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Events, deaths, births, of JAN 14
[For Jan 14 Julian go to Gregorian date: 1583~1699: Jan 241700s: Jan 251800s: Jan 261900~2099: Jan 27]
MRVT 5-year chartOn a January 14:
2002 The price of shares of Kmart Corporation (KM) falls over 22% intraday (to $2.55 from the 13 Jan 2002 close of $3.30) as concern mounts about the fate of the discount chain which has seen sales and profits fall in the face of stiff competition from Wal-Mart Stores Inc.
2002 On the NASDAQ the price of shares of Miravant Medical Technologies (MRVT) plummets to a close of $2.44 (intraday low $2.05), down 75% from the 13 January close of $9.75, ot news of disappointing results of the trial of a macular degenaration drug. [5-year price chart >]
2002 Jordanian Prime Minister Ali Abu al-Ragheb, 55, reshuffles his 29-member cabinet at King Abdullah's request to prepare for a parliamentary election (delayed from November 2001 to avoid Islamist gains) expected to be held in September 2002. Jordan's ambassador to the US since 1997, Marwan al-Muasher, is named foreign minister, replacing Abdulilah al-Khatib who had held the post for three years. Qaftan al-Majali, interior ministry under-secretary, becomes minister of the interior replacing controversial Awad Khuleifat, who has been at odds with Abu Ragheb. Finance Minister Michel Marto keeps his job.
2000 Denis Chatelier, 33, receives a transplant of both hands at l'hôpital Edouard-Herriot de Lyon. He will have to receive immunosuppressants for the rest of his life, increasing his risk of contracting life-threatening diseases. This, and the uncertainty of his gaining control of his new hands, generates a controversy. However, one year later, Chatelier would have gained sensitivity and much use of the hands. Chatelier had lost his forearms and hands in 1996 when an amateur rocket he made with his nephews exploded as he was preparing it for launch.
2000 A U.N. tribunal sentenced five Bosnian Croats to up to 25 years in prison for the 1993 massacre of at least 103 Muslims in a Bosnian village.
2000 At last INS relents and will reunite children and mom it had separated.
     In Haiti, kids cry for mom in Miami, one example out of too many. Marc Yvens Dieubon, 10, and his sister, Germanie, 8 [photo >], wait for news of their mother at a relative's home in Port-au-Prince, after the two kids were repatriated without her.  
Haitian kids cry      They didn't know that they made the two-day forced return trip to Haiti without their mother, who was left in Miami, too sick to be repatriated. They didn't even know if she was alive. Yvena Rhinvil, 33, and her children were among 411 passengers who left Haiti Dec. 28 on an ill-fated voyage aboard a homemade fishing vessel headed toward Miami. As many as 10 people reportedly died at sea on the treacherously overloaded boat, either suffocating or jumping overboard in desperation.
      On 000105, the children's pregnant mother, detained at the Krome detention center, was fearing the worst as well: She had no idea what happened to her children and begged authorities for help in finding them. The Immigration and Naturalization Service said they had no idea the children had been sent back to Haiti, "But we weren't on the boat; the Coast Guard was." "This is the first I'm hearing of it," said a Coast Guard spokesman.
      Mother separated from her kidsYvena Rhinvil [< photo] said she kept trying to tell US authorities about her children, but no one listened to her amid all the chaos. The trip, fraught with mishaps, turned out nothing like Yvena hoped. She had seen it as an opportunity to start a better life for her children. Yvena studied typing after high school. Her only job was working as a sales clerk at a drugstore. The salary was not enough to cover her bus fare and she quit. She never found another job. She was raising her children alone.
      Marc Yvens was held back from fourth grade this year so his school tuition could be used to buy clothes and provisions. 991218 the journey began. But the bus carrying the family crashed into an oncoming car and Yvena, who is pregnant, was badly injured. She was rushed to a hospital and advised to stay for several days. Fearing missing the boat she left after just one day. They made it to Tortue Island and camped out with other passengers awaiting the boat. On 991228 they boarded. But the boat got more and more crowded. The family was lucky to secure a spot on the upper deck — until Yvena got sick. It was the last time that Marc Yvens and his sister Germanie saw their mom. And they don't know when they'll see her again.
     At last, on 14 January, the INS says that Marc Yvens and Germanie will be allowed to travel to Miami as soon as passports are issued by the Haitian government. They have been staying with an aunt in Port-au-Prince. The two kids will be allowed to live in the United States for 90 days while their mother's political asylum claim is weighed. Pressure on the US government to reunite the family had been building since Rhinvil's case became public. Thousands had protested US handling of the case on 000112, carrying black-draped coffins to symbolize those who had died trying to reach the United States. Haitian and African-American activists say they are troubled by the contrast between the huge outcry over 6-year-old Elian Gonzalez, the Cuban migrant who was found adrift on Thanksgiving Day, and the routine return of young Haitian migrants. Under US policy, Haitians and others who arrive illegally are sent back, while the Cuban Readjustment Act of 1966 grants any Cuban who reaches American soil the right to stay.
      For every case of cruelty towards immigrants that makes the news, how many thousands are there which never get publicized?
1999 Clinton impeachment trial starts in US Senate.

(1) The House prosecution team begins its three-day case for removing President Bill Clinton from office, presenting the Senate with its road map for the "impeachable offenses" of perjury and obstruction of justice they claim Clinton committed. The managers are fighting an uphill battle to convince two-thirds of the Senate that Clinton should be convicted of the two articles of impeachment, and consequently be removed from office. In his introductory remarks, Judiciary Committee Chairman Henry Hyde reminds the senators of their duties as impartial jurors. "You are seated in this historic chamber ... to listen to the evidence as those who must sit in judgment. To guide you in this grave duty, you've taken an oath of impartiality." (TRANSCRIPT)

Hyde gives the introduction "The president engaged in a conspiracy of crimes to prevent justice from being served. These are impeachable offenses for which the president should be convicted," Rep. James Sensenbrenner (R-Wisconsin) says in his overview of the managers' case.

Sensenbrenner stresses that the trial is taking place because Clinton had multiple occasions to tell the truth about his affair with former White House intern Monica Lewinsky but didn't. "We are here today because President William Jefferson Clinton decided to put himself above the law, not once, not twice, but repeatedly," Sensenbrenner says. He adds that the president "could have told the truth to the American people. Instead, he shook his finger at each and every American and said, 'I want you to listen to me' and proceeded to tell a straight-faced lie to the American people." The failure to convict Clinton on the impeachment charges, says Sensenbrenner, "will cause a cancer to be present in our society for generations." Offering some of the toughest rhetoric of the day, Sensenbrenner concludes: "When a cancer exists in the body politic, our job, our duty, is to excise it." (TRANSCRIPT)

The "fact" team then takes over the House's presentation. Reps. Ed Bryant (Tennessee), Hutchinson and Rogan closely follow the 105-page legal brief the managers filed with the Senate on 11 January to outline their case. Sensenbrenner savages the Clinton White House Before his colleagues launch into their recitation of the For the case, Bryant stresses to the senators that the events in question can not be viewed as isolated incidents but instead as a pattern of corruption. "Remember, events and words that may seem innocent or even exculpatory in a vacuum may well take on sinister, or even criminal connotation when observed in the context of the whole plot," Bryant says. He provides a loosely chronological history of events that led to Starr's investigation of the president. "Every trial must have a beginning and this trial begins on a cold day in January 1993," Bryant says, showing video of Clinton taking his first oath of office on the steps of the Capitol. The Tennessee Republican went on to trace the events surrounding Jones' civil lawsuit, as well as the progression of the president's sexual relationship with Lewinsky through December 1997. (TRANSCRIPT)

Rogan replays parts of the president's testimony before Independent Counsel Ken Starr's grand jury on 17 August to lay out his case for impeachment Article I, which accuses Clinton of perjury. The California representative focuses much of his remarks on the prepared statement Clinton read 19 times during his grand jury testimony. In that statement, Rogan says, Clinton gave a "false account of the nature and details of his relationship with Lewinsky." Specifically, Rogan says Clinton lied about the starting date of the affair and the type of sexual activity that took place. "Ironically, this prepared statement was supposed to inoculate him from perjury. Instead, it opened him up to 19 more examples of giving perjurious, false, and misleading answers under oath," he adds. Though the House voted down an article of impeachment charging Clinton with perjury in his Paula Jones civil deposition, Rogan addresses the charge in his statement, arguing that Clinton perjured himself by repeating "previous perjured answers he gave under oath in a sexual harassment lawsuit." Bryant highlights Clinton's original oath.

Speaking to Article II — the obstruction of justice charge — Hutchinson tells the Senate that Clinton encouraged Lewinsky to submit a false affidavit, tampered with witnesses and conspired to conceal the gifts exchanged between the president and the ex-intern. Hutchinson also categorizes the job search for Lewinsky as obstruction. Using charts to display the timelines, Hutchinson runs through a tic-toc of events from December 1997 when Lewinsky was subpoenaed in the Jones case to January 1998 when the scandal was threatening to break in the press. Hutchinson presents what he dubbed Clinton's "seven pillars of obstruction" that include encouraging the filing of a false affidavit, witness tampering and the concealment of evidence. He calls the president's actions part of a scheme to hide the relationship with Lewinsky from Jones' lawyers. Hutchinson refutes White House claims that this case is just about sex and personal behavior by the president. "It is not a crime nor an impeachable offense to engage in inappropriate personal conduct; nor is it a crime to obstruct or conceal an embarrassing relationship." "But as we go through the facts of this case, the evidence will show that a scheme was developed to obstruct the administration of justice, and that is illegal," he says. Hutchinson is from Clinton's home state, and his brother, Sen. Tim Hutchinson (R-Arkansas), is sitting as a juror in this trial. (TRANSCRIPT)

Chief Justice William Rehnquist, who is presiding over the trial, periodically stands up to stretch his ailing back. As the afternoon drifts into evening, senators sit quietly at their desks, some taking notes, some fidgeting and others perfectly still. Several lawmakers quietly make requests for paper or water, but per the rules, no senator so much as whispered during the first hour or so of proceedings. The trial adjourns Thursday night after House managers complete a six-hour presentation of evidence. The summation of the factual case will be presented by Rep. Bill McCollum (R-Florida) when the trial resumes at 13:00 ET on 15 January. (2) The House Managers, by David Schippers, submit a rebuttal memorandum to Clinton's Trial Memorandum

(3) A senior White House source later accuses House prosecutors of opening their impeachment case against Clinton with an "outrageous and blatant misrepresentation." At issue: Sensenbrenner's remarks, when he suggested that those looking for evidence the president committed perjury should look at the House Judiciary Committee testimony of White House counsel Charles Ruff. Sensenbrenner said Ruff declined to answer the question when asked if the president had told the truth in his grand jury testimony. But the White House official says Ruff's answer was, "He surely did." The official says: "Congressman Sensenbrenner blatantly misrepresented the facts and the record, consistent with the outrageous and blatant misrepresentation of the record throughout their entire case. ... They say nothing is more central to the rule of law than the truth and they can't tell the truth." Hutchinson presents a devastating timeline

(4) Independent Counsel Ken Starr says his staff is in touch with House prosecutors to provide them assistance with the impeachment trial of President Bill Clinton. "There's a process that is underway that's called for by the Constitution, and our office had a statutory obligation to refer materials to Congress once, in our evaluation, the predicate was there for Congress to consider it," Starr says. "I don't think I should be commenting at all. It's the process that Congress has ordained, and now the Constitution has provided for." Starr says he had not been in touch with the prosecutors today, but he did plan on watching the proceedings. When asked if the case could be appropriately considered without witnesses, Starr says he did not want to comment on a process that was at the discretion of and the "rightful prerogative" of the Senate. "I think I should allow those judgments to be made without the burden of any comment I may have," Starr says. Meanwhile, Starr finally receives a confidential response to his 02 December 1998 complaints that Reno's Justice Department is politically biased in favor of protecting Clinton. The response comes from from Deputy Attorney General Eric Holder. "I reject in the strongest terms'' the "charge that the department has engaged in 'politically motivated interference,''' Holder's office writes. Holder's office says the 02 December 1998 letter from Starr's office is "wholly unjustified;'' that Holder is "very disappointed" by the letter's tone; and that the DOJ would list the allegations it intended to review. Eventually, discussions will resume between Justice and Starr. Starr will later supply the DOJ's Office of Professional Responsibility a point-by-point rebuttal (totaling several hundred pages) to allegations of impropriety in his investigation of Clinton.

1998 In Dallas, researchers report an enzyme that slows the aging process and cell death.
1995 Tens of thousands of South Africans attend state funeral of Yossel Mashel "Joe" Slovo, the chief White leader in the struggle against apartheid for more than 40 years. He had died on 06 January, at age 68.
1994 US President Clinton and Russian President Boris Yeltsin signed Kremlin accords to stop aiming missiles at any nation and to dismantle the nuclear arsenal of Ukraine.
1991 Jorge Serrano Elías sworn in as President of Guatemala
1991 Valentin Pavlov becomes premier of USSR
1990 Pérez de Cuellar says he has lost all hope for peace in the Persian Gulf.
1989 Former Belgian premier Paul Van den Boeynants kidnapped
1989 1000 Muslims burn Salman Rushdie's Satanic Verses in Bradford England
1986 Constitution of Guatemala takes effect and Vinicio Cerezo becomes only the 2nd freely elected President of Guatemala since the CIA-sponsored coup in 1954
1985 British pound (£) sinks to record low—$1.11
1981 FCC frees stations to air as many commercials an hour as they wish
1980 UN "deplores" Soviet intervention in Afghanistan.
      In a crushing diplomatic rebuke to the Soviet Union, the U.N. General Assembly votes 104 to 18 to "deplore" the Russian intervention in Afghanistan. The resolution also requested the "immediate, unconditional and total withdrawal of the foreign troops from Afghanistan." The immense margin of victory for the resolution indicated the worldwide disapproval for the December 1979 Soviet invasion and installation of a pro-communist puppet regime in Afghanistan.
      The General Assembly's resolution had no direct impact on the Soviet Union's actions. Russia had earlier vetoed a similar resolution introduced in the Security Council. However, the size of the General Assembly vote and the nations that voted for the resolution indicated that Cold War world politics might be changing. Non-aligned nations (nations in the United Nations that claimed "non-alignment" with either the West or the communist bloc) and other Third World nations voted 78 to 9 in favor of the resolution (28 others abstained or were absent).
    Even the fiery rhetoric of the Cuban delegate (Cuba presided over the non-aligned nations) failed to sway many voters to defeat the proposal. "We know," he declared, "the historic role of the Soviet Union and of United States imperialism." Several representatives from Asian, African, and Latin American nations-nations that had traditionally maintained a more or less neutral attitude toward the East-West conflict-did condemn the Soviet action in Afghanistan.
      The resolution was a victory for US diplomats, who had been pushing for a statement from the international organization denouncing the Soviet invasion. The successful and overwhelming passage of the resolution indicated that Cold War alignments were perhaps undergoing an important and far-reaching alteration. Many of the so-called non-aligned nations and Third World countries were appalled by the Soviet action and drew closer to the United States. With the Cold War itself destined to last another decade, US relations with such nations would take on more significance than ever before.
1979 President Carter proposes Martin Luther King Jr's birthday be a holiday
1975 USSR breaks trade agreement with US.
1969 US President Lyndon B. Johnson's 6th annual State of the Union address.
1968 Campaign to disrupt North Vietnamese build-up near Khe Sanh
      US joint-service Operation Niagara is launched to support the US Marine base at Khe Sanh. The Khe Sanh base was the westernmost anchor of a series of combat bases and strongholds that stretched from the Cua Viet River on the coast of the South China Sea westward along Route 9 to the Laotian border. Intelligence sources revealed that the North Vietnamese Army was beginning to build up its forces in the area surrounding Khe Sanh. Operation Niagara was a joint US Air Force, Navy and Marine Corps air campaign launched in support of the marines manning the base. Using sensors installed along the nearby DMZ and reconnaissance flights to pinpoint targets, 24,000 tactical fighter-bomber sorties and 2,700 B-52 strategic bomber sorties were flown between the start of the operation and March 31, 1968, when it was terminated. This airpower played a major role in the successful defense of Khe Sanh when it came under attack on January 21 and was subsequently besieged for 66 days until finally broken on April 7.
1967 New York Times reports that US Army is conducting secret germ warfare experiments
1963 George C Wallace sworn in as Governor of Alabama, his address states "segregation now; segregation tomorrow; segregation forever!"
1956 Jordan government refuses to join Pact of Baghdad.
1953 Marshal Josip Broz “Tito” is elected the first president of Yugoslavia by the country's Parliament.
1950 US recalls all consular officials from China.
1944 Soviet army begins offensive at Oranienbaum/Wolchow.
1943 Heinrich Himmler, Reichsführer of the SS, views Warsaw
1943 Roosevelt and Churchill begin Casablanca conference
      Prime Minister Winston Churchill and President Franklin D. Roosevelt meet in Casablanca, Morocco, along with the Combined Chiefs of Staff, to discuss strategy and study the next phase of the war. This meeting marked the first time an American president left American soil during wartime. Participants also included leaders of the French government-in-exile, Gen. Charles de Gaulle and Gen. Henri Giraud, who were assured of a postwar united France.
      The success of the North Africa invasion, which resulted in the defeat of Vichy French forces, compelled President Roosevelt to meet with Prime Minister Churchill (Joseph Stalin, president and dictator of the USSR, declined an invitation to attend) to confer on how best to push forward an end to the war. Top priority was given to destroying German U-boat patrols in the Atlantic and launching combined bombing missions. Most important, in a controversial declaration, they announced that the Allies would accept only unconditional surrender from the Axis powers, a decision that caused consternation on all sides as too extreme and allowing too little room for political maneuvering. The meeting was kept secret — even by newspapers that knew about it — until the participants left Morocco on 27 January.
1942 Anglo-American Combined Chiefs of Staff established
      The United States and Great Britain agree to have the British Chiefs of Staff and the US Joint Chiefs work together, either through meetings or representatives, to advise the leaders of both nations on military policy during the war. During the Arcadia Conference, which began on December 22, 1941, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill met with President Franklin D. Roosevelt in Washington, D.C., to discuss a unified Anglo-American war strategy and a future peace. Toward this end, the Combined Chiefs of Staff was created. The British Chiefs of Staff, composed of the three service heads (army, navy, air force), and their US counterparts, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, were made into one office, with the Combined Staff Planners and the Combined Secretariat offering administrative support.
1942 Japanese troops land at oil center Balikpapan in Borneo
1939 Norway claims Queen Maud Land in Antarctica
1938 National Society for the Legalization of Euthanasia formed (NY)
1936 Lawrence Mario Giannini, son of founder Amadeo Peter Giannini, elected president of Bank of America
1935 Oil pipeline Iraq-Mediterranean goes into use.
1930 En France, le ministre de la guerre André Maginot [17 Feb 1877 – 07 Jan 1932] fait approuver la loi du 14 janvier 1930, qui prévoit deux régions fortifiées principales, celle de Metz et celle de la Lauter, une barrière de casemates le long du Rhin, des barrages solides dans les Alpes et quelques bribes dans le Nord. Ce projet sera modifié ultérieurement et aboutira à la “ligne Maginot”.
1929 Afghan King Amanullah forced to resign
1918 Finland and USSR adopts New Style (Gregorian) calendar
1916 Dutch South Sea dike cracks
1914 Henry Ford introduces assembly line, for the Model-T. In Ford's early lines, parts and product were precisely standardized. Only one car model was manufactured, and each unit was identical to every other unit in all aspects, including color — black. The new method reduces assembly time of a car from 12½ hours to 93 minutes.
1912 Raymond Poincaré becomes premier of France.
1896 Ponzi immigrates to US, where he would invent his notorious “Scheme”.
      CarloPonzi immigrates to the US from Italy. The small-time con man would later stumble into one of the largest scams of all time and have an entire type of crime named after him: the "Ponzi scheme." For 20 years, Ponzi bounced from job to job, always dreaming up a way to make millions but never coming close. But in 1919, he came up with a new plan. Ponzi told friends and potential investors that they would get a 50 percent return on their money within three months if they invested with him. The hapless investors were never told much about what Ponzi planned on doing with their money, but, when pressed, he told them that it had to do with international postal exchange coupons, an obscure field that virtually no one knew much about. Ponzi told his marks that they could cash out at the end of three months or roll over their investments.
      Ponzi promptly paid off his initial investors and soon the investment dollars were pouring in. Thousands of people came to his offices, where money was stuffed in every desk drawer and filing cabinet. Ponzi was taking in an estimated $200'000 a day at the frenzy's peak. When a local writer questioned Ponzi's financial record, he threatened to sue and scared off further inquiry. Ponzi went on a personal spending spree in 1920, buying 100 suits and 100 pairs of shoes. He also took $3 million in cash to the Hanover Trust Company and bought a controlling interest in the reputable firm.
      However, when state investigators finally began examining his books and interviewing his workers they found that there was no real investment going on. Of course, only the very early investors actually got any money back, and these funds came from later investors. Such a scam, known as a pyramid scheme, inevitably explodes, as it did on August 13, 1920, when thousands of investors demanded their money back. Ponzi, anticipating the collapse, had already taken $2 million to the Saratoga casinos in a vain attempt to make up the lost money. Ponzi went to jail and was deported to Italy in 1934. He told reporters, "I hope the world forgives me." Perhaps taken in by his apparent contrition, Italian dictator Benito Mussolini gave Ponzi a high position in the government's financial sector. However, human nature is very difficult to change, and Ponzi eventually embezzled funds from the country's treasury and escaped to Brazil, where he died in 1949.
     He also inspired the amusing web page http://www.bandersnatch.com/ponzi.htm quoted below:
THE PONZI SCHOOL OF BUSINESS — “Our faculty is sought after by authorities in 37 foreign countries”
GDU offers a wide variety of independent study programs ranging from obtaining SBA Loans to international securities fraud. Our Course Materials have been prepared by experts in their respective fields located in the finest correctional institutions on three continents.
The Ponzi School of Business was named after Mr.Carlo Ponzi, who obtained money from investors, using some of the investor money to pay "dividends" to other investors, creating the illusion of a successful investment, while he was pocketing the balance of the invested funds. The practice is commonly referred to as a "Ponzi Scheme" and a Ponzi-type operation is also known as a "bucket shop" or the Social Security System.
BUSINESS 101: ETHICS (No Credit) Case histories of famous robber barons, con artists, swindlers, grifters and politicians are reviewed.
BUSINESS 1O2: THE SWISS BANKING SYSTEM How to open up your numbered account in Zurich. [Trip to Switzerland not included in Course Materials.]
BUSINESS 103: TAX HAVENS Numerous small countries (mostly in the Caribbean) offer opportunities to locate businesses and open up bank accounts that are not subject to US taxation. [Field trips to the Netherlands Antilles and the Grand Cayman Islands can be arranged for a substantial price.]
BUSINESS 1O4: EXTRADITION TREATIES The laws of Brazil, Costa Rica, and other countries lacking effective extradition treaties with the United States are carefully explained. Itinerary of Robert Vesco included. [Note: if you are a former governmental official of Mexico, a special section is offered on exile in Cuba.]
BUSINESS 105: TIME SHARE CEMETERIES The newest wrinkle on real estate opportunities is explained. Double occupancy rates are covered.
BUSINESS 106: YARD SALES How to get rich buying junk at other people's yard sales and selling this dreck at your own yard sale for a profit.
BUSINESS 109: MONEY CAN MAKE YOU RICH Learn how to borrow money from friends without having to pay it back.
BUSINESS 201: INDIGENT ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Selling "will work for food signs" and reserving street corners is covered. Samples of effective signs such as "To Be Honest I Just Want To Buy Some Beer" are included.
Fish and ships.
Note: For further amusement, check out the other schools at GDU (General Delivery University) http://www.bandersnatch.com/guide.htm:
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  • Isla Tiburon Institute of Modern Social Interaction "Isla Tiburon" means "shark island". Need we say more?
  • Medical Programs Learn the fine art of waking up patients that have just gotten to sleep, and Medicare fraud.
  • School of Hard Knocks "When I was a kid I had to walk 3 miles through the mud to go to school". And other lessons in life.
  • College of Education How to organize a teacher's union, how to teach the illiterate, and other valuable tools for the educator.
  • Computer Science Program Get rich buying computers from yard sales and reselling them, and more.
  • College of Engineering How to build a levee that won't break when it rains and more.
  • Physical Education, Law, Law Enforcement A mixed bag of programs, including the one and only course a lawyer needs to practice law.
  • College of Miscellaneous Stuff Eclectic (and worthless) knowledge to justify 4 years of tuition.
  • College of Popular Sciences Junk science, and how to create a Congressman from pond scum.
  • School of Divinity The First Church of Generic Beliefs needs you! Complete with a page of Revelations.
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  • 1894 Joseph Conrad returns to London
          Joseph Conrad returns to London to settle down after a long career at sea. There, he begins rewriting a story he had been working on during his travels, which becomes his first novel, Almayer's Folly. Conrad was born in Poland, as Jozef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski, on 03 December 1857, the son of a Polish poet and patriot. Conrad's father was arrested in 1861 for political activism and exiled to northern Russia. His wife and toddler son joined him. Both parents died of tuberculosis when Joseph was about 12. An uncle raised Joseph, until the boy set out at age 17 for Marseilles, France, where he joined the merchant marine and sailed to the West Indies. Conrad's many harrowing adventures at sea inspired much of his work, which would make him one of the greatest English novelist and short-story writer, whose works include the novels Lord Jim (1900), Nostromo (1904), and The Secret Agent (1907) and the short story Heart of Darkness (1902).
          In 1878, when Korzeniowskij was 21, he traveled to England as a deck hand on a British freighter. He perfected his English during six voyages on a small British trade boat and spent 16 years with the British merchant navy. He had numerous adventures around the world, became a British subject in 1886, and got his first command in 1888. In 1889 he commanded a Congo River steamboat for four months, which set the stage for his well-known story Heart of Darkness (1902).
          Korzeniowskij began writing in the late 1890s and used the name Conrad. Almayer's Folly, was published in 1895. In 1896 he married an English woman and gave up the sea to write full time. His work evolved from hearty sea-adventure tales to sophisticated and pessimistic explorations of morals, personal choices, and character. His best-known works, including Lord Jim, Nostromo and The Secret Agent, were published between 1900 and 1911, and brought him financial security.
         In A Personal Record (also titled Some Reminiscences) Conrad relates that his first introduction to the English language was at the age of eight, when his father was translating the works of Shakespeare.
         In July 1876 he sailed to the West Indies, as a steward on the Saint-Antoine. On this gunrunning voyage, Conrad sailed along the coast of Venezuela, memories of which were to find a place in Nostromo. The first mate of the vessel, a Corsican named Dominic Cervoni, was the model for the hero of that novel and was to play a picturesque role in Conrad's life and work.
         In April 1881 Conrad joined the Palestine, a bark of 425 tons. This move proved to be an important event in his life; it took him to the Far East for the first time, and it was also a continuously troubled voyage, which provided him with literary material that he would use later. Beset by gales, accidentally rammed by a steamer, and deserted by a sizable portion of her crew, the Palestine nevertheless had made it as far as the East Indies when her cargo of coal caught fire and the crew had to take to the lifeboats; Conrad's initial landing in the East, on an island off Sumatra, took place only after a 13-1/2-hour voyage in an open boat. In 1898 Conrad published his account of his experiences on the Palestine, with only slight alterations, as the short story Youth, a remarkable tale of a young officer's first command.
         In 1883 Conrad joined the Narcissus at Bombay. This voyage gave him material for his novel The Nigger of the "Narcissus,", the story of an egocentric black sailor's deterioration and death aboard ship.
         In February 1887 Conrad sailed as first mate on the Highland Forest, bound for Semarang, Java. Her captain was John McWhirr, whom he later immortalized under the same name as the heroic, unimaginative captain of the steamer Nan Shan in Typhoon. He then joined the Vidar, a locally owned steamship trading among the islands of the southeast Asian archipelago. During the five or six voyages he made in four and a half months, Conrad was discovering and exploring the world he was to re-create in his first novels, Almayer's Folly, An Outcast of the Islands, and Lord Jim, as well as several short stories.
         After leaving the Vidar Conrad unexpectedly obtained his first command, on the Otago, sailing from Bangkok, an experience out of which he was to make his stories The Shadow Line and Falk.
         In London in the summer of 1889, Conrad began to write Almayer's Folly. He interrupted that to go to the Congo Free State, which was four years old as a political entity and already notorious as a sphere of imperialistic exploitation. Conrad obtained the command of a Congo River steamboat. What he saw, did, and felt in his 4 months in the Congo are largely recorded in Heart of Darkness, his most famous, finest, and most enigmatic story, the title of which signifies not only the heart of Africa, the dark continent, but also the heart of evil — everything that is corrupt, nihilistic, malign — and perhaps the heart of man. The story is central to Conrad's work and vision, and it is difficult not to think of his Congo experiences as traumatic. He may have exaggerated when he said, "Before the Congo I was a mere animal," but in a real sense the dying Kurtz's cry, "The horror! The horror!" was Conrad's. He suffered psychological, spiritual, even metaphysical shock in the Congo, and his physical health was also damaged; for the rest of his life, he was racked by recurrent fever and gout.
         Almayer's Folly was published in April 1895. It was as the author of this novel that he adopted the name Conrad. Almayer's Folly was followed in 1896 by An Outcast of the Islands, which repeats the theme of a foolish and blindly superficial character meeting the tragic consequences of his own failings in a tropical region far from the company of his fellow Europeans. These two novels provoked a misunderstanding of Conrad's talents and purpose which dogged him the rest of his life. Set in the Malayan archipelago, they caused him to be labeled a writer of exotic tales, a reputation which a series of novels and short stories about the sea — The Nigger of the Narcissus (1897), Lord Jim (1900), Youth (1902), Typhoon (1902), and others — seemed only to confirm. But, as he wrote about the Narcissus, in his view "the problem . . . is not a problem of the sea, it is merely a problem that has risen on board a ship where the conditions of complete isolation from all land entanglements make it stand out with a particular force and colouring." This is equally true of his other works; the latter part of Lord Jim takes place in a jungle village not because the emotional and moral problems that interest Conrad are those peculiar to jungle villages, but because there Jim's feelings of guilt, responsibility, and insecurity — feelings common to mankind — work themselves out with a logic and inevitability that are enforced by his isolation.
         Conrad's finest novels are considered to be Lord Jim (1900), Nostromo (1904), The Secret Agent (1907), and Under Western Eyes (1911), the last being three novels of political intrigue and romance
         Nostromo (1904) is a story of revolution, politics, and financial manipulation in a South American republic. It centers, for all its close-packed incidents, upon one idea — the corruption of the characters by the ambitions that they set before themselves, ambitions concerned with silver, which forms the republic's wealth and which is the central symbol around which the novel is organized. The ambitions range from simple greed to idealistic desires for reform and justice. All lead to moral disaster, and the nobler the ambition the greater its possessor's self-disgust as he realizes his plight.
          Heart of Darkness,(one of the Two Other Stories in Youth and Two Other Stories, the third one being The End of the Tether) which follows closely the actual For Conrad's Congo journey, tells of the narrator's fascination by a mysterious white man, Kurtz, who, by his eloquence and hypnotic personality, dominates the brutal tribesmen around him. Full of contempt for the greedy traders who exploit the natives, the narrator cannot deny the power of this figure of evil who calls forth from him something approaching reluctant loyalty.
          The Secret Agent (1907) is a sustained essay in the ironic and one of Conrad's finest works. It deals with the equivocal world of anarchists, police, politicians, and agents provocateurs in London.
          Victory describes the unsuccessful attempts of a detached, nihilistic observer of life to protect himself and his hapless female companion from the murderous machinations of a trio of rogues on an isolated island.
         Conrad died on 03 August 1924.
    CONRAD ONLINE:   [Conrad links]
  • Amy Foster
  • Chance
  • Falk
  • Lord Jim
  • Lord Jim
  • Lord Jim
  • Lord Jim
  • Lord Jim (zipped)
  • Nostromo
  • Nostromo
  • Typhoon
  • Typhoon
  • Victory
  • A Set of Six
  • A Set of Six
  • To-morrow
  • The Rover
  • The Rover Part 1   Part 2
  • Almayer's Folly
  • The Arrow of Gold
  • The Arrow of Gold
  • A Personal Record
  • A Personal Record
  • Some Reminiscences
  • The Secret Agent
  • The Secret Agent
  • The Secret Agent
  • The Secret Sharer
  • The Secret Sharer
  • The Secret Sharer
  • Tales of Unrest
  • Tales of Unrest
  • 'Twixt Land and Sea
  • The Mirror of the Sea
  • The Nigger of the Narcissus
  • Notes on Life and Letters
  • An Outcast of the Islands
  • Heart of Darkness
  • Heart of Darkness
  • Heart of Darkness
  • The Heart of Darkness (magazine version)
  • The Rescue: A Romance of the Shallows
  • The Shadow Line: A Confession
  • Youth and Two Other Stories
  • Within the Tides
  • End of the Tether
  • The Informer: An Ironic Tale
  • An Anarchist: A Desperate Tale
  • co-author of The Inheritors
  • 1893 Pope Leo XIII appoints Archbishop Francesco Satolli as the Vatican's first Apostolic Delegate to the United States.
    1891 US General reports Sioux are crushed.
          General Nelson Miles, commander of the US Army troops in South Dakota, reports that the rebellious Sioux are finally returning to their reservation following the bloody massacre at Wounded Knee. Since the Battle of Little Bighorn in 1876, Miles fought to force resistant Indians all across the nation to give up their traditional ways and accept a miserable life on government-controlled reservations. His winter campaign in 1876-77 used force and treacherous diplomacy to win the surrender of many of the remnants of the Sioux and Cheyenne Indian party, including Crazy Horse and his followers, that had destroyed Custer's forces in Montana. In 1877, Miles intercepted Chief Joseph and his Nez Perce people as they attempted to flee to Canada and Miles forced them to surrender. A decade later, he played a key role in convincing the last rebellious Apache warrior, Geronimo, to accept confinement on a Florida reservation.
          By 1890, Miles had good reason to believe that he had succeeded in bringing an end to the last remnants of Indian resistance in the United States. Therefore, it was with growing alarm and consternation that he received reports of the Ghost Dance movement among his old enemy, the Sioux, on their reservations in South Dakota. Primarily a spiritual movement, many Anglo-Americans felt threatened by the Ghost Dance because it promised that if the Sioux returned to their traditional ways their white oppressors would be eliminated.
          As commander of the vast military division of the Missouri, Miles was responsible for any threat posed by the Ghost Dance movement. He reacted by concentrating his troops near the Sioux reservation in South Dakota to maintain control of the situation while simultaneously working to find a peaceful way to diffuse the growing tensions. Unfortunately, Miles' decision to order the arrest of the old Sioux leader, Sitting Bull, only exacerbated the situation when it resulted in the respected chief's death. News of Sitting Bulls' death fanned the fears of some Sioux that the army was preparing to wipe them out in a massive campaign of genocide. Hundreds fled the reservation, and Miles dutifully dispatched troops to bring them back. When the 7th Cavalry under Colonel James Forsyth got a group of Sioux to surrender their weapons near Wounded Knee, South Dakota. on 29 December 1890, and then brutally massacred at least 18 children, 44 women, and 87 men.
          Had he actually been present at Wounded Knee that day (Miles commanded these events from his headquarters in Rapid City), the general might well have been able to resolve the confrontation peacefully. Miles viewed Wounded Knee as a foolish and avoidable blunder. To bring the Sioux into complete subjection, Miles increased both his military and diplomatic pressures. On January 14, 1891, the downtrodden Sioux submitted to his authority and returned to their miserable reservation. Nearly a quarter century after the Battle of Little Bighorn, the general had crushed the last significant Indian uprising in American history.
    1878 US Supreme court rules race separation on trains unconstitutional
    1873 "Celluloid" registered as a trademark. It was invented by John Wesley Hyatt three or four years earlier.
    1868 South Carolina constitutional convention, meets with a black majority
    1868 North Carolina constitutional convention meets in Raleigh
    1864 General “War is Hell” Sherman begins his march to the South
    1864 Battle of Cosby Creek TN
    1863 Battle between gunboats at Bayou Teched LA
    1862 Début, à une séance de la Société royale géographique de Londres, du récit de Cinq semaines en ballon de Jules Verne.
    1861 Fort Pikens FL falls into state hands
    1858 French Emperor Napoleon III escapes attempt on his life by Felice Orsini, an Italian anarchist who was later executed
    1847 Conspiracy in New Mexico against US
    1814 King of Denmark cedes Norway to King of Sweden by treaty of Kiel.
    1799 King of Naples flees before the advancing French armies.
    1799 Eli Whitney receives government contract for 10'000 muskets
    1794 Dr Jessee Bennet of Edom VA, performs first successful Cesarean section operation (on his wife)
    1784 Revolutionary War ends, Congress ratifies the Treaty of Paris (Maryland celebrates it as Ratification Day)
    1783 Congress ratifies peace treaty between US and England
    1761 Bataille de Panipat.
          Une grande bataille a lieu à Panipat, près de Delhi (Inde), en un lieu célèbre où s'affrontent régulièrement les peuples de l'Asie du Sud. Le vainqueur est Ahmed Shah Abdali. C'est un guerrier pashtoun de confession sunnite, originaire des montagnes afghanes. Il écrase ce jour-là les Marathes et les Moghols de l'Inde. Les premiers forment une puissante confédération de principautés hindouistes au centre du sous-continent. Mais ils sont divisés et haïs de leurs alliés, qu'ils accablent d'impôts. Les seconds conservent autour de Delhi les débris d'un puissant empire musulman fondé par le conquérant Babur Shah après une bataille victorieuse au même endroit, à Panipat, en 1526. Se détournant de l'Inde, Ahmed Shah utilise sa victoire pour affermir l'indépendance des tribus afghanes qu'il a réunies sous son autorité et dont il s'est désigné roi en 1747, fondant ainsi la dynastie Durrani, du nom de sa tribu. Jusqu'à l'avènement d'Ahmed Shah, les tribus afghanes, tant sunnites que shi'ites, étaient régulièrement victimes des attaques de la Perse ou des potentats indiens. A sa mort, en 1773, le royaume d'Afghanistan atteindra sa plus grande expansion, du Tibet aux rives de l'océan Indien. Sur le long terme, la victoire de Ahmed Shah va profiter surtout à la Compagnie anglaise des Indes orientales en affaiblissant les principaux États de l'Inde qui auraient pu s'opposer à son expansion. La Compagnie va pouvoir poursuivre la colonisation du sous-continent pour le compte des négociants britanniques. Plus tard, l'Afghanistan subira à son tour la pression des Britanniques... et leur donnera beaucoup de fil à retordre. Après beaucoup de vicissitudes, son indépendance sera reconnue en 1921 par la Grande-Bretagne.
    1746 Bonnie Prince Charlie's army leaves Glasgow
    1739 England and Spain signs 2nd Convention of Pardo
    1724 Spanish King Philip V abdicates throne
    1699 Massachusetts holds day of fasting to atone for the Salem witch trials of 1692.
    1690 Johann Christoph Denner, of Nürnberg, improves the target="_blank">chalumeau, which he will later develop into the clarinet
    1659 During the Regency of D. Luisa de Gusmão, Portuguese D. Sancho Manuel, Count of Vila Flor and D, António de Meneses, Count of Cantanhede defeat the Spanish army in the battle of Linhas de Elvas.
    1639 Rodger Ludlow publishes Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (first Connecticut constitution)

    For as much as it hath pleased Almighty God by the wise disposition of his divine providence so to order and dispose of things that we the Inhabitants and Residents of Windsor, Hartford and Wethersfield are now cohabiting and dwelling in and upon the River of Connectecotte and the lands thereunto adjoining; and well knowing where a people are gathered together the word of God requires that to maintain the peace and union of such a people there should be an orderly and decent Government established according to God, to order and dispose of the affairs of the people at all seasons as occasion shall require; do therefore associate and conjoin ourselves to be as one Public State or Commonwealth; and do for ourselves and our successors and such as shall be adjoined to us at any time hereafter, enter into Combination and Confederation together, to maintain and preserve the liberty and purity of the Gospel of our Lord Jesus which we now profess, as also, the discipline of the Churches, which according to the truth of the said Gospel is now practiced amongst us; as also in our civil affairs to be guided and governed accordinbg to such Laws, Rules, Orders and Decrees as shall be made, ordered, and decreed as followeth:

    1. It is Ordered, sentenced, and decreed, that there shall be yearly two General Assemblies or Courts, the one the second Thursday in April, the other the second Thursday in September following; the first shall be called the Court of Election, wherein shall be yearly chosen from time to time, so many Magistrates and other public Officers as shall be found requisite: Whereof one to be chosen Governor for the year ensuing and until another be chosen, and no other Magistrate to be chosen for more than one year: provided always there be six chosen besides the Governor, which being chosen and sworn according to an Oath recorded for that purpose, shall have the power to administer justice according to the Laws here established, and for want thereof, according to the Rule of the Word of God; which choice shall be made by all that are admitted freemen and have taken the Oath of Fidelity, and do cohabit within this Jurisdiction having been admitted Inhabitants by the major part of the Town wherein they live or the major part of such as shall be then present.
    2. It is Ordered, sentenced, and decreed, that the election of the aforesaid Magistrates shall be in this manner: every person present and qualified for choice shall bring in (to the person deputed to receive them) one single paper with the name of him written in it whom he desires to have Governor, and that he that hath the greatest number of papers shall be Governor for that year. And the rest of the Magistrates or public officers to be chosen in this manner: the Secretary for the time being shall first read the names of all that are to be put to choice and then shall severally nominate them distinctly, and every one that would have the person nominated to be chosen shall bring in one single paper written upon, and he that would not have him chosen shall bring in a blank; and every one that hath more written papers than blanks shall be a Magistrate for that year; which papers shall be received and told by one or more that shall be then chosen by the court and sworn to be faithful therein; but in case there should not be six chosen as aforesaid, besides the Governor, out of those which are nominated, than he or they which have the most writen papers shall be a Magistrate or Magistrates for the ensuing year, to make up the aforesaid number.
    3. It is Ordered, sentenced, and decreed, that the Secretary shall not nominate any person, nor shall any person be chosen newly into the Magistracy which was not propounded in some General Court before, to be nominated the next election; and to that end it shall be lawful for each of the Towns aforesaid by their deputies to nominate any two whom they conceive fit to be put to election; and the Court may add so many more as they judge requisite.
    4. It is Ordered, sentenced, and decreed, that no person be chosen Governor above once in two years, and that the Governor be always a member of some approved Congregation, and formerly of the Magistracy within this Jurisdiction; and that all the Magistrates, Freemen of this Commonwealth; and that no Magistrate or other public officer shall execute any part of his or their office before they are severally sworn, which shall be done in the face of the court if they be present, and in case of absence by some deputed for that purpose.
    5. It is Ordered, sentenced, and decreed, that to the aforesaid Court of Election the several Towns shall send their deputies, and when the Elections are ended they may proceed in any public service as at other Courts. Also the other General Court in September shall be for making of laws, and any other public occasion, which concerns the good of the Commonwealth.
    1. It is Ordered, sentenced, and decreed, that the Governor shall, either by himself or by the Secretary, send out summons to the Constables of every Town for the calling of these two standing Courts one month at least before their several times: And also if the Governor and the greatest part of the Magistrates see cause upon any special occasion to call a General Court, they may give order to the Secretary so to do within fourteen days' warning: And if urgent necessity so required, upon a shorter notice, giving sufficient grounds for it to the deputies when they meet, or else be questioned for the same; And if the Governor and major part of Magistrates shall either neglect or refuse to call the two General standing Courts or either of them, as also at other times when the occasions of the Commonwealth require, the Freemen thereof, or the major part of them, shall petition to them so to do; if then it be either denied or neglected, the said Freemen, or the major part of them, shall have the power to give order to the Constables of the several Towns to do the same, and so may meet together, and choose to themselves a Moderator, and may proceed to do any act of power which any other General Courts may.
    2. It is Ordered, sentenced, and decreed, that after there are warrants given out for any of the said General Courts, the Constable or Constables of each Town, shall forthwith give notice distinctly to the inhabitants of the same, in some public assembly or by going or sending from house to house, that at a place and time by him or them limited and set, they meet and assemble themselves together to elect and choose certain deputies to be at the General Court then following to agitate the affairs of the Commonwealth; which said deputies shall be chosen by all that are admitted Inhabitants in the several Towns and have taken the oath of fidelity; provided that none be chosen a Deputy for any General Court which is not a Freeman of this Commonwealth.
            The aforesaid deputies shall be chosen in manner following: every person that is present and qualified as before expressed, shall bring the names of such, written in several papers, as they desire to have chosen for that employment, and these three or four, more or less, being the number agreed on to be chosen for that time, that have the greatest number of papers written for them shall be deputies for that Court; whose names shall be endorsed on the back side of the warrant and returned into the Court, with the Constable or Constables' hand unto the same.
    3. It is Ordered, sentenced, and decreed, that Windsor, Hartford, and Wethersfield shall have power, each Town, to send four of their Freemen as their deputies to every General Court; and Whatsoever other Town shall be hereafter added to this Jurisdiction, they shall send so many deputies as the Court shall judge meet, a reasonable proportion to the number of Freemen that are in the said Towns being to be attended therein; which deputies shall have the power of the whole Town to give their votes and allowance to all such laws and orders as may be for the public good, and unto which the said Towns are to be bound.
    4. It is Ordered, sentenced, and decreed, that the deputies thus chosen shall have power and liberty to appoint a time and a place of meeting together before any General Court, to advise and consult of all such things as may concern the good of the public, as also to examine their own Elections, whether according to the order, and if they or the greatest part of them find any election to be illegal they may seclude such for present from their meeting, and return the same and their reasons to the Court; and if it be proved true, the Court may fine the party or parties so intruding, and the Town, if they see cause, and give out a warrant to go to a new election in a legal way, either in part or in whole. Also the said deputies shall have power to fine any that shall be disorderly at their meetings, or for not coming in due time or place according to appointment; and they may return the said fines into the Court if it be refused to be paid, and the Treasurer to take notice of it, and to escheat or levy the same as he does other fines.
    5. It is Ordered, sentenced, and decreed, that every General Court, except such as through neglect of the Governor and the greatest part of the Magistrates the Freemen themselves do call, shall consist of the Governor, or some one chosen to moderate the Court, and four other Magistrates at least, with the major part of the deputies of the several Towns legally chosen; and in case the Freemen, or major part of them, through neglect or refusal of the Governor and major part of the Magistrates, shall call a Court, it shall consist of the major part of Freemen that are present or their deputiues, with a Moderator chosen by them: In which said General Courts shall consist the supreme power of the Commonwealth, and they only shall have power to make laws or repeal them, to grant levies, to admit of Freemen, dispose of lands undisposed of, to several Towns or persons, and also shall have power to call either Court or Magistrate or any other person whatsoever into question for any misdemeanor, and may for just causes displace or deal otherwise according to the nature of the offense; and also may deal in any other matter that concerns the good of this Commonwealth, except election of Magistrates, which shall be done by the whole body of Freemen.
            In which Court the Governor or Moderator shall have power to order the Court, to give liberty of speech, and silence unseasonable and disorderly speakings, to put all things to vote, and in case the vote be equal to have the casting voice. But none of these Courts shall be adjourned or dissolved without the consent of the major part of the Court.
    6. It is Ordered, sentenced, and decreed, that when any General Court upon the occasions of the Commonwealth have agreed upon any sum, or sums of money to be levied upon the several Towns within this Jurisdiction, that a committee be chosen to set out and appoint what shall be the proportion of every Town to pay of the said levy, provided the committee be made up of an equal number out of each Town.
    14 January 1639 the 11 Orders above said are voted.
    Carlos VFronçois Ier1601 Church authorities burn Hebrew books in Rome
    1529 Spanish reformer Juan de Valdes, 29, published his Dialogue on Christian Doctrine, which paved the way in Spain for Protestant ideas. But his treatise was condemned by the Spanish Inquisition, and Valdes was forced to flee Spain, never to return.
    1526 Charles V [< click on left icon for portrait] and François I [click on right icon for portrait >] sign Treaty of Madrid; François I forced to give up claims in Burgundy, Italy and Flanders.
    Deaths which occurred on a January 14:
    2003 Jane M. Baustista, 41, strangled by her sons Jason Baustista, 20, and his half-brother, 15, in Riverside, California. They then cut off her head and hands which they hide in the apartment of the three, and dump the body in an Orange County ravine.
    2003 Detective Constable Stephen Oake, 40, stabbed with a kitchen knife by a suspect during a search of a residence in Manchester, England. Another four policemen (all unarmed) are injured.
    Karmi 07 Sep 20012002 Raed al-Karmi, 28, an al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades leader in Tulkarem, West Bank, who had survived an Israeli missile attack which killed two other with him in his SUV on 06 September 2001 [< 07 Sep 2001 photo]. Karmi received a phone call telling him to go outside. He is killed when an Israeli secret services bomb on a cemetery wall near his house explodes as he walks past. Karmi's body is torn by shrapnel and one leg is ripped off. The bomb was planted by Palestinian woman Rajaa Ibrahim, 18, according to al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades militants, who murder her on 30 August 2002.
    1991 Sallah Kharaf [Abu Iyad], co-founder (Al-Fatah), assassinated
    1988 Georgi M Malenkov, 86, PM of USSR (1953-55)
    1978 Kurt Gödel, mathematician.
    1977 Anthony Eden, 79, British premier (1955-57)
    1977 Abdul Razak bin Hussain, 53, premier of Malaysia (1970-77)
    1977 Anaïs Nin, 73, Cuban/American writer (Delta of Venus)
    1972 Frederik IX [Christiaan FFMKW], 72, king of Denmark (1947-72)
    1970 Feller, mathematician.
    1969 25 crew members of US aircraft carrier Enterprise, from explosion, during maneuvers
    1949: 141 die in Black / Indian race rebellion in Durban, South Africa.
    1949 Joaquín Turina, 66, Spanish pianist/conductor/composer (Rima)
    1944 Mohammed Emin Yurdakul, 74, Turkish poet.
    1944 German M/S Wittekind, bombed and sunk by British aircraft while sailing from Narvik to Germany. The ship had been built in 1906 for the Norwegian company Wilh. Wilhelmsen (of Tønsberg) as its 2nd M/S Tricolor and sold in 1925 to Germany, where it was renamed.
    Their 2nd Tricolor (built 1906) had been sold to Germany in 1925 and renamed Wittekind, bombed and sunk by British aircraft on Jan. 14-1944 on a voyage Narvik-Germany.
    Their 2nd Tricolor (built 1906) had been sold to Germany in 1925 and renamed Wittekind, bombed and sunk by British aircraft on Jan. 14-1944 on a voyage Narvik-Germany.
    donated ambulances1940 Day 46 of Winter War: USSR aggression against Finland.
    More deaths due to Stalin's desire to grab Finnish territory.

    Soviet 122nd Division withdraws to Märkäjärvi

          Ladoga Karelia: the Soviet 122nd Division is ordered to take Uomaa village and push the Finnish detachments out of the terrain between Uomaa and Lavajärvi.
          Northern Finland: the Soviet 122nd Division disengages from Vuosamonselkä and withdraws to Märkäjärvi.
          Detachment Roininen and the 40th Infantry Regiment are ordered to prepare themselves to pursue the enemy. At the same time word comes through that the Soviet 88th Division is concentrating troops at Salla.
          The submarine Iku-Turso returns from patrol without having sighted the enemy.
          Viipuri: Soviet aircraft begin to bomb the city.
          Vaasa: 10 people die in air-raids, among them women and children.
          Enemy bombers hit Rauma, Pori, Uusikaupunki, Sottunga in the Åland archipelago, Hanko, Karjaa, Salo, Tammisaari, Helsinki and Kauniainen.
          In the Gulf of Bothnia, Soviet aircraft also bomb the Swedish coastline. At Haparanda the air-raid warning lasts 1½ hours.
          Helsinki: an ambulance donated by the French Red Cross arrives from Stockholm with four nurses.

    Neuvostoarmeijan 122. Divisioona vetäytyy Märkäjärvelle Talvisodan 46. päivä, 14.tammikuuta.1940
         Neuvostoarmeijan 122. Divisioona saa käskyn vallata Uomaan kylä sekä karkotaa vihollisosastot Uomaan ja Lavajärven välisestä maastosta.
          Neuvostoarmeijan 122. Divisioona irtautuu Vuosamonselästä ja vetäytyy Märkäjärvelle.
          Osasto Roininen ja Jalkaväkirykmentti 40 saavat käskyn valmistautua takaa-ajoon. Samaikaisesti saadaan ensimmäiset tiedot 88. Divisioonan keskittymisestä Sallaan.
          Sukellusvene Iku-Turso palaa tuloksettomalta partiomatkalta tukikohtaansa.
          Vihollinen alkaa pommittaa Viipuria.
          Vaasassa saa ilmapommituksissa surmansa 10 ihmistä joukossa naisia ja lapsia.
          Vihollinen pommittaa Raumaa, Poria, Uuttakaupunkia, Sottungaa Ahvenanmaan saaristossa, Hankoa, Karjaata, Saloa, Tammisaarta, Helsinkiä ja Kauniaista.
          Suomen lisäksi neuvostokoneet pomittavat myös Ruotsin rannikkoa Pohjanlahdella. Haaparannassa annetaan ilmahälytys, joka kestää 1,5 tuntia.
          Ranskan Punaisen Ristin lahjoittama ambulanssi saapuu Tukholmasta Helsinkiin mukanaan neljä sairaanhoitajaa.
    1934 All on board an Air France Dewoiting D322 airplane which crashes in Cornigny.
    1931 William Ernst Johnson, British mathematician.
    1905 Abbe, mathematician.
    1902 Cato Maximilian Guldberg , 65, Norwegian mathematician and chemist.
    1901 Victor Balaguer, 76, Catalan historian/politician/author
    1901 Charles Hermite, 78, French mathematician (e is transcendent)
    1898 Reverend Charles Lutwige Dodgson better known as Lewis Carroll, 66.
         Born on 27 January 1832, English logician, mathematician, photographer, and novelist, especially remembered for Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865) and its sequel, Through the Looking Glass (1871). His poem The Hunting of the Snark (1876) is nonsense literature of the highest order.
  • Alice's Adventures in Wonderland
  • Alice's Adventures in Wonderland
  • Alice's Adventures Under Ground
  • Complete on-line works.
  • Complete Stories.
  • Eight or Nine Wise Words About Letter-Writing
  • Euclid and His Modern Rivals
  • The Hunting of the Snark
  • The Nursery "Alice"
  • Phantasmagoria and Other Poems
  • Sylvie and Bruno
  • Sylvie and Bruno Concluded
  • Through the Looking Glass
  • Through the Looking-Glass and What Alice Found There
  • 1879 (or 1841?) James Arthur O'Connor, Irish painter born in 1792 — A Sailing Ship, Other Ships in the Distance
    1871 Eduardo Zamachois y Zabala, Spanish artist born in 1842.
    1867 Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, in Montauban, France, neoclassical painter, specialized in portraits and orientalism, born on 29 August 1780. MORE ON INGRES AT ART “4” JANUARY LINKSMolièreSelf~PortraitSelf~PortraitThe Artist and his WifeBonaparte as First ConsulNapoléon on the Imperial ThroneThe Apotheosis of Homer _ detail: Poussin and Corneille _ detail: Racine, Molière, BoileauCountess D'Haussonville _ detail: headMolièreJeanne d'Arc au Sacre de Charles VII dans la Cathédrale de ReimsRaphael and the FornarinaPaganiniLe Bain Turc _ détailThe Apotheosis of HomerMme. MoitessierM. BertinLe Bain Turc The Ambassadors of Agamemnon in the Tent of AchillesNapoléon on the Imperial ThroneSelf~PortraitMademoiselle RivièreMme DuvauçayJoseph~Antoine MoltedoCharles-Joseph-Laurent CordierCount Nikolay GourievLa Grande OdalisqueApotheosis of HomerMartyrdom of St. SymphorienPortrait of Louis-François BertinMadame IngresBaroness James de RothschildMadame GonseMadame Moitessier Sitting
    1846 Jan Hendrik Verkeyen, Dutch artist born on 22 December 1778.
    1814 Bossut, mathematician.
    1813 William Marlow, British painter born in 1740. — LINKS
    1766 Frederik V, 42, king of Denmark/Norway (1746-66)
    1753 Berkeley, mathematician.
    1742 Edmund Halley, 86, English mathematician, genius eclipsed by Newton, astronomer who observed the comet that now bears his name.
    1687 Nicolaus Mercator, mathematician.
    1679 Billy, mathematician.
    1648 Casparus Barleaus, 63, Flemish theologian/poet (Muiderkring)
    1641 Some 7000 as Dutch United East Indian Company conquers city of Malakka.
          Ons eerste reisdoel is Malakka. Hier kun je de geur van het Nederlandse verleden opsnuiven. Ooit was Malakka een van de belangrijkste handelssteden van de Oriënt en werd achtereenvolgens veroverd door de Portugezen, Nederlanders en Engelsen. Een aantal oude gebouwen verraadt de Nederlandse architectuur zoals het Stadthuys, waar ooit de Nederlandse gouverneurs zetelden en thans in gebruik is als museum. Malakka is allang geen machtige stad meer en de Malakkarivier is verworden tot een smal, stinkend open riool die dwars door het verkrotte maar bedrijvige centrum loopt. Een bezoek is toch de moeite waard, al was het alleen maar vanwege de Nederlandse aanwezigheid die duurde van 1641 tot 1795.
    1623 Paolo Sarpi , 70, Italian church historian/politician
    1595 Ferdinand archduke of Austria / mayor of Bohemia.
    1494 Domenico Currado di Tommaso Bigordi Ghirlandaio, Italian painter born in 1449. MORE ON GHIRLANDAIO AT ART “4” JANUARY LINKSApse fresco at Sant'Andrea — Saint BarbaraSaint JeromeSaint Anthony.Madonna of MercyLamentation over the Dead ChristMadonna and Child with Saint Sebastian and Saint Julian Baptism of ChristAnnouncement of Death to Saint Fina _ detailObsequies of Saint Fina _ detailSaint Jerome in his Study. _ DetailCalling of the First Apostles _ detail at left (women) on the left side of the fresco, including a woman in blue seen from behind, anticipates the female figures Ghirlandaio paints in later works. _ Detail at right portraits of important Florentines in Rome: Giovanni, Lorenzo, and Cecco Tornabuoni, Giovanni Antonio Vespucci, Francesco Soderini, John Argyropulus. — Decoration of the Sala del Gigli (1484) _ detail 1 on the right Decius, Scipio, and Cicero. _ Detail 2 on the left Brutus, Mucius Scaevola, and Camillus. — Last Supper (1476) — Last Supper (1480, 400x880cm) _ detail 1 at left. _ Detail 2 at right. _ Detail 3 angry reaction of Saint Peter and another apostle. _ Detail 4 sad reaction of other apostles — Last Supper (1486, 400x800cm) _ detail 1 (An apostle who has already drunk his wine) _ detail 2 (Apostles reacting). — Nera Corsi SassettiFrancesco SassettiSibylMeeting of Augustus and the SibylDavidMadonna and Child Enthroned with Saints (1479, 170x160cm) — Madonna and Child Enthroned with Saints (1483, 191x200cm) — Madonna and Child Enthroned between Angels and Saints (1486) — Coronation of the Virgin — (another) Coronation of the VirginAdoration of the MagiVisitationMadonna in Glory with SaintsChrist in Heaven with Four Saints and a DonorSaint Catherine of Siena and Saint LawrenceGiovanna Tornabuonian Old Man with a ChildAnnunciationSaint Stephen _ detailAdoration of the Magi at the Spedale degli Innocenti (1488, 285x240cm) _ detail1 _ (includes details 2 and 3) _ detail 2 _ (Personages including self-portrait of the artist and portrait of Francesco di Giovanni Tesori, prior of the Spedale degli Innocenti). _ detail 3 _ (The slaughter, and background reminiscent of Rome). _ detail 4 _ (Three men in oriental costumes) _ detail 5 _ (Background landscape) _ detail 6 _ (Figures and ships in landscape) _ detail 7 _ (Four angels float above) — Expulsion of Joachim from the Temple
    1301 Andreas III Arpad, 50, king of Hungary (1290-1301)
    1237 Saint Sava Nemanja , 62, monk, founder, and first archbishop of the independent Serbian Orthodox Church. His policy of recognizing the jurisdiction of the patriarch of Constantinople (now Istanbul) ensured the adherence of Serbian Christianity to Eastern Orthodoxy. Sava's brother was crowned in 1217 as Stefan Prvovencani (the "First-Crowned"), king of the Serbian nation.
    0973 Ekkehard I monk of St Gallen (Vita Waltharii manu fortis) 1163 Ladislaus I Arpad king of Hungary (1162-63)
    Births which occurred on a January 14:
    1989 Sextuplets Paris France, (to a 29-year-old woman)
    1940 Julian Bond, US civil rights activist.
    1926 Thomas Tryon Hartford CT, actor/novelist (I Married a Monster from Outer Space, Cardinal, All That Glitters, The Other)
    1916 John Oliver Killens novelist
    1913 Tillie Olsen American writer (Tell Me a Riddle)
    1912 Rudolf Hagelstange German author/poet (Spielball der Götter)
    1907 Derek Richter British neuro chemist (Aspects of learning & memory)
    1902 Alfred Tarski, Warsaw, mathematician / logician
    1899 Carlos Peña Romulo, Philippine general, diplomat, and journalist known for his activities on behalf of the Allies during World War II and his later work with the United Nations. Romulo's autobiography I Walked With Heroes was published in 1961. Romulo died on 15 December 1985.
    1896 John dos Passos novelist (1919, Big Money, 42nd Parallel)
         Dos Passos died on 02 November 1992.
    One Man's Initiation: 1917 (1920), Rosinante to the Road Again. (1922), San Francisco Looks West (article, 1944)
  • 42nd Parallel. (1930) The first book in the USA. trilogy.
  • 1919. (1932) The second book in the USA. trilogy.
  • Big Money. (1936) The third book in the USA. trilogy
  • The American Lawyer: As He Was — As He Is — As He Can Be (1986)
  • Brazil on the Move (Armchair Traveller Series) (1991)
  • Century's Ebb: The Thirteenth Chronicle. (1975)
  • Commercial Trusts ' the Growth and Rights of Aggregated Capital, an Argument Delivered Before the Industrial Commission at Washington, D. C.
  • Facing the Chair; Story of the Americanization of Two Foreignborn Workmen (Civil Liberties in American History). (1927)
  • Thomas Jefferson the Making of a President
  • The Shackles of Power: Three Jeffersonian Decades (1966)
  • The Head and Heart of Thomas Jefferson (1954)
  • The Living Thoughts of Tom Paine - Presented by John Dos Passos (1940)
  • Adventures of a Young Man (1939)
  • First Encounter. (1945)
  • The Grand Design. (1949)
  • The Best Times: an Informal Memoir
  • The Great Days (1958)
  • The Ground we Stand On (1941)
  • In All Countries (1934)
  • Journeys Between Wars. (1938)
  • Manhattan Transfer (1925)
  • The Men Who Made the Nation (1957)
  • Easter Island; Island of Enigmas (1930)
  • Eight Harvard Poets (Anthology) (1917)
  • The Prospect Before Us (1950)
  • Prospects of a Golden Age (1959)
  • Airways, Inc. (1928)
  • Chosen Country (1951)
  • District of Columbia (1952)
  • Midcentury (1961)
  • Mr. Wilson's War (1962
  • Most Likely to Succeed (1954)
  • Number One (1943)
  • Orient Express (1927)
  • The Portugal Story (1969)
  • State of the Nation (1944)
  • Streets of Night (1923)
  • The Theme Is Freedom (1956)
  • Three Plays (1934)
  • Three Soldiers (1921)
  • Tour of Duty (1946)
  • 1895 George Richard Samways children's writer
    1892 Martin Niemöller clergyman (German Protestant); imprisoned by Hitler
    1886 Hugh Lofting, English US writer and illustrator (Dr Dolittle) He died on 26 September 1947. LOFTING ONLINE: The Story of Doctor Dolittle (slightly expurgated 1960s edition), The Voyages of Doctor Dolittle
    1882 Hendrik W van Loon Netherlands, commentator/writer (Story of America) ONLINE: The Story of Mankind, The Story of Mankind (another site)
    1878 Augustus Edwin John, British painter who died in 1961. — LINKSRobin C.Casper C.Pyramus
    1878 Victor A D Ségalen [Max Anély], French writer
    1875 Albert Schweitzer, Alsatian-German doctor, humanitarian, organist (Peace Nobel 1952). He died on 04 September 1965.
    1874 Thornton Waldo Burgess author (Peter Rabbit) ONLINE: The Adventures of Paddy the Beaver, The Adventures of Reddy Fox, The Burgess Animal Book for Children, Old Mother West Wind
    1868 Catharina A M de Savornin Lohman Dutch author (Belief)
    1866 Art Young, US cartoonist who died on 29 December 1943.
    1861 Wilhelm von Polenz German writer (Der Pfarrer von Breitendorf)
    1861 Mehmed VI last sultan of Ottoman Empire (1918-22)
    1860 Domenico Pennachini, Italian artist who died in 1910.
    1859 Paolo Sala, Italian artist who died on 20 December 1929. — Relative? of George Augustus Henry Sala [1828-1896]?
    1852 Johannes Karel Christiaan Klinkenberg, Dutch artist who died in 1924.
    1850 Pierre Loti [Julien Viaud], French naval officer / writer LOTI ONLINE: Pêcheur d'Islande, Le roman d'un enfant, Mon frère Yves. _ (in English translation):  An Iceland Fisherman
    1845 Henry C K Petty-Fitzmaurice 5th marquess of Landsdowne / Governor-General Canada.
    1841 Berthe Marie-Pauline Morisot, Mme. Eugène Manet, French Impressionist painter who died on 02 March 1895. — her portrait by brother-in-law Manet MORE ON MORISOT AT ART “4” JANUARY LINKSAu Bois de BoulogneParis vu du TrocadéroCache-cacheNice Little Girl (Nice: the city) — La lecture (Jeanne Bonnet) (1888).
    1833 Ferdinand Meyer-Wismar, German artist who died on 26 March 1917.
    1818 Zacharias Topelius Finnish historical novelist (Surgeon's Stories)
    1798 Johan R Thorbecke Premier of Netherlands (Liberal-1849-72)
    1791 Calvin Phillips became shortest known adult male (67cm; 2'2")
    1741 Benedict Arnold, US General turned traitor (Revolutionary War). He died in England on 14 June 1801.
    1700 Picander [Christian F Henrici], German writer (Der Säuffer)
    1600 Pieter van Avont, Flemish artist who died in 1652.
    1592 Sjihab al-Din Sultan Choerram Sjah Djahan leader of India.
    1507 Luca Longhi (or Lunghi) “le Raphäel de Ravenne”, Italian artist who died on 12 August 1580.
    Holidays Maryland : Ratification Day (1784)

    Religious Observances Orthodox : Circumcision of Jesus / Roman Catholic : St Felix of Nola, priest/martyr / Greek Orthodox : St Basil / old Roman Catholic : St Hilary, bishop/doctor (now 1/13) / Christian : St Sava / Lutheran : Eivind Berggrav, bishop of Oslo / Saint Félix: Originaire de Nole, près de Naples, le prêtre Félix fut martyrisé à l'époque de l'empereur Dèce (IIIe siècle). Son tombeau devint un lieu de pèlerinage célèbre aux premiers siècles de la chrétienté.

    YESTERDAY'S QUESTION OF THE DAY: What do giant sea monsters eat? — READ THE ANSWER
    Thoughts for the day : “Sin has many tools, but a lie is the handle which fits them all.”
    “The lesson to be drawn from sayings like this one, is that there is no lesson to be drawn from sayings like this one.”
    updated Monday 17-Feb-2003 4:03 UT
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