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Events, deaths, births, of JUL 10
[For Jul 10 Julian go to  Gregorian date: 1583~1699: Jul 201700s: Jul 211800s: Jul 221900~2099: Jul 23]
• Lady Jane Grey proclaimed Queen... • Monkey Trial... • Battle of Britain... • Palestinian is born and dies barred from hospital by Israelis... • Sacre de l'Empereur  Antonin... • Naissance de Calvin... • Rainbow  Warrior blown up... • Gorbachev reelected head of Communist Party... • Allied landing in Sicily... • Wyoming becomes a state...
PDI price chartOn a 10 July:
2003 The previous evening PDI, Inc. (PDII) raised its 2003 EPS estimates to about $0.77 from about $0.50 on the strength of new business awarded to its contract sales unit and anticipated continued strong performance from Lotensin in its Pharmaceutical Products Group through year end 2003. The company also announced that GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) awarded to PDI a Jul-2003-to-Sep-2004 contract, which could result in about $2 per share in revenue in 2003 and $3.50 in 2004. On the NASDAQ, 1.6 million of the 14.2 million shares of PDI are traded, rising from their previous close of $10.93 to an intraday high of $18.05 and closing at $17.35. They had been traded as low as $2.85 as recently as 08 October 2002 and as high as $135.19 on 04 December 2000. — [5~year price chart >]
2002 A stunning newly rediscovered Rubens' The Massacre of the Innocents is auctioned off at Sotherby's for $79.4 million. — SEE THE PICTURE AND MORE AT ART “4” JULY
2000 El hundimiento de un vertedero de basuras provoca la muerte de un centenar de chabolistas en Manila (Filipinas).
2000 Israeli President Ezer Weizman resigned, effectively ending a seven-year term that turned sour when he was found to have acted improperly by accepting gifts while in office.
2000 At Bogota's Military Hospital, soldier Nicolás Sánchez, 19, gets removed from his left thigh a live grenade, lodged up against the femur. It got there when a fellow solider accidentally triggered his grenade launcher on an army base in central Boyaca province, and the grenade unexplicably and luckily failed to detonate. Dr. Ricardo Uribe, assisted by another surgeon, both wearing bullet-proof vests, free the grenade, and a police bomb expert removes it from the leg and goes outside to detonate it..
1997 La banda terrorista ETA secuestra al concejal del Partido Popular en Ermua (Vizcaya), Miguel Ángel Blanco Garrido, y amenaza con acabar con su vida si en un plazo de 48 horas el Gobierno no da instrucciones para reagrupar a los presos etarras en cárceles del País Vasco.
1994 Leonid Kuchma consigue la victoria en las elecciones presidenciales de Ucrania y Alexander Lukashenko, en los primeros comicios presidenciales de Bielorrusia.
1992 La Conferencia sobre la Seguridad y Cooperación en Europa (OSCE) aprueba la posibilidad de recurrir a la fuerza en caso de conflictos regionales en Europa.
1992, former Panamanian dictator Manuel Noriega is sentenced to 40 years in jail in the United States on drug-trafficking charges.
1992 Exxon Valdez captain's conviction is overturned    ^top^
      The Alaska court of appeals overturns the conviction of Joseph Hazelwood, the former captain of the oil tanker Exxon Valdez. Hazelwood, who was found guilty of negligence for his role in the massive oil spill in Prince Georges Sound in 1989, successfully argued that he was entitled to immunity from prosecution because he had reported the oil spill to authorities 20 minutes after the ship ran aground. The Exxon Valdez accident on the Alaskan coast was one of the largest environmental disasters in US history.
      The ship, 300 m long and carrying 1.3 million barrels of oil, ran aground on Bligh Reef on 24 March 1989, after failing to return to the shipping lanes (which it had maneuvered out of to avoid icebergs). It later came to light that several officers, including Captain Hazelwood, had been drinking at a bar the night the Exxon Valdez left port. However, there wasn't enough evidence to support the notion that alcohol impairment had been responsible for the oil spill. Rather, poor weather conditions and preparation, combined with several incompetent maneuvers by the men steering the tanker, were deemed responsible for the disaster.
      Captain Hazelwood, who had prior drunk driving arrests, had a spotless record as a tanker captain before the Valdez accident. Exxon compounded the environmental problems by not beginning the cleanup effort right away. A civil suit for damages brought against Exxon by the state of Alaska resulted in a billion-dollar judgment against them. However, years later, while their appeal remained backlogged in the court system, Exxon still hadn't paid the damages.
      When overturning Hazelwood's conviction, the Alaskan court noted that it "will undoubtedly be a bitter pill for many Alaskans to swallow. Yet by requiring immunity today, the federal statute encourages immediate reporting in the event of a spill tomorrow. If this encouragement averts catastrophic environmental losses in future incidents, then [the statute] may, in the long run, prove to be a wise one." The Exxon Valdez was repaired and renamed Sea River Mediterranean, and it still transports oil.
1991 Boris Yeltsin is sworn in as the first elected President of Russia, sealing communism's fate.
1991 US President George H.W. Bush (Sr.) lifted economic sanctions against South Africa.
1991 US President Bush (Sr.) announced he was appointing Alan Greenspan to a second term as Federal Reserve chairman.
1990 Gorbachev re-elected as head of Communist Party         ^top^
      In a vindication of his sweeping economic and political reforms, Mikhail Gorbachev withstands severe criticisms from his opponents and is re-elected head of the Soviet Communist Party by an overwhelming margin. Gorbachev's victory was short-lived, however, as the Soviet Union collapsed in late 1991. Gorbachev came to power in the Soviet Union in 1985 and immediately began to push forward with reforms in both Russia's domestic and foreign policies. On the domestic front, he argued for greater economic freedom and a gradual movement toward free market economics in certain fields. He also demanded more political freedom, and released a number of political prisoners. In his foreign policy, Gorbachev sought to thaw Cold War relations with the United States. He indicated his desire to work for substantive arms control measures, and began to curtail Soviet military and political involvement in nations such as Afghanistan and Angola. By 1990, many people celebrated Gorbachev as a savior for bringing true reform to the Soviet Union.
      At home, however, Gorbachev was reviled by many Russian hard-liners that castigated him for weakening the hold of the Communist Party and for weakening its military power. During a Communist Party congress in July 1990, Gorbachev fired back at his critics. "There is no way to bring back the past, and no dictatorship — if someone still entertains this crazy idea — will solve anything," he declared. As for his domestic reforms, Gorbachev noted, "This is already a different society" that needed different policies. In response to the charge that he had been "soft" in dealing with anticommunist movements in Russia's eastern European allies, he shouted, "Well, do you want tanks again? Shall we teach them again how to live?"
      With Gorbachev's words ringing in their ears, the delegates to the congress re-elected him as head of the Soviet Communist Party. Gorbachev's success, however, was extremely short-lived. While many applauded his reforms, by 1990 the Soviet Union was suffering from terrible economic problems, increasingly angry internal political squabbling, and a general feeling of uneasiness among the Russian people. In December 1991, with most of its eastern European allies already having overthrown their communist governments and with the Soviet republics seceding from the USSR, Gorbachev resigned as head of the Party and as president. With his action, the Soviet Union ceased to exist.
1985 Bowing to pressure from irate customers, the Coca-Cola Co. said it would resume selling old-formula Coke, while continuing to sell New Coke.
1984 Una sentencia del Tribunal Constitucional español falla que no es delito el aborto de españolas en el extranjero.
1982 Entran en vigor los Estatutos de Autonomía de Valencia, La Rioja y Murcia.
1981 CERN achieves 1st proton-antiproton beam collision (570 GeV)
1980 Ayatollah Khomeini releases Iran hostage Richard I Queen
1978 Military coup in Mauritania.
1976 Contamination catastrophique par la dioxine.    ^top^
      L’explosion d’un réacteur de synthèse de trichlorophénol provoque la contamination d’une surface de 1500 hectares dans la banlieue Seveso de Milan par ce redoutable sous-produit qu'est la dioxine. Moins de 4 kilogrammes de dioxine ont été répandus dans cette zone suburbaine, mais cela suffit pour provoquer la mort de 600 animaux domestiques et l’intoxication de près de 2000 personnes. Une dizaine périrent dans les mois suivants et des centaines gardèrent des séquelles incalculables !
1973, the Bahamas attained full independence within the Commonwealth, having been a British colony since 1783. (Nat'l Day) Las islas Bahamas obtienen la independencia en el marco de la Commonwealth.
1973 El presidente argentino Hector Jose Cámpora y su vicepresidente Solano Lima presentan la renuncia a sus cargos y abren paso a un nuevo mandato de Juan Domingo Perón.
1972 Democratic convention opens in Miami Beach Florida (McGovern)
1967 Heavy fighting continues near An Loc and the Central Highlands         ^top^
      Outnumbered South Vietnamese troops repel an attack by two battalions of the 141st North Vietnamese Regiment on a military camp five miles east of An Loc, 60 miles north of Saigon. Communist forces captured a third of the base camp before they were thrown back with the assistance of US and South Vietnamese air and artillery strikes. Farther to the north, US forces suffered heavy casualties in two separate battles in the Central Highlands. In the first action, about 400 men of the 173rd Airborne Brigade came under heavy fire from North Vietnamese machine guns and mortars during a sweep of the Dak To area near Kontum. Twenty-six Americans were killed and 49 were wounded. In the second area clash, 35 soldiers of the US 4th Infantry Division were killed and 31 were wounded in fighting.
1965: MiGs shot down as bombing of North Vietnam continues         ^top^
      US planes continue heavy raids in South Vietnam and claim to have killed 580 guerrillas. US Phantom jets, escorting fighter-bombers in a raid on the Yen Sen ammunition depot northwest of Hanoi, engaged North Vietnamese MiG-17s. Capt. Thomas S. Roberts with his backseater Capt. Ronald C. Anderson, and Capt. Kenneth E. Holcombe and his backseater Capt. Arthur C. Clark shot down two MiG-17s with Sidewinder missiles. The action marked the first US Air Force air-to-air victories of the Vietnam War.
1964 El ex jefe del Gobierno secesionista de Katanga, Moisés Tshombe, es designado primer ministro del Congo por el presidente de la República.
1962 The satellite Telstar is launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida, beaming live television from Europe to the United States. — primer satélite artificial de telecomunicaciones
1962 Martin Luther King Jr arrested during demonstration in Georgia
1962, Telstar, the first television telecommunications satellite was launched from Cape Canaveral, making possible the first relaying of television programs across the Atlantic.
1956 La Cámara de los Lores británica rechaza la abolición de la pena de muerte, aprobada en la de Cámara de los Comunes.
1953 El Politburó del PCUS anuncia la detención del ministro del Interior, Lavrenti Beria, bajo la acusación de complot contra el Estado.
1953 American forces withdraw from Pork Chop Hill in Korea after heavy fighting.
1951 Armistice talks to end Korean conflict began at Kaesong
1945 Se reabre el museo del Louvre en París.
1945 US carrier-based aircraft begin airstrikes against Japan in preparation for invasion.
1943 Débarquement allié en Sicile.    ^top^
      La supériorité alliée est telle que les aérodromes et les installations de défense antiaériennes sont détruites avant même le début du débarquement. L’île est prise en 39 jours. Il faut souligner ici que la Mafia a donné un grand coup de mains aux américains qui avaient négocié un accord secret, grâce à un "repenti" Lucky Rociano, avec les grands parrains de l’époque. Cette victoire rapide précipite la chute de Mussolini suite à un complot fomenté par le Roi d’Italie, Umberto, et le Maréchal Badoglio, héros de guerre et le grand conseil fasciste lui-même. Mussolini sera interné. La prise de la Sardaigne, puis de la Corse (par les Français cette fois), amenèrent les allemands à réagir violemment et à envoyer 30 divisions dans la Péninsule pour retarder l’avance alliée.
1943 Allies land in Sicily: There were months of preparation before British and American forces sailed jointly from Malta and Tunisia to attack Sicily's shores and begin the Allied invasion of Southern Europe. On 10 July 1943, the British Eighth Army under General Bernard Montgomery lands on the southeast corner of Sicily, while the US Seventh Army under General George S. Patton lands on the southern coast. On 17 August 17, Patton would arrive in Messina before Montgomery, completing the Allied conquest of Sicily and winning the so-called "Race to Messina."
      The Allies begin their invasion of Axis-controlled Europe with landings on the island of Sicily, off mainland Italy. Encountering little resistance from the demoralized Sicilian troops, the British 8th Army under Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery came ashore on the southeast of the island, while the US 7th Army under General George S. Patton landed on Sicily's south coast. Within three days, 150'000 Allied soldiers were ashore. Italian leader Benito Mussolini envisioned building Fascist Italy into a new Roman Empire, but a string of military defeats in World War II effectively made his regime a puppet of its stronger Axis partner, Germany. By the spring of 1943, opposition groups in Italy were uniting to overthrow Mussolini and make peace with the Allies, but a strong German military presence in Italy threatened to resist any such action.
      Meanwhile, Nazi leader Adolf Hitler knew that an Allied invasion of Nazi-controlled Europe was imminent, but because Germany's vast conquests stretched from Greece to France, Hitler was unable to concentrate his forces in any one place. In an elaborate plot to divert German forces away from Italy, a British submarine off Spain released the corpse of an Englishman wearing the uniform of a British major and carrying what appeared to be official Allied letters describing plans for an invasion of Greece. The body washed ashore, and the letters were sent by the Spanish to the German high command, who reinforced their units in Greece. The Axis had only 10 Italian divisions and two German panzer units on Sicily when Allied forces attacked in the early-morning hours of 10 July. First to land were American and British paratroopers and glider-borne troops, and at dawn thousands of amphibious troops came ashore. Coastal defenses manned by disaffected Sicilian troops collapsed after limited resistance, and the Anglo-Americans moved quickly to capture Sicily's southern cities. Within three days, the Allies had cleared the southeastern part of the island. In a pincer movement aimed at Messina in the northwest, the British 8th Army began moving up the southeast coast of the island, with the US 7th Army moving east across the north coast. The Allies hoped to trap the Axis forces in the northwestern corner of Sicily before they could retreat to the Italian mainland. In the so-called "Race to Messina," Montgomery's advance up the southeast coast was slowed by German reinforcements, but Patton and the US 7th Army moved quickly along the north coast, capturing Palermo, the Sicilian capital, on 22 July. In Rome, the Allied invasion of Sicily, a region of the kingdom of Italy since 1860, led to the collapse of Mussolini's government. Early in the morning of July 25, he was forced to resign by the Fascist Grand Council and was arrested later that day. On July 26, Marshal Pietro Badoglio assumed control of the Italian government. The new government promptly entered into secret negotiations with the Allies, despite the presence of numerous German troops in Italy. Back in Sicily, Montgomery and Patton advanced steadily toward Messina, prompting the Germans to begin a withdrawal of Axis forces to the mainland. Some 100'000 German and Italian soldiers were evacuated before Patton won the race to Messina on 17 August. Montgomery arrived a few hours later. The Allies suffered 23'000 casualties in their conquest of Sicily. German forces sustained 30'000 casualties, and the Italians 135'000. In addition, some 100'000 Axis soldiers were captured. On 03 September, Montgomery's 8th Army began an invasion of the Italian mainland at Calabria, and the Italian government agreed to surrender to the Allies. By the terms of the agreement, the Italians would be treated with leniency if they aided the Allies in expelling the Germans from Italy. Later that month, Mussolini was rescued from a prison in the Abruzzo Mountains by German commandos and was installed as leader of a Nazi puppet state in northern Italy. In October, the Badoglio government declared war on Germany, but the Allied advance up Italy proved a slow and costly affair. Rome fell in June 1944, at which point a stalemate ensued as British and American forces threw most of their resources into the Normandy invasion. In April 1945, a new major offensive began, and, on 28 April, Mussolini was captured by Italian partisans and summarily executed. German forces in Italy surrendered on 01 May, and six days later all of Germany surrendered.
1942 General Carl Spaatz becomes the head of the US Air Force in Europe.
1940 The Battle of Britain begins    ^top^
      During World War II, the Battle of Britain , which will last 114 days, begins. 120 German bombers and fighters struck a British shipping convoy in that very Channel, while 70 more bombers attacked dockyard installations in South Wales.
      In June of 1940, the Western democracies of continental Europe fell to Germany one by one, leaving Great Britain alone in its resistance to Adolf Hitler's plans for Nazi world domination. With British armed forces outnumbered by their German counterparts in almost every respect, and US aid not yet begun, it seemed certain that Britain would soon follow the fate of France.
      However, Winston Churchill, the new British prime minister, promised his nation and the world that Britain would "never surrender," and the British people hastily mobilized behind their defiant leader. On 10 July Hitler orders his powerful air force — the Luftwaffe — to destroy British ports along the coast. However, the British Royal Air Force (RAF) put up an effective resistance, so Luftwaffe commander Hermann Göring modified his schedule, putting destruction of the British air fleet at the forefront of the German offensive.
      Destruction of the RAF would pave the way for the German invasion, code-named Operation Sea Lion and scheduled to begin in the fall. Over the next three months, however, the outnumbered RAF flyers successfully resisted the massive German air invasion, relying on radar technology, more maneuverable aircraft, and exceptional bravery. For every British plane shot down, two Luftwaffe warplanes were destroyed.
     Although Britain had far fewer fighters than the Germans — 600 to 1300 — it had a few advantages, such as an effective radar system, which made the prospects of a German sneak attack unlikely. Britain also produced superior quality aircraft. Its Spitfires could turn tighter than Germany's ME109s, enabling it to better elude pursuers; and its Hurricanes could carry 40mm cannon, and would shoot down, with its American Browning machine guns, over 1500 Luftwaffe aircraft. The German single-engine fighters had a limited flight radius, and its bombers lacked the bomb-load capacity necessary to unleash permanent devastation on their targets.
      Britain also had the advantage of unified focus, while German infighting caused missteps in timing; they also suffered from poor intelligence. But in the opening days of battle, Britain was in immediate need of two things: a collective stiff upper lip — and aluminum. A plea was made by the government to turn in all available aluminum to the Ministry of Aircraft Production. "We will turn your pots and pans into Spitfires and Hurricanes," the ministry declared. And they did.
      In October, Hitler would delay Operation Sea Lion indefinitely, but order a massive bombing campaign against London to crush British morale. Despite significant loss of life and tremendous material damage to the city, British resolve remained unbroken and in May of 1941, the German air raids essentially ceased. By denying the Germans a quick victory, depriving them of forces to be used in their invasion of the USS.R., and proving to the US that increased arms support for Britain was not in vain, the outcome of the Battle of Britain greatly changed the course of World War II.
1940 PPPP: Pleins pouvoirs pour Pétain. Au casino de Vichy par 569 voix contre 80 et 18 abstentions, l'Assemblée nationale vote les pleins pouvoirs exécutifs et législatifs au maréchal Pétain. Edouard Herriot déclare : "Autour de monsieur le maréchal Pétain, dans la vénération que son nom inspire à tous, notre nation est groupée dans la détresse." — The French National Assembly gave plenary powers to the government of Marshal Pétain as it settles in Vichy. — El mariscal Pétain firma una nueva Constitución, lo que equivale al asesinato de la III República francesa.
1936 43ºC, Cumberland & Frederick, Maryland (state record)
1936 44ºC, Phoenixville, Pennsylvania (state record)
1936 New Straits Convention allows Turkish rearmament of Dardanelles
1929 US issues newer, smaller-sized paper currency.
1927 El general Sanjurjo da por terminada la guerra de Marruecos.
1925 USSR's official news agency TASS established.
1925 The Monkey Trial begins    ^top^
      In Dayton, Tennessee, the so-called "Monkey Trial" begins with John Thomas Scopes, 24, a high school science teacher accused of teaching evolution, which was in violation of a new Tennessee law. The state law, which had been passed in March, made it a misdemeanor punishable by fine to "teach any theory that denies the story of the Divine Creation of man as taught in the Bible, and to teach instead that man has descended from a lower order of animals."
      With local businessman George Rappalyea, Scopes had conspired to get charged with this violation, and after his arrest, the two enlisted the aid of the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) to organize a defense. Hearing of this coordinated attack on Christian Fundamentalism, William Jennings Bryan, the three-time Democratic presidential candidate and a Fundamentalist hero, volunteered to assist the prosecution. Soon after, the great attorney Clarence Darrow agreed to join the ACLU in the defense, and the stage was set for one of the most famous trials in US history.
      On 10 July the Monkey Trial gets underway with jury selection, and within a few days, hordes of spectators and reporters would descend on Dayton while preachers set up revival tents along the city's main street to keep the faithful stirred up. Inside the Rhea County Courthouse, the defense suffered early setbacks when Judge John Raulston ruled against their attempt to prove the law unconstitutional, and then refused to end his practice of opening each day's proceeding with prayer.
      Meanwhile, in the streets outside, the Dayton took on a carnival-like atmosphere as an exhibit featuring two chimpanzees and a supposed "missing link" opened in town, and vendors sold Bibles, toy monkeys, hot dogs, and lemonade. The missing link was in fact Jo Viens of Burlington, Vermont, a fifty-one-year-old man who was of short stature and possessed a receding forehead and a protruding jaw. One of the chimpanzees — "Joe Mendi" — wore a plaid suit, a brown fedora, and white spats, and entertained Dayton's citizens by monkeying around on the courthouse lawn.
      Back inside, Judge Raulston destroyed the defense's plan by ruling that expert scientific testimony on evolution was inadmissible — on the grounds that it was Scopes who was on trial, not the law that he had violated. The next day, Raulston ordered the trial moved to the courthouse lawn, fearing that the weight of the crowd inside was in danger of collapsing the floor.
      In front of several thousand spectators in the open air, Darrow changed his tactics, and as his sole witness called Bryan in an attempt to discredit his literal interpretation of the Bible. In a searching examination, Bryan was subjected to severe ridicule, and forced to make ignorant and contradictory statements to the amusement of the crowd. On July 21, in his closing speech, Darrow asked the jury to return a verdict of guilty in order that the case might be appealed. Under Tennessee law, Bryan was thereby denied the opportunity to deliver a closing speech he had been preparing for weeks. After eight minutes of deliberation the jury returned with a guilty verdict, and Raulston ordered Scopes to pay a fine of $100, the minimum the law allowed.
      Although Bryan had won the case, he been publicly humiliated and his fundamentalist beliefs had been disgraced. Five days later, on July 26, he lied down for a Sunday afternoon nap and never woke up. In 1927, the Tennessee Supreme Court overturned the Monkey Trial verdict on a technicality, but left the constitutional issues unresolved until 1968, when the US Supreme Court overturned a similar Arkansas law on the grounds that it violated the First Amendment.
1923 All non-fascist parties dissolved in Italy
1921 Mongolia Exterior se declara independiente y forma un Gobierno popular provisional.
1920 El plebiscito popular celebrado en Prusia Oriental y Occidental decide mayoritariamente permanecer dentro del Reich.
1919 US President Wilson personally delivered the Treaty of Versailles to the Senate, and urged its ratification.
1918 Russian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic established
1917 El Gobierno español de Eduardo Dato reconoce a las Juntas de Defensa como portavoces del Ejército.
1917 Emma Goldman imprisoned for obstructing the draft in the US.
1914 (Friday): in the aftermath of the June 28 assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand:
Berchtold dispatches Friedrich von Wiesner to Sarajevo to report on the assassination inquest's findings.
The Russian minister to Serbia drops dead.
1913 Highest air temperature ever observed in the US: 57ºC at Death Valley
1913 57ºC, Greenland Ranch, Calif (US record)
1907 Post office set up where Oldsmar will be.    ^top^
      A post office — a sign of permanent settlement — is established on this day in 1907 at the north end of Tampa Bay, Florida, serving a settlement that would become Oldsmar, Florida, a planned community financed by Oldsmobile icon Ransom Eli Olds. When Olds purchased 37,500 acres from Richard Peters in 1913, only a few settlers occupied the territory. Olds already owned a house on the Atlantic coast of Florida in Daytona Beach, and the Gulf Coast offered the cheap coastal land he needed for his development project. He originally dubbed his new town “R.E. Olds-On-The-Sea,” but thankfully someone suggested he change its name to Oldsmar shortly thereafter. Olds spent $400'000 on purchasing the land, but he would go on to pour in over $4 million to develop the settlement.
      Having already started the Oldsmobile and REO companies, the planned community was the fifty-two-year-old Olds’ final challenge. He financed the construction of kilometers of extra-wide roads and paved sidewalks, and built a comprehensive water system — a difficult project in Florida’s lowland aquifer. Olds encouraged farming in his new town, and in the meantime, went about trying to attract other forms of business and entrepreneurial spirit, spending $100'000 on an oil well that unfortunately never yielded anything but sulphurous water. Olds saturated Detroit with advertisements for his idyllic new town, hoping to lure thousands of autoworkers to the better climate. In expectation of their arrival, Olds constructed shoddy houses with poor plumbing systems. Few workers came, as Olds had never been popular with his workers. Unable to attract a labor force, Olds realized he would have trouble convincing companies to move to Oldsmar.
      His nearest success came when he provided financial backing to the Kardell Truck Company provided it move to town, but the venture proved unsuccessful. Oldsmar remained a sleepy fishing and farming town — with nice roads. In 1923 Olds had millions invested in Oldsmar. When he realized the town wasn’t going to grow, he attempted to liquidate his assets, selling parcels of land and a nearly finished racetrack. He left the town having incurred over $3 million in losses. Olds had envisioned a city of 100'000 inhabitants, but when he abandoned Oldsmar, he left behind only 200 permanent residents.
1893 Dr. Daniel Hale Williams performs the first successful open-heart surgery, without anesthesia.
1890 The Women's Suffrage State enters the Union    ^top^
      Wyoming, whose constitution was the first in US history to guarantee women the right to vote, is the 44th state admitted into the Union. After Wyoming was formally organized as a US territory in early 1869, woman suffragist Esther Hobart Morris, a native of New York, emigrated to South Pass, Wyoming, with her family. Morris had become an advocate of woman suffrage after suffering under discriminatory property laws following the death of her first husband. Before the first territorial elections were held, she met with local leader William Bright, who was running for a seat in the legislature, and persuaded him to introduce a suffrage bill if he prevailed. Bright was elected as a Democrat from South Pass, and true to his promise, he introduced the bill. Many of Wyoming's new legislators treated the measure lightheartedly, joking that if it were approved, perhaps more women would move to the territory.
      The bill was passed by a two-to-one margin, and on 10 December 1869, to the horror of several of these lawmakers, Governor John Campbell signed it into law. Three months later, Esther Hobart Morris was appointed America's first female justice of the peace in South Pass City, and in Laramie, the first women jurors were summoned to duty. In 1889, Wyoming voters approved the first constitution in the world granting equal voting rights to women, and in 1890, Wyoming was admitted into the Union as the forty-fourth state.
1880 Les Communards amnistiés    ^top^
      "Quand me débarrasserez-vous de ce haillon de guerre civile ?" Devant la Chambre des députés, Gambetta se bat pour obtenir que la loi d'amnistie des communards soit votée. Après la Commune qui a été selon Karl Marx "la première révolution dans laquelle la classe ouvrière était ouvertement reconnue comme la seule qui fut encore capable d'initiatives sociales", près de 40'000 fédérés avaient été faits prisonniers, entassés à Versailles, sur des pontons ou dans des forts, faute de place dans les prisons. Il y eu 22'000 non-lieux et plus de 10'000 condamnations dont la moitié à la déportation. Parmi celles-ci, celle de Louise Michel qui, figure emblématique, a été déportée à Nouméa. Quatre conseils de guerre ont siégé sans relâche jusqu'en 1874. Le lendemain, Gambetta aura la réponse à sa question: la loi est votée.
1864 During the siege of Petersburg, General Ulysses S. Grant establishes a huge supply center, called City Point, at the confluence of the James and Appomattox rivers.
1863 Siege of Fort Wagner, Charleston Harbor, South Carolina begins.
1863 Action at Falling Waters, Maryland.
1863 Siege of Battery Wagner near Charleston begins         ^top^
      Union troops land on Morris Island near Charleston, South Carolina, and prepare for a siege on Battery Wagner, a massive sand fortress on the island. In the summer of 1863, Union General Quincy Gillmore waged an unsuccessful campaign to capture Charleston. Although the city was an important port for the Confederates early in the war, the attempt to capture Charleston was largely symbolic since a Union blockade of Confederate ports earlier on had bottled up Charleston Harbor anyway. Gillmore planned to approach it from the south by capturing Morris Island. On 10 July, Gillmore's troops quickly secured most of the island. The only barrier left was Battery Wagner, an imposing fortress that guarded Charleston Harbor's southern rim. The fort was 30 feet high, nearly 300 feet from north to south, and over 600 feet from east to west. Inside were 1600 Confederates, 10 heavy cannons, and a mortar for hitting ships off the coast. Gillmore attacked on 11 July, but the attack was easily repulsed. A much larger assault was made on 18 July with heavy Union losses. After the 18 July battle, Gillmore settled in for a long siege. The Confederates finally evacuated the fort on 07 September 1863.
1861 The new Confederate States of America and the Creek Indians conclude a treaty, one of several such alliances made during the CivilWar.
1850 US Vice-President Millard Fillmore is sworn in as the 13th president following Zachary Taylor's death
1847 Urbain J.J. Leverrier & John Couch Adams, codiscoverers of Neptune meet for 1st time at home of John Herschel
1832 US President's revenge fiscally unsound    ^top^
      Up until 1832, Nelson Biddle had been the savior of the Bank of the United States. When Biddle was installed as the Bank's director in 1823, the institution was in dire fiscal shape. Biddle, a historian turned prominent financier, fast proved to be a strong manager, and thanks in large part to his firm, guiding hand, the Bank enjoyed a healthy stretch of prosperity.
      But, whatever his managerial acumen, Biddle was less savvy when it came to political maneuverings. In 1828, Biddle pushed against Andrew Jackson's campaign for the White House; worse yet, Biddle had forged an alliance with Henry Clay, the Whig Representative who had help squelch Jackson’s bid for the Presidency in 1824. However, Biddle had cast his lot with the wrong side: Jackson stormed to victory and, once in the White House, vowed to extract revenge on his opponents.
      The President waited until this day in 1832 to strike against Biddle: mustering up putatively philosophical opposition to the notion of a nationally based fiscal institution, Jackson vetoed the Bank's request for a new charter. The move outraged the Bank's allies, who grumbled that the veto was motivated less by principle than Jackson's cozy relationships with business leaders. No matter his rationale, Jackson continued his crusade against Bank and in 1833 ordered that all federal funds be withdrawn from the institution. Though this move ultimately sent the nation spiraling into a nasty fiscal panic, it also helped seal the fate of Biddle and his Bank
1793 Durante la Revolución Francesa, los "montañeses" forman un gobierno revolucionario.
1775 Horatio Gates, issues order excluding blacks from Continental Army
1690 Battle of Beachy Head-French fleet defeats Anglo-Dutch fleet
1778 In support of the American Revolution, Louis XVI declares war on England.
1776 The statue of King George III is pulled down in New York City.
1679 The British crown claims New Hampshire as a royal colony.
1609 The Catholic states in Germany set up a league under the leadership of Maximillian of Bavaria.
1553 Lady Jane Grey proclaimed Queen    ^top^
      Four days after the death of the King Edward VI, Lady Jane Grey, a fifteen-year-old cousin of the late king, is proclaimed queen of England. Jane's father-in-law, John Dudley, the duke of Northumberland, had persuaded the dying Edward that his cousin Jane, a Protestant, should be chosen the royal successor over his half-sister Mary, a Catholic. On July 6, King Edward VI died from tuberculosis at the age of fifteen and Dudley set about convincing the Royal Council to approve his daughter-in-law's ascension. Although King Henry VIII, who died in 1547, stated in his will that Mary was to succeed Edward, Dudley was successful.
     Two days into Lady Jane Grey's reign, Dudley departed London with an army to suppress Mary's forces, and in his absence, the Council declared him a traitor and Mary the rightful queen, ending Jane's nine-day reign. By July 20, most of Dudley's army had deserted him and he was arrested. The same day, Jane was imprisoned in the Tower of London. Her father-in-law was condemned for high treason and on August 22, 1553, executed.
      On November 13, Jane and her husband, Guildford Dudley, were likewise found guilty of treason and sentenced to death, but because of their youth and relative innocence, Mary did not carry out the death sentences. However, in early February 1554, Jane's father, Henry Grey, duke of Suffolk, joined Sir Thomas Wyatt in an insurrection against Mary that erupted after her announcement of her intention to marry Philip II of Spain. While suppressing the revolt, Mary decided that it was also was necessary to eliminate all of her political opponents, and on February 7, signed the death warrants of Jane and her husband.
      On the morning of February 12, Jane watched her husband being carried away to execution from the window of her cell in the Tower of London, and two hours later, she was executed herself. After the sixteen-year-old was beheaded, her executioner, according to British tradition, held Jane's head aloft with the words, "So perish all the queen's enemies. Behold, the head of a traitor." Her father was executed 11 days later.
1547 Dernier duel autorisé en France    ^top^
      Le Dauphin ayant tenu des propos injurieux à l'égard de Gui Chabot, sire de Jarnac, La Châtaigneraie, une fois les paroles répétées au vieux roi François Ier, a repris à son compte les médisances. Le "jugement de Dieu" a été différé. Ce jour, en présence du roi Henri II qu'accompagnent la reine et Diane de Poitiers, le duel oppose enfin La Châtaigneraie à Chabot. Tous deux sont réputés pour être d'excellents bretteurs. Tout à coup, Chabot porte à La Châtaigneraie un coup inédit. La Châtaigneraie, le jarret coupé, s'écroule. Ce "coup de Jarnac" qui, malgré la mort quelques jours plus tard de La Châtaigneraie, n'est pas puni. Il est le dernier duel autorisé.
1520 The explorer Cortes is driven from Tenochtitlan, Mexico, by Aztec leader Cuauhtemoc, and retreats to Tlaxcala.
1460, in the Wars of the Roses, Richard of York defeats King Henry VI at the battle of Northampton.
0901 Alfonso III, Rey de Asturias vence en Zamora al ejército bereber acaudillado por Al-Kití.
0552 Origin of Armenian calendar
0138 Sacre de l'Empereur Antonin,    ^top^
successeur de Hadrien à la tête de l’Empire Romain. Roma caput mundi, 4ème des cinq "bons" empereurs. Autant Hadrien est un voyageur infatigable, un esprit versé dans la connaissance de l’universalisme et du cosmopolistisme hellénistique, autant Titus Aurelius Fulvius Antoninus Pius, plus connu sous le nom d’Antonin le Pieux, qui lui succède en 138, apparaît comme un empereur tourné vers le passé, vers les vieilles traditions romaines.
      Né à Lanuvium, non loin de Rome, il appartient à une bourgeoisie rurale originaire de Nîmes et il aime, dit-on, faire lui-même les vendanges. Expert agronome, propriétaire d’une briqueterie, il a reçu de ses grands-pères une éducation vertueuse. Après avoir franchi les échelons du cursus honorum, il est nommé proconsul en Asie, vers 130, où Hadrien le remarque pour la sagesse de son gouvernement et pour l’autorité dont il fait preuve.
      Peu de temps avant sa mort, Hadrien l’adopte (à condition que lui-même adopte Marius Ælius Aurelius Verus, le futur Marc Aurèle, et Lucius Verus) et en fait son successeur désigné. Le 10 Juillet 138, Antonin le Pieux monte sur le trône impérial à l’âge de cinquante-deux ans. Aucune guerre, aucune invasion, aucune crise économique ne viennent marquer son règne qui est considéré par les historiens comme l’apogée de la Paix romaine et du siècle des Antonins.
      S’il n’est pas un novateur, s’il gère l’Empire avec beaucoup de prudence, Antonin le Pieux est un esprit libéral qui prend des mesures en faveur des esclaves, diminue le temps de la prison préventive et limite l’usage de la torture. Il sait inspirer confiance aux citoyens de l’Empire. Il a le goût de l’ordre. Il est, en bref, un conservateur éclairé, méritant le surnom de Pius, qui le désigne comme un homme vertueux et respectueux de la mémoire de ses ancêtres.
      D’une beauté remarquable, l’esprit brillant, de goût modéré, beaucoup de noblesse dans le visage et d’aménité dans le caractère, d’une éloquence peu commune, et avec de grandes connaissances en littérature, il était singulièrement sobre, protecteur éclairé de l’agriculture, bon libéral, point envieux du bien d’autrui et tout cela avec mesure et sans ostentation. Il y a du stoïcisme chez Antonin le Pieux ; son dernier mot avant de mourir est "résignation", terme redoutable de scepticisme en un moment où l’Empire sous la direction de Marc Aurèle va se trouver confronté aux périls des invasions barbares.
Rachel SchererJohn SchererDeaths which occurred on a 10 July:

2002 Rachel Scherer, 6
[< photo], and John Scherer, 41 [photo >], her father, in the morning, as he deliberately crashes his SUV at high speed into a semitrailer on a rural two-lane Iowa road south of Waterloo. He had already twice attempted suicide: by slashing his right wrist, and by fumes from the exhaust of the SUV directed inside through a sump-pump hose duct-taped on; while fleeing after stabbing to death, the day before in Naperville, Illinois, his ex-wife Sheri, and taking the girl. John Scherer was under stress since the divorce a year earlier (after 13 years of marriage), losing jobs, getting drunk, and he had been evicted from his apartment a week earlier.

2002 Captain Haggai Lev, 24, shot by a Palestinian sniper as the Israeli Army's Givati commando unit, of which he was deputy commander, searches for tunnels used for smuggling weapons from Egypt to Palestinian-controlled areas in Rafah.

2002 Rami Kutush, 19, Palestinian man shot by a passing Israeli tank as he was standing outside his house, in the Askar refugee camp, near Nablus, West Bank. Two other Palestinians are injured. They were throwing stones at the tank.

2002 Coval Russell, 92, suicide by jumping off 12-meter-high bridge over the Feather River near Oroville, California. Russell had been imprisoned for 14 months while waiting for sentencing on an assault charge for stabbing his landlord. He was put on three years' probation and released from the Butte County Jail on 26 June, despite his request to stay in jail. The judge said that it was not an appropriate place for a man of Russell's age and health. The World War II veteran had received four types of medication in jail, was blind in one eye, suffered from prostate cancer and could barely walk a few meters unassisted.

2002 Steve Cupec, 27, Jehrod Smith, 19, Kyle Kroetz, 29, and Matthew Smith, 21, four friends, drowned in Lake Erie amid 1.5 meter waves after they jump in to try and rescue Renée Anderson, 22, Cupec's fiancée, who is rescued afterwards by firefighters. The Nickel Plate public beach in Huron, Ohio, where they were, was closed to swimming because of the dangerous waves caused by a 55 km/h wind. [photo: rescuers form a human chain >]

2002 Yuri Antipenko, 50, and his dog,
by a hand grenade rigged with iron nails which exploded when Antipenko tried to remove an anti-Jewish sign in Baltiysk, Kaliningrad enclave, Russia. A neighbor, Alina Gosva, 32, is seriously injured.

2001 Karen FitzPatrick, 18, and Jessica Johnson, 19, both of Yakima, Tom Craven, 30, of Roslyn WA, and Devin Weaver, 21, novice firefighters, in the Thirty Mile Fire in the Cascade Mountains of Washington state, where they were part of a crew of 14 sent by supervisors into flames in a dead-end canyon in violation of safety rules. The wind shifted and the crew was trapped. Each one covered himself with the aluminum foil emergency cover, but the four were on rocks that let the superheated air in. The Forest Service said it was “an act of God”. But Devin Weaver's father, Weaver, found that it had been negligent in this and in many previous cases. He promoted a law mandating investigation of fatal fires no longer internally by the Forest Service, but by the Inspector General of the US. The law was passed by the US Congress on 10 July 2002.
2001 Baby Idries, in the car where he had just been born.         ^top^
     In the evening, a Palestinian woman in labor is barred from passing an Israeli military checkpoint for 2 1/2 hours, giving birth in her car to a baby boy who dies before reaching a medical clinic.
     Firial Idries, who was in labor with her fifth child, was being driven by her husband from their West Bank village to the main hospital in the Palestinian city of Nablus when they encountered the Israeli military checkpoint. Her husband Lutfi pleaded with the soldiers to allow them to pass. Though traveling from one Palestinian area to another, they were cut off by the roadblock established to guard against infiltrations into nearby Israel. As Idries' labor intensified, her husband used a mobile phone to call their physician, Dr. Ghassan Hamdan, who left the Nablus hospital and drove to the roadblock. "When I reached the checkpoint, I argued with the Israeli soldiers to allow her to pass, but they were very stubborn," Hamdan said "I decided to check her inside the car, and discovered the crown of the baby's head had already appeared."
      The doctor delivered the baby in the car, but the infant boy was having great difficulty breathing and needed immediate care. Still unable to pass the checkpoint, they turned back and headed toward a Palestinian medical clinic, which lacked the resources available at the hospital. They didn't have to pass any checkpoints to reach the clinic, but by the time they arrived at the clinic nearly 30 minutes later, the boy was dead
      The Israeli military said it was aware of the report, and was investigating, but had no immediate comment.
      Israel says humanitarian cases are allowed to pass roadblocks. But those decisions are often up to the discretion of young, inexperienced soldiers manning the checkpoints in tense areas. Palestinians say there have been dozens of cases where pregnant women in labor and others in need of urgent medical attention have been delayed or turned back.
2000 Gentrit Rexhepi, 6, shot at 09:40 by US Pfc. Nicholas E. Young, 19, who was testing his automatic weapon to see if the safety catch was on, at school in Cerkes Sadorina, Kosovo. In the long tradition of the military condoning any killing by its members, Young would be, on 13 March 2001, acquitted of all charges (negligent homicide and dereliction of duty — for which he could have been sentenced to no more than 3-1/2 years in prison, dishonorable discharge, reduction in rank to private, and forfeiture of all pay and allowances).
2000 Over 100 garbage sorters, buried in garbage slide,    ^top^
in Manila., and many others injured. The garbage, in the Payatas municipal dump, covered 25 hectares and was piled up as high as 15 m in some places. Poor people, who had no other way to make a living except to pick through the garbage to find what could be sold, built their shacks right next to the dump, in an area incongruoulsy named the Promised Land. A week earlier a typhoon had weakened the mountains of garbage. As the garbage avalanche tumbled down, it ignited, whether from spontaneous combustion, downed power lines, or overturned stoves. Philippino authorities claim that they were since long ago warning the squatters of the danger, and are planning sometime to remove the dump, when they can find some other location for it.resident
2000 Al menos 300 nigerianos fallecen al explosionar un oleoducto, que había sido perforado para robar gasolina.
1985 Fernando Pereira of Rainbow Warrior blown up and sunk by French secret agents in Auckland harbor in New Zealand.    ^top^
      Greenpeace's Rainbow Warrior sinks after French agents in diving gear plant a bomb on the hull of the vessel. One person, Dutch photographer Fernando Pereira, is killed. The Rainbow Warrior, which was the flagship of the international conservation group, had been preparing for a protest voyage to a French nuclear test site in the South Pacific. Two days after its sinking, French authorities denied responsibility in the bombing, and continued to do so even after New Zealand police arrested two French secret service agents in Auckland.
      Under pressure from New Zealand authorities, the French government formed an inquiry to investigate the incident, and after several weeks concluded that the French agents were merely spying on Greenpeace. However, later in the year, a British newspaper uncovered evidence of French President Francois Mitterand's authorization of the bombing plan, leading to several top-level resignations in Mitterrand's cabinet, and an admittance by French Prime Minister Laurent Fabius that the agents had sunk the vessel under orders.
      In Auckland, the two agents pleaded guilty to the lesser charges of manslaughter and willful damage and were each sentenced to ten years in prison. Following negotiations with the French government, New Zealand released them a year later. In 1992, President Mitterrand ordered a halt to French nuclear testing, but in 1995, it was resumed, and Greenpeace sent The Rainbow Warrior II to French Polynesia to protest and disrupt the tests.
     Les Relations entre la Nouvelle Zélande et la France ne sont guère au beau fixe depuis que la France procède à des essais nucléaires dans le Pacifique Sud. Toutefois, il est probable que ces rapports resteront entachés par l’affaire à rebondissements du Rainbow Warrior. Le 10 juillet 1985, une équipe de la D.G.S.E. fait exploser dans le port d’Auckland un bateau de l’organisation Greenpeace, faisant une victime. L’arrestation de deux des agents impliqués et la reconnaissance par la France de sa responsabilité ont mené les deux pays au bord de la rupture diplomatique.
      Pour la Nouvelle-Zélande, l’importance de cette affaire est en effet considérable : en cent cinquante ans d’histoire, aucun État étranger n’avait encore violé l’intégrité de son territoire, et loin d’en être diminuée, l’amertume a été accrue par le fait que le pays en faute est un allié. Après la condamnation des deux agents pour homicide involontaire en novembre 1985, la France a conclu, en juin 1986, un accord avec la Nouvelle-Zélande, aux termes duquel ceux-ci étaient transférés pour une durée de cinq ans sur l’atoll d’Hao, en Polynésie française. Le rapatriement pour raisons médicales des deux agents en décembre 1987 et en mai 1988 a accru le différend avec Wellington.
1978 Alfonso Paso, dramaturgo costumbrista español.
1972: 24 persons, trampled by herd of stampeding elephants, Chandka Forest, India.
1957 Curzio Malaparte, escritor italiano.
1945 Robert Goddard Rocket pioneer.
1941 The Jews of Jedwabne, Poland, burned in a barn into which they had been herded by a mob of at least 40 Polish villagers aided by German troops who had recently conquered from the Soviets north-eastern Poland. Jedwabne had about 2400 inhabitants and they accused Jews of collaboration with the Soviet occupiers. The massacre would be blamed on the German SS until a 2001 investigation (book Sasiedzi “Neighbors” by Polish-born US writer Jan T. Gross, which gives the probably exaggerated number of 1600 Jews killed) reveals that Poles were principally responsible. [see Polish Institute of National Remembrance]
In 1941, Jedwabne was a small north-eastern Polish town of about 2400 inhabitants. On 10 July 1941 the town's Jewish population was murdered. Jews were herded into a barn on the outskirts of the community, which was later set on fire.
1936 Pincherle, mathematician.
1933 Harold DeForest Arnold, long-distance phone pioneer    ^top^
      Harold DeForest Arnold spearheaded research that paved the way for long-distance telephone and radio. After earning his doctorate at the University of Chicago in 1911, Arnold went to work for Western Electric Company, where he developed methods for manufacturing thermionic tubes. The tubes amplified radio and telephone signals across long distances and enabled the first transcontinental phone call in 1914 and the first intercontinental radio broadcast in 1915. Arnold served as director of research at Western Electronic from 1817 to 1924, and in 1925 he became the first director of research at Bell Telephone Labs.
1962 Telstar, first to transmit television, launched
      Telstar 1, the first commercial communications satellite, was launched on 10 July 1962, from Cape Canaveral, Florida. The satellite was launched at about 04:30, and, by 07:30, it had relayed its first telephone call, from the chairman of AT&T in Maine to Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson. Also that day, the satellite relayed the first transoceanic satellite telecast, from Andover, Maine, to various points in Europe and the United States.
1949 First rectangular television
      The first practical rectangular television was announced by the Kimble Glass Company of Toledo, Ohio, on this day in 1949. The tube was about 12-by-16 inches, and it sold for $12.
1931 Robert Spencer, US artist born on 01 December 1879.
1927 Kevin O'Higgins Irish Free State VP, assassinated.
1923 Andrés Manjón, sacerdote y pedagogo español.
1923:: 23 humans and many cattle, by 1-kg hailstones, in Rostov, Russia.
1916 McClintock, mathematician.
1915 Hendrik Mesdag, Dutch painter specialized in Maritime Scenes, born on 23 February 1831. MORE ON MESDAG AT ART “4” JULYLINKSPinks in the BreakersPreparations for DepartureOn a Stormy SeaSetting Sun
1910 Johann Galle discoverer of Neptune with telescope
1891 Pedro Antonio de Alarcón, Spanish novelist.
1884 Paul Morphy US chess wizard.
1860 Les maronites victimes du 2ème des 4 jours du massacre de Damas    ^top^
      La folie meurtrière de la communauté druze de la ville de Damas s'est déchaînée la veille. Pendant quatre jours, quelques 5000 chrétiens maronites sont massacrés par des bandes fanatiques qui forcent les portes, violent, tuent et pillent. Le pacha n'a pas respecté ses engagements à la fin de la guerre de Crimée, il reste totalement indifférent. En revanche, l'émir Abd el-Kader sauve plus de 1500 chrétiens qu'il accueille et protège dans son palais. A la nouvelle de ces émeutes, l'émotion est si forte en France et en Angleterre qu'on décide d'envoyer un corps expéditionnaire "pour aider le sultan à rétablir la paix". La France est mandatée par l'Europe et agira fermement.
1863 Clement Clarke Moore, 83, ('Twas the Night Before Xmas)
1851 Jacques Daguerre, fotógrafo francés.
1806 George Stubbs, British artist specialized in horses, born on 24 August 1724. Author of The Anatomy of the Horse (1766) — MORE ON STUBBS AT ART “4” JULY LINKSHorse Startled by a LionMares and Foals _ detailThe Grosvenor HuntMares and Foals in a Wooded LandscapeRacehorses Belonging to the Duke of Richmond Exercising at GoodwoodMares and Foals Disturbed by an Approaching StormWhistlejacketThe Melbourne and Milbanke FamiliesJohn and Sophia Musters Out Riding at Colwick HallThe MooseCheetah with Two Indian Attendants and a StagSelf~PortraitSoldiers of the 10th Light DragoonsLaetitia, Lady LadeRed Deer Stag and Hind
1747 Nadir Shah, Persian ruler, assassinated at Fathabad in Persia.
1724 Franz Werner von Tamm “Dapper”, German artist born on 06 March 1658.
1675 Bertholet Flémal, Liège Franco-Flemish painter and architect, baptized as an infant on 23 May 1614. — more
1584 Guillermo de Orange, estatúder de Holanda, Zelanda y Utrecht, es asesinado por el católico Baltasar Gérard.
1559 Henri II, 40 ans    ^top^
      Pour célébrer la paix du Cateau-Cambrésis et le mariage de sa fille au roi d'Espagne, le roi a organisé de grandes fêtes. Lui-même, ce jour, malgré le rêve prémonitoire de la reine Catherine de Médicis, monte en selle pour le tournoi. Son cheval porte le nom de Malheureux. En face du roi, trois adversaires : le duc de Savoie, le duc de Guise et le jeune Gabriel de Montmorency.
      Quoique les trois assauts aient été des victoires du roi, celui-ci invite Montmorency à une dernière joute. Les chevaux se mettent en place. Le roi s'élance sans rabattre sa visière. La lance de Montmorency se brise sur l'armure du roi et la pointe qui glisse sur l'acier entre dans l'oeil droit du roi. Le roi est désarçonné et tombe sans connaissance. En dépit des essais qu'Ambroise Paré a été autorisé à faire sur les têtes de quatre condamnés décapités en hâte, le roi agonise pendant dix jours, puis meurt. François II lui succède.
      L'adversaire du roi, devenu malgré lui son assassin, est emprisonné, puis libéré. Une mort accidentelle au cours d'un tournoi qui oppose des chevaliers ne saurait être considérée comme un meurtre. Gabriel de Montmorency n'est pas régicide. En 1574, alors que, huguenot, il est fait prisonnier, Catherine de Médicis le fait, en dépit des règles, condamner à mort.
0138 Adriano, emperador de Roma.
Births which occurred on a 10 July:
1931 Alice Munro, in Wingham, Ontario. short story writer    ^top^
      Munro was raised on a fox and turkey farm. Her parents encouraged her to read, and she decided to become a writer during her childhood. She attended the University of Western Ontario but dropped out after two years to marry James Munro. The couple moved to British Columbia, had three daughters, and opened a successful bookstore in Victoria. Munro began publishing short stories in the late 1960s. Her first collection, Dance of the Happy Shades, was published in 1968. Since then, she has published nine books, mostly short story collections, including The Progress of Love (1986) and Friend of My Youth: Stories (1990). In 1972, she moved back to Ontario and divorced her husband. She remarried in 1976. She has won several prestigious awards, including the PEN/Malamud Award for short fiction.
1931 Abilio Barbero de Aguilera, historiador español.
1928 Bernard Buffet, French painter who died in 1999. MORE ON BUFFET AT ART “4” JULYLINKSPortrait de l'ArtisteStill LifeLe clown bleu
1927 David Dinkins (Mayor-D-NYC, 1989- )
1923 Jean Kerr (Collins) (author: Please Don't Eat the Daisies, Finishing Touches)
1920 Owen Chamberlain codiscovered antiproton (Nobel 1959)
1915 Saul Bellow Quebec, novelist (Nobel 1976 — Mr Samler's Planet, Herzog, The Bellarosa Connecticut)
1913 Salvador Espriú, poeta catalán.
1906 Jorge Icaza Coronel, escritor ecuatoriano.
1902 Nicolás Guillén, poeta cubano.
1895 Carl Orff München (Munich) Germany, composer (Antigonae).
1888 Giorgio de Chirico, is born in Greece. He will grow up to be an Italian Surrealist painter and sculptor, who, with Carlo Carrà and Giorgio Morandi, founds the pittura metafisica style of painting. De Chirico died on 19 November 1978. — MORE ON DE CHIRICO AT ART “4” JULY LINKSPiazza d'ItaliaThe Uncertainty of the PoetLove SongChrist in the Storm on the Sea of GalileeThe Philosopher's ConquestLe Cerveau de l'Enfant (pas d'enfant, mais, entouré de bâtiments, un homme à grande moustache et minuscule barbichette, les yeux fermés, face à un livre fermé sur un signet) — The Disturbing MusesArchaeologistsThe ProfitThe Great Metaphysician
1887 Mario Cavaglieri, Italian artist who died in 1969.
1878 Kellogg, mathematician
1871 Marcel Proust, France, auteur du roman le plus long et l’un des plus beaux de la langue française: À la recherche du temps perdu, comprenant 7 tomes: Du côté de chez Schwann (1913), À l'ombre des jeunes filles en fleurs (1919), Le Côté de Guermantes (1921), Sodome et Gomorrhe (1922), La Prisonnière (1923), Albertine disparue (1925), Le Temps retrouvé (1927) — Marcel Proust, escritor francés.
1862 Helena Sofia Schjerfbeck, Swedish French artist who died in 1946.
1856 Nikola Tesla physicist, developed alternating current
1842 Adolphus Busch (brewer: founder of Anheuser-Busch, the world's largest beer brewery)
1835 Henryk Wieniawski Lubin Poland, violinist/composer (Souvenir de Moscou)
click to ZOOM IN1830 Jacob Camille Pissarro, French Pointillist and Impressionist painter specialized in landscapes, who died on 13 November 1903. — MORE ON PISSARRO AT ART “4” JULY LINKS Self-PortraitAnother Self-PortraitLe Port de DieppeBouquet de FleursPlace de l'Opéra Paysage à Pontoise avec un ChasseurThe Road Near the FarmSnow Scene at Eragny (View of Bazincourt)La Foire à DieppeToits RougesLe SemeurPortrait of the Artist's Son, Félix (charcoal) — Église et ferme d'Éragny (color etching) — La Charrue (color lithograph) — Paul Cézanne (etching) — La masureFemme dans un potagerQuai Malaquais, Après-Midi EnsoleilléeBoulevard Montmartre de nuitThe Boieldieu Bridge to Rouen, Sunset
1792 George Mifflin Dallas [< portrait], (D) 11th US Vice-President (1845-1849, under James K. Polk). The cities of Dallas TX and OR are named after him. Dallas died on 31 December 1864.
1723 Sir William Blackstone England, jurist (Blackstone's Commentaries)
1684 Tobias Stranovius, Czech artist who died after 1724.
1682 Roger Cotes, mathematician who edited the second edition of Newton's Principia. He made advances in the theory of logarithms, the integral calculus and in numerical methods, particularly interpolation.
1638 David Teniers III, Flemish artist who died on 10 February 1685.
1517 La Biblia Políglota Complutense termina de imprimirse, Fue encargada por el cardenal Cisneros a humanistas, filólogos y orientalistas y es considerada la obra más importante del Renacimiento español.
1509 Jean Cauvin dit Calvin à Noyon (Oise, France)    ^top^
      Converti au protestantisme, il s'installa à Genève (Suisse) en 1536. Il édicta un nouveau code moral pour les adeptes de sa religion. La religion calviniste est rigoureuse; elle proscrit par exemple le port des bijoux ou des vêtements de soie. La doctrine de Calvin a été adoptée par les églises presbytériennes.
      Il est le fondateur du Calvinisme. celui-ci est une doctrine de la gloire de Dieu. "À Dieu seul la gloire", telle est la devise de Calvin. Avec une ferveur obstinée, Calvin rappelle sans cesse que Dieu est le Maître tout-puissant du monde et des personnes, et que nos destinées sont entièrement dans sa main. Dans la foi et dans l’obéissance, l’homme reçoit de Dieu, jour après jour, les vocations qui le conduisent. Par un étrange paradoxe, cet homme ainsi conduit, ainsi prédestiné, est un homme libre. Il ne craint aucune tyrannie terrestre, car "il vaut mieux obéir à Dieu plutôt qu’aux hommes". Qu’importent les rois, les princes, les édits, les prisons, les bûchers, les galères ! Dieu est au-dessus de tout cela et rien n’arrive qui ne soit ordonné par lui. Ainsi se constitue ce peuple courageux, indomptable, qui fait toujours front aux puissances terriennes et qui s’appelle les huguenots de France, les gueux de Hollande, les puritains de la Nouvelle-Angleterre. Pionniers créateurs de civilisations nouvelles, ils créeront les droits de l’homme, parce qu’ils sont avant tout soucieux des droits de Dieu. À la mort de Calvin (27 mai 1564) , la diffusion du calvinisme fut extrêmement rapide.
      — - CALVIN ONLINE (in English translations):
The Covenant Enforced: Sermons on Deuteronomy 27 and 28,
Institutes of the Christian Religion, The Necessity of Reforming the Church
Of Prayer
On the Christian Life
1451 Jacobo III, rey de Escocia.
Holidays Albania : Army Day l Bahamas : Independence Day (1973) / Wyoming: Statehood Day (1890) /
Religious Observances Buddhist-Burma : Beginning of Buddhist Fast / Christian : SS Rufina & Secunda, virgins & 7 Brothers / RC-Bilbao, Spain : Virgin of Begoña / Santos Jenaro, Apolonio y Cristóbal; Santas Rufina y Segunda.

Thoughts for the day: “In fashion be a reed in the wind. In principles be a rock in the stream.” — [a rock in the stream eventually gets worn down]
“In fiction be a rock in the wind. In print be a reed in the stream.”
“A concept is stronger than a fact.” —
Charlotte Perkins Gilman, US economist and feminist (1860-1935). — [Is that a fact?]
updated Thursday 10-Jul-2003 20:56 UT
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