• NYC draft riots... • USSR grabs Polish territory... • Battle of Kursk... • Battle of Carrick's Ford... • Marat assassinated... • JFK for President... • Verlaine blesse Rimbaud... • Rockfeller's Vietnam peace proposal... • Democrats defend foreign policy... • Fort Phil Kearny... • Pigpen appears in Peanuts... • Wordsworth writes Tintern Abbey... • Chrysler cars in Vietnam...
| On a July 13:
2001 An escaped pet cobra creates panic in an Alabama town. The owner has a collection of other live venemous snakes and arthropods. On 28 June 2000, The Huntsville Times had reported the concern of Bruce Houck, director of the Huntsville-Madison County Health Department's vector control program, that many Alabamans kept deadly snakes, against which there is no statewide law..
2001 Beijing is chosen as the site for the 2008 Olympics, over Paris, Toronto, Osaka, and Istanbul.
2000. Fiji's coup leaders released their remaining 18 captives, ending a 2-month-old parliamentary hostage crisis.
1999 Miles de personas se reúnen en Jagodina (110 kilómetros al sur de Belgrado), para protestar contra el régimen del presidente yugoslavo, Slobodan Milosevic.
1998 El Fondo Monetario Internacional decide entregar una ayuda adicional a Rusia de 11'200 millones de dólares.
sells cars in Vietnam
The Chrysler Corporation opens a car dealership in downtown Hanoi. One week later, Chrysler would opened another dealership in Ho Chi Minh. Chrysler intends to sell 200 import vehicles per year through the two dealerships. The openings are a part of Chrysler’s long-term goal of implementing auto production in Vietnam something that rivals Ford and Toyota are also pursuing at the time.
On September 6, Chrysler would received permission from the Vietnamese government to build a plant in Dong Nai Province, Southern Vietnam, to assemble 500 to 1000 Dodge Dakota pick-up trucks annually. Chrysler Vice-President of International Operations Tom Gale stated, “We’re taking a very long term view with our program in Vietnam. Southeast Asia is a significant market on our international growth strategy, so it is vital to establish a foothold there now. Since it is a young market, it will take several years before we can produce at capacity level.”
Chrysler planned to achieve production of 17'000 vehicles annually in three car types: the Neon, the Dakota, and the Jeep Cherokee. Of the significant obstacles faced by the foreign car companies attempting to set up shop in Vietnam, was the Vietnamese government’s refusal to give up rice pasture land for the construction of new production facilities. The American car companies also met resistance from some Vietnam veterans groups, but Chrysler held that Chrysler would not have gone forward with their move unless he thought it met with the nation’s approval. On this issue, Gale said, “By starting business here we feel we’re helping the healing process. We have consulted with veterans groups and the US government. Some feel it’s time to move on. Many of the veterans groups support American investment in Vietnam as an outlet to increase access to the country.” Projections showed that by the year 2000 the car market in Vietnam would increase to 60'000 vehicles sold annually. The crash of the Asian market in 1998 would considerably reduce those prospects.
| 1995 FCC apportions radio spectrum. The Federal Communications
Commission proposes a plan for dividing part of the radio spectrum between
wireless cable television companies and satellite communications networks.
The two industries had vied fiercely for control of the spectrum, which
would allow them to provide more services to more customers.
1993 Se publica la lista del séptimo Gobierno español de Felipe González en la que figuran tres mujeres: Carmen Alborch, Cristina Alberdi y Ángeles Amador.
1991 Soviet and American negotiators meeting in Washington wrangled over a treaty to reduce long-range nuclear missiles.
1979 A 45-hour siege by Palestinian guerrillas began at the Egyptian Embassy in Ankara, Turkey.
1979 A 45-hour siege by Palestinian guerrillas began at the Egyptian Embassy in Ankara, Turkey.
1978 Lee Iacocca was fired as president of Ford Motor Co. by chairman Henry Ford II.
1978 Alexander Ginzburg sentenced by Soviet court to 8 years
1978 Lee Iacocca is fired as Ford Motor president by chairman Henry Ford II
1977 A blackout lasting 25 hours hit the New York City area.
1976 Courtmartial begins in USSR for Valeri Sablin (Hunt for Red October)
| 1974 The US Senate Watergate Committee proposed sweeping
reforms in an effort to prevent another Watergate scandal.
Pig Pen's first appearance in Peanuts comics
Grunge is not yet cool, but Pig Pen makes his debut in the Peanuts comic strip. Since then he would be the butt of "dirt" gags. He walks around in a cloud of dust, sprinkling dirt on all he comes in contact with. Pig Pen is happily messy. He doesn't try to explain it, hide it, fight it. For him, it's just a fact of life. His slovenly ways paid off in 1993 with a series of television commercials for Regina vacuum cleaners which combined animation with life-action.
| 1941 Britain and the Soviet Union sign a mutual aid
pact, providing the means for Britain to send war materiel to the Soviet
1938 Television theater opens. 200 people pay 25 cents each to see a television show aired at the Massachusetts Television Institute, the first television theater. The theater broadcasts a variety show of music and dance numbers from a room in the theater to an auditorium fitted with a 23-by-31-cm black-and-white television screen. (cf. 1930 below)
1936 44ºC, Mio, Michigan (state record)
1936 46ºC, Wisconsin Dells, Wisc. (state record)
1931 A major German financial institution, Danabank, fails, leading to the closing of all banks in Germany until 05 August. By the end of the 1931, approximately six million Germans are out of work.
1931 Dinamarca presenta una acusación ante el Tribunal Internacional de La Haya y solicita la reunión de la Sociedad de Naciones por la ocupación noruega del este de Groenlandia.
1930 Sarnoff reports in NY Times "TV will be a theater in every home" (cf. 1938 above)
1919 Race riots in Longview & Gregg counties Texas
1918 El Reichstag acuerda otro empréstito de guerra por un valor de doce mil millones de marcos.
1917 In Fátima, Portugal, as on the 13th of every month from May to October 1917 (except in August, when it was on the 19th), three young peasant children, Lucia dos Santos, 10, and her cousins Francisco and Jacinta Marto, report seeing a lady who identifies herself as the Lady of the Rosary.
1878 Treaty of Berlin amended terms of Treaty of San Stefano, divides the Balkans among European powers. The Treaty of Berlin amended the terms of the Treaty of San Stefano, which had ended the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78.
1866 Great Eastern begins a two week voyage to complete a 12-year effort to lay telegraph cable across the Atlantic between Britain and the United States.
1863 Engagement at Bayou La Fourche, Louisiana
1863 Siege of Fort Wagner, Charleston Harbor, South Carolina continues
1862 Garrison at Murfreesboro, Tennessee captured by Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest
1861 Skirmish at Corrick's Ford, Virginia (now West Virginia)
1858 Entrevue Napoléon Cavour. Au cours de l'une de ses cures à Plombières, Napoléon rencontre Cavour. Le tête-à-tête secret dure sept heures. Le ministre du roi Victor-Emmanuel, qui aspire à faire de l'Italie un seul Etat, convainc l'empereur. Napoléon aidera l'Italie à faire son unité, mais à la seule condition que l'Autriche soit l'agresseur. Ce fut fait
1854 US forces shell & burn San Juan del Norte, Nicaragua
1841 Austria, Inglaterra, Prusia, Rusia y Francia firman en Londres la Convención de los estrechos, acuerdo con Turquía para cerrar el Bósforo a los buques de guerra extranjeros.
1832 Henry R. Schoolcraft discovers the source of the Mississippi River in Minnesota.
1787 US Congress, under the Articles of Confederation, enacts the Northwest Ordinance, establishing rules for governing the Northwest Territory (excludes slavery), for admitting new states to the Union and limiting the expansion of slavery. A territory can become 3 to 5 states at 60'000 population
1760 Carlos III entra solemnemente en Madrid como rey de España para suceder a su hermanastro Fernando VI.
1754 At the beginning of the French and Indian War, George Washington surrenders the small, circular Fort Necessity in southwestern Pennsylvania to the French, leaving them in control of the Ohio Valley.
1713 La firma del Tratado de Utrecht pone fin definitivamente a la Guerra de Sucesión Española.
1648 A la suite de la déclaration de la Chambre Saint-Louis, Mazarin révoque par une déclaration royale la plupart des intendants du royaume.
1643 In England, the Roundheads, led by Sir William Waller, are defeated by royalist troops under Lord Wilmot in the Battle of Roundway Down.
1585 A group of 108 English colonists, led by Sir Richard Grenville, reaches Roanoke Island, North Carolina.
1568 Dean of St Paul's Cathedral perfects a way to bottle beer
1558 Led by the court of Egmont, the Spanish army defeats the French at Gravelines, France. Las fuerzas españolas derrotan a las francesas en la batalla de Gravelinas, en el norte de Francia.
1534 Ottoman armies capture Tabriz in northwestern Persia.
which occurred on a July 13:|
2002 At least 27 civilians near a makeshift Hindu temple in the mainly Hindu Qasim Nagar slum near the Narwal bypass of Jammu, Kashmir, shot and grenaded at random by five attackers, some of them wearing the saffron sadhu robes of Hindu holy men, after 19:30. 28 persons are injured.
2001 Fawaz Badran, 27, standing outside his electronics store when a car parked there exploded, in Tulkarem, West Bank. He was a Hamas activist on a list of those targeted for assassination by Israel.
1989 Arnaldo Ochoa, Jorge Martínez, Antonio de la Guardia, Armando Pedro, ex militares cubanos, ejecutados, por tráfico de drogas.
1984 Marlene Walters, 44, beaten to death in her home in the Cincinnati suburb of Norwood by Alton Coleman, 28, who would be executed by lethal injection on 26 April 2002, having been responsible for eight deaths, plus numerous robberies, rapes and kidnappings during a 54-day five-state crime spree with his girlfriend, Debra Denise Brown. Marlene's husband Harry Walters is beaten so severely that a sliver of bone is driven into his brain, leaving him permanently disabled.
1971 Ten Moroccan leaders, executed by the army for allegedly fomenting a revolt
1967 Twenty-seven victims of race riots in Newark.
1961 Arnold Schoenberg, 86, Austrian-US composer (Second Quartet)
1951 Arnold Schoenberg, compositor austriaco.
1941 Ivan Ivanovich Privalov, Russian mathematician born on 11 February 1891. Author of Cauchy Integral (1918).
1936 José Calvo Sotelo, diputado, asesinado en Madrid, en la madrugada, por un grupo incontrolado, como represalia por el homicidio del teniente socialista Castillo. Ésto se considera el detonante de la Guerra Civil Española. Calvó había nacido el 06 mayo de 1893, en Tui (Pontevedra) [retrato >]
1931 José Francos Rodríguez, periodista y político español.
1881 William Bonney "Billy the Kid", 21, shot to death by Sheriff Pat Garrett, at the Maxwell Ranch in New Mexico. ^top^
Garrett, who had been tracking the Kid for three months after the gunslinger had escaped from prison only days before his scheduled execution, got a tip that Billy was holed up with friends. While Billy was gone, Garrett waited in the dark in his bedroom. When Billy entered, Garrett shot him to death.
Back on 01 April 1878, Billy the Kid ambushed Sheriff William Brady and three deputies in Lincoln, New Mexico, after ranch owner John Tunstall had been murdered. Billy had worked at Tunstall's ranch and was outraged by his employer's slaying vowing to hunt down every man responsible. Sheriff Brady and his men, who had been affiliated with rival ranchers, were involved with the gang that killed Tunstall on February 18. Billy's retaliatory attack left Brady and Deputy George Hindman dead. Although only 18 years old at the time, Billy had now committed as many as 17 murders.
Following his indictment for the murder of Sheriff Brady, Billy the Kid was the most wanted man in the West. Evading posses sent to capture him, he eventually struck a deal with the new governor of New Mexico: In return for his testimony against the perpetrators of the ongoing ranch wars in the state, Billy would be set free. Although he kept his word about the testimony, he began to distrust the promise that he would be released and so he escaped.
Once a fugitive, Billy killed a few more men, including the gunslinger Joe Grant, who had challenged him to a showdown. Legend has it that Billy managed to get hold of Grant's gun prior to the fight and made sure that an empty chamber was up first in the man's revolver. When it came time to fire, only Billy's gun went off and Grant was left dead. Legendary Sheriff Pat Garrett finally brought Billy the Kid in to stand trial. The judge sentenced Billy the Kid to hang until "you are dead, dead, dead." Billy reportedly responded, "And you can go to hell, hell, hell."
Two weeks before his scheduled execution, Billy escaped, killing two guards in the process. Garrett mounted yet another posse to bring in the Kid. After tracing him to the Maxwell Ranch, Garrett shot him to death. No legal charges were brought against him since the killing was ruled a justifiable homicide.
0574 John III, Pope
which occurred on a July 13:
1941 Luis Alberto Lacalle, político uruguayo.
1935 Jean-Pierre Cassigneul, French artist
1934 Wole Soyinka, escritor nigeriano, Nobel de Literatura 1986.
1933 Piero Manzoni, artista (si sus excentricidades son arte) italiano. Murió el 06 febrero 1963. An exemple of Manzoni's art is his Merda d'Artista, constructed in 1961. It is not a painting but a series of 30-gramme cans [foto >] labeled (in Italian and English) Merda d'artista CONSERVATA AL NATURALE, which sit in piles or randomly on a surface. Ninety versions were made, each designed to be sold for its weight in gold. LINKS Comments on a 1998 Manzoni exhibition Links to photos of some Manzoni artwork.
1909 Simone Weil, pensadora espiritual francesa, hermana del matemético André Weil..
1898 The radio is patented by Guglielmo Marconi.
1894 Isaak Babel Russian short-story writer/dramatist (Red Calvary)
1886 Father Edward Flanagan, US Catholic parish priest. Believing there was 'no such thing as a bad boy,' in 1922 he organized Boys Town near Omaha, Nebraska.
1876 Josef Oppenheimer, German artist who died in 1966.
1845 Robert Schleich, German artist who died in 1934. — The Haystacks
1839 (o 13 junio???) Modesto Urgell e Inglada, pintor español. Murió el 3 de abril 1919.
1838 Camilo Polavieja, militar español.
1821 Nathan Bedford Forrest Tennessee, brilliant cavalry leader, Lt Gen
1793 John Clare Northamptonshire peasant poet (Shepard's Calendar)
1741 Carl Friedrich Hindenburg, German mathematician famous (in his days) for his combinatorics. He died on 17 March 1808.
1729 John Parker, in Lexington, Massachusetts. Parker would play a prominent role in the first battle of the American War for Independence, as leader of the volunteer American militia known as the Minutemen. But he did not live to fight for long in the American War of Independence, as he died of illness in September 1775.
1396 Philip the Good Duke of Burgundy