey were hired by a UMW leader, Albert Pass, to carry out the murder. In mid-December, Gilly and Vealey went to Yablonski's house but lost their nerve at the last moment. When they returned two weeks later with Buddy Martin, they shot Yablonski, his wife, Margaret, and 25-year-old daughter, Charlotte.
      Eventually, an investigation into the murders exposed the conspiracy and nine people were convicted for their involvement, including Tony Boyle, who died in prison. Gilly, Vealey, Martin, and Pass all remain in jail to this day. Fortunately, the scandal prompted serious reform of the UMW union.
1969 Change of US negotiator at Vietnam War peace talks
      President-elect Richard Nixon names Henry Cabot Lodge to succeed W. Averell Harriman as chief US negotiator at the Paris peace talks. Lawrence Edward Walsh, a New York lawyer and former deputy attorney general, was named deputy chief negotiator to replace Cyrus R. Vance. Marshall Green, an Asian affairs expert and ambassador to Indonesia, was assigned to assist the negotiating team. The peace talks started on May 10, 1968, but had been plagued from the beginning by procedural questions that inhibited any meaningful negotiations or progress. Unfortunately, the change in personnel had no effect in fostering more meaningful negotiations.
1968 “Prague Spring” begins
      Antonin Novotny, the Stalinist ruler of Czechoslovakia, is succeeded as Communist Party leader by Alexander Dubcek, a Slovak who supports diplomatic reforms. Two months later, Novotny resigns the presidency, and Dubcek introduces a series of far-reaching political and economic reforms, including increased freedom of speech and an end to state censorship. Dubcek's efforts to establish "Communism with a human face" are celebrated across the country, and the brief period of freedom becomes known as the "Prague Spring." In August, the Soviet Union responds to Dubcek's liberal reforms with a Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia. Scattered student resistance is no match for the Soviet tanks, and Dubcek's reforms are repealed as the leader himself is replaced with the staunchly pro-Soviet Gustav Husak, who reestablishes an authoritarian Communist dictatorship. In 1970, Dubcek loses his Party membership and is pushed entirely out of Czechoslovakian politics. However, with the liberalization of Soviet society in the late 1980s, Prague again becomes the scene of demonstrations against the government and for democratic reforms, and in December of 1989, a coalition of dissident groups forces the Communist government to allow a multiparty parliament. Husak resigns and Dubcek returns to politics after two decades as chairman of the new multiparty Czechoslovak parliament. The parliament subsequently elects the Prague Spring playwright Vaclav Havel as the president of the newly democratic Czechoslovakia.
1968 Dr Benjamin Spock indicted for conspiring to violate US draft law
1967 Amphibious attack in the Mekong Delta
      1st Battalion, 9th US Marines and South Vietnamese Marine Brigade Force Bravo conduct amphibious operations in the Kien Hoa Province in the Mekong Delta, located 62 miles south of Saigon.
      This action, part of Operation Deckhouse V, marked the first time that US combat troops were used in the Mekong Delta. The target area, called the Thanh Phu Secret Zone by the Viet Cong guerrillas, was believed to contain communist ammunition dumps, ordinance and engineering workshops, hospitals, and indoctrination centers. During the course of the operation, which lasted until January 15, seven US Marines and 21 Viet Cong were killed.
1964 Following an unprecedented pilgrimage to the Holy Land, Pope Paul VI meets with Greek Ecumenical Patriarch Athenagoras I in Jerusalem. It was the first such meeting between leaders of the Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox Churches in over 500 years (since 1439).
1961 US breaks diplomatic relations with Cuba
1957 US President proposes new Middle East policy
      In response to the increasingly tense situation in the Middle East, President Dwight D. Eisenhower delivers a proposal to Congress that calls for a new and more proactive US policy in the region. The "Eisenhower Doctrine," as the proposal soon came to be known, established the Middle East as a Cold War battlefield.
      The United States believed that the situation in the Middle East degenerated badly during 1956, and Egypt leader Gamal Nasser was deemed largely responsible. The US used Nasser's anti-western nationalism and his increasingly close relations with the Soviet Union as justification for withdrawing US support for the construction of the Aswan Dam on the Nile River in July 1956. Less than a month later, Nasser seized control of the Suez Canal. This action prompted, in late October, a coordinated attack by French, British, and Israeli military on Egypt. Suddenly, it appeared that the Middle East might be the site of World War III.
      In response to these disturbing developments, President Eisenhower called for "joint action by the Congress and the Executive" in meeting the "increased danger from International Communism" in the Middle East. Specifically, he asked for authorization to begin new programs of economic and military cooperation with friendly nations in the region. He also requested authorization to use US troops "to secure and protect the territorial integrity and political independence of such nations."
      Eisenhower did not ask for a specific appropriation of funds at the time; nevertheless, he indicated that he would seek $200 million for economic and military aid in each of the years 1958 and 1959. Only such action, he warned, would dissuade "power-hungry Communists" from interfering in the Middle East.
      While some newspapers and critics were uneasy with the open-ended policy for US action in the Middle East (the Chicago Tribune called the doctrine "goofy"), the US House of Representatives and Senate responded with overwhelming votes in favor of Eisenhower's proposal.
      The "Eisenhower Doctrine" received its first call to action in the summer of 1958, when civil strife in Lebanon led that nation's president to request US assistance. Nearly 15,000 US troops were sent to help quell the disturbances. With the Eisenhower Doctrine and the first action taken in its name, the United States demonstrated its interest in Middle East developments.
1949 The Fair Deal
      US President Harry Truman proposes national health insurance, raising the minimum wage, strengthening the position of organized labor, and guarantying the civil rights of all Americans. Referencing the popular "New Deal" programs of his predecessor, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Truman styled his reform package the "Fair Deal."

Annual Message to the Congress on the State of the Union.
[Delivered in person before a joint session, at 13:00. broadcast nationally on radio.]

Mr. President, Mr. Speaker, Members of the Congress:

  I am happy to report to this 81st Congress that the state of the Union is good. Our Nation is better able than ever before to meet the needs of the American people, and to give them their fair chance in the pursuit of happiness. This great Republic is foremost among the nations of the world in the search for peace.

  During the last 16 years, our people have been creating a society which offers new opportunities for every man to enjoy his share of the good things of life.

  In this society, we are conservative about the values and principles which we cherish; but we are forward-looking in protecting those values and principles and in extending their benefits. We have rejected the discredited theory that the fortunes of the Nation should be in the hands of a privileged few. We have abandoned the "trickle-down" concept of national prosperity. Instead, we believe that our economic system should rest on a democratic foundation and that wealth should be created for the benefit of all.

  The recent election shows that the people of the United States are in favor of this kind of society and want to go on improving it.

  The American people have decided that poverty is just as wasteful and just as unnecessary as preventable disease. We have pledged our common resources to help one another in the hazards and struggles of individual life. We believe that no unfair prejudice or artificial distinction should bar any citizen of the United States of America from an education, or from good health, or from a job that he is capable of performing.

The attainment of this kind of society demands the best efforts of every citizen in every walk of life, and it imposes increasing responsibilities on the Government.

The Government must work with industry, labor, and the farmers in keeping our economy running at full speed. The Government must see that every American has a chance to obtain his fair share of our increasing abundance. These responsibilities go hand in hand.

We cannot maintain prosperity unless we have a fair distribution of opportunity and a widespread consumption of the products of our factories and farms.

  Our Government has undertaken to meet these responsibilities.

  We have made tremendous public investments in highways, hydroelectric power projects, soil conservation, and reclamation. We have established a system of social security. We have enacted laws protecting the rights and the welfare of our working people and the income of our farmers. These Federal policies have paid for themselves many times over. They have strengthened the material foundations of our democratic ideals. Without them, our present prosperity would be impossible.

  Reinforced by these policies, our private enterprise system has reached new heights of production. Since the boom year of 1929, while our population has increased by only 20 percent, our agricultural production has increased by 45 percent, and our industrial production has increased by 75 percent. We are turning out far more goods and more wealth per worker than we have ever done before.

  This progress has confounded the gloomy prophets-at home and abroad-who predicted the downfall of American capitalism. The people of the United States, going their own way, confident in their own powers, have achieved the greatest prosperity the world has even seen.

  But, great as our progress has been, we still have a long way to go.

  As we look around the country, many of our shortcomings stand out in bold relief.

  We are suffering from excessively high prices.

  Our production is still not large enough to satisfy our demands.

  Our minimum wages are far too low.

  Small business is losing ground to growing monopoly.

  Our farmers still face an uncertain future. And too many of them lack the benefits of our modern civilization.

  Some of our natural resources are still being wasted.

  We are acutely short of electric power, although the means for developing such power are abundant.

  Five million families are still living in slums and firetraps. Three million families share their homes with others.

  Our health is far behind the progress of medical science. Proper medical care is so expensive that it is out of the reach of the great majority of our citizens.

  Our schools, in many localities, are utterly inadequate.

  Our democratic ideals are often thwarted by prejudice and intolerance.

  Each of these shortcomings is also an opportunity-an opportunity for the Congress and the President to work for the good of the people.

  Our first great opportunity is to protect our economy against the evils of "boom and bust."

  This objective cannot be attained by government alone. Indeed, the greater part of the task must be performed by individual efforts under our system of free enterprise. We can keep our present prosperity, and increase it, only if free enterprise and free government work together to that end.

  We cannot afford to float along ceaselessly on a postwar boom until it collapses. It is not enough merely to prepare to weather a recession if it comes. Instead, government and business must work together constancy to achieve more and more jobs and more and more production-which mean more and more prosperity for all the people.

  The business cycle is man-made; and men of good will, working together, can smooth it out.

  So far as business is concerned, it should plan for steady, vigorous expansion-seeking always to increase its output, lower its prices, and avoid the vices of monopoly and restriction. So long as business does this, it will be contributing to continued prosperity, and it will have the help and encouragement of the Government.

  The Employment Act of 1946 pledges the Government to use all its resources to promote maximum employment, production, and purchasing power. This means that the Government is firmly committed to protect business and the people against the dangers of recession and against the evils of inflation. This means that the Government must adapt its plans and policies to meet changing circumstances.

  At the present time, our prosperity is threatened by inflationary pressures at a number of critical points in our economy. And the Government must be in a position to take effective action at these danger spots. To that end, I recommend that the Congress enact legislation for the following purposes:   

  1. First, to continue the power to control consumer credit and enlarge the power to control bank credit.
  2. Second, to grant authority to regulate speculation on the commodity exchanges.
  3. Third, to continue export control authority and to provide adequate machinery for its enforcement.
  4. Fourth, to continue the priorities and allocation authority in the field of transportation.
  5. Fifth, to authorize priorities and allocations for key materials in short supply.
  6. Sixth, to extend and strengthen rent control.
  7. Seventh, to provide standby authority to impose price ceilings for scarce commodities which basically affect essential industrial production or the cost of living, and to limit unjustified wage adjustments which would force a break in an established price ceiling.
  8. Eighth, to authorize an immediate study of the adequacy of production facilities for materials in critically short supply, such as steel; and, if found necessary, to authorize Government loans for the expansion of production facilities to relieve such shortages, and to authorize the construction of such facilities directly, if action by private industry fails to meet our needs.

  The Economic Report, which I shall submit to the Congress shortly, will discuss in detail the economic background for these recommendations.

  One of the most important factors in maintaining prosperity is the Government's fiscal policy. At this time, it is essential not only that the Federal budget be balanced, but also that there be a substantial surplus to reduce inflationary pressures, and to permit a sizable reduction in the national debt, which now stands at $252 billion. I recommend, therefore, that the Congress enact new tax legislation to bring in an additional $4 billion of Government revenue. This should come principally from additional corporate taxes. A portion should come from revised estate and gift taxes. Consideration should be given to raising personal income rates in the middle and upper brackets.

  If we want to keep our economy running in high gear, we must be sure that every group has the incentive to make its full contribution to the national welfare. At present, the working men and women of the Nation are unfairly discriminated against by a statute that abridges their rights, curtails their constructive efforts, and hampers our system of free collective bargaining. That statute is the Labor-Management Relations Act of 1947, sometimes called the Taft-Hartley Act.

  That act should be repealed!

  The Wagner Act should be reenacted. However, certain improvements, which I recommended to the Congress 2 years ago, are needed. Jurisdictional strikes and unjustified secondary boycotts should be prohibited. The use of economic force to decide issues arising out of the interpretation of existing contracts should be prevented. Without endangering our democratic freedoms, means should be provided for setting up machinery for preventing strikes in vital industries which affect the public interest.

  The Department of Labor should be rebuilt and strengthened and those units properly belonging within that department should be placed in it.

  The health of our economy and its maintenance at high levels further require that the minimum wage fixed by law should be raised to at least 75 cents an hour.

  If our free enterprise economy is to be strong and healthy, we must reinvigorate the forces of competition. We must assure small business the freedom and opportunity to grow and prosper. To this purpose, we should strengthen our antitrust laws by closing those loopholes that permit monopolistic mergers and consolidations.

  Our national farm program should be improved-not only in the interest of the farmers, but for the lasting prosperity of the whole Nation. Our goals should he abundant farm production and parity income for agriculture. Standards of living on the farm should be just as good as anywhere else in the country.

  Farm price supports are an essential part of our program to achieve these ends. Price supports should be used to prevent farm price declines which are out of line with general price levels, to facilitate adjustments in production to consumer demands, and to promote good land use. Our price support legislation must be adapted to these objectives. The authority of the Commodity Credit Corporation to provide adequate storage space for crops should be restored.

  Our program for farm prosperity should also seek to expand the domestic market for agricultural products, particularly among low-income groups, and to increase and stabilize foreign markets.

  We should give special attention to extending modern conveniences and services to our farms. Rural electrification should be pushed forward. And in considering legislation relating to housing, education, health, and social security, special attention should be given to rural problems.

  Our growing population and the expansion of our economy depend upon the wise management of our land, water, forest, and mineral wealth. In our present dynamic economy, the task of conservation is not to lockup our resources but to develop and improve them. Failure, today, to make the investments which are necessary to support our progress in the future would be false economy.

  We must push forward the development of our rivers for power, irrigation, navigation, and flood control. We should apply the lessons of our Tennessee Valley experience to our other great river basins.   I again recommend action be taken by the Congress to approve the St. Lawrence Seaway and Power project. This is about the fifth time I have recommended it.

  We must adopt a program for the planned use of the petroleum reserves under the sea, which are-and must remain-vested in the Federal Government. We must extend our programs of soil conservation. We must place our forests on a sustained yield basis, and encourage the development of new sources of vital minerals.

  In all this we must make sure that the benefits of these public undertakings are directly available to the people. Public power should be earned to consuming areas by public transmission lines where necessary to provide electricity at the lowest possible rates. Irrigation waters should serve family farms and not land speculators.

  The Government has still other opportunities-to help raise the standard of living of our citizens. These opportunities lie in the fields of social security, health, education, housing, and civil rights.

  The present coverage of the social security laws is altogether inadequate; the benefit payments are too low. One-third of our workers are not covered. Those who receive old-age and survivors insurance benefits receive an average payment of only $25 a month. Many others who cannot work because they are physically disabled are left to the mercy of charity. We should expand our social security program, both as to the size of the benefits and the extent of coverage, against the economic hazards due to unemployment, old age, sickness, and disability.

  We must spare no effort to raise the general level of health in this country. In a nation as rich as ours, it is a shocking fact that tens of millions lack adequate medical care. We are short of doctors, hospitals, nurses. We must remedy these shortages. Moreover, we need-and we must have without further delay-a system of prepaid medical insurance which will enable every American to afford good medical care.

  It is equally shocking that millions of our children are not receiving a good education. Millions of them are in overcrowded, obsolete buildings. We are short of teachers, because teachers' salaries are too low to attract new teachers, or to hold the ones we have. All these school problems will become much more acute as a result of the tremendous increase in the enrollment in our elementary schools in the next few years. I cannot repeat too strongly my desire for prompt Federal financial aid to the States to help them operate and maintain their school systems.

  The governmental agency which now administers the programs of health, education, and social security should be given full departmental status.

  The housing shortage continues to be acute. As an immediate step, the Congress should enact the provisions for low-rent public housing, slum clearance, farm housing, and housing research which I have repeatedly recommended. The number of low-rent public housing units provided for in the legislation should be increased to 1 million units in the next 7 years. Even this number of units will not begin to meet our need for new housing.

  Most of the houses we need will have to be built by private enterprise, without public subsidy. By producing too few rental units and too large a proportion of high-priced houses, the building industry is rapidly pricing itself out of the market. Building costs must be lowered.

  The Government is now engaged in a campaign to induce all segments of the building industry to concentrate on the production of lower priced housing. Additional legislation to encourage such housing will be submitted.

  The authority which I have requested, to allocate materials in short supply and to impose price ceilings on such materials, could be used, if found necessary, to channel more materials into homes large enough for family life at prices which wage earners can afford.

  The driving force behind our progress is our faith in our democratic institutions. That faith is embodied in the promise of equal rights and equal opportunities which the founders of our Republic proclaimed to their countrymen and to the whole world.

  The fulfillment of this promise is among the highest purposes of government. The civil rights proposals I made to the 80th Congress, I now repeat to the 81st Congress. They should be enacted in order that the Federal Government may assume the leadership and discharge the obligations clearly placed upon it by the Constitution.

  I stand squarely behind those proposals. Our domestic programs are the foundation of our foreign policy. The world today looks to us for leadership because we have so largely realized, within our borders, those benefits of democratic government for which most of the peoples of the world are yearning.

  We are following a foreign policy which is the outward expression of the democratic faith we profess. We are doing what we can to encourage free states and free peoples throughout the world, to aid the suffering and afflicted in foreign lands, and to strengthen democratic nations against aggression.

  The heart of our foreign policy is peace. We are supporting a world organization to keep peace and a world economic policy to create prosperity for mankind. Our guiding star is the principle of international cooperation. To this concept we have made a national commitment as profound as anything in history.   To it we have pledged our resources and our honor.

  Until a system of world security is established upon which we can safely rely, we cannot escape the burden of creating and maintaining armed forces sufficient to deter aggression. We have made great progress in the last year in the effective organization of our Armed Forces, but further improvements in our national security legislation are necessary. Universal training is essential to the security of the United States.

  During the course of this session I shall have occasion to ask the Congress to consider several measures in the field of foreign policy. At this time, I recommend that we restore the Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act to full effectiveness, and extend it for 3 years. We should also open our doors to displaced persons without unfair discrimination.

  It should be clear by now to all citizens that we are not seeking to freeze the status quo. We have no intention of preserving the injustices of the past. We welcome the constructive efforts being made by many nations to achieve a better life for their citizens. In the European recovery program, in our good-neighbor policy and in the United Nations, we have begun to batter down those national walls which block the economic growth and the social advancement of the peoples of the world.

  We believe that if we hold resolutely to this course, the principle of international cooperation will eventually command the approval even of those nations which are now seeking to weaken or subvert it.

  We stand at the opening of an era which can mean either great achievement or terrible catastrophe for ourselves and for all mankind.

  The strength of our Nation must continue to be used in the interest of all our people rather than a privileged few. It must continue to be used unselfishly in the struggle for world peace and the betterment of mankind the world over.

  This is the task before us.

  It is not an easy one. It has many complications, and there will be strong opposition from selfish interests.

  I hope for cooperation from farmers, from labor, and from business. Every segment of our population and every individual has a right to expect from our Government a fair deal.

In 1945, when I came down before the Congress for the first time on April 16, I quoted to you King Solomon's prayer that he wanted wisdom and the ability to govern his people as they should be governed. I explained to you at that time that the task before me was one of the greatest in the history of the world, and that it was necessary to have the complete cooperation of the Congress and the people of the United States.

  Well now, we are taking a new start with the same situation. It is absolutely essential that your President have the complete cooperation of the Congress to carry out the great work that must be done to keep the peace in this world, and to keep this country prosperous.

  The people of this great country have a right to expect that the Congress and the President will work in closest cooperation with one objective-the welfare of the people of this Nation as a whole.

  In the months ahead I know that I shall be able to cooperate with this Congress.

  Now, I am confident that the Divine Power which has guided us to this time of fateful responsibility and glorious opportunity will not desert us now.

  With that help from Almighty God which we have humbly acknowledged at every turning point in our national life, we shall be able to perform the great tasks which He now sets before us.

1945 Japanese pilots received the first order to become Kamikaze, or "Divine Wind." The suicidal blitz of the Kamikazes revealed Japan's desperation in the final months of World War II. Most of Japan's top pilots were dead, but youngsters needed little training to take planes full of explosives and crash them into ships. At the Battle of Okinawa, they sank thirty ships and killed almost 5000 Americans.
1945 Soviets “recognize” their puppet Polish Provisional Government
      On the eve of a major offensive into Poland, the Soviet Union decides to recognize the pro-Soviet Lublin Committee as the Provisional Government of Poland instead of the government-in-exile that was temporarily being headquartered in London.
      On September 1, 1939, a massive German army invaded Poland. Sixteen days later, the USSR invaded Poland from the east. During this tumultuous period, Gen. Wladyslaw Sikorski became leader of a Polish government-in-exile in London. He developed a good working relationship with the Allies until April 1943, when Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin broke off Polish-Soviet diplomatic relations after Sikorski requested that the Red Cross investigate the alleged Soviet slaughter of Polish officers in the Katyn forest of eastern Poland in 1942.
      As the war progressed and the Soviets battled the Germans in western Poland, the Polish government-in-exile began to fear that Soviet domination might follow if the Soviets defeated Germany for control of the Polish territory. Stanislaw Mikolajczyk, Sikorski's successor as the provisional government head, pleaded with the Allies to secure Poland's postwar borders and sovereignty, but no such assurances were granted. In August 1944, the Polish Home Army, fearful that the Soviets would march on Warsaw to battle the Germans and never leave the capital, led an uprising against the German occupiers. They hoped that if they could defeat the Germans, the Allies would help install the anti-Communist government-in-exile after the war.
      Unfortunately, the Soviets, rather than aiding the uprising that they encouraged in the name of beating back their common enemy, stood idly by and watched as the Germans slaughtered the Poles and sent survivors to concentration camps.
      With native Polish resistance eradicated, and in anticipation of one last offensive against the Germans, the Soviet Union created its own pro-communist Polish provisional government to counter the anti-communist government-in-exile. At the Yalta Conference in February 1945, the Allies agreed that an interim government would be formed from both the pro- and anti-communist sides, with free elections to follow. The Soviets had other plans, though, and promptly turned the exhausted and battered Poland into a nondemocratic satellite country, which it remained until 1989.
1943 William H Hastie, civilian aide to US secretary of war, resigns to protest segregation in armed forces
1942 55 German tanks reach North-Africa
1941 British/Australian troops conquer Bardia Lybia
1940 Finnish offensive at Suomossalmi against Russia.
1933 Construction begins on Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco.
1930 Mao Tse-tung writes "A Single Spark Can Start a Prairie Fire"
1929 Coup by King Alexander in South Slavia.
1925 Mrs. Nellie Taylor Ross succeeded her late husband as governor of Wyoming, becoming the first female governor in US history.
1922 Following her sensational divorce, popular American evangelist Aimee Semple McPherson, 32, resigns her denominational ordination and returns her fellowship papers to the General Council of the Assemblies of God.
1919 Spartacus uprising in Berlin state of siege
1918 British premier Lloyd George demand for unified peace
1916 Austria-Hungary offensive against Montenegro
1914 $5.00 an 8-hour day at Ford, up from $2.40 a 9-hour day
      James Cox of the Ford Motor Company announces that the company's minimum wage rises to five dollars per day, and that the work day is reduced to eight hours. Whatever the merits of these measures, they were something of a necessary corrective, designed to offset the potentially "dehumanizing" effects of Ford's recent move to perpetually operating mode of assembly-line production. Though the company was now able to churn out 2,000 autos a day, the quicksilver pace took a severe toll on Ford’s assembly-line workers.
     Henry Ford establishes a minimum wage of $5.00 per day in his automobile factories. These wages were twice what Ford had paid the year before, and much more than Ford’s competitors were paying. The lofty minimum wage was made possible by Henry Ford’s manufacturing breakthrough: the constant-motion assembly line, which carried moving cars past lines of workers. The first modern assembly line, Ford’s process allowed him to build cars faster and cheaper than anyone else could. The profits rolled in, and Ford’s workers shared in the wealth: an ironic beginning for an auto company that would go on to be a notorious enemy of labor in the 1930s and 1940s.
1911 Portugal expels Jesuits.
1909 Colombia recognizes Panama's independence.
1905 Charles Perrine announces discovery of Jupiter's 7th satellite, Elara
1904 Ransom Eli Olds retires from Olds Motor Works
      Olds had founded the company in 1899 with financial help from Samuel L. Smith, a lumber tycoon. Olds made the most profitable car in the early 1900s, the tiller-steered Oldsmobile Runabout. In 1904, Olds was approached by his head of engineering, Henry Leland, who had designed a lighter, more powerful engine that could improve the Runabout dramatically. Olds refused to use the new engine, to the dismay of his backer, Samuel Smith. Smith forced Ransom Olds out of the company. Olds went on to found the Reo Motor Car Company, and Oldsmobile went on without him. Henry Leland, the clever engineer, took his motor elsewhere: it powered the world’s first Cadillac.
1899 Start of Sherlock Holmes' adventure — Charles Augustus Milverton
1896 The Austrian newspaper Wiener Presse reports the discovery by German physicist Wilhelm Roentgen of a type of radiation that would be known as X-rays.
1895 French Captain Alfred Dreyfus [09 Oct 1859 – 12 Jul 1935], falsely convicted (on 22 Dec 1894) of treason (because he is Jewish), is publicly stripped of his rank. After the 13 Jan 1898 J'accuse article of Zola [02 Apr 1840 – 28 Sep 1902] and a second false conviction on 09 September 1899, Dreyfus would be pardoned on 19 September 1899 and, at long last, declared innocent on 21 July 1906. — MORE and a Harper's cartoon
1875 President Grant sends federal troops to Vicksburg MS
1861 Alabama troops seize Forts Morgan & Gaines at Mobile Bay
1861 US Senators from Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, and Florida meet in Washington, DC to discuss secession
1861 250 Federal soldiers are sent from New York to Fort Sumter
1859 First steamboat sails, Red River
1846 US House of Representatives wants Oregon for US alone.
      Boldly reversing its long-standing policy of "free and open" occupation in the disputed Oregon Territory, the US House of Representatives passes a resolution calling for an end to British-American sharing of the region. The United States, one congressman asserted, had "the right of our manifest destiny to spread over our whole continent."
      In different circumstances, such aggressive posturing might have led to war. The British, through their Hudson Bay Company at the mouth of the Columbia River, had a reasonable claim to the disputed territory of modern-day Washington. In contrast, the only part of the Oregon Territory the US could legitimately claim by settlement was the area below the Columbia River. Above the river, there were only eight recently arrived Americans in 1845. Nonetheless, the aggressively expansionistic President James Polk coveted Oregon Territory up to the 49th parallel (the modern-day border with Canada). Yet Polk was also on the verge of war with Mexico in his drive to take that nation's northern provinces, and he had no desire to fight the British and Mexicans at the same time.
      Consequently, Polk had to move cautiously. Some of his fellow Democrats in the Congress pushed him to be even more aggressive, demanding that Americans control the territory all the way up to the 54th parallel, approximately where Edmonton, Alberta, is today. For five months, debate raged in Congress over the "Oregon controversy," but the House resolution in January made it clear that the US was determined to end the joint occupation with Great Britain.
      Luckily, the British agreed to abandon their claim to the area north of the Columbia and accept the 49th parallel as a border. The Hudson Bay Company already had decided to relocate its principal trading post from the Columbia River area to Vancouver Island, leaving the British with little interest in maintaining their claim to area. Despite the cries of betrayal from the advocates of the 54th parallel, Polk wisely accepted the British offer to place the border on the 49th parallel. The new boundary not only gave the US more territory than it had any legitimate claim to, but it also left Polk free to pursue his next objective: a war with Mexico for control of the Southwest.
1841 James Clark Ross (UK) is 1st to enter pack ice near Ross Ice Shelf
1840 Records show 95'820 licensed public houses in England on this date
1836 Davy Crockett arrives in Texas, just in time for the Alamo
1834 Kiowa Indians record this as the night the stars fell.
1825 Alexandre Dumas père fights a duel
      Alexandre Dumas, 23, fights his first duel. He sustains no serious injury, although his pants fall down in the fight. He'll later fill his romantic works, including The Three Musketeers, with duels, battles, and daring escapades.
      Dumas was the son of one of Napoléon's generals, but his family struggled financially after his father's death in 1806. Dumas went to Paris to find work and was hired by the household of the Duke D'Orleans, who became King Louis-Philippe. Dumas began writing plays, which became huge hits with the public, then turned to historical novels. He published Les Trois Mousquetaires in 1844, followed by The Count of Monte Cristo in 1845.
      Dumas led a tempestuous life filled with ruinous love affairs. His illegitimate son also became a writer—the two were later known as Dumas père and Dumas fils. The fils reacted against his père's lifestyle by writing highly regarded contemporary dramas supporting marriage and family, with titles like "The Natural Son" (1848) and "The Prodigal Father"(1859) . Dumas père died in 1870. Five years later, his fils was admitted to the Académie Francaise. Dumas fils died in 1895.

Dumas, Alexandre, Père Dumas père (French: "Father") b. July 24, 1802, Villers-Cotterêts, Aisne, Fr. d. Dec. 5, 1870, Puys, near Dieppe one of the most prolific and most popular French authors of the 19th century. Without ever attaining indisputable literary merit, Dumas succeeded in gaining a great reputation first as a dramatist and then as a historical novelist, especially for such works as The Count of Monte Cristo and The Three Musketeers. His memoirs, which, with a mixture of candour, mendacity, and boastfulness, recount the For his extraordinary life, also provide a unique insight into French literary life during the Romantic period. He was the father of the dramatist and novelist Alexandre Dumas, called Dumas fils.
      Dumas's father, Thomas-Alexandre Davy de La Pailleterie (who was the natural son of the Marquis de La Pailleterie and Marie Cessette Dumas, a black of Santo Domingo), was a common soldier under the ancien régime who assumed the name Dumas in 1786 and later became a general in Napoleon's army. The family fell on hard times, however, especially after General Dumas's death in 1806; and the young Alexandre went to Paris to attempt to make a living as a lawyer. He managed to obtain a post in the household of the Duke d'Orléans, the future King Louis-Philippe, but tried his fortune in the theatre. He made contact with the actor François-Joseph Talma and with the young poets who were to lead the Romantic movement. Dumas's plays, when judged from a modern viewpoint, are crude, brash and melodramatic, but they were received with rapture in the late 1820s and early 1830s. Henri III et sa cour (1829) portrayed the French Renaissance in garish colours; Napoléon Bonaparte (1831) played its part in making a legend of the recently dead emperor; and in Antony (1831) Dumas brought a contemporary drama of adultery and honor to the stage.
      Though he continued to write plays, Dumas next turned his attention to the historical novel, often working with collaborators (especially Auguste Maquet). Considerations of probability or historical accuracy generally were ignored, and the psychology of the characters was rudimentary. Dumas's main interest was the creation of an exciting story set against a colorful background of history, usually the 16th or 17th century. The best known of his works are

Les Trois Mousquetaires
(published 1844, performed 1845), a romance about four swashbuckling heroes in the age of Cardinal Richelieu;
     On sait qu'ils étaient quatre, mais on oublie généralement que pour écrire ce roman Dumas s'est adjoint les services du jeune Auguste Maquet. Athos, Porthos et Aramis, figures hautes en couleur auxquelles s'associe le Gascon d'Artagnan, sont amenés à retrouver un bijou que tentent de dérober les agents du fourbe Richelieu. L'habileté du récit fait de cette œuvre le prototype durable du roman historique : aventures, hardiesse, passions vivaces d'un passé héroïsé, diversité des caractères, enjeux politiques et duels à l'épée répondent à un goût modelé par le romantisme.

Vingt ans après (1845)
      ... répond à la demande d'un public conquis par les aventures des mousquetaires, que l'on retrouve ici confrontés à une époque dont les pratiques et les enjeux ont changé, faisant ainsi éclater le noyau. A la faveur de missions coïncidentes, ils se retrouvent dans la fuite devant le diabolique Mordaunt. Ce roman diffère du premier dans l'atmosphère (à Richelieu a succédé Mazarin, à l'ère héroïque un temps plus trouble) et dans l'âge des héros, moins enclins à la prouesse et gagnant ainsi en authenticité.

Le Comte de Montecristo
      ... ou le roman de la vengeance. Réinvestissant les recettes du roman noir, Dumas plonge son héros dans l'enfer carcéral, avant de lui permettre de revenir, riche et puissant. Punir les méchants, récompenser les bons : le programme de Monte-Cristo est, comme sa vie, partagé entre une bonté solaire et une face obscure. Mais il ne s'agit jamais que de mettre les autres en face de leur réalité : metteur en scène efficace et discret, Monte-Cristo agit comme un démiurge, pardonné d'avance par un lecteur pris par le charme d'une identification à laquelle bien malin qui saurait résister.
Dix Ans plus tard ou le Vicomte de Bragelonne (1848-50; "Ten Years Later; or, The Vicomte de Bragelonne"); and La Tulipe noire (1850; "The Black Tulip"). When success came, Dumas indulged his extravagant tastes and consequently was forced to write more and more rapidly in order to pay his creditors. He tried to make money by journalism and with travel books but with little success.

Dumas, Alexandre, Fils Dumas fils (French: "Son") b. July 27, 1824, Paris, Fr. d. Nov. 27, 1895, Marly-le-Roi French playwright and novelist, one of the founders of the "problem play" — that is, of the middle-class realistic drama treating some contemporary ill and offering suggestions for its remedy. Dumas fils, the illegitimate son of Alexandre Dumas père, possessed a good measure of his father's literary fecundity, but the work of the two men could scarcely be more different. His first success was a novel, La dame aux camélias (1848), but he found his vocation when he adapted the story into a play, known in English as Camille, first performed in 1852. (Giuseppe Verdi based his opera La Traviata, first performed in 1853, on this play.) Although his father had written colorful historical plays and novels, Dumas fils specialized in drama set in the present. The unhappy witness of the ruin brought on his father by illicit love affairs, Dumas fils devoted his plays to sermons on the sanctity of the family and of marriage; Le Demi-Monde (performed 1855), for example, dealt with the threat to the institution of marriage posed by prostitutes. Modern audiences usually find Dumas's drama verbose and sententious, but in the late 19th century eminent critics praised his plays for their moral seriousness. He was admitted to the French Academy in 1875. Among his most interesting plays are Le Fils naturel (1858) and Un Père prodigue (1859), a dramatization of Dumas's interpretation of his father's character.

Outre Dumas fils, nous devons à Alexandre Dumas père un nombre considérable de drames et de romans qui participent à la fois de la passion romantique pour l'Histoire et de la nécessité de satisfaire d'immenses appétits. Viveur, exalté — il ira jusqu'à faire partie de l'expédition des Mille avec Garibaldi —, Dumas traverse la littérature du dix-neuvième siècle avec la grâce bedonnante d'un inventeur qui s'ignore. Certes, en ses débuts il entend faire œuvre de novateur et s'engage dans la bataille romantique avec Henri III, Anthony (ou l'invention du drame en habit noir) et surtout Kean ; mais son désir de gloire, qui s'accomplit dans le triomphe de La Tour de Nesle en 1832, l'amène vite à faire fi d'ambitions esthétiques trop marquées. Délaissant le drame pour le roman, il connaît avec Le Comte de Monte-Cristo un succès populaire qui ne se démentira plus. Définitivement lancé dans le feuilleton, il s'entoure de nègres et professe en privé un réjouissant cynisme (" L'Histoire ? Un clou auquel j'accroche mes romans ") qui ne l'empêche pas de collectionner les best-sellers, allongeant la sauce en faisant de ses volumes au demeurant fort bien ficelés des cycles (Les Trois mousquetaires, Vingt ans après, Le Vicomte de Bragelonne). C'est peut-être en ce prosaïque professionnalisme qu'il trouve sa paradoxale modernité. Car sous le mépris amusé de ses confrères se cache l'envie, et Alexandre Dumas apparaît dans sa réussite comme l'incarnation de cette condition nouvelle de l'homme de lettres, vivant de sa plume et monnayant sa gloire. A l'écoute d'un public qui ne cesse en ce milieu de siècle de s'élargir, il comprend l'un des tout premiers l'utilisation de la presse moderne et crée ainsi un modèle durable, que bon nombre d'écrivains plus discrets reprendront à leur compte.
DUMAS ONLINE: [tous en images de pages, sauf *]
Dumas, père:
  • * Vingt ans après
  • Le chevalier d'Harmental. I   -II-
  • La reine Margot. I   —II—  
  • Les quarante-cinq. I   -II-   -III-
  • Le comte de Montecristo
  • Les Trois Mousquetaires
  • Les Trois Mousquetaires
  • Vingt ans après : suite des "Trois mousquetaires". I   —II—   —III—  
  • La jeunesse des mousquetaires : pièce en 14 tableaux
  • Marie Giovanni: journal de voyage d'une Parisienne. I   -II-   -III-   -IV-
  • Histoire d'un casse-noisette ; [L'Egoïste. Nicolas le philosophe]
  • Emma Lyonna. I   —II—   —III—   —IV—   —V—
  • La dame de Monsoreau. I   —II—   —III—
  • Dumas, fils
  • La boîte d'argent
  • * Le fils naturel
  • * La dame aux camélias
  • DUMAS ONLINE: [in English translations]
  • Selected works (in English and French)
  • The Black Tulip
  • Celebrated Crimes
  • Celebrated Crimes
  • The Count of Monte Cristo
  • The Count of Monte Cristo (some text may be missing)
  • The Man in the Iron Mask
  • The Man in the Iron Mask
  • The Three Musketeers
  • The Three Musketeers
  • The Three Musketeers
  • Twenty Years After
  • Twenty Years After
  • First part of the last d'Artagnan adventure:
    The Vicomte de Bragelone   —   The Vicomte de Bragelone
  • First 104 chapters of 3rd D'Artagnan romance:
    Ten Years Later   —   Ten Years Later
  • Chapters 76-140 of 3rd D'Artagnan romance,
    following The Vicomte de Bragelonne:
    Ten Years Later
  • Chapters 141-208 of 3rd D'Artagnan romance,
    following Ten Years Later :
    Louise de La Valliere Louise de la Valliere
  • Full version of the last d'Artagnan adventure:
    The Vicomte de Bragelone vol. 1   vol. 2   vol. 3   vol. 4
  • A Gil Blas in California
  • Anthony
  • Caligula
  • The Musketeers: Drama in a Prologue and Five Acts
  • Napoleon Bonaparte
  • Queen Margot: Drama in 5 Acts
  • Lorenzino
  • Urbain Grandier
  • co-author of Marguerite de Valois
  • co-author of Shakespeare's Hamlet (French adaptation, translated into English)

  • Camille (La Dame Aux Camelias)
  • 1822 Central America proclaims annexation to Mexican Empire.
    1809 Treaty of Dardanelles concluded between Britain & France.
    1804 Ohio legislature passes 1st laws restricting free blacks movement.
    1781 A British naval expedition led by American traitor general Benedict Arnold burns Richmond, Virginia.
    1776 Assembly of New Hampshire adopts its 1st state constitution.
    1757 Failed assassination attempt on French king Louis XV by Damiens.
    1719 England/Hannover/Saxony-Poland/Austria sign anti-Prussian/Russian pact
    1675 Battle at Turkheim (Colmar) French army beats Brandenburg.
    1643 First divorce in the American British colonies
          In the first record of a legal divorce in the British colonies in America, Anne Clarke of the Massachusetts Bay Colony is granted a divorce from her absent and adulterous husband, Denis Clarke, by the Quarter Court of Boston, Massachusetts. In a signed and sealed affidavit presented to John Winthrop, Jr., the son of the colony's founder, Denis Clarke admitted to abandoning his wife, with whom he had two children, for another woman, with whom he had an another two children. He also stated his refusal to return to his original wife, thus giving the Puritan court no option but to punish Clarke and grant a divorce to his wife, Anne. The Quarter Court's final decision read: "Anne Clarke, beeing deserted by Denis Clarke hir husband, and hee refusing to accompany with hir, she is graunted to bee divorced."
    1579 Union of Arras in the Low Countries of Europe. Catholics, outraged by Calvinist destruction of their churches and images, resubmit to Spain, breaking the unity of the Dutch resistance against the Spaniards.
    1531 Pope Clemens VII forbids English king Henry VIII to re-marry
    1500 Duke Ludovico Sforza's troops reconquer Milan
    1463 French poet François Villon banished from Paris
    1438 Pope Eugenius IV moves the council of Basel to Ferrara.
    Sgt. OrkabiSgt. OrkabiSgt. OrkabiDeaths which occurred on a January 05:
    2003 Meier Haim, 74; Ilanit Peled, 32; and Staff Sgt. Mazal Orkobi, 20 [unlabeled photo >], of Azor;
    Sapira Shoshana Yulzari~Yaffe, 46; Avi Kotzer, 43
    ; and Igor Zobokov, 32; of Bat Yam;
    Hanna Haimov, 53; Andrei Friedman, 30
    ; Moshe (Maurice) Aharfi, 60; and Ramin Nasibov, 25 ; of Tel Aviv;
    ZamouraAmiram Zemoura, 55; Mordechai Evioni, 52;
    and Viktor Shebayev, 62; of Holon;
    Boris Tepelshvili, 51
    , of Yehud;
    Lilia Zibstein, 33, of Haifa;
    6 victimsMihai Sabau, 38;
    and Ion Nelu Nicolae, 35; from Romania;
    Krassimir Mitkov Angelov, 33,
    from Bulgaria;
    Steven Arthur Cromwell, 43
    , from Ghana;
    Li Peizhong, 41,
    and Guo Aiping, 47, from China;
    Ivan Gaptoniak, 46,
    from the Ukraine;
    Ion (Nelu) Nikolae, from Romania;
    Samar al-Nuri, 19
    and Burak Khelfeh Hilsa, 20, from Nablus, West Bank, suicide bombers of the Al Aqsa Martyrs Brigades, who at 18:33 blow themselves up 100 meters apart, within less than a minute of one another, at the corner of G'dud Ha'ivri and Neve She'anan streets in south Tel Aviv, an area with many foreign workers, documented or not. Some 100 persons are injured, including Chinese woman Zhang Minmin, 53, who dies on 13 January 2003.

    2003 Roy Jenkins, Welsh politician born on 11 November 1920, “the best Prime Minister that the UK never had.”

    2003 Ten Quokkas, of multiple trauma injuries, after being repeatedly hit, starting at about 23:30 on 04 January, by three drunken 15-year-old boys, on the cricket oval of Rottnest Island [map], West Australia. On 24 April 2003, the Fremantle Children's Court would sentence the murderers each to 60 hours of community service at a marsupial hospital, for Breach of Section 14 (2) and 16 of the Wildlife Conservation Act, which could have brought them up to a Aust$10'000 fine. There are some 10'000 Quokkas on Rottnest, active mostly at night. They are almost extinct on the Australian mainland where the dingos (which arrived about 1500 BC) and the European red foxes (since 1870) have preyed on them. These predators never reached Rottnest Island. The Quokkas are a protected species (Setonix brachyurus) of small marsupials, similar to a small wallaby, but they can climb trees and survive almost without water. Like humans, they can suffer from muscular dytrophy, so that they are used as laboratory animals for the study of that disease.

    Sonny Bono2002 Charles J. Bishop, 15, deliberately crashing the four-seat 2000 Cessna 172R he is piloting into the 28th floor of the 42-story Bank of America building in Tampa, Florida. The boy had been taking flying lessons for two years, took off from the flying school alone without permission and ignored signals from a Coast Guard helicopter. In the wrecked plane is found a note by the boy, expressing support for Osama Bin Laden and for the 11 Sep 2001 attacks by hijacked airliners on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon.
    1998 Sonny Bono , 62, (Representative-R-CA) / singer (Sonny & Cher) [< photo], killed by a tree while skiing, 5 days after Michael Kennedy was killed in the same way. Rumor has it that the trees threaten to kill another celebrity every week unless abusive logging stops.
    1994 Thomas P "Tip" O'Neill Jr. , 81, of cardiac arrest, (D-MA) / Speaker of House (1977-86). He was born on 09 December 1912.
    1994 William Raynor, 73, writer
    1993 Juan Benet Goitia, 65, Spanish writer (Herrumbrosas Lanzas)
    1993 Westley Allan Dodd, US admitted child sex murderer, first hanging in US since 1965 (in Washington state).
    1991 Vasko Popa, 68, Serbian WWII-partisan/poet (Sporedno Nebo)
    1987 Margaret Laurence, 60, Canadian author
    1987 Shtokalo, mathematician.
    1981 Harold C Urey, 87, US chemist (Deuterium, Nobel 1934)
    1970 Max Born, 87, German / British mathematician, physicist (Nobel 1954)
    1969 Franz T Csokor, 83, Austrian author (Gottes General)
    1969:: 45 of the 57 passengers and 5 of the 8 crew members of Ariana Afghan Airlines Flight 701 from Frankfurt, a Boeing 727-113C, which comes in too low in freezing fog toward runway 27 at London's Gatwick Airport, and hits trees and a house.
    1952 Victor Alexander John Hope, 64, viceroy of India (1936-43)
    1952 Flying Enterprise sinks
    1951 Andrei P Platonov, 51, Russian author (Prok, Kotlovan)
    1947 All 33 passengers and 5 crew members aboard a China National Aviation Corporation Douglas DC-4, coming from Shanghai, which crashes into a mountain on its initial approach to Tsingtao.
    1945 Dezsö Szabó, 65, Hungarian writer (Wiped-out Village)
    1943 George Washington Carver, 81, in Tuskegee, Alabama, born a slave he became a leading US educator and scientist.
    1940 Day 37 of Winter War: USSR aggression against Finland.
    More deaths due to Stalin's desire to grab Finnish territory.
    Heavy bombing in Mikkeli.
  • Northern Finland: troops of the 9th Division set out to destroy the enemy's 44th 'Blue' Division on the Raate road. H-hour is set for 8.30. The enemy is hard pressed but cannot be broken.
  • Mikkeli: the headquarters town of Mikkeli suffers heavy bombing. Due to severe cold the phone lines are down and the anti-aircraft guns are frozen. 40 enemy aircraft take part in the raid which kills 29 people and injures 36.
  • Gulf of Bothnia: at 13.00 hours the Soviet submarine Sts 311 sinks the Swedish steamer Fenris off the Swedish coast near Umeå.
  • Central Isthmus: the troop replenishment at the main defensive position at Summa is successfully completed.
  • Enemy infantry assaults are successfully repulsed at Summa, Suokanta, Työppölänjoki and Lake Hatjalahti.
  • Northern Finland: it's a bitterly cold night on the Raate road, with a temperature of -40° Celsius. The Finnish force has only one or two tents and the troops have to spend the night in the open air.
  • President Kyösti Kallio is donating 100,000 markkaa as basic capital for a fund to assist impoverished relatives of the dead and wounded.
  • Sweden: the Soviet Ambassador in Stockholm, Alexandra Kollontai, protests to the Swedish Government over voluntary recruitment activities and other aid work on behalf of Finland, and also over articles in the Swedish press critical of the Soviet Union.
    Talvisodan 37. päivä, 5.1.1940
    Mikkeliä pommitetaan ankarasti
  • 9. Divisioonan joukkojen viimeisen hyökkäysvaiheen H-hetki Raatteentien suunnassa vihollisen 44. ns. "Sinisen divisioonan" tuhoamiseksi on klo 8.30.Vihollinen joutuu ahtaalle, mutta sitä ei kyetä murtamaan.
  • Päämajakaupunki Mikkeli joutuu ankaran pommituksen kohteeksi. Kovan pakkasen vuoksi puhelinlinjat ovat poikki ja ilmatorjunta-aseet jäässä. Mikkeliä pommittaa 40 viholliskonetta. Pommituksessa saa surmansa 29 henkilöä ja vammautuu 36.
  • Neuvostosukellusvene Sts 311 ampuu upoksiin ruotsalaisalus Fenrisin Uumajan edustalla klo 13.
  • Joukkojen vaihto pääpuolustus-asemassa Summassa saadaan päätökseen.
  • Suomalaiset torjuvat vihollisen jalkaväen hyökkäykset Summassa, Suokannassa, Työppölänjoella ja Hatjalahdenjärvellä.
  • Raatteen tiellä yö on hirvittävän kylmä, pakkasta on 40 astetta. Suomalaisilla ei ole kuin muutama teltta ja joukkojen on yövyttävätaivasalla.
  • Tasavallan presidentti Kyösti Kallio lahjoittaa 100 000 markkaa pohjarahaksi rahastoon, jonka varat on jaettava puutetta kärsiville kaatuneiden ja invalidien omaisille.
  • Ulkomailta: Neuvostoliiton Tukholman lähettiläs Aleksandra Kollontai esittää Ruotsin hallitukselle vastalauseensa vapaaehtoisen värväyksen ja muun Suomen hyväksi tehdyn avustustoiminnan sekä Ruotsin lehdistön neuvostovastaisen kirjoittelun johdosta.
  • 1936 Ramón M del Valle-Inclán, 66, playwright (Tirano banderas)
    1933 Calvin Coolidge, 60, 30th President (1923-29), in Northampton MA
    1922 Sir Ernest Shackleton, 47, Antarctic explorer (Endurance), dies aboard his ship.
    1919 Julius Leblanc Stewart, US artist born on 06 September 1855. MORE ON STEWART AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to images.
    1917 Isobel Lilian Gloag, British painter born in 1868 (or 1865?). MORE ON GLOAG AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to images.
    1911 Stefano Bruzzi, Italian artist born on 04 May 1835.
    1908 Pierre Henri Théodore Tetar (or Tetart van Elven), Dutch artist born on 30 August 1828 or 1831.
    1905 Johann Rudolf Koller, Swiss artist born on 21 May 1828. . MORE ON KOLLER AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to images.
    1895 Vladislav Podkovinski, Polish artist born on 06 February 1866.
    1890 Auguste Louis Veillon, Swiss artist born on 29 December 1834.
    1890 Tomas Miles Richardson Jr., born in 1813, English painter, watercolorist, and lithographer, specialized in landscapes. — links to images.
    1876 Salomon Leonardus Verveer, Dutch artist born on 30 November 1813.
    1860 St John Nepomucene Neumann 1st male US saint
    1856 Pierre J David [David d'Angers], 67, French sculptor
    1854 Some 300 die as steamship San Francisco is wrecked
    1799 Mohammed Esad Galib Dede , 41, Turkish poet (Hüsn-ü asjk)
    1709 Thousands of Europeans killed by sudden extreme cold
    1686 Frédéric Moucheron den Ouden, Dutch artist born in 1633. — Relative? of Isaac de Moucheron [1667-1744]?
    1685 Herman Saftleven (or Zachtleven) Jr., Dutch draftsman, painter, printmaker specialized in landscapes, born in 1609. MORE ON SAFTLEVEN AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to images.
    1608 Antonio Manuele, ambassador of the kingdom of Kongo (he was king Alvaro II's cousin) to the Holy See, two days after his arrival in Rome.(See The Kongo Kingdom and the Papacy)
    1589 Catherine de Medici, 69, interfering Queen mother of France.
    1527 Felix Manz, 29, Swiss Anabaptist reformer, drowned in punishment for preaching adult (re-)baptism. Manz's death made him the first Protestant in history to be martyred at the hands of other Protestants.
    1524 Marko Marulic/Marulus/Splichanin/Pecinich, 73, Croatian poet.
    1517 Francesco di Marco Raibolini Francia, Bolognese painter born in 1450. MORE ON FRANCIA AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to images.
    1477 Some 7000, including Charles the Bold, 43, duke of Burgundy / writer, at the battle at Nancy (Burgundy vs Switzerland)
    1387 Pedro IV, 67, king of Aragon/conqueror of Sicily
    1066 Edward the Confessor, king of England (1043-66), later canonized as a saint.
    Births which occurred on a January 05:
    1994 E-World, Apple's online system.
          Computer announces its entry into the proprietary online system business. E-World tries to set itself apart from the category leaders AOL, CompuServe, and Prodigy, with a visual interface that portrayed a cartoon town. By clicking on the Post Office, users could retrieve e-mail, while clicking on the Auditorium brought them into live celebrity chats, and so forth. Unfortunately for Apple, e-World was not long for this world. Apple pulled the plug barely two years later. In the next several years, Internet service providers, offering simple e-mail and Web access, rapidly replaced proprietary services.
    1980 First Hewlett-Packard personal computer. The HP-85 comes with a monitor, a built-in printer, and a cassette tape recorder for data storage. Hewlett-Packard enters a crowded field that already includes the TRS-80, the Atari home computer, and the best-selling Apple II. IBM would shortly introduce its IBM PC and immediately become the market leader.
    1969 "Chronology of the Expanding World", by Neville Williams, completed
    1959 "Bozo the Clown" live children's show premieres on TV
    1953 "En Attendant Godot," by Samuel Beckett, premieres in Paris
    1950 Michael O'Donoghue
    1945 Pepe LePew debuts in Warner Bros cartoon "Odor-able Kitty"
    1940 FM radio's first transmission, with clear, static-free signal, is heard by FCC
    1938 Juan Carlos I, king of Spain (1975- )
    1932 Umberto Eco author (Name of the Rose)
    1928 Zulfikar Ali Khan Bhutto President/Premier (Pakistan)
    1928 Walter Fritz Mondale (US Senator-D-MN) / 42nd Vice President (1977-81) Democratic presidential nominee [1984])
    1924 First Chrysler-built Maxwell car. Walter Chrysler, a General Motors executive who had pioneered the introduction of all-steel bodies in automobiles (instead of wood), introduces his first motorcar. After his departure from GM in 1920, Chrysler had breathed new life into the failing Maxwell Motor Company. The first Chrysler-built Maxwell is put on display in New York City’s Commodore Hotel, where it draws admiring crowds. In 1925, the Maxwell Motor Company was renamed the Chrysler Corporation.
    1921 Jean d'Aviano
    grand duke of Luxembourg (1964- )
    1921 Friedrich Dürrenmatt Switzerland, playwright/novelist (Visit)
    1919 German Farmers Party, precursor of National Socialist Party (Nazi)
          Gottfried Feder founds the German Workers' Party, a political party that would later evolve into the Nazi Party. Among a number of extremist political groups operating in Germany after World War I, the relatively unknown Workers' Party combined socialist economics with militant German nationalism and an opposition to democracy. In 1919, Adolf Hitler, a disenchanted veteran acting as an informer for the army, comes across the Workers' Party while spying on the activities of small political parties. Hitler is fascinated by the ideological potential of the party's nationalist and racist ideals and within months has become the leader of the political organization, changing its name to the National Socialist German Workers' Party, later abbreviated to the Nazi Party. In the early 1920s, the ranks of the Nazi Party swell with resentful Germans who sympathize with the party's bitter hatred of the democratic government of Germany, leftist politics, and German Jews. In early November of 1923, the government resumes the payment of stiff war reparations to Britain and France, and Hitler and his Nazi forces launch the Beer Hall Putsch in response — their first attempt to seize the German government by force. The uprising is suppressed and Hitler is arrested and subsequently sent to Landsberg jail, where he spends his nine months in prison writing his autobiography, Mein Kampf, and working on his oratorical skills. Upon his release, the Nazi Party is reorganized as a fanatical mass movement that gains a majority in the German parliament — the Reichstag — by legal means in 1932. By 1934, the last remnants of Germany's democratic government have been dismantled, and Hitler is the sole master of a nation intent on war and genocide.
    1914 Nicolas de Staël, French painter who died on 16 or 17 March 1955. MORE ON DE STAËL AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to images.
    1911 Eric Wilson, Australian artist who died in 1946.
    1909 Stephen Cole Kleene, mathematician (Regular Expressions). Working with Kurt Godel, Alan Turing, and others, he developed recursion theory, a model that predicted whether certain types of mathematical problems could be solved. Recursion theory eventually led to the development of theoretical computer science.
    1907 Anton Ingolic Slavic author (After Splavih, After Prelomu)
    1906 Kathleen Mary Kenyon, British archeologist who died on 24 August 1978. Author of The Buildings of Samaria (1942) —Excavations at Jericho Vol. 1 (1960) Vol. 2 (1965) — Archaeology in the Holy Land — Beginnings in Archaeology (1961) — Digging up Jericho (1957) — Digging up Jerusalem (1974) — Jerusalem - Excavating 3000 years of History (1967) — Amorites and Canaanites (1966) — Recent Archaeology (1978) MORE
    1905 Audubon Society incorporates
    1902 Dorothea “Stella” Gibbons, English novelist (Cold Comfort Farm) and poet, who died on 19 December 1989.
    1901 Mario Scelba premier Italy (1954-55)
    1901 H L Honore comte d'Estienne d'Orves French officer/resistance fighter.
    1900 Yves Tanguy, French US sailor, Surrealist painter who died on 15 January 1955. MORE ON TANGUY AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to images.
    1900 Paula Ludwig writer.
    1897 Amelia Pelaez, Cuban artist who died in 1968.
    1895 Jeannette Piccard balloonist / Episcopal priest.
    1886 Renato Eriberto Paresce, Italian artist who died in 1937.
    1884 Denjoy, mathematician.
    1877 Henry Sloane Coffin, US clergyman, author, and theology educator, who led in the movement for the application of Protestantism to social problems. One of his more than 20 books is Meaning of the Cross (1931). Coffin was placed in his coffin on 25 November 1954. — [There is no evidence that he considered becoming an undertaker, or that he specialized in funerals]
    1876 Konrad Adenauer, Cologne, Germany, first chancellor of Germany (1949-1963). He died on 19 April 1967.
    1874 Joseph Erlanger doctor (shock therapy-Nobel 1944)
    1871 Fano, mathematician.
    1871 Enriques, mathematician.
    1866 Ramón Casas y Carbo, Spanish artist who died in 1932.
    1859 DeWitt B Brace inventor (spectrophotometer)
    1858 Gustaf af Geijerstam, Swedish author (Boken om Lillebror)
    1855 King Camp Gillette, US inventor (safety razor) and manufacturer, who died on 09 July 1932.
    1848 Khristo Botev hero of Bulgarian revolt against Turkey, poet
    1846 Rudolf Christoph Eucken Germany, Idealist philosopher (Nobel 1908)
    1844 Giovanni Battista Quadrone, Italian artist who died on 23 November 1898.
    1838 Camille Jordan, mathematician. He died in 1922.
    1825 Markus Simeon Larsson (or Larson), Swedish artist who died on 25 January 1864.
    1821 Joseph Caraud, French artist who died in November 1905.
    1812 Remigius Adrianus Remy van Haanen, Dutch artist who died on 13 August 1894.
    1806 André H C van Hasselt Belgian poet (La Belgium)
    1787 John Burke Irish genealogist (Burke's Peerage)
    1780 Claire countess of Rémusat Vergennes / French author (Salon)
    1779 Zebulon Montgomery Pike, US army officer, explorer (Pike's Peak). He died on 27 April 1813.
    1779 Stephen Decatur, US naval hero (War of 1812) ("...our country right or wrong"). He died on 22 March 1820. Cities named in his honor: Decatur IL (at its 1829 foundation), Decatur AL (renamed in 1826, was Rhodes Ferry), Decatur GA (now a suburb of Atlanta).
    1769 Jean Baptiste Say French economist (Political Economics)
    1679 Pietro Filippo Scarlatti composer
    1620 Miklós Zrínyi Hungarian poet/writer (The Peril of Sziget)
    1592 Jahan Shah, Mughal emperor of India (1628-58), built Taj Mahal, died on 22 January 1666.
    1548 Francisco Suárez, Granada Spain, philosopher and theologian who would die on 25 September 1617.
    Holidays Bird Day (1905) / England : Glastonbury Thorn Day

    Religious Observances Christian : 12th Night, end of Christmas season (Denmark) / Epiphany Eve / Roman Catholic : St Telesphorus, 8th pope (125-136), martyr / St Simeon Stylites / St John Neumann, bishop of Philadelphia / Lutheran : Kaj Munk, martyr

    DICTIONNAIRE TICRANIEN GÉOGRAPHIQUE ANGLAIS-FRANÇAIS: NICE: ville de la Côte d'Azur française. Exemple: NANCY IS NOT NICE: Nancy n'est pas Nice.

    Thoughts for the day: “The attacker must vanquish; the defender need only survive.”
    “The vanquished must survive; the attacker need only defend.”
    “The survivor need only defend; the vanquished must attack.”
    “The living must survive; the dead need nothing.”
    “The defender must not die for his cause, but make the attacker die for his.”
    “The attacker need only vanquish; the defender must counterattack.”
    “The defender must be vanquished; the attacker need only be survived.”
    “It is better to fail in a cause that will ultimately succeed than to succeed in a cause that will ultimately fail."
    US Senate Chaplain Peter Marshall (prayer, 05 January 1949)
    updated Tuesday 06-Jan-2004 5:16 UT
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