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Events, deaths, births, of JUL 07

[For Jul 07 Julian go to  Gregorian date: 1583~1699: Jul 171700s: Jul 181800s: Jul 191900~2099: Jul 20]
• Stalin released from jail... • Radzilow pogrom... • Samantha goes to USSR... • Mathematician W.H.Young dies... • Germans take Fort Vaux... • Nazis to sterilize Jews... • Chagall is born... • Carson terrorizes Amerindians... • The first Plymouth car... • Impeachment of Senator Blount... • Lincoln conspirators hanged... • Fluctuat nec mergitur...
On a July 07:
2002 Local elections in the Ivory Coast.
^ 2001 Stalin released from jail
      Chennai mayor M. K. Stalin, who was arrested in the flyover scam, is released from the Madurai Central Prison. He was granted bail the previous day by a court after having been in custody for almost a week. Stalin, son of former Tamil Nadu chief minister M Karunanidhi, had been charged under various sections of the IPC for allegedly violating regulations in the construction of nine flyovers in Chennai.
2000 Canada becomes the 14th country to ratify the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (which has not been ratified nor even signed by the US)
2000 Major General Larry Smith submits his resignation from the US Army, having been accused by Lieutenant General Claudia Kennedy of sexual harassment because he once grabbed her, held her against her will, and kissed her. It's her word against his, but the Army believes her because she has no motive for lying
2000 US President Clinton postponed the first federal execution since 1963 so that death row inmate Juan Raul Garza could ask for clemency under guidelines being updated by the government. (Garza would be executed on 19 June 2001, after Bush Jr. becomes US president).
1998 Newspapers report that the creators of the popular PalmPilot will leave 3Com, where they have developed the device. Jeff Hawkins and Donna Dubinsky say they planned to create their own company.
1996 US President Clinton delivered more Whitewater trial testimony before video cameras, this time testifying in case of two Arkansas bankers accused of making political contributions with bank funds. (A jury later acquitted Herby Branscum Jr. and Robert M. Hill of four counts and deadlocked on seven other counts; Whitewater prosecutor Kenneth Starr decided against retrying the bankers.)
1993 Cox and Prodigy team up for online newspapers
      Cox Enterprises and Prodigy Services announce they will develop an online newspaper system allowing papers across the country to sell content over computers and television. Several large newspaper publishers had sustained multimillion-dollar losses on attempts to launch electronic news services in the 1980s and were slow to embrace the rise of online services and the World Wide Web.
1991 After fighting Slovenia since it declared independence on 25 June, Yugoslavia agrees to a cease-fire.
1987 Lt Col Oliver North begins public testimony at Iran-Contra hearing.
1986 IBM-PC DOS Version 3.2 (updated) released
1986 Supreme Court struck down Gramm-Rudman deficit-reduction law
1983 Samantha Smith, 11, goes to visit USSR         ^top^
     Samantha Smith leaves for visit to the USSR Samantha Smith, an 11-year-old American girl, begins a two-week visit to the Soviet Union at the invitation of Soviet leader Yuri Andropov. Some American observers believed that Smith was merely being used by the Soviets for their own propaganda purposes, while others saw her visit as a positive step toward improving US-Russian relations. In April 1983, the Soviet government released a letter written by Smith to Andropov as part of a school project. In the letter, Smith asked Andropov about his country and whether he wanted peace with the United States. Surprisingly, Andropov answered the letter personally, assuring Smith that he had the greatest friendliness toward America and wished only for peace and mutual understanding. He ended by inviting Smith to come see the Soviet Union for herself. The fifth grader accepted Andropov's offer and the trip was set for July 1983.
      Almost immediately, Smith's family was flooded with letters from people in the US, most of whom supported Samantha's decision. Many, however, sharply criticized her upcoming visit, claiming that it was merely a propaganda ploy by the Communists. To some extent, they were right: Andropov clearly saw the Smith visit as an opportunity to try to dispel some negative impressions of the Soviet Union. On the other hand, Andropov also was clear about wanting closer relations with the West, and his invitation to the small girl was one way of indicating this desire. During her two weeks in Russia, Smith was treated as a VIP and given a carefully arranged tour of the Soviet Union. However, she also found time to speak to groups of Soviet citizens who made no attempt to hide some of the problems facing their nation, particularly food shortages. For her part, Smith absolutely charmed her hosts and became a famous figure almost overnight. Arriving back in the United States two weeks later, she indicated that she firmly believed that the Soviets "want no harm to the world, just like us." When asked whether she would like to live in Russia, she praised her communist hosts but declared that she would "rather live in my own country."
     Some months before, when she was still 10, she had written a letter to Soviet leader Yuri Andropov asking for peace. At first Samantha heard nothing back. Then she found out that portions of her letter had been published in the Communist newspaper Pravda. A few weeks later she received a letter from Andropov inviting her to visit the Soviet Union.
      For two weeks she would tour the country: Moscow, Leningrad, Red Square, meet with the first woman in space, Valentina Tereshkova, , and spent several days at a Soviet youth camp on the Black Sea. Through it all the US and Soviet media followed her every step.
      Samantha didn’t stop after her tour of Russia. She wrote a book called Journey to the Soviet Union in which she wrote, “I dedicate this book to the children of the world. They know that peace is always possible.” She then went to Japan and met with the prime minister and spoke at an international children’s symposium. She also hosted a special for the Disney channel during the 1984 presidential campaigns to educate kids about the candidates, politics and the government. Samantha heard the North American promise they would never start a nuclear war; she also heard how the voices from the Kremlin swore that neither would they. And then, with the clear and simple logic of her eleven years she asked, “they why do you both go on making missiles and aiming them at each other?” Samantha Smith died in a plane crash on August 25, 1985.

Samantha Smith's letter:
Dear Mr. Andropov,
My name is Samantha Smith. I am ten years old. Congratulations on your new job. I have been worrying about Russia and the United States getting into a nuclear war. Are you going to vote to have a war or not? If you aren’t please tell me how you are going to help to not have a war. This question you do not have to answer, but I would like to know why you want to conquer the world or at least our country. God made the world for us to live together in peace and not to fight.
      Samantha Smith

Andropov's answer (received several weeks later): to:
Samantha Smith, Manchester, Maine USA

Dear Samantha, I received your letter, which is like many others that have reached me recently from your country and from other countries around the world.
It seems to me -- I can tell by your letter -- that you are a courageous and honest girl, resembling Becky, the friend of Tom Sawyer in the famous book of your compatriot Mark Twain. This book is well known and loved in our country by all boys and girls.
You write that you are anxious about whether there will be a nuclear war between our two countries. And you ask are we doing anything so that war will not break out.
Your question is the most important of those that every thinking man can pose. I will reply to you seriously and honestly.
Yes, Samantha, we in the Soviet Union are trying to do everything so that there will not be war on earth. This is what every Soviet man wants. This is what the great founder of our state, Vladimir Lenin, taught us.
Soviet people well know what a terrible thing war is. Forty-two years ago, Nazi Germany, which strived for supremacy over the whole world, attacked our country, burned and destroyed many thousands of our towns and villages, killed millions of Soviet men, women and children.
In that war, which ended with our victory, we were in alliance with the United States: together we fought for the liberation of many people from the Nazi invaders. I hope that you known about this from your history lessons in school. And today we want very much to live in peace, to trade and cooperate with all our neighbors on this earth - with those far away and those near by. And certainly with such a great country as the United States of America.
In America and in our country there are nuclear weapons - terrible weapons that can kill millions of people in an instant. But we do not want them to be ever used. That’s precisely why the Soviet Union solemnly declared throughout the entire world that never - never - will it use nuclear weapons first against any country. In general we propose to discontinue further production of them and to proceed to the abolition of all the stockpiles on earth.
It seems to me that this is a sufficient answer to your second question:
“Why do you want to wage war against the whole world or at least the United States?” We want nothing of the kind. No one in our country -- neither workers, peasants, writers nor doctors, neither grown-ups nor children, nor members of the government -- want either a big or “little” war.
We want peace -- there is something that we are occupied with: growing wheat, building and inventing, writing books and flying into space. We want peace for ourselves and for all peoples of the planet. For our children and for you, Samantha.
I invite you, if your parents will let you, to come to our country, the best time being this summer. You will find out about our country, meet with your contemporaries, visit an international children’s camp -- “Artek” -- on the sea. And see for yourself: in the Soviet Union -- everyone is for peace and friendship among peoples.
Thank you for your letter. I wish you all the best in your young life.

Y. Andropov
1981 First woman nominated to the US Supreme Court         ^top^

      President Ronald Reagan nominates El Paso born Sandra Day O'Connor, 51, an Arizona court of appeals judge, to the US Supreme Court. Known as a moderate conservative, O'Connor is to replace retiring justice Stewart Potter, a Dwight D. Eisenhower appointee. O’Connor’s Senate confirmation hearings would begin later in the summer in the US Capitol.
      On September 21, the Senate unanimously approved her appointment, and on September 25, she was sworn in by Chief Justice Warren E. Berger as the first female Supreme Court justice in US history. After ruling conservatively during the 1980s, O'Connor emerged in the 1990s as the leading figure of a centrist bloc of justices.
      President Ronald Reagan nominates Sandra Day O'Connor, an Arizona court of appeals judge, to be the first woman Supreme Court justice in US history. On September 21, the Senate unanimously approved her appointment to the nation's highest court, and on September 25 she was sworn in by Chief Justice Warren Burger. Sandra Day was born in El Paso, Texas, in 1930. She grew up on her family's cattle ranch in southeastern Arizona and attended Stanford University, where she studied economics. A legal dispute over her family's ranch stirred her interest in law, and in 1950 she enrolled in Stanford Law School. She took just two years to receive her law degree and was ranked near the top of her class. Upon graduation, she married John Jay O'Connor III, a classmate. Because she was a woman, no law firm she applied to would hire her for a suitable position, so she turned to the public sector and found work as a deputy county attorney for San Mateo, California. In 1953, her husband was drafted into the US Army as a judge, and the O'Connors lived for three years in West Germany, with Sandra working as a civilian lawyer for the army. In 1957, they returned to the United States and settled down in Phoenix, Arizona, where they had three children in the six years that followed. During this time, O'Connor started a private law firm with a partner and became involved in numerous volunteer activities. In 1965, she became an assistant attorney general for Arizona and in 1969 was appointed to the Arizona State Senate to occupy a vacant seat. Subsequently elected and reelected to the seat, she became the first woman in the United States to hold the position of majority leader in a state senate. In 1974, she was elected a superior court judge in Maricopa County and in 1979 was appointed to the Arizona Court of Appeals by Governor Bruce Babbitt, a Democrat. Two years later, on July 7, 1981, President Reagan nominated her to the Supreme Court to fill the seat of retiring justice Stewart Potter, an Eisenhower appointee. In his 1980 presidential campaign, Reagan had promised to appoint a woman to the high court at one of his earliest opportunities, and he chose O'Connor out of a group of some two dozen male and female candidates to be his first appointee to the high court. O'Connor, known as a moderate conservative, faced opposition from anti-abortion groups who criticized her judicial defense of legalized abortion on several occasions. Liberals celebrated the appointment of a woman to the Supreme Court but were critical of some of her views. Nevertheless, at the end of her confirmation hearings on Capitol Hill, the Senate voted unanimously to endorse her nomination. On 25 September 1981, she was sworn in as the 102nd justice--and first woman justice--in Supreme Court history. Initially regarded as a member of the court's conservative faction, she later emerged from William Rehnquist's shadow (chief justice from 1986) as a moderate and pragmatic conservative. On social issues, she often votes with liberal justices, and in several cases she has upheld abortion rights. She is known for her dispassionate and carefully researched opinions on the bench and is regarded as a prominent justice because of her tendency to moderate the sharply divided Supreme Court. .
Solar Challenger plane1981 Solar-powered plane crosses Channel and then some.         ^top^
      The world's first solar-powered aircraft, the Solar Challenger, designed by Paul MacCready, 55, flies from the Pointoise Cormeilles airport, near Paris, to the Manston Royal Air Force Base, in Kent, Eng., a distance of 258 km, in 5 hr 23 min at an average speed of about 48 km/h and a cruising altitude of 3350 m. The pilot is Stephen Ptacek, weighing 55 kg. The plane, powered by 16'128 solar cells connected to two electric motors, weighs 95 kg and has a wingspan of 14.3 m.
     A human-powered MacCready plane, the Gossamer Albatross, had made a 37 km crossing of the English Channel on June 12, 1979.
1978 Solomon Islands gains independence from Britain (National Day)
1976 Female cadets enrolled at West Point         ^top^
      For the first time in history, women are enrolled into the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York. On May 28, 1980, sixty-two of these female cadets would graduated and be commissioned as second lieutenants.
      The US Military Academy, the first military school in America, was originally founded as a school for the US Corps of Engineers on March 16, 1802. Located on the high west bank of the Hudson River, West Point was the site of a Revolutionary-era fort built to protect the Hudson River Valley from British attack. In 1780, Patriot General Benedict Arnold, the commander in charge of the fort, agreed to surrender West Point to the British in exchange for six thousand pounds. However, the plot was uncovered before it fell into British hands, and Arnold fled to British protection.
      In 1812, the growing threat of another war with Great Britain resulted in congressional action to expand the US Military Academy's facilities and increase the West Point corps. Beginning in 1817, the academy was reorganized by superintendent Sylvanus Thayer--later known as the "father of West Point"--and the school became one of the nation's finest sources of civil engineers.
      During the Mexican-American War, West Point graduates filled the leading ranks of the victorious US forces, and with the outbreak of the Civil War, former West Point classmates regrettably lined up against each other in the defense of their native states. In 1870, the first African-American cadet was admitted into the US Military Academy, and in 1976, the first female cadets. The academy is now under the general direction and supervision of the department of the US Army, and has an enrollment of about 4300 students.
      24 years later, military women are still complaining about harassment (in all parts of the US Armed Forces). See above (year 2000) also http://www.militarywoman.org/harass5.htm
1969 First US troops withdrawn from South Vietnam
      A battalion of the US 9th Infantry Division leaves Saigon in the initial withdrawal of US troops. The 814 soldiers were the first of 25,000 troops that were withdrawn in the first stage of the US disengagement from the war. There would be 14 more increments in the withdrawal, but the last US troops did not leave until after the Paris Peace Accords were signed in January 1973.
1969 Canada's House of Commons gives final approval to a measure making the French language equal to English throughout the national government.
1964 New US ambassador arrives in Saigon
      Gen. Maxwell Taylor, the new US ambassador to South Vietnam, arrives in Saigon. As a military man with considerable experience in Vietnam, he was viewed by the South Vietnamese government, the US military establishment, and the Johnson administration as the ideal individual to coordinate and invigorate the war effort. Presumably because of his arrival, a bomb was thrown at the US Embassy and two grenades exploded elsewhere in Saigon; no one was injured and only slight damage was caused.
1960 USSR shoots down a US aircraft over Barents sea
1958 US President Eisenhower signs Alaska statehood bill
1955 China announces it will provide aid to Hanoi
      Officials in China and Hanoi announce that Beijing will extend 800 million yuan (about $200 million) in economic aid to Hanoi. This announcement followed a trip to Beijing by Ho Chi Minh and his ministers of finance, industry, agriculture, education and health. On July 18, the Soviet Union announced that it would grant Hanoi 400 million rubles (about $100 million) in economic aid. This aid from fellow communist nations helped sustain North Vietnam in its war against the South Vietnamese and their American allies until 1975, when they defeated the South Vietnamese forces and reunified the country.
Edsel Citation 19581954 Edsel team formed         ^top^
      The Ford Motor Company forms a styling team to take on the project of designing an entirely new car that will later be named the Edsel. The decision comes as Ford enjoys its greatest historical success in the 1950s. The 1954 Thunderbird had outsold its Chevy counterpart, the Corvette, and the consumer demand for automobiles, in all price brackets, was steadily increasing. In exuberant Ford plants signs that had once read "Beat Chevrolet" were changed to a more ambitious tune: "Beat GM."
[photo: 1958 Edsel Citation >]
      The Ford Motor Company consisted of four brand names: Ford, Mercury, Lincoln, and Continental, listed from lowest to highest in price range. Ford executives believed that there was a gap in the marketplace between the Mercury and the Lincoln, where a new car would compete against GM’s Oldsmobile and Buick lines. In the middle of the 1950s Americans seemed to have an insatiable hunger for high horse-powered, heavily styled cars, with lots of chrome and many accessories. So Ford planned to fill the public’s appetite with a suitable answer. The company spared no expense in the development of its new car, even going so far as to employ famous American poet Marianne Moore to supply possibilities for its name. After an extensive name search and no satisfactory result, somebody suggested that the car be named after Henry Ford II’s father, Edsel. Ford balked at the suggestion initially but later relented on the grounds that his father deserved a tribute, and he urged the car’s designers to live up to his father’s name. Edsel had always had a knack for design, even if his business sense hadn’t always lived up to his father’s expectations.
      The Edsel project was launched with great fanfare and vigorous advertising. During the years between the car’s conception and its production, the American economy took a downturn. By the time the Edsel was released in 1957, the high end of the car market had once again contracted. Public reaction to the car’s exaggerated styling was tepid at best, with particular objections aimed at the Edsel’s awkward looking "horse collar" grill. Sales for the car started slowly and foundered.
      Newly appointed company vice-president Robert McNamara was charged with the task of salvaging the operation. Had McNamara held the position years earlier, historians point out, the Edsel project may never have been taken on as McNamara strongly believed Ford should concentrate on the economy car market. McNamara attempted to improve the car’s construction and appearance, but when the attempt failed he was forced to halt production of the car at a disastrous loss of $250 million. To this day the Edsel remains the biggest failure in American car history, "a monumental disaster created for tomorrow’s markets created by yesterday’s statistical inputs." However, history has treated the Edsel more kindly, and its looks are now considered to be an attractive example of 1950s flair.
1946 Italian-American educator, Mother Frances Xavier Cabrini (1850-1917) becomes the first American citizen to be declared a saint by the Catholic Church. She arrived in the USin 1889, and was naturalized in 1909.
1942 Nazis to sterilize Jews at Auschwitz         ^top^
     Heinrich Himmler, in league with three others, including a physician, decides to begin experimenting on women in the Auschwitz concentration camps and to investigate extending this experimentation on males. Himmler, architect of Hitler's program to exterminate Europe's Jewish population, convenes a conference in Berlin to discuss the prospects for using concentration camp prisoners as objects of medical experiments. The other attendees are the head of the Concentration Camp Inspectorate, SS General Richard Glueks; hospital chief, SS Major-General Gebhardt; and one of Germany's leading gynecologists, Professor Karl Clauberg. The result of the conference is that a major program of medical experimentation on Jewish women at Auschwitz is agreed upon.
      These experiments were to be carried out in such a way as to ensure that the prisoners were not aware of what was being done to them. (The experimentation would take the form of sterilization via massive doses of radiation or uterine injections.) It was also decided to consult with an X-ray specialist about the prospects of using X rays to castrate men and demonstrating this on male Jewish prisoners. Adolf Hitler endorsed this plan on the condition that it remained top secret.
      That Heinrich Himmler would propose such a conference or endorse such a program should come as no surprise to anyone familiar with his resume. As head of the Waffen-Schutzstaffel ("Armed Black Shirts"), the SS, the military arm of the Nazi Party, and assistant chief of the Gestapo (Geheime Staatspolizei = “Secret State Police”) ), Himmler was able over time to consolidate his control over all police forces of the Reich. This power grab would prove highly effective in carrying out the Fuhrer's Final Solution. It was Himmler who organized the creation of death camps throughout Eastern Europe and the creation of a pool of slave laborers.
1941 US forces occupy Iceland         ^top^
      During World War II, the neutral United States moved closer to war with Germany when US forces landed on Iceland to take over its garrisoning from the British. From thereon, the US Navy took over the responsibility of protecting convoys in the nearby sea routes from attack by German submarines. With Iceland now under US protection, the Royal Navy had a freer hand to concentrate their warships in a defense of their embattled Mediterranean positions. The US military operation came less than a month after, when President Franklin D. Roosevelt froze all German and Italian assets in the United States and expelled the countries' diplomats in response to the German torpedoing of the American destroyer Robin Moor. With the occupation of Iceland, much of the North Atlantic was now in the American sphere, and US warships patrolled the area and notified London of all enemy activity they encountered.
1937 Japanese and Chinese troops clash, which will become WW II
1930 Construction begins on Boulder Dam, later renamed Hoover Dam.
1914 Tuesday : in the aftermath of the June 28 assassination in Sarajevo of Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary and of his wife, Sophia:
  • The Austro-Hungarian Ministerial Council meets to consider the implications of the 'blank check'. Some sort of action will be taken against Serbia. Hungarian Prime Minister Tisza voices reservations on these plans.
  • 1908 Great White Fleet leaves SF Bay
    1905 53ºC, Parker Ariz (state record)
    1904 Fermez les écoles religieuses! Toutes les congrégations religieuses, y compris celles qui jusque-là étaient autorisées, se voient interdire de dispenser un enseignement. La promulgation de cette loi entraînera la fermeture de 2400 écoles.
    1898 US President McKinley signs resolution of annexation of Hawaiian Islands.
    1896 Bryan attacks the gold standard         ^top^
          The Presidential campaign of 1896 was, in many ways, a battle over money. As was expected, the Republican campaign, led by the party's presidential nominee, Ohio governor William McKinley, centered on maintaining the gold standard. On the other side of the fence, the Democrats took a cue from the Populist party and latched on to the free coinage of silver as one of their guiding issues.
          While the Democrat's decision to support silver shocked a number of political observers, their nominee for the Oval Office proved to be even more surprising. The Democrats had already settled on their issue, but the summer of 1896 found them without a clear candidate for the Oval Office. That all changed at the party's national convention in Chicago on July 7 when William Jennings Bryan, then just a young scribe from Nebraska, stepped to speak before the Democrat's 20'000 delegates. An ardent supporter of the silver movement, Bryan seized the reins of the party by railing against the Republican's and their "demand for a gold standard."
          During his speech, Bryan laid down his now famous vow against gold and the Republicans: "You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns, you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold." These indelible words sent the delegates into frenzy and effectively sealed Bryan's unlikely nomination as the Democrat's candidate for President. Alas, Bryan's fiery oratory proved to be no match for McKinley's fat coffers: backed by the money and influence of the nation's business leaders, the Republicans were able to lavish roughly $7 million on their campaign. Bryan, on the other hand, spent a scant $300'000 and ultimately lost his bid for the White House.
    1863 Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana continues
    1863 first military draft by US (exemptions cost $100)
    1863 Kit Carson's campaign against the Amerindians         ^top^
          Lt. Colonel Christopher "Kit" Carson leaves Santa Fe with his troops, beginning his campaign against the Indians of New Mexico and Arizona. A famed mountain man before the Civil War, Carson was responsible for waging a destructive war against the Navajo that resulted in their removal from the Four Corners area to southeastern New Mexico. Carson was perhaps the most famous trapper and guide in the West. He traveled with the expeditions of John C. Fremont in the 1840s, leading Fremont through the Great Basin. Fremont's flattering portrayal of Carson made the mountain man a hero when the reports were published and widely read in the east. Later, Carson guided Stephen Watts Kearney to New Mexico during the Mexican-American War. In the 1850s he became the Indian agent for New Mexico, a position he left in 1861 to accept a commission as lieutenant colonel in the 1st New Mexico Volunteers. Although Carson's unit saw action in the New Mexico battles of 1862, he was most famous for his campaign against the Indians. Despite his reputation for being sympathetic and accommodating to tribes such as the Mescaleros, Kiowas, and Navajo, Carson waged a brutal campaign against the Navajo in 1863. When bands of Navajo refused to accept confinement on reservations, Carson terrorized the Navajo lands--burning crops, destroying villages, and slaughtering livestock. Carson rounded up some 8000 Navajo and marched them across New Mexico for imprisonment on the Bosque Redondo, over 500 km from their homes, where they remained for the duration of the war.
    1861 Skirmish at Laurel Hill, Virginia (now West Virginia)
    1853 Ouverture commerciale du Japon
          L'amiral Perry commandant une escadre des États Unis débarque au Japon. Un traité de commerce sera signé. Il ouvrira le Japon aux américains et aux occidentaux. Jusqu'au milieu du XIX ème siècle, les étrangers n'avaient pu prendre pied au Japon, sauf rares exceptions. C'était à cette époque un petit pays dont le nom "Hih-Pen" signifie "l'Empire du Soleil Levant".
    1846 US annexation of California is proclaimed at Monterey after the surrender of a Mexican garrison.
    1797 Impeachment of Senator Blount         ^top^
          For the first time in US history, the House of Representatives exercised its constitutional power of impeachment, and voted to charge Senator William Blount of Tennessee, 48, with "a high misdemeanor, entirely inconsistent with his public duty and trust as a Senator."
          In 1790, President George Washington had appointed Blount, who had fought in the American Revolution, as governor of the "Territory South of the River Ohio," now known as Tennessee. Although he was a successful territorial governor, personal financial problems led him to enter into a conspiracy with British officers to enlist frontiersmen and Cherokee Indians to assist the British in conquering parts of Spanish Florida and Louisiana. Before the conspiracy was uncovered, Blount presided over the Tennessee Constitutional Convention, and in 1796 became the state's first US senator.
          However, in 1797, the plot was revealed, and on July 7, the House of Representatives votes to impeach Senator Blount. The next day, the Senate votes by a two-thirds majority to expel him from its ranks, and on December 17, 1798, exercises its "sole power to try all impeachments," as granted by the Constitution, and initiates a Senate trial against Blount.
          As vice president of the United States, Thomas Jefferson was president of the Senate and thus presided over the impeachment trial proceedings. After two months, Jefferson and the Senate decided to dismiss the charges against Blount, determining that the Senate had no jurisdiction over its own members beyond its constitutional right to expel members by a two-thirds majority vote. By the time of the dismissal, Blount had already been elected as a senator to the Tennessee state legislature, where he was appointed speaker and served as such until his death on March 21, 1800. The constitutional conundrum of conducting a trial of an impeached senator has not yet been resolved.
    1838 Central American federation is dissolved.
    1789 In Paris, a company of Swiss mercenary soldiers arrives at the Bastille to bolster its garrison of 82 soldiers, at the request of Bernard-Jordan de Launay, the military governor of the Bastille, who feared that his fortress would be a target for the revolutionaries. There were severe food shortages in France that year, and popular resentment against the rule of King Louis XVI was turning to fury. In June, the Third Estate, which represented commoners and the lower clergy, had declared itself the National Assembly and called for the drafting of a constitution. Initially seeming to yield, Louis legalized the National Assembly but then surrounded Paris with troops and dismissed Jacques Necker, a popular minister of state who had supported reforms. In response, mobs began rioting in Paris at the instigation of revolutionary leaders.
    1768 Firm of Johann Buddenbrook founded, in Thomas Mann's 1900 novel
    1668 Isaac Newton receives MA from Trinity College, Cambridge
    YehiyaDeaths which occurred on a July 07:
    2003 Mazal Afari, 63, Israeli grandmother, and Ahmed Yehiya, 22 [photo >], Palestinian suicide bomber, at 21:00 (18:00 UT), in Afari's house in moshav Kfar Yavets, in the Sharon area north of Tel Aviv, Israel. 3 grandchildren of Afari are slightly injured.
    2002:: 35 miners in fire in a mine in Donetsk, Ukraine.
    2001 Khalil Ibrahim Al-Mugrabi, 11, by Israeli machine gun fire from a tank 300 m from where he had been playing soccer with some 30 other Palestinian children near the Yibneh refugee camp in the Gazan town of Raffah which borders Egypt. He was shot in the head. Ibrahim Abu Sussin, 10, was seriously wounded in the stomach. Suleiman Ibn Rijal,, 12, was hit in his left knee. The Israeli army conducted a cover-up that exonerated the soldiers.— MORE from Ha'aretz
    1975 William Vallance Douglas Hodge, Scottish mathematician born on 17 June 1903. He developed the relationship between geometry, analysis and topology and is best remembered for his theory of harmonic integrals.
    1967 Anatoly Ivanovich Malcev (or Maltsev) dies during a topology conference, Russian mathematician born on 27 November 1909. In 1955 he introduced Malcev algebras, natural generalizations of Lie algebras.
    1956 7 Army trucks loaded with dynamite explode in the middle of Cali, Columbia killing 1100-1200, destroyimg 2000 buildings
    1944 Louis Georges Mandel, 59 ans, fusillé par la milice, dans la forêt de Fontainebleau.         ^top^
          Ministre de l'Intérieur depuis le 10 mai 1940, Georges Mandel est peu après démis de ses fonctions par le gouvernement de Vichy,. Le 21 juin 1940, il gagne le Maroc à bord du Massilia pour continuer le combat et entrer en contact avec le gouvernement britannique. Il est arrêté, ramené en France et interné par le gouvernement de Vichy qui le remet aux Allemands, en novembre 1942. Ceux-ci lui font faire un séjour dans les camps de concentration d'Oranienburg et de Buchenwald, et le renvoient à Paris le 4 juillet 1944. Sur ordre de Joseph Darnand, chef de la milice, il est fusillé trois jours plus tard.
    William H. Young1942 William Henry Young, 79, in Lausanne, mathematician         ^top^
    He wrote: "Much as I venerate the name of Newton, I am not obliged to believe that he was infallible. I see ... with regret that he was liable to err, and that his authority has, perhaps, sometimes even retarded the progress of science."
          Born 20 Oct 1863 in London, England, William Young did significant work in measure theory* and Fourier analysis. He married Grace Chisholm, who was a pupil of Klein, and together they formed a mathematical married partnership of real significance. They had six children. The eldest, Francis, was killed in the first few weeks of World War I, as an aerial observer. Janet became a physician, she married Stephen Michael. Then there was Cecily, and Helen who married Jean Canu, Lawrence who became a mathematician at Cape Town and later at the University of Wisconsin in Madison, and the last one, Patrick, who became an engineer.

    Young discovered Lebesgue integration, independently but 2 years after Lebesgue. He studied Fourier series and orthogonal series in general. All advanced calculus books now use his approach to functions of several complex variables.

    Young was professor of mathematics at Calcutta, in India, from 1913 to 1917 and professor of mathematics at Aberystwyth from 1919 to 1923.

         Young stayed in his home at La Conversion, near Lausanne, when his wife returned their grandchildren William and Dorothy Michael to Croydon, England, as France fell in June 1940, making her return to Switzerland impossible. William Young was forced to spend the last two years of his life there separated from his family. His grandchildren Jean-François, 12, and Anne-Marie, 9, Canu, were on their way from Nazi-occupied Paris, on a special Red Cross children's train, to spend the summer vacation with him. On their arrival in Lausanne, they were shocked to find out that he had just died, and they were his only relatives to attend his funeral.
         Honors awarded to William H Young :
    Fellow of the Royal Society, Elected 1907
    Royal Society Sylvester Medal, Awarded 1928
    London Maths Society, President 1922 - 1924
    LMS De Morgan Medal, Awarded 1917

    * Measure theory investigates the conditions under which integration can take place. It considers various ways in which the "size" of a set can be estimated.
    RADZILOW1941 Some 800 Jews, almost the entire Jewish population of Rádzilow.         ^top^
         In north-eastern Poland, they are massacred by Poles soon after the Germans conquered the region from the Soviets, with which the Jews were accused of collaborating by Poles. The SS were blamed until a 2001 investigation. After two weeks of a continuous nightmare, of beating, robbing and humiliation, local people chased their Jewish neighbors to a barn and set it afire. There were rapes, decapitation by a saw, throwing of infants alive into pits full of corpses. See Anna Bikont's 20010615 article in Gazeta Wyborcza: "Mieli wodke, bron i nienawisc" (English translation at http://www.radzilow.com/gazeta.htm)
         According to Menachem Finkielsztejn (at the time an 18-year-old Radzilow Jew, who managed to hide):
    At three o’clock in the afternoon, the Gestapo went together from Stawiski to Radzilow. At their command, trusted individuals were called who were already prepared to get even with the Jews. At the market place they called together, 1700 Jews, men, women, children and elderly. The "gangsters" encircled the market so that no one could escape. Walking about among those who were forced together were Yanek Walszewski, the so-called "American," Yanek Mordaszewski and Feliks his brother, Henryk Dziekonski and his brother Yan, and many Gestapo members. They beat the Jews bloody. Thus, for example, they beat the old shoemaker Artel Lipinski. He was covered with blood, unconscious. They hung a heavy stone around the neck of the former policeman T. Shtshani. As he fell under the heavy burden, the murderers beat him mercilessly. Many others fell in this manner. Then they all began to sing "Moscow Moyah" and they went about beating everyone, including small children and old people.
          After accomplishing these cruel deeds, the Gestapo members exclaimed: "We give you three days to reckon with the Jews." They distributed arms to the "gangsters" and left. The execution started: the "gangsters" armed with machine-guns and revolvers drove those assembled into Mitkowski’s barn, which is located near the village Radivyesh. They purposefully jammed the doors, drenched the barn with kerosene, and ignited it. When the barn was already in flames, they brought the captured Jews and forced them up a ladder to the roof and then inside. They cut with bayonets those who did not carry out the command, and threw them into the fire. A few who succeeded to crawl out from the fire were shot by the murderers who encircled the barn. The singing and loud cries of the thugs accompanied the horrible laments and awful cries of the unfortunates who met their deaths in the fire. The spilling of blood was not enough for these creatures. They had a slogan: "Kill to the last one." They started to search out Jews in the entire area. In the course of three days, they found another few hundred Jews. They killed them in a bestial fashion. Many they forced into the barn, drenched them with benzene and burned them alive. A great many they shot near the barn, beating them murderously before death. Because of a lack of ammunition, they allowed the heads of small children to be cracked with fists or pounded with fists until they were dead. They tore some limbs from living souls, and beat up victims before carrying out the murders. After the fire, they entered the barn and tore gold teeth from the dead bodies.
          The pogrom lasted three days, from the 7th to the 10th of July, 1941. On the third day, some Germans came and yanked away several victims from the hands of the thugs, exclaiming that they had already permitted too much. One can imagine the sight of these horrible deeds, if the Germans themselves interceded.
          Those who carried out the above-mentioned murders were: Jozef, Antoni and Leon (brothers) Kosmaszewski, Ludwig Kosmaszewski, later a policeman, Leon Paszkowski, Aleksander Gorlewski and his brother Felek, who came from Turmeh on June 2, 1941, Laschewicz, a German policeman, Henryk Dziekonski and his brother Yan.
    1927 Gösta Mittag-Leffler, Swedish mathematician born in school on 16 March 1846. He worked on the general theory of functions. His best known work concerned the analytic representation of a one-valued function.

    1916 More casualties as Germans take Fort Vaux at Verdun.         ^top^
          During the First World War Verdun was a fortified French garrison town on the River Meuse 200 km east of Paris. In December 1915, General Erich von Falkenhayn, Chief of Staff of the German Army, decided to attack Verdun. Although he admitted he would be unable to break through at these point on the Western Front, he argued that in defending Verdun, the Germans would "bleed the French army white".
          The German attack on Verdun started on 21 February 1916. A million troops, led by Crown Prince Wilhelm, faced only about 200'000 French defenders. The following day the French was forced to retreat to their second line of trenches. By 24 February the French had moved back to the third line and were only 8km from Verdun.
          On 24 February, General Henri-Philippe Pétain was appointed commander of the Verdun sector. He gave orders that no more withdrawals would take place. He arranged for every spare French soldier to this part of the Western Front. Of the 330 infantry regiments of the French Army, 259 eventually fought at Verdun.
          The German advance was brought to a halt at the end of February. On 06 March, the German Fifth Army launched a new attack at Verdun. The Germans advanced 3km before they were stopped in front of the area around Mort Homme Hill. The French held this strategic point until it was finally secured by the Germans on 29 May, and Fort Vaux fell on 07 June, after a long siege.
          Further attacks continued throughout the summer and early autumn. However, the scale of the German attacks were reduced by the need to transfer troops to defend their front-line at the Somme. The French now counter-attacked and General Charles Mangin became a national hero when the forts at Douaumont and Vaux were recaptured by 02 November 1916. Over the next six weeks the French infantry gained another 2 km at Verdun.
          Verdun, the longest battle of the First World War, ended on 18 December. The French Army lost about 550'000 men at Verdun. It is estimated that the German Army suffered 434'000 casualties. About half of all casualties at Verdun were killed.

    1910 Hubert Salentin, German artist born on 15 January 1822.
    1897 Édouard Joseph Dantan, French artist born on 26 August 1848. — [Peignait-il des paysages d'hiver divers? Mais où sont Les Neiges Dantan? Pas dans l'internet, il semble.] Voici pour vous consoler et vous rafraichir: — Monet: Meules: effet de givre (1891, 65x92cm; 747x1064pix, 120kb — ZOOM
    1865 Lewis Paine, David Herold, George Atzerodt, Mary Surratt, 45, executed for their role in a the Lincoln assassination.         ^top^
         It was a conspiracy to throw the Union government into turmoil. On the night that John Wilkes Booth fatally shot President Abraham Lincoln at Ford's Theater, Paine attacked Secretary of State William Seward, and Herold assisted Booth in his escape. Atzerodt had planned on assassinating Vice President Andrew Johnson, but lost his nerve and fled, while Surratt was executed for her alleged supporting role in the conspiracy, of which she was almost certainly innocent. Four other conspirators were jailed.
         There is ample evidence of the innocence of Mary Surratt, the first woman to be executed in the United States. Surratt, who owned a tavern in Surrattsville (now Clinton), Maryland, had to convert her row house in Washington DC, into a boardinghouse as a result of financial difficulties. Located a few blocks from Ford's Theatre, where Lincoln was murdered, this house served as the place where a group of Confederate supporters, including John Wilkes Booth, conspired to assassinate the president. It was Surratt's association with Booth that ultimately led to her conviction.
          On the day of the assassination, Booth asked Surratt to deliver a package, which was later discovered to contain firearms, to her old tavern in Maryland. On her way home, Surratt ran into John Lloyd, the former Washington chief of police who currently leased the tavern. When authorities first questioned Lloyd about their encounter, he did not mention anything significant and denied that Booth and David Herold had visited his tavern. Yet when questioned later, he claimed that Surratt had told him to have whiskey and weapons ready for Booth and Herold, who would be stopping by that night.
          Louis Weichman, one of the alleged conspirators who delivered the package with Surratt, was released after he testified against her. He later claimed that the government had forced him to testify, and that it plagued his conscience for the rest of his life. Furthermore, Lewis Powell, a conspirator who was hanged with Surratt, proclaimed her innocence to his executioner minutes before his death. Many expected President Andrew Johnson to pardon Surratt because the US government had never hanged a woman. The execution was delayed until the afternoon, and soldiers were stationed on every block between the White House and Fort McNair, the execution site, to relay the expected pardon. But the order never came.
          Ever since her death, numerous sightings of Mary Surratt's ghost and other strange occurrences have been reported around Fort McNair. A hooded figure in black, bound at the hands and feet as Surratt had been at the time of her execution, has allegedly been seen moving about. Several children of soldiers have reported a "lady in black" who plays with them.
          Since Mary Surratt's execution, many convicted criminals have been sentenced to death, despite questionable guilt. A study of US courts released in June 2000 found that 68 percent of capital cases reviewed between 1973 and 1995 were overturned due to "serious, reversible error" in the judicial process.
    1862 Friedrich August Matthias Gauermann, Austrian painter born on 20 September 1897.
    1852 Arthur Conan Doyle, 71, dies on Dr. Watson's 78th birthday, in England.         ^top^
          Sir Arthur Conan Doyle gave his fictional character Dr. John H. Watson this birthday. Coincidentally, the author dies on this same day. Conan. Doyle was born in Scotland in 1859 and studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh. At the University, he studied with Dr. Joseph Bell, whose extraordinary deductive powers were said to be the inspiration for Conan Doyle's character Sherlock Holmes. After medical school, Conan Doyle moved to London, where he practiced medicine and wrote.
          His first Sherlock Holmes story, A Study in Scarlet, was published in Beeton's Christmas Annual in 1887. Starting in 1891, a series of Holmes stories appeared in The Strand magazine. The popularity of the stories enabled Conan Doyle to leave his medical practice in 1891 and devote himself to writing. But he grew tired of his character and had him hurled off a cliff, to his presumed death, in The Final Problem. He later resuscitated Holmes due to popular demand. In 1902, Conan Doyle was knighted for his work with a field hospital in South Africa. After his son died in World War I, Conan Doyle became a dedicated spiritualist, attempting to contact his late son through the help of a medium.
    Sherlock Holmes of CONAN DOYLE ONLINE:
  • A Scandal in Bohemia
  • The Redheaded League
  • A Case of Identity
  • The Boscombe Valley Mystery
  • The Five Orange Pips
  • The Man with the Twisted Lip
  • The Adventure of the Blue Carbuncle
  • The Adventure of the Speckled Band
  • The Adventure of the Engineer's Thumb
  • The Adventure of the Noble Bachelor
  • The Adventure of the Beryl Coronet
  • The Adventure of the Copper Beeches
  • Silver Blaze
  • The Yellow Face
  • The Stockbroker's Clerk
  • The "Gloria Scott"
  • The Musgrave Ritual
  • The Reigate Puzzle
  • The Crooked Man
  • The Resident Patient
  • The Greek Interpreter
  • The Naval Treaty
  • The Final Problem
  • The Adventure of the Illustrious Client
  • The Adventure of the Blanched Soldier
  • The Adventure of the Mazarin Stone
  • The Adventure of the Three Gables
  • The Adventure of the Sussex Vampire
  • The Adventure of the Three Garridebs
  • The Problem of Thor Bridge
  • The Adventure of the Creeping Man
  • The Adventure of the Lion's Mane
  • The Adventure of the Veiled Lodger
  • The Adventure of Shoscombe Old Place
  • The Adventure of the Retired Colorman
  • The Adventure of the Empty House
  • The Adventure of the Norwood Builder
  • The Adventure of the Dancing Men
  • The Adventure of the Solitary Cyclist
  • The Adventure of the Priory School
  • The Adventure of Black Peter
  • The Adventure of Charles Augustus Milverton
  • The Adventure of the Six Napoléons
  • The Adventure of the Three Students
  • The Adventure of the Golden Pince-Nez
  • The Adventure of the Missing Three-Quarter
  • The Adventure of the Abbey Grange
  • The Adventure of the Second Stain
  • The Adventure of Wisteria Lodge
  • The Adventure of the Cardboard Box
  • The Adventure of the Bruce-Partington Plans
  • The Adventure of the Devil's Foot
  • The Adventure of the Red Circle
  • The Disappearance of Lady Frances Carfax
  • The Adventure of the Dying Detective
  • His Last Bow — An Epilogue of Sherlock Holmes
  • 1850 Carl Rottmann, German artist born on 11 January 1798. — more
    1817 Pierre-Jean Boquet, French artist born in 1751.
    1658 (buried) Adriaen Ivan Nieulandt, Flemish painter, draftsman, engraver, and broker, born in 1587.
    1647 Thomas Hooker, on his 61st birthday, English clergyman, who emigrated to Massachusetts in 1633, then moved to Connecticut in 1636, where, without wanting to separate Church and State, he said that, not just church members, but the people have the God-given right to choose their magistrates, for which he is called the “father of American democracy”.
    Births which occurred on a July 07:
    1959 Jessica Hahn evangelist rape victim/model (playboy)/actress
    1954 T.A.N.U. party founded in Tanzania
    1952 Li Hongzhi, founder of Falun Gong in 1992. In 1994 he started claiming as his date of birth 13 May (birthday of Sakyamuni, the founder of Buddhism) 1951. He worked on an army farm and as a trumpet player in a band before being discharged from the military in 1982 and finding work as a low-level official in his home town of Changchun. In 1991 he quit his job and began developing Falun Gong.
    1933 David McCullough, historian-author.
    The first Plymouth1928 Chrysler's Plymouth debuts         ^top^
          The Chrysler Corporation introduces the Plymouth as its newest car. The Plymouth project had taken three years to complete, as Chrysler engineers worked to build a reliable and affordable car to compete with the offerings of Ford and General Motors (GM). The Plymouth debutes with renowned aviator Amelia Earhart behind the wheel.
          The publicity blitz brings 30'000 people to the Chicago Coliseum for a glimpse of the new car. With a delivery price of $670, the Plymouth is an attractive buy, and will sell over 80'000 units in its first year, forcing Chrysler to expand its production facilities drastically.
          Chrysler is still negotiating its purchase of Dodge at the time, and the Plymouth plays a key role in winning over the confidence of Dodge shareholders. When Chrysler releases the DeSoto Six later in the year, it scores another important coup in the mid-range market, assuring its position as a competitor to Ford and GM.
          Chrysler’s great success in the late twenties, along with its purchase of Dodge, gave the company momentum that would carry it through the Depression. Chrysler was the only car company to pay dividends to its shareholders throughout the Depression. While other companies were drowning from stifled cash flow, Chrysler managed to increase sales. In 1933 Chrysler became the only car company to best its sales of the 1929 boom year. All the while Chrysler continued to allocate resources to research and development, and by 1935 Chrysler had surpassed Ford to become the nation’s second largest car company.
    1923 Jean Kerr Scranton Pa, novelist (Please Don't Eat the Daisies)
    1922 Pierre Cardin Paris France, fashion designer (Unisex)
    1922 Vladimir Alexsandrovich Marchenko, Ukrainian mathematician.
    1919 William Kunstler (prosecutor: Watergate, Bernard Goetz)
    1911 Gian Carlo Menotti Italy, (Pulitzer prize-winning opera composer: The Consul [1950], The Saint of Bleeker Street [1955], Amahl and the Night Visitors)
    1908 Harriette Arnow Wayne Co, Ky, novelist (The Dollmaker)
    1907 Robert A Heinlein sci-fi author (Stranger in a Strange Land)
    1906 William Feller, Jewish Croatian US mathematician who died on 14 January 1970. [click on the name: more about that definitely non-fallow fellow Feller follows]
    1893 Vladimir Mayakovsky Soviet Georgia, poet (Ode to Revolution)
    1891 Lasar Segall, German Brazilian painter who died on 02 August 1957. — LINKS
    1887 Marc Chagall, Belorussian French painter and designer who died on 28 March 1985. — On 23 September 1964 the Paris Opéra unveiled a stunning new ceiling painted as a gift by Chagall. — MORE ON CHAGALL AT ART “4” JULY LINKS Self-Portrait — Self~Portrait With 7 Fingers on One Hand — Moi et le Village — War — White Crucifixion — Feastday — Jew at Prayer — Praying Jew — Abraham About to Sacrifice Isaac — Parting of the Red Sea — Rainbow — Adam and Eve — Dan stained glass window — Joseph stained glass window — Issachar stained glass window — Levi stained glass window — Three Candles — Fiddler — Newspaper Seller — Coq — Parade — Red Nude — Birthday — The Spoonful of Milk CalvaryFour SeasonsPaysage bleuSelf-Portrait with black vestMosesChagall Monumentaluntitled plate in the front of the book Chagall Monumentaluntitled plate at p.15 in the book Homage to Marc ChagallPrints from the Mourlot Press (catalogue cover)
    1860 Gustav Mahler Kalischat Bohemia Austria, composer/conductor (music used in 1971 movie: Death in Venice - of which he was the subject) (Titan)
    1847 Robert Russ
    , Austrian artist who died on 16 March 1922.
    1843 Hugo Fredrik Salmson, Swedish artist who died on 01 August 1894. — more
    1843 Camillo Golgi Italy, physician, cytologist (Nobel 1906)
    1833 Félicien Joseph Victor Robs, Belgian artist who died on 22 August 1898.
    1827 William Montegue Brown
    1816 Johann Rudolf Wolf,
    Swiss mathematician who died on 06 December 1893.
    1807 George Willem Opdenhoff, Dutch artist who died on 23 September 1873.
    1775 Johann-Jakob Dorner II, German artist who died on 14 December 1852. — Not to be confused with (his father? uncle?) the painter of The Hard Landlady, Johann-Jakob Dorner I [18 Jul 1741 – 22 May 1813].
    1752 Joseph Marie Jacquard, French silk weaver.         ^top^
          He would perfect a loom that used punch cards to program various weaving patterns. His method of using punched cards to program patterns was later adopted as an input method for early mechanical and electronic computers.
         These punched cards were adopted by the noted English inventor Charles Babbage as an input-output medium for his proposed analytical engine.
          In the late 1800s, inventor Herman Hollerith adopted Jacquard's system to feed data into his mechanical calculating machine, which was used to calculate the results of the 1890 US census, and punch cards continued to be used for data input for early computers developed over the next several decades
    1586 Birth of Thomas Hooker, in Markfield, Leicestershire, England. He would become a clergyman and emigrate to Massachusetts in 1633, then move to Connecticut in 1636, where, without wanting to separate Church and State, he said that, not just church members, but the people have the God-given right to choose their magistrates, for which he is somewhat underservedly called the "father of American democracy". He would die on his 61st birthday.
    52 B.C. Paris is founded, France still centuries in the future         ^top^
          Paris would become a city of conquests, historic sights, artists, scholars, haute couture, and gourmet cuisine. The future capital of the future France is first fortified on 07 July 52 B.C., by a Gallic tribe called the Parisees (NOT the Pharisees!) on an island in the Seine, which.they connected to the two banks with two wooden bridges, as described by Roman General Julius Caesar in his commentaries.
    Holidays Bhutan: Guru Rinbochy / Equatorial Guinea : P.UNT. Anniversary / Japan : Star Festival/Tanabata / Pamplona, Spain : Fiesta de San Fermin-running of the Bulls / Tanzania : Saba-Saba Day-founding of TANU party (1954)

    Religious Observances Orth: Nativity of St John the Forerunner (6/24 OS) / Old Catholic: St Methodius (Cyril), devise Cyrillic alphabet

    Thoughts for the day: “Bachelor's wives and spinster's children are always perfect.”
    "Only a mediocre person is always at his best.”
    — W. Somerset Maugham, English author and dramatist (1874-1965).
    “Maugham was not at his best when he wrote the above nonsense.”
    “Even a mediocre person has his ups and downs.”

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