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Events, deaths, births, of JAN 13
[For Jan 13 Julian go to Gregorian date: 1583~1699: Jan 231700s: Jan 241800s: Jan 251900~2099: Jan 26]
On a January 13:
2000 Microsoft chairman Bill Gates resigns as chief executive and promotes company president Steve Ballmer to the position.
1999 Clinton impeachment developments.

(1) On the eve of opening statements in the impeachment trial of President Bill Clinton, both the prosecution and defense are looking forward to the still unresolved issue of whether witnesses will testify before the Senate. Monica Lewinsky's attorney turns down a request from the House Judiciary Committee for an interview with the woman at the center of this sex-and perjury trial. Over the past 24-hours there is initial contact between Lewinsky lawyer Plato Cacheris and the Judiciary Committee staff, asking for the former-White House intern to grant an interview with committee staffers and perhaps some committee members. The working assumption from the committee members is that they are "duty bound," according to committee sources, to "collect relevant evidence" to the case. There is the possibility that the Judiciary Committee could subpoena Lewinsky under their independent subpoena rights, but there is no indication the committee will go ahead and exercise that right. The president's defense brief, delivered to the Senate today, makes clear the White House will ask for a lengthy recess in the proceedings for "discovery" if the House prosecutors are granted permission to call even just one witness to testify. The document complains that White House lawyers have not had access to the reams of information that were sent to the House Judiciary Committee, and if any witnesses are to be allowed, the White House would demand access to those documents to see if they had any relevance to the proposed testimony. The president's defense team says it would also ask to depose any witnesses prior to their trial testimony, as well as to depose others who might have knowledge about the testimony the proposed witness would offer. The document does not make clear how long a delay the White House might request, but says, "Fundamental fairness dictates that the president be given at least the same right as an ordinary litigant to obtain evidence necessary for his defense, particularly when a great deal of that evidence is presently in the hands of his accusers, the OIC (Office of the Independent Counsel) and the House managers."

(2) In preparation for 14 January, the Senate leadership distributes a one-page memo to Republican senators outlining proper decorum for the impeachment trial. The memo says senators should be in attendance at all times during the proceedings. Other guidelines are more mundane, saying, "As we are all aware, senators will only have the opportunity for limited speech at the trial. We should also refrain from speaking to neighboring senators while the case is presented," the memo reads. Also, senators cannot read while the trial is in session. "Our individual reading materials should be confined to only those readings which pertain to the matter before the Senate," the memo states. Senators are also reminded in the memo to stand for Chief Justice William Rehnquist, who is presiding over the trial, and refer to him as "Mr. Chief Justice." Senators must also stay out of the well of the Senate and turn off all cellular telephones and pagers. Prior to distributing the memo, the Republican leadership ask Democrat Sen. Robert Byrd (D-West Virginia) to approve it.

(3) President Bill Clinton says that he intends to go ahead with his State of the Union speech on 19 January 1999, even though the Senate impeachment trial is ongoing. But Clinton has no plans to address the charges at that time, saying "the American people have heard about that quite extensively over the last year." "I think they (the American people) would like it if somebody up here were putting their interests first, their business first, and I think that's what they expect me to do," Clinton says. "We have to deal with the problems of America, the challenges of America, the opportunities of America, and that's what I intend to do in the State of the Union speech," he says. The president is spending hours this week reviewing and polishing speech drafts. He may do a full scale rehearsal in the White House family theater as soon as today. The nation will be watching. Last year Clinton gave the speech just days after the Monica Lewinsky scandal broke and the television audience was about 25% larger than average. This year aides expect even more people to tune in. Many lawmakers have urged the president to delay his speech or submit it in written form while the Senate is conducting its trial. Some senators say it would be awkward to receive the president as an honored guest on Capitol Hill while they sit in judgment. A senior aide also says first lady Hillary Rodham Clinton will be watching from the visitors' balcony.

(4) A check for $850,000 is on its way today to an attorney for Paula Jones, officially ending the sexual harassment lawsuit that led to the impeachment of President Bill Clinton. "This ends it," a White House official says. "The check is being Fed-Exed" to lawyer Bill McMillan. But just because President Clinton has mailed an $850,000 settlement check doesn't mean the Paula Jones case is wrapped up. The check is made out to Paula Jones and to her current and former lawyers. And the two sets of lawyers are fighting with each other over legal fees. The check may be placed in the custody of US District Judge Susan Webber Wright until the dispute is resolved. Mrs. Jones must respond no later than 15 January to an $874'000 claim in legal fees from her former lawyers in the sexual harassment case, Joseph Cammarata and Gilbert Davis. "We have said when the case was settled that we would want to have a reasonable division of that. And if all are fair and reasonable and not greedy, that it can be resolved without court intervention," Cammarata has said. But Cammarata says Mrs. Jones' camp responded with a threatening letter and a take-it-or-leave-it offer of $25,000, so Cammarata and Davis went to court. Neither Cammarata nor Mrs. Jones' current lawyer, Bill McMillan, would comment on how much of the settlement check they thought should go to Cammarata and Davis.

(5) Hustler magazine publisher Larry Flynt, whose paying for information about the private lives of politicians sparked national controversy, is hospitalized with pneumonia after winning a conditional delay in a pornography trial because of planned surgery. Flynt is admitted to Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles after X-rays show the pneumonia, says one of his lawyers, Alan Isaacman. A spokesman for the hospital says he had been instructed not to release any information about Flynt. Flynt, 55, and his brother, Jimmy, 49, were indicted in Cincinnati, Ohio, and faced trial later this month on charges of selling pornography to a 14-year-old boy. The charges stem from the alleged sale of a sexually explicit video to the boy at the Hustler Magazine and Gifts store that Jimmy Flynt manages in Cincinnati. If convicted, each brother could get 24 years in prison and $65'000 in fines. The Flynts' trial was postponed until 05 April after defense lawyers filed a motion this week seeking a continuance, saying Larry Flynt needed surgery for a urological problem common among paraplegics. Flynt has been in a wheelchair since he was shot in 1978. Isaacman said the pneumonia appeared to be unrelated to that condition.

(6) Elizabeth Ward Gracen, an actress who says she had an affair with Bill Clinton while he was Arkansas governor, is being hounded by the US tax authorities, her lawyer claims today. The Treasury Department is already investigating why the Internal Revenue Service audited the records of another woman involved with the president, Paula Jones. While it may be coincidence, the IRS inquiries are reminiscent of Richard Nixon's efforts to frighten Washington journalists on his Watergate "enemies list". He ordered aides to delve into the finances of critics to see if they were tax fiddlers. Gracen, a former Miss America and star of the Highlander television series, has confessed to a fling with Mr Clinton in 1983 after he joined her in a limousine during an Arkansas parade. Last April, Gracen maintained that "It was not true that I was ever harassed or coerced or pressured or manipulated into having sex with Bill Clinton. That was not true." But last September she told the Toronto Star newspaper about alleged intimidation of her family and friends after going public about the tryst. She said she feared for her safety. Her lawyer, Vincent Vento, says a male caller has contacted her in Canada, where she has been filming, with a warning: "You should really keep your mouth shut about Bill Clinton and go on with your life. You could be discredited. You could have an IRS investigation." This is reportedly the same caller who tipped Gracen off that process servers were seeking her as a witness to the Paula Jones lawsuit and who advised her to avoid process by going into hiding. Mr Vento says that Gracen has been deluged with letters from the tax man claiming that she had not filed returns and threatening to seize her wages and property. He tells the New York Post: "She pays her taxes. She's really square." Reports of possible White House-linked "dirty tricks" are not new. Kathleen Willey, who claims to have been groped by Mr Clinton, became frightened after her cat vanished and an anonymous jogger made vague threats. Linda Tripp secretly taped Monica Lewinsky as protection against her fear of strong-arm tactics. Larry Flynt, the pornographer, is suspected of being given outside help in his pursuit of Republican critics of the president's sexual misconduct. He denies this.

1994 Italian government of Carlo Azeglio Ciampi resigns. He was not a politician but a former governor of the Bank of Italy, chosen to reassure investors and to prevent a disastrous flight from the lira.
1994 Tonya Harding's bodyguard, Shawn Eric Eckardt and Derrick Brian Smith arrested and charged with conspiracy in attack of skater Nancy Kerrigan
1992 Japan apologizes for forcing tens of thousands of Korean women to serve as sex slaves for Japanese soldiers during World War II.
1991 President Mario Soares of Portugal re-elected.
1990 Douglas Wilder of Virginia becomes the US's first elected Black governor as he took the oath of office.
1989 Subway gunman goes to prison
      Subway gunman Bernhard Goetz begins 1-year prison sentence, of which he served 8-1/2 months. In his 1987 criminal trial. Goetz, who did not testify, was acquitted of attempted murder charges for the 22 Dec 1984 shooting. He was convicted on a weapons charge. On 24 April 1996, a jury in a civil suit found that Goetz acted recklessly and deliberately inflicted emotional distress on Darrell Cabey, one of the four black teenagers shot, paralyzed and brain-damaged as a result.. The jury awarded Cabey $43 million in damages — $18 million for past and future pain and suffering, and $25 million in punitive damages. But Cabey is not likely to see anywhere near that amount since Goetz has little money. In such cases it is common for the court to garnish 10% of the defendant's wages for 20 years.
1987 7 top New York Mafia bosses sentenced to 100 years in prison each
1980 Togo's constitution becomes effective. It formally civilianizes Togo under one-party rule headed by President Eyadema (still the president 000113) and the Rally of the Togolese People.
1974 A Gallup poll on religious worship showed that fewer Protestants and Roman Catholics were attending weekly services than ten years earlier, but that attendance at Jewish worship services had increased over the same period.
1967 Military coup in Togo.
      Chief of staff Étienne Lieutenant-Colonel Etienne Gnassingbé Eyadema seizes power in Togo by a coup and dissolves all political parties. On January 13 1963, after returning to Togo as a sergeant, Eyadema had shot dead the then president Sylvanus Olympio, who had refused to take him and 625 other Togolese veterans of French wars into Togo's tiny army.
had attained the rank of sergeant when he returned to Togo in 1962. When President , a group of them, including Eyadema, murdered him in an otherwise almost bloodless military coup (January 1963) and installed a civilian, Nicolas Grunitzky, as president
Grunitzky was invited to return from exile and assume the presidency, and he was confirmed in office in subsequent elections that also created a new constitution and legislature. Most of the noncommissioned officers were integrated into an expanded army — many as commissioned officers. Cabinet infighting, aggravated in the south by Ewe feelings that with Olympio's assassination they had lost power to Grunitzky's largely pro-northern administration, led to chronic instability. On Jan. 13, 1967, Eyadema, then a lieutenant colonel and chief of staff, once again. Coup in Togo
1966 First black selected for US Presidential cabinet: Lyndon B. Johnson names economist Robert Clifton Weaver [photo] head of the new Department of Housing and Urban Development. Weaver was head of the preceding federal Housing and Home Finance Agency since his 1960 appointment by John F. Kennedy.
1964 Karol Wojtyla becomes archbishop of Krakow
1959 De Gaulle grants amnesty to 130 to Algerian death row convicts
1958 US communist newspaper Daily Worker ceases publication as a daily and becomes a weekly as The Worker. A decade later it resumed daily publication Tuesdays through Saturdays and changed names again in an effort to reach a broader audience as the Daily World.
1958 Petition to UN for nuclear test ban by 9000 scientists of 43 nations but is is only 630805 that the Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty would be signed by the United States, the USS.R., and the United Kingdom. The treaty banned nuclear-weapons tests in the atmosphere, in outer space, and underwater but permitted underground testing and required no control posts, no on-site inspection, and no international supervisory body. It did not reduce nuclear stockpiles, halt the production of nuclear weapons, or restrict their use in time of war. The treaty was signed within a few months by more than 100 governments, notable exceptions being France and the People's Republic of China.
1954 Military rule in Egypt; 318 Mohammedan Brotherhood arrested
1953 Marshal Josip Broz Tito, 60, continues to rule Yugoslavia, as he had since 1945, just changing his title from premier to president.
1943 US infantry captures Galloping Horse ridge, Guadalcanal
1943 Russian offensive at Don under General Golikov
1943 Hitler declares "Total War"
1943 British premier Winston Churchill arrives in Casablanca
1942 German U-boats begin harassing shipping on US east coast
1942 War criminals will be prosecuted.
      Representatives of nine German-occupied countries meet in London to declare that all those found guilty of war crimes would be punished after the war ended. Among the signatories to the declaration were Polish Gen. Wladyslaw Sikorski and French Gen. Charles de Gaulle. The core of the declaration was the promise of "the punishment, through the channels of organized justice, of those guilty of, or responsible for, these crimes, whether they have ordered them, perpetrated them, or participated in them." Knowledge of German atrocities occurring in Poland and Russia were reaching both the Allied governments and the exiles from the countries in which the butchering of innocents was taking place. News of Jews, political dissidents, and clergy being systematically murdered, tortured, or transported to labor camps as the Nazi ideology advanced along with Hitler's armed forces increased the resolve and solidarity among the Allies to defeat the Axis.
1942 Interallied war trial conference publishes Saint James Declaration
1935 Plebiscite in Saar, chooses (90.3%) to join Nazi Germany rather than France.After World War I the Saar coal mines had been awarded to France, and the Saarland placed under the administration of the League of Nations for 15 years.
1930 "Mickey Mouse" comic strip first appears (Lost on a Desert Island) Mickey Mouse had debuted on 18 November 1928 in the animated cartoon Steamboat Willie.
1927 US and Mexico dispute over oil interests
1922 End of Conference of Cannes, where the Allies searched for common ground on reparations, a security pact, and Lloyd George's scheme for a grand economic conference including Soviet Russia. But the French chamber rebelled, and Aristide Briand was replaced as prime minister by the wartime president, Poincaré, who was determined to relieve France's triple crisis without sacrificing its treaty rights.
1920 New York Times editorial (falsely) reports rockets can never fly
1915 Winston Churchill presents plan for assault on Dardanelles
1912 -40ºF (-40ºC), Oakland MD (state record)
1906 first radio set advertised (Telimco for $7.50 in Scientific American) claimed to receive signals from up to one mile away.
1898 Zola's J'accuse letter is printed
      French writer Emile Zola's J'accuse...!”, is printed in L'Aurore. The letter exposes a military cover-up regarding Captain Alfred Dreyfus. Dreyfus, a French army captain, had been accused of espionage in 1894 and sentenced in a secret military court-martial to imprisonment in a South American penal colony. Two years later, evidence of Dreyfus' innocence surfaced, but the army suppressed the information. Zola charges various high-ranking military officers and, indeed, the War Office itself of concealing the truth in the wrongful conviction of Dreyfus. Zola was prosecuted for libel and and sentenced to one year's imprisonment. In July 1899, when his appeal appeared certain to fail, he fled to England. In 1899, Dreyfus was pardoned, but for political reasons was not exonerated until 1906. Zola returned to France in June 1900. Zola's intervention in the controversy helped to undermine anti-Semitism and rabid militarism in France.
      Zola died unexpectedly on 28 September 1902, the victim of coal gas asphyxiation resulting from a blocked chimney flue. Some believe that fanatical anti-Dreyfusards arranged to have the chimney blocked.
     Born on 2 April 1840, Zola grew up in poverty and twice flunked the baccalauréat. Employed in the advertising department of Hachette, in 1865 Zola published his first novel, La Confession de Claude, a sordid, semiautobiographical tale that drew the attention of the public and the police. Zola left Hachette.
      In 1867 he published Thérèse Raquin, first published serially as Un Mariage d'Amour earlier in the same year. The sensual Thérèse and her lover Laurent murder her weak husband Camille. After marrying, they are haunted by Camille's ghost, and their passion for each other turns to hatred. They eventually kill themselves.
      In 1868 Zola published Madeleine Férat, a rather unsuccessful attempt at applying the principles of heredity to the novel.
      It was this interest in science that led Zola, in the fall of 1868, to conceive the idea of a large-scale series of novels similar to Honoré de Balzac's La Comédie humaine.. Zola's project would become the 20 volumes of the Rougon-Macquart series (deux branches d'une même famille: l'une issue d'un mariage, les riches et puissants Rougon, l'autre issue d'un adultère, les pauvres Macquart: les personages). La Fortune des Rougon was published in book form in October 1871. Zola went on to produce these 20 novels — most of which are of substantial length — at the rate of nearly one per year, completing the series in 1893.
     Les Rougon-Macquart is "the natural and social history of a family under the Second Empire." (1852-70).
      La Curée (1872)explores the land speculation and financial dealings that accompanied the renovation of Paris during the Second Empire.
      Le Ventre de Paris (1873) examines the structure of the Halles and its influence on the lives of its workers. The 10 steel pavilions that make up the market are compared alternately to a machine, a palace, and an entire city.
      Son Excellence Eugène Rougon (1876) traces the machinations and maneuverings of cabinet officials in Napoleon III's government.
      L'Assommoir (1877) shows the effects of alcoholism in a working-class neighborhood by focusing on the rise and decline of a laundress, Gervaise Macquart.
      Nana (1880) follows the life of Gervaise's daughter as her economic circumstances and hereditary penchants lead her to a career as an actress, then a courtesan.
      Au Bonheur des Dames (1883) depicts the mechanisms of a new economic entity, the department store, and its impact on smaller merchants.
      Germinal (1885) depicts life in a mining community by highlighting relations between the bourgeoisie and the working class. At the same time, the novel weighs the For a miners' strike and its aftermath in terms of those contemporary political movements (Marxism, anarchism, trade unionism) that purport to deal with the problems of the proletariat.
      L'Œuvre (1886), explores the milieu of the art world and the interrelationship of the arts by means of the friendship between an innovative Impressionist painter, Claude Lantier, and a naturalist novelist, Pierre Sandoz. Unable to realize his creative potential, the painter ends up hanging himself in front of his final painting.
      In La Terre (1887), a particularly grim portrait of peasant life, Zola shows what he considers to be the sordid lust for land among the French peasantry.
      In La Bête humaine (1890) he analyzes the hereditary urge to kill that haunts the Lantier branch of the family, set against the background of the French railway systemt.
      La Débâcle (1892) traces both the defeat of the French army by the Germans at the Battle of Sedan in 1870 and the anarchist uprising of the Paris Commune.
      In Le Docteur Pascal (1893) Zola uses the main character, the doctor Pascal Rougon, armed with a genealogical tree of the Rougon-Macquart family published with the novel, to expound the theories of heredity underlying the entire series.
      In the early '70s Zola expanded his literary contacts, meeting frequently with Gustave Flaubert, Edmond Goncourt, Alphonse Daudet, and Ivan Turgenev, all successful novelists whose failures in the theatre led them to humorously refer to themselves as auteurs sifflés ("hissed authors"). Beginning in 1878 the Zola home in Médan, on the Seine River not far from Paris, served as a gathering spot for a group of the novelist's disciples, the best-known of whom were Guy de Maupassant and Joris-Karl Huysmans, and together they published a collection of short stories, Les Soirées de Médan (1880).
      As the founder and most celebrated member of the naturalist movement, Zola published several treatises to explain his theories on art, including Le Roman expérimental (1880) and Les Romanciers naturalistes (1881). Naturalism involves the application to literature of two scientific principles: determinism, or the belief that character, temperament, and, ultimately, behavior are determined by the forces of heredity, environment, and historical moment; and the experimental method, which entails the objective recording of precise data in controlled conditions.
      Zola's final series of novels, Les Trois Villes (1894-98) and Les Quatre Évangiles (1899-1903) are generally conceded to be far less forceful than his earlier work. However, the titles of the novels in the latter series reveal the values that underlay his entire life and work: Fécondité (1899), Travail (1901), Vérité (1903), and Justice (which remained incomplete).
ZOLA ONLINE: en français:   
  • Germinal
  • Germinal
  • Contes à Ninon
  • J'accuse!
  • J'accuse!
  • L'Argent
  • L'Assommoir
  • L'Œuvre
  • La Bête humaine
  • La Curée
  • La Débâcle
  • La Terre
  • Le Docteur Pascal
  • Le Roman expérimental
  • Le Rêve
  • Le Ventre de Paris
  • Les Soirées de Médan
  • Lourdes
  • Nana
  • La Conquête de Plassans
  • Nouveaux Contes à Ninon
  • Pot-Bouille
  • Rome
  • Son Excellence Eugène Rougon
  • Une Page d'Amour
    Zola online in English translations:
  • Germinal,
  • Nana; The Miller's Daughter; Captain Burle;
    The Death of Olivier Becaille
  • Zola en allemand: Der große Michu
    Emile Zola téléchargeable
    (choix de Acrobat, Claris, RTF) Au bonheur des dames / Germinal / J'accuse / Jacques d'amour / La bête humaine / La curée / La faute de l'abbé Mouret / La fortune des Rougon / La mort d'Olivier Bécaille / L'attaque du moulin / L'œuvre / Naïs / Nana / Pour une nuit d'amour / Son excellence Eugène Rougon
    1894 Revolution in Sicily crushed by government troops.
    1874 US troops land in Honolulu to protect (?) the king Lunalilo (who died of tuberculosis in February 1874!)
    1874 Battle between jobless and police in New York City NY, 100s injured
    1865 Federals attack Fort Fisher NC.
    1863 Thomas Crapper makes and markets toilets but probably did not invent much. It had been invented by Sir John Harrington in the 16th century.
    1854 Anthony Foss patents the accordion, but he was not the first.
    1833 President Andrew Jackson wrote to his newly-elected vice president, Martin Van Buren, that he would stand firm against South Carolina's defiance of the authority of the federal government. The previous November, South Carolina had nullified a federal tariff favoring Northern manufacturing over Southern agriculture. South Carolina threatened to use armed force to prevent duty collection in the state after February 1, 1833.
    1830 Great fire in New Orleans thought to be set by rebel slaves
    US 1794 flag1794 Congress changes US flag to 15 stars and 15 stripes. The two added stars and two stripes are for Kentucky and Vermont. This was the only US flag to have fifteen stripes. In 1818, Congress proclaimed that one star for each new state would be added on the 4th of July following the state's admission to the union and there would be thirteen stripes representing the thirteen original colonies. The 15 star flag flew over Fort McHenry during the War of 1812 and inspired the writing of the National Anthem, The Star Spangled Banner.
    Elizabeth I1695 Jonathan Swift is ordained an Anglican priest in Ireland
    1630 Patent to Plymouth Colony issued
    1610 Galileo Galilei discovers a 4th satellite of Jupiter, which gets the name Callisto, after the nymph loved by Zeus.
    1559 Elizabeth I is crowned queen of England in Westminster Abbey [portrait >]
    1099 Crusaders set fire to Mara Syria
    0888 Le duc Eudes devient roi de France, les Grands l'ayant choisi, sans en avoir d'ailleurs le droit, pour remplacer Charles le Gros (884-887), qui avait fait preuve de lâcheté en offrant la Bourgogne aux Normands contre l'arrêt du siège de Paris. Eudes, fils de Robert le Fort, était populaire pour sa résistance contre les envahisseurs. Mais Eudes ne réussit pas à repousser complètement les Normands, et les Grands remirent le fils de Louis II le Bègue, Charles III le Simple (893-923) sur le trône. Eudes restait cependant puissant.
    Deaths which occurred on a January 13:
    2003 At least 14 persons and a truckful of pigs, during the morning rush hour in heavy fog on the Venice~Treviso highway in 200-vehicle pileup following the minor collision of two northbound trucks, into which speeding vehicles slam; while rubberneckers crash on the southbound side. Some of the vehicles catch fire, including the pigs' truck. 80 persons are injured.
    2002 Boyd Taylor, 36, suicide by decapitation by a guillotine he made himself, activated by a timer set for an early hour, in Milbourne, Northumberland, England.
    2002 Mike Hurewitz, 57, in Mount Sinai Hospital, where he was since donating, on 10 January 2002, part of his liver to his brother, Dr. Adam Hurewitz, 54, (who made a normal recovery). The surgeon who performed the transplant did not come back to examine Mike. On 12 January another doctor examined him but did not check his vital signs. In the morning of 13 January, Mike becomes nauseated, is given medicine, but no one tries to discover the cause. At 13:00 Mike vomits blood, the only physician caring for the 34 patients in the transplant unit, an inexperienced first-year resident, calls a more senior doctor, who comes but does not examine Mike. By 14:00 Mike needs an oxygen mask. By 15:00 he is still vomiting and has trouble breathing, a nurse calls the inexperienced resident. At 15:00, choking on his vomited blood, Mike loses consciousness. Rescucitation is attempted, but he is declared dead at 15:40. On 12 March 2002 the New York state health commissioner says that Mount Sinai has provided “woefully inadequate postsurgical care to Mike Hurewitz, will be fined $48'000 (the highest penalty allowed by law) and banned for 6 months from doing live-doner liver transplants.
    2001 More than 800 in earthquake, mostly in El Salvador, at 17:33:29 UT, magnitude 7.6, epicenter at 12.83 N, 88.79 W, depth 39 km, 100 km SW of San Miguel, El Salvador. [map below: yellow lines are plate boundaries] [photo below: most of the deaths occured when this landslide buried many homes in the Las Colinas neighborhood of Santa Tecla, near San Salvador. The owners of the mountain slope had been sued some time ago because of the danger of landslides caused by their deforestation, but the court sided with the owners.]
    Salvador quake map    Santa Tecla landslide
    2001 Allan Bani Odeh and Majdi Mikkawi, Palestinians executed by Palestinians firing squads in the West Bank city of Nablus and in Gaza, respectively, for helping Israelis locate and murder alleged Palestinian terrorists. To date the al-Aqsa intifada, started in late September 2000, has claimed the lives of 307 Palestinians, 13 Israeli Arabs, and 43 Jewish Israelis.
    1996 Souley Halidou, beaten to death with a stick by his cousin Hassan Salou, in Moli, some 70 km from Niamey, Niger. Hassan feared for his mother's safety since Souley had killed two of his relatives over a land dispute and had hired a town crier to announce that he would kill again. Hassan then cut the corpse to pieces with a machete and ate a blood-soaked piece of bread before going to the police with the left arm of his victim. In 2001 he told a court: "I was perfectly sane, I wanted to protect my mother and the others in the village, because everyone wondered who would be Souley's next victim. Why did I dip the bread in his blood? I wanted to feel that he was dead, to convince myself that he wouldn't bother anybody anymore." On 30 January 2001 the court, considering the "mitigating circumstances", would sentence Hassan Halidou to the minimum sentence of 10 years in prison.
    click to hear1996 Amber Hagerman, 9 [< photo], abducted in the afternoon as she rides her bicycle form her grandparents' house in Arlington, Texas, and her throat cut. Her nude body is found 4 days later. In July 1997 the “Amber Alert” system is started in her memory, to give extensive publicity to missing children in danger of death.
    1993 René Pleven Prime Minister of France (1950-51, 51-52)
    1991:: 14 persons as Soviet troops stormed Lithuania's radio-television center.
    1988 Chiang Ching-kuo, 81, President of Taiwan (1978-88)
    1986 'Abd al-Fattah Isma'il, who had been the major ideologue of the National Liberation Front of South Yemen and the driving force behind the organization's move toward the Soviet Union. He became president after president Salim 'Ali Rubayyi executed for the 1978 assassination of a North Yemen president (the previous North Yemen president had been assassinated in 1977),. Ultimately, Isma'il was found to be too dogmatic and rigid — in his analyses, policies, and methods of implementation — and was deposed in 1980. His successor, 'Ali Nasir Muhammad, instituted a far less dogmatic political and economic order. In January 1986, the various personal and ideological differences surfaced briefly in a violent civil war that left Isma'il and many of his supporters dead, and resulted in the exile of 'Ali Nasir Muhammad.
    1985 At least 428 people as express train derails in Ethiopia.
    1982:: 78 persons on Air Florida 737 which, just after taking off in a snowstorm, crashes into the 14th St Bridge in Washington, DC, and falls into the icy Potomac River.
    1978 Hubert Horatio Humphrey, 66, (Senator-D-MN, Vice President), in Waverly MN.
    1977 All 96 aboard an Aeroflot Tupolev 104A, coming from Novosibirsk, which explodes at Almaty, Kazakhstan, at an altitude of 300 mt while orbiting to burn up fuel following an engine failure.
    1969 Fifteen persons as a SAS DC-8-62 airplane crashes into the ocean near Los Angeles.
    1963 Sylvanus Olympio, president of Togo who had refused to take 626 Togolese veterans of French wars into Togo's tiny army, is shot dead by one of them, sergeant Etienne Gnassingbé Eyadema, and then Nicolas Grunitzky, who had been the first and only premier of autonomous Togoland, before complete independence, was invited to return from exile and assume the presidency. Eyadema rose to the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel and Chief of Staff. Dissatisfied by cabinet infighting and dissentions in the country, Eyadema seized power in a coup on 670113.
    1943 Sophie Henriette Taeuber-Arp, Swiss artist born on 19 January 1889.
    1941 James Joyce, in Zurich, Switzerland, novelist.
    1940 Day 45 of Winter War: USSR aggression against Finland.
    More deaths due to Stalin's desire to grab Finnish territory.

    Finnish troops surround the enemy at Kitelä
          Åland Sea: the Soviet submarine Sts 324 attacks Finnish convoys in the Märket narrows.
          The Finnish escort vessel Aura II sinks after one of its own depth charges explodes on deck.
          Central Isthmus: enemy attempts at mini-offensives at Lähde and Summa are successfully repulsed.
          Ladoga Karelia: Finnish troops establish the great Kitelä 'motti'.
          Soviet bombers carry out air-raids on a number of localities. The air-raid on Hämeenlinna kills 12 people and injures 21 more. In Helsinki, the air-raid kills 6 and injures another 21; it also sets the Hietalahti shipyard on fire. In Lahti, the radio transmitter is damaged in the bombing.
          The Finnish Broadcasting Company warns its listeners to be on their guard against enemy radio propaganda and indicates that due to enemy interference it will use only well-known announcers in its own broadcasts.
          Abroad: Heimo Haitto, the 14-year-old violin prodigy, is the main attraction at a gala concert in Stockholm organized by the Fund for Finnish Relief.
          At a fight held in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, the Finnish heavyweight boxer Gunnar Bärlund scores a points victory over his American opponent, Jim Thompson. Some of the proceeds from the fight go to help Finland.
          Coffee growers in Rio de Janeiro donate 60'000 sacks of coffee to Finland.
    Suomalaiset synnyttävät Kitelän suurmotin Laatokalla Talvisodan 45. päivä, 13.tammikuuta.1940
         Klo 11.40 Neuvostosukellusvene Sts 324 hyökkää suomalaisten laivasaattueita vastaan Märketin vesillä.
          Suomalainen saattaja Aura II uppoaa oman syvyyspommin räjähdettyä laivan kannella.
          Pienten vihollisyksiköiden hyökkäysyritykset torjutaan Lähteellä ja Summassa.
          Suomalaiset synnyttävät Kitelän suurmotin Laatokalla.
          Neuvostoliiton pommikoneet suorittavat ilmapommituksia useilla paikkakunnilla.
          Hämeenlinnassa saa ilmapommituksessa surmansa 12 henkilöä, haavoittuneita on 21.
          Helsingissä ilmahyökkäyksessä Hietalahden telakka syttyy tuleen ja pommituksissa kuolee 6 henkilöä ja 21 haavoittuu.
          Lahden radioasema vaurioituu pommituksissa.
          Yleisradio varoittaa kuuntelijoita vihollisen radiopropagandasta: vihollisen häirinnän vuoksi Yleisradio ilmoittaa käyttävänsä ohjelmissaan vain kuuntelijoiden hyvin tuntemia kuulutttajia.
          Ulkomailta: 14-vuotias ihmelapsi, viulutaiteilija Heimo Haitto on vetonaulana Suomen Avun Keskuksen juhlakonsertissa Tukholmassa. Ammattinyrkkeilijä Gunnar Bärlund, GeeBee, voittaa pisteillä Pitsburgissaamerikkalaisen Jim Thompsonin.Osa ottelutuloista luovutetaan Suomelle.
          Rio de Janeirossa kahvinviljelijät lahjoittavat Suomelle 60 000 säkkiä kahvia.
    1939 Four persons in crash of a Northwest Airlines Lockheed Electra 14, following a cockpit fire, in Miles City.
    1930 George Gardner Symons, US painter born in 1863.. — LINKSValley Stream in Winter
    1915 Some 30'000 people in earthquake in Avezzano Italy, which totally destroys Avezzano and the surrounding small towns. [views of Avezzano before the quake]
    1882 Wilhelm Alexander Meyerheim, German artist born in 1815.
    1864 Stephen Foster, 37, composer (My Old Kentucky Home), dies in a New York hospital (now Stephen Foster Memorial Day)
    1804 Pietro Antonio Novelli III, Italian painter born in 1729. — LINKS
    1761 Franz-Christoph Janneck, Austrian artist born on 03 October 1703.
    1699 Mattia Preti “il Cavaliere Calabrese”, Italian painter born in 1613. MORE ON PRETI AT ART “4” JANUARY LINKSSaint John the Baptist PreachingChrist in GloryConcert _ detailTribute MoneySalome with the head of St John the BaptistPilate Washing his Hands
    1691 George Fox, 67, English founder of the Society of Friends (Quakers). Fox left the Anglican church at 23 and founded the Quaker movement in 1660 at age 36.
    1625 Jan “Velvet” Brueghel Sr. (Bloemenbruegel), Flemish painter born in 1568. MORE ON BRUEGHEL AT ART “4” JANUARY LINKSLatona and the Lycian PeasantsStill Life with Flowers in a GlassVillage Scene with Outdoor TheatreHarbor SceneVillage Scene in the Woods (Farmhouse Inn in a Flemish Village) — Feast of the GodsConflagration - Burning HouseFlowers in a Glass BeakerGreat Fish-MarketThe Original SinTravellers on the Way _ detailVillagers on their Way to MarketLandscape with WindmillsThe Sense of HearingThe Sense of SightThe Sense of TasteAllegory of SmellThe Holy FamilySaint MartinBouquet _ The Great BouquetFlowersBouquet in a Clay VaseFlowers in a VaseStill-Life with Garland of Flowers and Golden Tazza
    1547 Earl Henry Howard of Surrey, 30, poet, son of the Duke of Norfolk, executed as a Roman Catholic falsely accused of intrigues in the succession of the moribund Heny VIII
    1330 Frederick (III) the Handsome, duke of Austrian/German anti-king
    0888 Charles III the Fat One, King of Franconia/Roman emperor,
    0858 Aethelwolf king of Wessex (Battle at Aclea)
    0533 Saint Remigius of Reims , about 96, first bishop of Reims (459-533)
    Births which occurred on a January 13:
    1942 The US War Production Board is established by President Franklin D. Roosevelt
          Business executive Donald M. Nelson is named its chairman. This was not the first time Roosevelt called on Nelson. In 1940, the president asked Nelson, then executive vice president of Sears, Roebuck and Co., to head up the National Defense Advisory Commission. As Roosevelt established agency after agency to coordinate the transition of industry from peacetime to wartime production, Nelson skipped among jobs, becoming director of purchases for the Office of Production Management and, in August 1941, director of the Supply Priorities and Allocations Board. The War Production Board, created to establish order out of the chaos of meeting extraordinary wartime demands and needs, replaced the Supply Priorities and Allocations Board.
          As chairman, Nelson oversaw the largest war production in history, often clashing with civilian factories over the most efficient means of converting to wartime use and butting heads with the armed forces over priorities. Despite early success, Nelson made a major judgement error in June 1944, on the eve of the Normandy invasion, when he allowed certain plants that had reached the end of their government/military production contracts to reconvert to civilian use. The military knew the war was far from over and feared a sudden shortage of vital supplies. A political battle ensued, and Nelson was eased out of his office and reassigned by the president to be his personal representative to Chiang Kai-shek in China.
    Keir Hardie1906 first radio set advertised (Telimco for $7.50 in Scientific American) claims to receive signals at up to one mile
    1902 Menger, mathematician.
    1901 A.B. Guthrie Jr., US novelist who died on 26 April 1991.
    1900 Cox, mathematician.
    1893 Pierre Drieu la Rochelle, à Paris, écrivain.
    1893 British Independent Labour Party forms (Keir Hardie as its leader [drawing >]). Its name is later shortened to Labour Party.
    1890 Elmer Davis, US broadcaster/writer who died on 18 May 1958.
    1885 Alfred Fuller CEO (Fuller Brush Man)
    1881 Cesare Maggi, Italian artist who died in 1961.
    1876 Erhard Schmidt, mathematician.
    1876 Eisenhart, mathematician.
    1870 Ross Granville Harrison, US zoologist, pioneer in embryonic transplantation. He died on 30 September 1959.
    1864 Les “zemtsvo”
          Le "tsar libérateur" Alexandre II crée les "zemtsvo", assemblées locales russes, où toutes les classes sociales sont représentées et la noblesse n'a plus le monopole du pouvoir. L'administration tsariste se décharge sur ces nouvelles assemblées de la gestion des affaires locales et du secteur social. Les zemtsvo font très vite la preuve de leur compétence.
          La même année, le tsar humanise la justice et supprime les châtiments corporels. Trois ans plus tôt, il a aboli le servage et offert aux paysans quelques facilités pour posséder leur terre. Ainsi, ayant surmonté sa défaite dans la guerre de Crimée contre les Français et les Anglais, la Russie est en passe de se hisser au niveau des grandes nations occidentales. Mais une tentative d'assassinat du tsar en 1866 bloquera le processus. La démocratisation ne survivra pas à l'assassinat effectif d'Alexandre II en 1881.
    1864 Wien, mathematician.
    1859 Henry Meynell Rheam, British Pre-Raphaelite painter who died in November 1920. — La Belle Dame Sans MerciOnce upon a TimeSleeping BeautyArranging FlowersIsoldeThe Fairy WoodThe Ivory GateThe SorceressOnce upon a Time
    1845 Tisserand, mathematician.
    1834 Horatio Alger Jr. Revere MA, one of the most popular American authors in the last 30 years of the 19th century and perhaps the most socially influential American writer of his generation.
          Alger was the son of a Unitarian minister, Horatio Alger, Sr. During the Civil War he was rejected for army service. Alger was ordained in 1864, and he accepted the pulpit of a church in Brewster, Mass., but he was forced to leave in 1866 following allegations of sexual activities with local boys. In that year he moved to New York City, and, with the publication and sensational success of Ragged Dick; or, Street Life in New York with the Bootblacks (serialized in 1867, published in book form in 1868), the story of a poor shoeshine boy who rises to wealth, Alger found his lifelong theme. In the more than 100 books that he would write over 30 years, Alger followed the rags-to-riches formula that he had hit upon in his first book. The success of Ragged Dick led Alger to actively support charitable institutions for the support of foundlings and runaway boys. It was in this atmosphere that Alger wrote stories of boys who rose from poverty to wealth and fame, stories that were to make him famous and contribute the "Alger hero" to the American language. In a steady succession of books that are almost alike except for the names of their characters, he preached that by honesty, cheerful perseverance, and hard work, the poor but virtuous lad would have his just reward — though the reward was almost always precipitated by a stroke of good luck. Alger's novels had enormous popular appeal at a time when great personal fortunes were being made and seemingly unbounded opportunities for advancement existed in the United States' burgeoning industrial cities. Alger's most popular books were the Ragged Dick, Luck and Pluck, and Tattered Tom series. His books sold over 20 million copies, even though their plots, characterizations, and dialogue were consistently and even outrageously bad. Alger died on 18 July 1899.
  • Bound to Rise
  • The Cash Boy
  • Cast Upon the Breakers
  • Driven From Home
  • Driven From Home
  • Joe the Hotel Boy
  • Joe the Hotel Boy
  • The Errand Boy: or, How Phil Brent Won Success
  • Frank's Campaign: or, The Farm and the Camp
  • Frank's Campaign: or, The Farm and the Camp
  • Grand'ther Baldwin's Thanksgiving, With Other Ballads and Poems
  • Nothing to Do: A Tilt at Our Best Society
  • Paul Prescott's Charge
  • Paul the Peddler
  • Paul the Peddler
  • Phil, the Fiddler
  • Ragged Dick
  • Ragged Dick
  • Struggling Upward
  • 1818 Adrianus Eversen, Dutch artist who died in 1897
    1808 Salmon Chase, US politician/lawyer who died on 07 May 1873.
    1808 Jorgen Roed, Danish artist who died on 03 August 1888.
    1806 Willem Bodeman, Dutch artist who died in 1880.
    1801 Anton van Isendyck (or Isendyck), Belgian artist who died on 14 October 1875.
    1791 (or 13 Feb?) (02 Jan or Feb Julian) Sil'vestr Feodosievich Shchedrin, Russian Romantic painter, specialized in landscapes, who died on 09 (or 08?) November (28 or 27 October Julian) 1830. — Portrait of Shchedrin by Karl Bruloff MORE ON SHCHEDRIN AT ART “4” JANUARY New Rome. Castel Sant'AngeloNew Rome. The Castle of the Holy AngelView of SorrentoView of SorrentoGrotto in FlorenceA Terrace on a SeashoreA Porch Twined with VinesA Porch Twined with VinesA Terrace on a Seashore. A Small Town of Capuccini near SorrentoTerrace on the SeashoreTerrace on the SeashoreCoastal SceneMoonlit Night in NaplesView of Tuchkov Bridge From Petrovsky Island
    1778 Sir Isaac Goldsmid, English financier who died on 27 April 1859.
    1596 Jan Josefszoon van Goyen, Dutch landscape painter who died on 27 April 1656 MORE ON VAN GOYEN AT ART “4” JANUARY LINKSThe Thunderstorm at sea by the coast. — Landscape with Two OaksSummerDunesMarine Landscape with Fishermen 4/5 skyscape — View of LeidenVillage at the RiverBeach at ScheveningenHaarlemer MeerView of The Hague in WinterView of DordrechtView of Dordrecht from the Oude MaasView of LeidenWindmill by a RiverRiver Landscape with Pellekussenpoort, Utrecht, and Gothic ChoirA Church and a Farm on the Bank of a RiverTwo Men on a Footbridge over a Stream
    1505 Joachim II Hector ruler (Brandenburg)
    1381 Saint Colette abbess/reformer (Poor Clares)
    Holidays    Ghana : Redemption Day (1972)      Togo : Liberation Day (1963) (!!!)
    Née à Huy, près de Liège, en 1158, sainte Yvette fut mariée à 13 ans. Devenue veuve, elle se dévoua aux lépreux.
    QUESTION OF THE DAY: What do giant sea monsters eat? (answer tomorrow)
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