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, deaths, births, of JUL 13
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• NYC draft riots... • USSR grabs Polish territory... • Battle of Kursk... • Battle  of Carrick's Ford... • Marat  assassinated... • JFK for President... • Verlaine blesse Rimbaud... • Rockfeller's  Vietnam peace proposal... • Democrats  defend foreign policy... • Fort Phil Kearny... • Pigpen appears in Peanuts... • Wordsworth writes Tintern Abbey... • Chrysler  cars in Vietnam...
On a July 13:
2001 An escaped “pet” cobra creates panic in an Alabama town. The owner has a collection of other live venemous snakes and arthropods. On 28 June 2000, The Huntsville Times had reported the concern of Bruce Houck, director of the Huntsville-Madison County Health Department's vector control program, that many Alabamans kept deadly snakes, against which there is no statewide law..
2001 Beijing is chosen as the site for the 2008 Olympics, over Paris, Toronto, Osaka, and Istanbul.
2000. Fiji's coup leaders released their remaining 18 captives, ending a 2-month-old parliamentary hostage crisis.
1999 Miles de personas se reúnen en Jagodina (110 kilómetros al sur de Belgrado), para protestar contra el régimen del presidente yugoslavo, Slobodan Milosevic.
1998 El Fondo Monetario Internacional decide entregar una ayuda adicional a Rusia de 11'200 millones de dólares.
1998 GM airbags recall         ^top^
      Already embroiled in a nasty strike, the General Motors is forced to announce a recall of a 800'000 vehicles. The culprit turned out to be malfunctioning airbags: over the past two years, the company found that a number of Chevrolet and Pontiac cars displayed "an increased risk of an air bag deployment in a low speed crash or when an object strikes the floor pan." Along with exacerbating GM's strike woes, the air bag snafu highlighted the auto industry's struggle to successfully install the safety devices in their vehicles (air bags had long-since been deemed mandatory elements of cars by federal regulators). Indeed, overly responsive sensory systems often caused air bags to inflate at the slightest provocation. In the wake of the recall announcement, GM's stock price fell $1.75.
1998 Softbank invests in E*trade. Japanese software distributor Softbank says it will make a $400 million investment in E*Trade, a popular Internet stock trading site. The investment gives the company closer ties to Yahoo!, Ziff-Davis, and other companies also backed by Softbank.
1995 Chrysler sells cars in Vietnam         ^top^
     The Chrysler Corporation opens a car dealership in downtown Hanoi. One week later, Chrysler would opened another dealership in Ho Chi Minh. Chrysler intends to sell 200 import vehicles per year through the two dealerships. The openings are a part of Chrysler’s long-term goal of implementing auto production in Vietnam — something that rivals Ford and Toyota are also pursuing at the time.
      On September 6, Chrysler would received permission from the Vietnamese government to build a plant in Dong Nai Province, Southern Vietnam, to assemble 500 to 1000 Dodge Dakota pick-up trucks annually. Chrysler Vice-President of International Operations Tom Gale stated, “We’re taking a very long term view with our program in Vietnam. Southeast Asia is a significant market on our international growth strategy, so it is vital to establish a foothold there now. Since it is a young market, it will take several years before we can produce at capacity level.”
      Chrysler planned to achieve production of 17'000 vehicles annually in three car types: the Neon, the Dakota, and the Jeep Cherokee. Of the significant obstacles faced by the foreign car companies attempting to set up shop in Vietnam, was the Vietnamese government’s refusal to give up rice pasture land for the construction of new production facilities. The American car companies also met resistance from some Vietnam veterans groups, but Chrysler held that Chrysler would not have gone forward with their move unless he thought it met with the nation’s approval. On this issue, Gale said, “By starting business here we feel we’re helping the healing process. We have consulted with veterans groups and the US government. Some feel it’s time to move on. Many of the veterans groups support American investment in Vietnam as an outlet to increase access to the country.” Projections showed that by the year 2000 the car market in Vietnam would increase to 60'000 vehicles sold annually. The crash of the Asian market in 1998 would considerably reduce those prospects.
1995 FCC apportions radio spectrum. The Federal Communications Commission proposes a plan for dividing part of the radio spectrum between wireless cable television companies and satellite communications networks. The two industries had vied fiercely for control of the spectrum, which would allow them to provide more services to more customers.
1993 Se publica la lista del séptimo Gobierno español de Felipe González en la que figuran tres mujeres: Carmen Alborch, Cristina Alberdi y Ángeles Amador.
1991 Soviet and American negotiators meeting in Washington wrangled over a treaty to reduce long-range nuclear missiles.
1989 Inauguration de l'Opéra-Bastille         ^top^
     C'est le nouveau théâtre voulu par François Mitterand, établissement public, nouveau siège de l'Opéra de Paris, construit sur la place de la Bastille. Dans le cadre de la politique des grands travaux menée par François Mitterrand, un concours national d'architecture fut organisé en juillet 1982, autour du projet de l'Opéra Bastille. En novembre 1983, Carlos Ott fut désigné comme architecte du chantier, qui dura de 1984 à 1989.
      L'Opéra est inauguré à l'occasion des festivités du bicentenaire de la Révolution française. Son architecture joue sur la transparence des façades et sur l'emploi de matériaux identiques à l'intérieur et à l'extérieur. Chacune des fonctions majeures de l'édifice a été individualisée par des volumes simples. Si l'esthétique de l'architecture fut souvent critiquée, la qualité acoustique fait l'unanimité.
      L'établissement comprend une grande salle d'une capacité de 2700 personnes, dont la scène principale est entourée de scènes annexes de dimensions identiques facilitant des changements de décors rapides. Sous cette grande scène, un espace scénique de même dimension permet la conservation de décors temporaires et des répétitions. Une autre salle de répétition, de dimensions identiques à celles de la scène principale, complète un ensemble qui permet le déroulement simultané de répétitions de parties distinctes du même spectacle. L'édifice comprend un amphithéâtre de 500 places, des salles de répétition pour orchestre, des ateliers de décors et de costumes, ainsi qu'une bibliothèque, une discothèque et une vidéothèque
1985 Live Aid concert         ^top^
      Prince Charles and Princess Diana helped launch at Wembley Stadium in London a worldwide rock concert and which continues at several other stadiums around the world. Relief for famine-stricken Africans is the goal. The sixteen-hour super concert is globally linked by satellite to one-and-a-half-billion viewers in 169 nations. The event, which is the brainchild of rock singer Bob Geldof, raises some seventy-five million dollars for agricultural and technical assistance to Africa.
1981 La CEE exige la implantación del IVA en España, como paso previo a las negociaciones de unión aduanera.
1979 A 45-hour siege by Palestinian guerrillas began at the Egyptian Embassy in Ankara, Turkey.
1979 A 45-hour siege by Palestinian guerrillas began at the Egyptian Embassy in Ankara, Turkey.
1978 Lee Iacocca was fired as president of Ford Motor Co. by chairman Henry Ford II.
1978 Alexander Ginzburg sentenced by Soviet court to 8 years
1978 Lee Iacocca is fired as Ford Motor president by chairman Henry Ford II
1977 A blackout lasting 25 hours hit the New York City area.
1976 Courtmartial begins in USSR for Valeri Sablin (Hunt for Red October)
1974 The US Senate Watergate Committee proposed sweeping reforms in an effort to prevent another Watergate scandal.
1969 Wallace criticizes Nixon on Vietnam War.         ^top^
      Former Alabama Governor George Wallace criticizes President Richard Nixon for his handling of the war and says he favors an all-out military victory if the Paris talks fail to produce peace soon. Wallace had run unsuccessfully against Nixon as a third party candidate in the 1968 presidential election. In 1972, Wallace ran for the Democratic Party presidential nomination, but was seriously wounded by a would-be assassin. He won several state primaries, but subsequently withdrew from the race. He was not through politically, however, and was twice more elected the governor of Alabama. In 1976, he made another run for the Democratic Party nomination before withdrawing and endorsing Governor Jimmy Carter of Georgia. Wallace retired from politics in 1987.
1968 New Vietnam peace proposal, by candidate Rockefeller.         ^top^
      Governor Nelson Rockefeller of New York, a Republican presidential candidate, reveals a four-stage peace plan that, he argues, could end the war in six months if North Vietnam assented to it. The proposal called for a mutual troop pullback and interposition of a neutral peacekeeping force, followed by the withdrawal of all North Vietnamese and most Allied units from South Vietnam; free elections under international supervision; and direct negotiations between North and South Vietnam on reunification. In his proposal, Rockefeller represented the liberal northeastern wing of the Republican Party. Taking a stance between Rockefeller and the more conservative elements of his party led by Ronald Reagan, Richard Nixon won the nomination on the first ballot at the Republican National Convention in Miami Beach. For his running mate, he chose Spiro T. Agnew, the governor of Maryland. In his speech accepting the nomination, Nixon promised to "bring an honorable end to the war in Vietnam" and to inaugurate "an era of negotiations" with leading communist powers, while restoring "the strength of America so that we shall always negotiate from strength and never from weakness." The party subsequently adopted a platform on the war that called for "progressive de-Americanization" of the war. Indeed, shortly after assuming office, Nixon instituted a program of "Vietnamization," a policy aimed at turning the war over to the South Vietnamese and withdrawing US troops.
1960 Kennedy nominated for presidency         ^top^
      In Los Angeles, California, Senator John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts, 43, is nominated for the presidency by the Democratic Party Convention, defeating Senator Lyndon B. Johnson of Texas, 51. The next day, Johnson would be named Kennedy’s running mate by a unanimous vote of the convention. Four months later, on 08 November, Kennedy would win 49.7% of the popular vote in one of the closest presidential elections in US history, surpassing by a fraction the 49.6% received by Vice President Richard M. Nixon, a Republican.
      On 20 January 1961, on the steps of the Capitol in Washington DC, John Fitzgerald Kennedy was inaugurated as the thirty-fifth president of the United States. During his famous inauguration address, Kennedy, the youngest candidate ever elected to the presidency, and also the country's first Catholic president, declared that "the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans" and appealed to Americans to "ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country."
      The energetic Kennedy and his glamorous wife Jackie proved fitting representatives of the positive and youthful spirit of America during the early 1960s, and the Kennedy White House was idealized by admirers as a modern-day Camelot. In foreign policy, after the Bay of Pigs fiasco early in his presidency, Kennedy displayed firmness and restraint, exercising an unyielding opposition to the placement of Soviet missiles in Cuba, but also demonstrating a level-headedness during negotiations for their removal. On the domestic front, he introduced his "New Frontier" social legislation, calling for a rigorous federal desegregation policy and a radical new civil rights bill. On 22 November 1963, he was assassinated in Dallas, Texas, while riding in an open-car motorcade with his wife.
      Later the Kennedy mystique was attacked by one exposé after another, dwelling on JFK's extramarital affairs, his concealed health history, his suspected dealings with mobsters and the ways in which his father's money and connections smoothed his path to the top.
1954 In Geneva, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, the People's republic of China and France reach an accord on Indochina, dividing Vietnam into two countries, North and South, along the 17th parallel.
Pig Pen1954 Pig Pen's first appearance in Peanuts comics         ^top^
      Grunge is not yet cool, but Pig Pen makes his debut in the Peanuts comic strip. Since then he would be the butt of "dirt" gags. He walks around in a cloud of dust, sprinkling dirt on all he comes in contact with. Pig Pen is happily messy. He doesn't try to explain it, hide it, fight it. For him, it's just a fact of life. His slovenly ways paid off in 1993 with a series of television commercials for Regina vacuum cleaners which combined animation with life-action.

Pig Pen's first time in Peanuts .
1948 Democratic Party platform defends Roosevelt-Truman foreign policies         ^top^
      As the 1948 presidential campaign begins to heat up, the Democratic Party hammers out a platform that contains a stirring defense of the foreign policies of Franklin D. Roosevelt and President Harry S. Truman. The tone of the platform indicated that foreign policy, and particularly the nation's Cold War policies, would be a significant part of the 1948 campaign. Throughout 1948, President Truman had been put on the defensive by Republican critics who suggested that former President Roosevelt had been too "soft" in dealing with the Soviet Union during World War II. The Republicans also criticized Truman's Cold War policies, calling them ineffective and too costly.
      By the time the Democratic Party met to nominate Truman for re-election and construct its platform, Truman was already an underdog to the certain Republican nominee, Governor Thomas E. Dewey. The foreign policy parts of the Democratic platform, announced on July 13, 1948, indicated that Truman was going to fight fire with fire. The platform strongly suggested that the Democratic administration of Franklin D. Roosevelt was primarily responsible for America's victory in World War II, and was entirely responsible for establishing the United Nations.
      After World War II, the document continued, Truman and the Democrats in Congress had rallied the nation to meet the communist threat. The Truman Doctrine, by which Greece and Turkey were saved from communist takeovers, and the Marshall Plan, which rescued Western Europe from postwar chaos, were the most notable results of the Democrats' foreign policy. Some of Truman's advisers had cautioned him to take a more conciliatory stance on foreign policy issues in the platform, emphasizing the bipartisan nature of US foreign policy since World War II. The pugnacious Truman would have none of that. He was proud of his record of "facing up to the Russians," and decided to rise or fall in the 1948 election based on his accomplishments both at home and abroad. Events proved Truman wise in his approach. Despite the fact that nearly every newspaper and polling organization in the US picked Dewey to triumph, Truman squeaked by in 1948 in one of the most memorable political upsets in American history.
1944 USSR grabs Polish territory         ^top^
      General Ivan Konev, one of the Soviet Union's most outstanding officers, pursues an offensive to capture the East Galician city of Lvov. Joseph Stalin had declared that he wanted the western border of the Soviet Union to be pushed back across the River Bug, territory that was part of prewar Poland, but was now occupied German territory.
      General Konev, who had led the first offensive against the Germans when they invaded the Soviet Union in 1941 (and who had created the "Konev ambush," a strategy by which troops retreat from the center of a battle area, only to allow troops from the flanks to close into the breach, used to defeat German General Heinz Guderian's tank offensive against Moscow), leads the Red Army's new attack westward.
      He encircles 40'000 German soldiers in the town of Brody. After seven days, 30'000 German soldiers were dead, and Lvov was Soviet-occupied territory and would remain a part of the new postwar Soviet map. General Konev would go on to cross Poland into Germany and, meeting up with US and other Soviet forces, enter Berlin to see the final downfall of the Axis power.
1943 German offensive stopped at Kursk         ^top^
      The Battle of Kursk, which involved some 6000 tanks, two million men, and 5000 aircraft, takes a turn as the German offensive is repulsed by the Soviets at heavy cost. In early July, the World War II adversaries had concentrated their forces near the city of Kursk in western Russia, site of a 240-km-wide Soviet pocket that jutted 160 km into the German lines. The German attack began on July 5, and thirty-eight divisions, nearly half of which were armored, began moving from the south and the north in an attempt to pinch off the salient.
      However, the Soviets had better tanks and air support than in previous battles, and in bitter fighting Soviet antitank artillery destroyed as much as 40 percent of the German armor, which included their new Mark VI Tiger tanks.
      After six days of warfare concentrated near Prokhorovka south of Kursk, the German Field Marshal Gunther von Klüge called off the offensive, and by July 23, the Soviets had forced the Germans back to their original positions. In the beginning of August, the Soviets began a major offensive around the Kursk salient, and within a few weeks the German were in retreat all along the eastern front.
1941 Britain and the Soviet Union sign a mutual aid pact, providing the means for Britain to send war materiel to the Soviet Union.
1938 Television theater opens. 200 people pay 25 cents each to see a television show aired at the Massachusetts Television Institute, the first television theater. The theater broadcasts a variety show of music and dance numbers from a room in the theater to an auditorium fitted with a 23-by-31-cm black-and-white television screen. (cf. 1930 below)
1936 44ºC, Mio, Michigan (state record)
1936 46ºC, Wisconsin Dells, Wisc. (state record)
1931 A major German financial institution, Danabank, fails, leading to the closing of all banks in Germany until 05 August. By the end of the 1931, approximately six million Germans are out of work.
1931 Dinamarca presenta una acusación ante el Tribunal Internacional de La Haya y solicita la reunión de la Sociedad de Naciones por la ocupación noruega del este de Groenlandia.
1930 Sarnoff reports in NY Times "TV will be a theater in every home" (cf. 1938 above)
1919 Race riots in Longview & Gregg counties Texas
1918 El Reichstag acuerda otro empréstito de guerra por un valor de doce mil millones de marcos.
1917 In Fátima, Portugal, as on the 13th of every month from May to October 1917 (except in August, when it was on the 19th), three young peasant children, Lucia dos Santos, 10, and her cousins Francisco and Jacinta Marto, report seeing a lady who identifies herself as the Lady of the Rosary.
1914 Monday : in the aftermath of the June 28 assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand:
  • Wiesner wires his findings back to Berchtold: Nothing has been found to implicate the Serbian government in the assassination. Berchtold keeps the findings away from Franz Josef.
  • Krobatin leaves for vacation in Bad Gastein as planned.
  • 1910 Todos los tripulantes dl dirigible alemán Erbsloehe que estalla a gran altura sobre Colonia.
    1878 Treaty of Berlin amended terms of Treaty of San Stefano, divides the Balkans among European powers. The Treaty of Berlin amended the terms of the Treaty of San Stefano, which had ended the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78.
    Rimbaud, par Verlaine1873 Verlaine blesse Rimbaud       ^top^
          En septembre 1871, Arthur débarque à Paris, invité par Verlaine à qui il a envoyé ses poèmes. Verlaine, de 10 ans plus âgé que lui, est fasciné et tombe sous le charme. Rimbaud, lui, voit en Verlaine un compagnon capable de le suivre dans sa quête de Voyant, et considère son homosexualité comme une étape de son expérience de la connaissance universelle. Hélas ! Paul est un être soumis, tiraillé entre l'amour qu'il éprouve pour sa femme Mathilde et sa passion pour Rimbaud. Ils vivront moins de deux ans ensemble, vie commune qui s'achèvera par un drame : le 10 [????] juillet 1873 à Bruxelles, Verlaine, ivre et déchiré, blesse Rimbaud d'un coup de pistolet car son jeune amant a décidé de le quitter. Arthur s'enfuiera en Europe puis en Afrique et effacera son existence passée dont il parlera une fois comme de "souillures". Verlaine, lui, ne l'oubliera jamais, et contribuera à la postérité de l'oeuvre de son ancien amant... [< Rimbaud par Verlaine, dans une lettre à Delahaye, 1875]
         Arthur Rimbaud, amant de Paul Verlaine, gagne Bruxelle pour le rejoindre après une nouvelle dispute.Mais si les retrouvailles sont chaleureuses, une nouvelle dispute naît entre eux, probablement au cours d’une de leurs beuveries habituelles. Verlaine furieux, tire un coup de révolver contre Rimbaud. La police belge, moins tolérante que la Française pour les frasques des deux génies littéraires, arrête Verlaine et le condamne à plusieurs mois de prison. Rimbaud se remettra vite de cette blessure et se retire à Roche pour achever un de ses chefs d’œuvre, immortel : Une Saison en Enfer un "carnet de damné", qui sera d’ailleurs publié dans la clandestinité, à Bruxelles, chez Poot et Cie, spécialiste des éditions "judiciaires".
    autres RIMBAUD ONLINE: Illumination OeuvresPoésies complètes (préface de Verlaine)Poésies: Ophélia
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  • 1870 La Prusse provoque la guerre de 70-71: “le gant d'Ems”         ^top^
          On vient de jeter un gant à la face de quelqu'un qu'on veut forcer à se battre ", déclare Adolphe Thiers au corps législatif. La gant jeté est une dépêche. Lors de sa rencontre avec l'ambassadeur de France Benedetti, Guillaume Ier, roi de Prusse, fait une réponse que Bismarck rapporte de telle sorte qu'elle devient injurieuse pour la France. En effet, Bismarck voudrait que la France déclare la guerre pour faire jouer le traité d'alliance défensive des Etats de la Confédération germanique. Il obtient ce qu'il veut. Le journal Le Constitutionnel écrit : "A l'insolence de la Prusse, il n'y a qu'une réponse: la guerre "
    1868 Oscar J Dunn, former slave, installed as lt governor of Louisiana
    1866 Great Eastern begins a two week voyage to complete a 12-year effort to lay telegraph cable across the Atlantic between Britain and the United States.
    1866 Construction begins on Fort Phil Kearny         ^top^
          Colonel Henry Carrington begins construction on Fort Phil Kearny, the most important army outpost guarding the Bozeman Trail. In 1863, a Georgia-born frontiersman named John Bozeman blazed a wagon road that branched off from the Oregon Trail and headed northwest to the gold fields of western Montana. The trail passed through the traditional hunting grounds of the Sioux, and Chief Red Cloud attacked several wagon trains to try to stop the violation of Indian Territory. Despite the questionable legality of the Bozeman Trail, the US government decided to keep it open and began building a series of protective army forts along the route. Colonel Henry Carrington was assigned the task of designing and building the largest and most important of these outposts, Fort Phil Kearny. A talented strategist and designer, Carrington planned the fort with care. He selected a site in northern Wyoming that was near a source of water and commanded a view over a good section of the Bozeman Trail.
          He began building on this day in 1866, setting up a timbering operation and sawmill to supply the thousands of logs needed for construction. By fall, Carrington had erected an imposing symbol of American military power. A tall wooden palisade surrounded a compound the size of three football fields. Inside the walls, Carrington built nearly 30 buildings, including everything from barracks and mess halls to a stage for the regimental band. Only the most massive and determined Indian attack would have been capable of taking Fort Phil Kearny. Unfortunately, Carrington's mighty fortress had one important flaw: the nearest stands of timber lay several miles away. To obtain the wood essential for heating and further construction, a detachment had to leave the confines of the fort every day. The Indians naturally began to prey on these "wood trains." In December, a massive Indian ambush wiped out a force of 80 soldiers under the command of Captain William Fetterman. Despite this weakness, Fort Phil Kearny was still a highly effective garrison. Nonetheless, the US Army found it nearly impossible to halt completely the Indian attacks along the trail. In 1868, the government agreed to abandon all of the forts and close the trail in exchange for peace with the Indians. Immediately after the soldiers left, the Indians burned Carrington's mighty fortress to the ground.
    1865 Horace Greeley, 54, advises his readers (New York Tribune) to "Go west young man"
    1863 Engagement at Bayou La Fourche, Louisiana
    1863 Siege of Fort Wagner, Charleston Harbor, South Carolina continues
    1862 Garrison at Murfreesboro, Tennessee captured by Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest
    1861 Skirmish at Corrick's Ford, Virginia (now West Virginia)
    1858 Entrevue Napoléon — Cavour. Au cours de l'une de ses cures à Plombières, Napoléon rencontre Cavour. Le tête-à-tête secret dure sept heures. Le ministre du roi Victor-Emmanuel, qui aspire à faire de l'Italie un seul Etat, convainc l'empereur. Napoléon aidera l'Italie à faire son unité, mais à la seule condition que l'Autriche soit l'agresseur. Ce fut fait
    1854 US forces shell & burn San Juan del Norte, Nicaragua
    1841 Austria, Inglaterra, Prusia, Rusia y Francia firman en Londres la Convención de los estrechos, acuerdo con Turquía para cerrar el Bósforo a los buques de guerra extranjeros.
    1832 Henry R. Schoolcraft discovers the source of the Mississippi River in Minnesota.
    1798 Wordsworth visits Tintern Abbey         ^top^
          While on a walking tour, William Wordsworth, 28, and his sister Dorothy visit a ruined church called Tintern Abbey. The ruins inspired Wordsworth's poem Tintern Abbey, in which Wordsworth articulated some of the fundamental themes of Romantic poetry, including the restorative power of nature. The poem appeared in Lyrical Ballads, with a Few Other Poems in 1798, which Wordsworth collaborated on with his friend and fellow poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge. The book, which also included Coleridge's Rime of the Ancient Mariner, sold out within two years. The book's second edition included an important preface that articulated the Romantic manifesto.
          Wordsworth was born near England's Lake District on 7 April 1770. He lost his mother when he was eight, and his father died five years later. Wordsworth attended Cambridge, then traveled in Europe, taking long walking tours with friends through the mountains. During his 20s, Wordsworth lived with his sister Dorothy and became close friends with Coleridge. In 1802, after years of living on a modest income, Wordsworth came into a long-delayed inheritance from his father and was able to live comfortably with his sister. He married their longtime neighbor Mary Hutchinson and had five children. The poet's stature grew steadily, although most of his major work was written by 1807. In 1843, he was named poet laureate of England, and he died on 23 April 1850, at the age of 80.
    Works online:
    The Complete Poetical Works (HTML at Bartleby)
    Lyrical Ballads (multiple versions of the first edition, with commentary), also by Coleridge (HTML, SGML, and page images at dal.ca)


    Five years have passed; five summers, with the length
    Of five long winters! and again I hear
    These waters, rolling from their mountain-springs
    With a sweet inland murmur. — Once again
    Do I behold these steep and lofty cliffs,
    Which on a wild secluded scene impress
    Thoughts of more deep seclusion; and connect
    The landscape with the quiet of the sky.
    The day is come when I again repose
    Here, under this dark sycamore, and view
    These plots of cottage-ground, these orchard-tufts,
    Which, at this season, with their unripe fruits,
    Among the woods and copses lose themselves,
    Nor, with their green and simple hue, disturb
    The wild green landscape. Once again I see
    These hedge-rows, hardly hedge-rows, little lines
    Of sportive wood run wild; these pastoral farms
    Green to the very door; and wreathes of smoke
    Sent up, in silence, from among the trees,
    With some uncertain notice, as might seem,
    Of vagrant dwellers in the houseless woods,
    Or of some hermit's cave, where by his fire
    The hermit sits alone.

    Though absent long,
    These forms of beauty have not been to me,
    As is a landscape to a blind man's eye:
    But oft, in lonely rooms, and mid the din
    Of towns and cities, I have owed to them,
    In hours of weariness, sensations sweet,
    Felt in the blood, and felt along the heart,
    And passing even into my purer mind
    With tranquil restoration: — feelings too
    Of unremembered pleasure; such, perhaps,
    As may have had no trivial influence
    On that best portion of a good man's life;
    His little, nameless, unremembered acts
    Of kindness and of love. Nor less, I trust,
    To them I may have owed another gift,
    Of aspect more sublime; that blessed mood,
    In which the burthen of the mystery,
    In which the heavy and the weary weight
    Of all this unintelligible world
    Is lighten'd — that serene and blessed mood,
    In which the affections gently lead us on,
    Until, the breath of this corporeal frame,
    And even the motion of our human blood
    Almost suspended, we are laid asleep
    In body, and become a living soul:
    While with an eye made quiet by the power
    Of harmony, and the deep power of joy,
    We see into the life of things.

    If this
    Be but a vain belief, yet, oh! how oft,
    In darkness, and amid the many shapes
    Of joyless day-light; when the fretful stir
    Unprofitable, and the fever of the world,
    Have hung upon the beatings of my heart,
    How oft, in spirit, have I turned to thee
    O sylvan Wye! Thou wanderer through the wood
    How often has my spirit turned to thee!
    And now, with gleams of half-extinguished though[t,]
    With many recognitions dim and faint,
    And somewhat of a sad perplexity,
    The picture of the mind revives again:
    While here I stand, not only with the sense
    Of present pleasure, but with pleasing thoughts
    That in this moment there is life and food
    For future years. And so I dare to hope
    Though changed, no doubt, from what I was, when first
    I came among these hills; when like a roe
    I bounded o'er the mountains, by the sides
    Of the deep rivers, and the lonely streams,
    Wherever nature led; more like a man
    Flying from something that he dreads, than one
    Who sought the thing he loved. For nature then
    (The coarser pleasures of my boyish days,
    And their glad animal movements all gone by,)

    To me was all in all. — I cannot paint
    What then I was. The sounding cataract
    Haunted me like a passion: the tall rock,
    The mountain, and the deep and gloomy wood,

    Their colours and their forms, were then to me
    An appetite: a feeling and a love,
    That had no need of a remoter charm,
    By thought supplied, or any interest
    Unborrowed from the eye. — That time is past,
    And all its aching joys are now no more,
    And all its dizzy raptures. Not for this
    Faint I, nor mourn nor murmur: other gifts
    Have followed, for such loss, I would believe,
    Abundant recompence. For I have learned
    To look on nature, not as in the hour
    Of thoughtless youth, but hearing oftentimes
    The still, sad music of humanity,
    Not harsh or grating, though of ample power
    To chasten and subdue. And I have felt
    A presence that disturbs me with the joy
    Of elevated thoughts; a sense sublime
    Of something far more deeply interfused,
    Whose dwelling is the light of setting suns,
    And the round ocean, and the living air,
    And the blue sky, and in the mind of man,
    A motion and a spirit, that impels
    All thinking things, all objects of all thought,
    And rolls through all things. Therefore am I still
    A lover of the meadows and the woods,
    And mountains; and of all that we behold
    From this green earth; of all the mighty world
    Of eye and ear, both what they half-create,
    And what perceive; well pleased to recognize
    In nature and the language of the sense,
    The anchor of my purest thoughts, the nurse,
    The guide, the guardian of my heart, and soul
    Of all my moral being.

    Nor, perchance,
    If I were not thus taught, should I the more
    Suffer my genial spirits to decay:
    For thou art with me, here, upon the banks
    Of this fair river; thou, my dearest Friend,
    My dear, dear Friend, and in thy voice I catch
    The language of my former heart, and read
    My former pleasures in the shooting lights
    Of thy wild eyes. Oh! yet a little while
    May I behold in thee what I was once,
    My dear, dear Sister! And this prayer I make,
    Knowing that Nature never did betray
    The heart that loved her; 'tis her privilege,
    Through all the years of this our life, to lead
    From joy to joy: for she can so inform
    The mind that is within us, so impress
    With quietness and beauty, and so feed
    With lofty thoughts, that neither evil tongues,
    Rash judgments, nor the sneers of selfish men,
    Nor greetings where no kindness is, nor all
    The dreary intercourse of daily life,
    Shall e'er prevail against us, or disturb
    Our chearful faith that all which we behold
    Is full of blessings. Therefore let the moon
    Shine on thee in thy solitary walk;
    And let the misty mountain winds be free
    To blow against thee: and in after years,
    When these wild ecstasies shall be matured
    Into a sober pleasure, when thy mind
    Shall be a mansion for all lovely forms,
    Thy memory be as a dwelling-place
    For all sweet sounds and harmonies; Oh! then,
    If solitude, or fear, or pain, or grief,
    Should be thy portion, with what healing thoughts
    Of tender joy wilt thou remember me,
    And these my exhortations! Nor, perchance,
    If I should be, where I no more can hear
    Thy voice, nor catch from thy wild eyes these gleams
    Of past existence, wilt thou then forget
    That on the banks of this delightful stream
    We stood together; And that I, so long
    A worshipper of Nature, hither came,
    Unwearied in that service: rather say
    With warmer love, oh! with far deeper zeal
    Of holier love. Now wilt thou then forget,
    That after many wanderings, many years
    Of absence, these steep woods and lofty cliffs,
    And this green pastoral landscape, were to me
    More dear, both for themselves, and for thy sake.

    1789 Constitution de la Garde Nationale, une armée de 48'000 hommes destinée à protéger Paris et à assurer le maintien de l’ordre. Son premier général sera le marquis de Lafayette, le héros français de l’Indépendance Américaine.
    1787 US Congress, under the Articles of Confederation, enacts the Northwest Ordinance, establishing rules for governing the Northwest Territory (excludes slavery), for admitting new states to the Union and limiting the expansion of slavery. A territory can become 3 to 5 states at 60'000 population
    1760 Carlos III entra solemnemente en Madrid como rey de España para suceder a su hermanastro Fernando VI.
    1754 At the beginning of the French and Indian War, George Washington surrenders the small, circular Fort Necessity in southwestern Pennsylvania to the French, leaving them in control of the Ohio Valley.
    1713 La firma del Tratado de Utrecht pone fin definitivamente a la Guerra de Sucesión Española.
    1648 A la suite de la déclaration de la Chambre Saint-Louis, Mazarin révoque par une déclaration royale la plupart des intendants du royaume.
    1643 In England, the Roundheads, led by Sir William Waller, are defeated by royalist troops under Lord Wilmot in the Battle of Roundway Down.
    1585 A group of 108 English colonists, led by Sir Richard Grenville, reaches Roanoke Island, North Carolina.
    1568 Dean of St Paul's Cathedral perfects a way to bottle beer
    1558 Led by the court of Egmont, the Spanish army defeats the French at Gravelines, France. — Las fuerzas españolas derrotan a las francesas en la batalla de Gravelinas, en el norte de Francia.
    1534 Ottoman armies capture Tabriz in northwestern Persia.
    1501 Bâle devient suisse         ^top^
         La ville de Bâle dépendait depuis sa naissance des princes allemands de Rhénanie. Elle est le siège d’un évêché et connaît une certaine autonomie. Sa situation de carrefour au croisement des routes de Bourgogne et du Rhin, et des routes vers le lac de Constance et le St-Gothard lui assure une prospérité aui lui permet de maintenir son autonomie. Le 13 juillet 1501, Bâle entre dans la jeune Confédération helvétique. Cette adhésion constitue un tournant décisif et caractéristique qui inaugure un âge d’or tant sur le plan commercial et social que sur le plan culturel. Erasme y constituera un groupe actif et rayonnant de disciples de l’humanisme. En 1529, elle adhère à la "Réforme" protestante et accueille les "élites" huguenotes fuyant les persécutions religieuses françaises. Elle reste neutre dans les guerres de religion et finalement très tolérante au point de vue religieux.
    1191 Prise de Saint-Jean-d'Acre         ^top^
          Leur mésentente n'empêche pas, les deux rois croisés Philippe Auguste et Richard Coeur de Lion qui ont entrepris cette troisième croisade pour délivrer Jérulalem des mains des infidèles, combattre au côté l'un de l'autre. Ils reprennent au sultan Saladin la ville de Saint-Jean-d'Acre, grâce au courage de Richard. Suite à cette victoire, le roi de France part et laisse seul en Terre sainte le roi d'Angleterre.
    1099 The Crusaders launch their final assault on Muslims in Jerusalem.
    — 212 BC Institution à Rome des Jeux Apolliniens, en l’honneur d’^top^
          C’est sous l’influence de la Grèce qui venait d’être conquise par Rome que la religion grecque pénètre à Rome. Mais si les Grecs célébrait Apollon pour obtenir la santé (c’était le dieu de la médecine), c’est plutôt le dieu de la "Victoire" que célèbre les Romains. Le culte d’Apollon gardera à Rome les deux significations. Tout le peuple "couronné" participe aux jeux, les matrones, "les mères" romaines, un peu dans le sens des "Mamma", prient publiquement et entraînent la foule; des festins sont servis aux citoyens. Des fêtes orgiaques prolongent les cérémonies (la santé par l’amour !).
    — 432 -BC- Origin of Metonic Cycle.
    CalvoDeaths which occurred on a July 13:
    2002 At least 27 civilians near a makeshift Hindu temple in the mainly Hindu Qasim Nagar slum near the Narwal bypass of Jammu, Kashmir, shot and grenaded at random by five attackers, some of them wearing the saffron “sadhu” robes of Hindu holy men, after 19:30. 28 persons are injured.
    2001 Fawaz Badran, 27, standing outside his electronics store when a car parked there exploded, in Tulkarem, West Bank. He was a Hamas activist on a list of those targeted for assassination by Israel.
    1989 Arnaldo Ochoa, Jorge Martínez, Antonio de la Guardia, Armando Pedro, ex militares cubanos, ejecutados, por tráfico de drogas.
    1984 Marlene Walters, 44, beaten to death in her home in the Cincinnati suburb of Norwood by Alton Coleman, 28, who would be executed by lethal injection on 26 April 2002, having been responsible for eight deaths, plus numerous robberies, rapes and kidnappings during a 54-day five-state crime spree with his girlfriend, Debra Denise Brown. Marlene's husband Harry Walters is beaten so severely that a sliver of bone is driven into his brain, leaving him permanently disabled.
    1971 Ten Moroccan leaders, executed by the army for allegedly fomenting a revolt
    1967 Twenty-seven victims of race riots in Newark.
    1961 Arnold Schoenberg, 86, Austrian-US composer (Second Quartet)
    1951 Arnold Schoenberg, compositor austriaco.
    1941 Ivan Ivanovich Privalov, Russian mathematician born on 11 February 1891. Author of Cauchy Integral (1918).
    1936 José Calvo Sotelo, diputado, asesinado en Madrid, en la madrugada, por un grupo incontrolado, como represalia por el homicidio del teniente socialista Castillo. Ésto se considera el detonante de la Guerra Civil Española. Calvó había nacido el 06 mayo de 1893, en Tui (Pontevedra) [retrato >]
    1931 José Francos Rodríguez, periodista y político español.
    1881 William Bonney "Billy the Kid", 21, shot to death by Sheriff Pat Garrett, at the Maxwell Ranch in New Mexico.         ^top^
          Garrett, who had been tracking the Kid for three months after the gunslinger had escaped from prison only days before his scheduled execution, got a tip that Billy was holed up with friends. While Billy was gone, Garrett waited in the dark in his bedroom. When Billy entered, Garrett shot him to death.
          Back on 01 April 1878, Billy the Kid ambushed Sheriff William Brady and three deputies in Lincoln, New Mexico, after ranch owner John Tunstall had been murdered. Billy had worked at Tunstall's ranch and was outraged by his employer's slaying — vowing to hunt down every man responsible. Sheriff Brady and his men, who had been affiliated with rival ranchers, were involved with the gang that killed Tunstall on February 18. Billy's retaliatory attack left Brady and Deputy George Hindman dead. Although only 18 years old at the time, Billy had now committed as many as 17 murders.
          Following his indictment for the murder of Sheriff Brady, Billy the Kid was the most wanted man in the West. Evading posses sent to capture him, he eventually struck a deal with the new governor of New Mexico: In return for his testimony against the perpetrators of the ongoing ranch wars in the state, Billy would be set free. Although he kept his word about the testimony, he began to distrust the promise that he would be released and so he escaped.
          Once a fugitive, Billy killed a few more men, including the gunslinger Joe Grant, who had challenged him to a showdown. Legend has it that Billy managed to get hold of Grant's gun prior to the fight and made sure that an empty chamber was up first in the man's revolver. When it came time to fire, only Billy's gun went off and Grant was left dead. Legendary Sheriff Pat Garrett finally brought Billy the Kid in to stand trial. The judge sentenced Billy the Kid to hang until "you are dead, dead, dead." Billy reportedly responded, "And you can go to hell, hell, hell."
          Two weeks before his scheduled execution, Billy escaped, killing two guards in the process. Garrett mounted yet another posse to bring in the Kid. After tracing him to the Maxwell Ranch, Garrett shot him to death. No legal charges were brought against him since the killing was ruled a justifiable homicide.
    1863 The victims of the first day of the New York City Draft Riots         ^top^
          During the Civil War, major riots break out in New York City against the implementation of the first wartime draft of US civilian in American history. The majority of the rioters are Democratic Irish laborers outraged that exemptions from the draft can be legally bought for $300, a small fortune out of reach of the average worker. Many of the rioters are also opposed to the Union war effort because of fears of losing their jobs to emancipated African-American slaves.
          The conscription act, passed by Congress on 03 March, called for registration of all males between the ages of twenty and forty-five years by 01 April. On 11 July the first names of draftees were drawn in New York City. Two days later, a mob swarmed into the draft office at 3rd Avenue and 45th Street in Manhattan, set it on fire, and nearly beat the superintendent to death. Within an hour, the entire block was burning, the riot was spreading, and looting had begun. The Federal troops usually stationed in the city had not yet returned from Gettysburg, so New York City police faced the enraged mobs alone. Well-dressed men on the street were beaten, a police captain was killed, and several Protestant churches were burned. The mob then turned it anger against African Americans, and eleven people were lynched, burned alive, or beaten to death.
          By 15 July several dozen protesters had been killed along with another policeman, and the first troops hastily marching back from Gettysburg arrived. Before the riot was suppressed the next day, eight soldiers and scores of rioters had been killed. In total, over one hundred people perished during the four days of violence. Protests and riots against the draft also erupted elsewhere, but none as costly as those that occurred in New York. New York’s city council later announced that city funds would pay the $300 commutation fee for any man too poor to pay it himself, and in August, the draft act was suspended all across the Union.
    1861 70 Rebs, 10 Yanks, at Battle of Carrick's Ford.         ^top^
          Union General George B. McClellan distinguishes himself by routing Confederates under General Robert Garnett at Carrick's Ford in western Virginia. The battle ensured Yankee control of the region, secured the Union's east-west railroad connections, and set in motion the events that would lead to the creation of West Virginia. Two days before Carrick's Ford, Union troops under General William Rosecrans flanked a Confederate force at nearby Rich Mountain. The defeat forced Garnett to retreat from his position on Laurel Hill, while part of McClellan's force pursued him across the Cheat River. A pitched battle ensued near Carrick's Ford, in which Garnett was killed—the first general officer to die in the war. But losses were otherwise light, with only 70 Confederate, and 10 Union, casualties. The Battle of Carrick's Ford was a significant victory because it cleared the region of Confederates, but it is often overlooked, particularly because it was overshadowed by the Battle of Bull Run, which occurred shortly thereafter on 21 July. However, the success made McClellan a hero, even though his achievements were inflated. Two weeks later, McClellan became commander of the Army of the Potomac, the primary Federal army in the east. Unfortunately for the Union, the small campaign that climaxed at Carrick's Ford was the zenith of McClellan's military career.
    1807 Johann III Bernoulli, Swiss lawyer and mathematician born on 04 November 1744, son of Johann II Bernoulli [28 May 1710 – 17 Jul 1790].
    1793 Jean-Paul Marat, 50 ans, poignardé par Marie-Anne Charlotte de Corday d'Armont.         ^top^
         Elle naquit le 27 juillet 1768 aux Champeaux, à la ferme du Ronceray, une maison de pays typique que son père avait achetée en 1765. Charlotte était le quatrième enfant de petits nobles. Sa mère s'appelait Charlotte-Marie Gautier des Authieux et son père Jacques-François de Corday d'Armont. Il était l'arrière petit fils de Marie Corneille, soeur de Thomas et de Pierre Corneille, le dramaturge. Charlotte a été baptisée dans l'Eglise Saint-Saturnin de Lignerits, à côté des Champeaux, le lendemain de sa naissance.
          Elle a grandi au Manoir de Cauvigny et à la Ferme du Bois, pas très loin de l'endroit où elle est née. A l'âge de huit ans Charlotte fut placée chez son oncle, l'Abbé de Corday, qui à l'époque était le curé de Vicques. La famille s'est installée par la suite à Caen, où la mère de Charlotte décéda le 8 avril 1782. Au printemps de cette même année, Charlotte fut admise, avec sa soeur Eléonore, à l'Abbaye aux Dames comme pensionnaire.
          En pleine Terreur, l'assassinat de Jean-Paul Marat, "l'Ami du Peuple", a fait de Charlotte Corday l'héroine de tout un peuple. Après son geste, elle a été immédiatement arrêtée et emprisonnée à la Conciergerie. L'issue de son procès ne faisait aucun doute : elle était condamnée à mort. Le 17 Jul 1793, vers 19 heures, après avoir monté les marches de l'échafaud, elle a été guillotinée. L'exploit de Charlotte, L'Ange de l'Assassinat, est rentré dans la légende. Peu de personnages de la Révolution Française n'ont eu autant de gloire et de popularité à travers les siècles.
          Quand Après la fermeture en 1791 de l'Abbaye aux Dames à Caen, Charlotte a vécu chez sa cousine, Madame Le Coustellier de Bretteville-Gouville, au 148 de la rue Saint-Jean. Le 09 Jul 1793, Charlotte quitta l'appartement de sa cousine et prit la diligence pour Paris. Elle descendit à l'Hôtel de Providence. Elle rédigea un long texte intitulé Adresse aux Français amis des lois et de la paix, qui expliquait le geste qu'elle allait commettre.
          Le 13 Jul 1793, à Paris, elle a obtenu une audience auprès de Marat à son domicile sis 30, rue des Cordeliers, en disant à la compagne de Marat qu'elle "avait des révélations à lui faire" sur un complot girondin.et qu'il était à même de "rendre un grand service à la France". Il la reçois alors qu'il prend son bain pour apaiser la maladie de peau qui le ronge. Il corrige des épreuves de son journal L'Ami du peuple. Charlotte a un couteau de table "à manche à bois brun à virole d'argent, acheté quarante sols au Palais-Royal". Alors que Marat lui demande les noms des conjurés, elle sort le couteau de son fichu rose et le lui plante dans la carotide. Marat hurle avant de mourir : "A moi, ma chère amie !"
         Trois jours plus tard, Charlotte Corday déclare devant le tribunal : "Je savais que Marat pervertissait la France. J'ai tué un homme pour en sauver cent mille, un scélérat pour sauver des innocents, une bête féroce pour donner le repos à mon pays."
          Au cours de la Révolution Française, Charlotte est devenue républicaine. Elle fut frappée par les exactions du Pouvoir contre les Girondins (la Proscription des Girondins - 02 juin 1793), qui se réfugièrent à Caen. Charlotte ne croyait plus aux possibilités de l'instauration d'une République. Elle considérait que Jean-Paul Marat, qui réclamait de plus en plus de têtes chaque jour, était le grand responsable de tous les malheurs qui se sont abattus sur le peuple français. Marat était l'un des chefs les plus acharnés de la Révolution Française. Animé d'une pitié maladive devant les maux des petites gens, il n'en fut pas moins l'artisan de la chute des Girondins et l'instigateur des massacres de septembre. Marat devient un martyr de la Révolution. Hébert se déclare son successeur.
    Click for painting by David
    [< Click on image for reproduction of painting La Mort de Marat, by Jacques David]

         Born on 24 May 1743, at Boudry, near Neuchâtel, Switzerland, Marat became known as a French politician, physician, and journalist, a leader of the radical Montagnard faction during the French Revolution. He was assassinated in his bath by Charlotte Corday, a young Girondin conservative.
          Marat, after obscure years in France and other European countries, Marat had become a well-known doctor in London in the 1770s and published a number of books on scientific and philosophical subjects. His Essay on the Human Soul (1771) had little success, but A Philosophical Essay on Man (1773) was translated into French and published in Amsterdam (1775-76). His early political works included The Chains of Slavery (1774), an attack on despotism addressed to British voters, in which (according to some) he first expounded the notion of an "aristocratic," or "court," plot; it would become the principal theme of a number of his great speeches and articles.
          Marat founded the journal L’Ami du Peuple in 1789, and its fiery criticism of those in power was a contributing factor to the bloody turn of the Revolution in 1792. In August of that year, with the arrest of the king, Marat was elected as a deputy of Paris to the Convention. In France’s revolutionary legislature, Marat opposed the Girondists; a faction made up of moderate republicans who advocated a constitutional government and continental war.
          In 1793, Charlotte Corday, the daughter of an impoverished aristocrat and an ally of the Girondists in Normandy, came to regard Marat as the unholy enemy of France, and plotted his assassination. Leaving her native Caen for Paris, she had planned to kill Marat at the Bastille Day parade on 14 July, but was forced to seek him out in his home when the festivities were cancelled. On 13 July she gained an audience with Marat by promising to betray the Caen Girondists. Marat, who had a persistent skin disease, was working as usual in his bath when Corday pulled a knife from her bodice and stabbed him in his chest. He died almost immediately, and Corday waited calmly for the police to come and arrest her. She was guillotined four days later.
    1530 (between 13 Jul and 16 Sep) Quentin Metsys “de Smit”, Flemish artist born between 04 April and 10 September 1466. — MORE ON METSYS AT ART “4” JULY LINKSErasmus of RotterdamThe Adoration of the Magi (1526) — The Ugly Duchess (1530) [I suspect that she was reincarnated in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (chapter 6)] — Virgin and ChildThe Holy KinshipThe Entombment of the LordThe Moneylender and His Wife _ (detail) — Portrait of an Old Man.
    1380 Bertrand du Guesclin, 60 ans         ^top^
          C'est pendant le siège de Châteauneuf-de-Randon en Auvergne que meurt Bertrand du Guesclin. Après plusieurs assauts terribles, la place avait promis de se rendre. Mais dans l'intervalle, le Connétable est emporté par la maladie et, à l'expiration de la trêve, le gouverneur vint symboliquement déposer les clefs de la ville sur son cercueil. Avec du Guesclin disparaissait le modèle du chef de guerre du Moyen-Âge, chevaleresque, fidèle et brave.
    1105 Rashi (acronym of Rabbi Shlomo Yitzhaqi) , 65, medieval French Jewish Bible scholar. Rashi was the leading rabbinical commentator in his day on the Torah and the Talmud.
    0574 John III, Pope
    Merda d'artistaBirths which occurred on a July 13:
    1941 Luis Alberto Lacalle, político uruguayo.
    1935 Jean-Pierre Cassigneul, French artist
    1934 Wole Soyinka, escritor nigeriano, Nobel de Literatura 1986.
    1933 Piero Manzoni, artista (si sus excentricidades son “arte”) italiano. Murió el 06 febrero 1963. An exemple of Manzoni's “art“ is his Merda d'Artista, constructed in 1961. It is not a painting but a series of 30-gramme cans [foto >] labeled (in Italian and English) “Merda d'artista — CONSERVATA AL NATURALE”, which sit in piles or randomly on a surface. Ninety versions were made, each designed to be sold for its weight in gold. — LINKSComments on a 1998 Manzoni exhibitionLinks to photos of some Manzoni “artwork”.
    1909 Simone Weil, pensadora espiritual francesa, hermana del matemético André Weil..
    1898 The radio is patented by Guglielmo Marconi.
    1894 Isaak Babel Russian short-story writer/dramatist (Red Calvary)
    1886 Father Edward Flanagan, US Catholic parish priest. Believing there was 'no such thing as a bad boy,' in 1922 he organized Boys Town near Omaha, Nebraska.
    1876 Josef Oppenheimer, German artist who died in 1966.
    1845 Robert Schleich, German artist who died in 1934. — The Haystacks
    1839 (o 13 junio???) Modesto Urgell e Inglada, pintor español. Murió el 3 de abril 1919.
    1838 Camilo Polavieja, militar español.
    1821 Nathan Bedford Forrest Tennessee, brilliant cavalry leader, Lt Gen
    1793 John Clare Northamptonshire peasant poet (Shepard's Calendar)
    1741 Carl Friedrich Hindenburg, German mathematician famous (in his days) for his combinatorics. He died on 17 March 1808.
    1729 John Parker, in Lexington, Massachusetts. Parker would play a prominent role in the first battle of the American War for Independence, as leader of the volunteer American militia known as the Minutemen. But he did not live to fight for long in the American War of Independence, as he died of illness in September 1775.
    1528 Fondation des Capucins.         ^top^
          Le nom vient de leur habit : une capuche sur la tête (caput en latin). Ces Religieux constituent l’une des trois branches actuelles de la famille franciscaine. Cette congrégation est due à l’initiative d’un jeune "observant", Matthieu de Bassi. Il prétendait restaurer la vie franciscaine primitive jusque dans la manière de se vêtir, les premiers "frères mineurs de la vie érémitique" attirèrent immédiatement l’attention par la forme originale de leur capuce, long et pointu. Le sobriquet populaire de capuccini devint rapidement, dès le milieu du XVIe siècle, leur nom officiel. Le 13 Juillet 1528, le Pape Clément VII approuva leur constitution mais les maintaint dans une certaine soumission au ministre général des Conventuels. C’est le Pape Paul V qui leur accorda la pleine autonomie en janvier 1619. L’ordre comptait en France deux cent cinquante et un pères, et hors de France cinquante capucins d’origine française.
    1527 John Dee, London alchemist/astrologer/mathematician who wrote on trigonometry, on calendar reform, on navigation, on geography and on astrology. He became astrologer to queen Mary. On 28 May 1555 he was arrested for calculating (considered black magic) and he was released from prison in August 1555. He died on 26 March 1609.
    1396 Philip the Good Duke of Burgundy
    Holidays France : La Retraite aux Flambeaux/Night Watch-« day / Japan : Bon Festival starts / Rhodesia : Founder's Day/Rhode's Day

    Religious Observances Christian : Our Lady of Fatima / RC : St Anacletus I, pope (c 76-c 88), martyr / RC : St Eugenius, bishop of Carthage, confessor / RC : St Henry II (the Pious), emperor (opt) / Santos Enrique, Anacleto, Serapio y santa Sada

    Thoughts for the day: “Learning music by surfing the web, is like making love by E-mail.” — [Well, at least, it's safe.]
    “Most human beings have an almost infinite capacity for taking things for granted.”
    — Aldous Huxley, English author (1894-1963). — [Should we take that for granted?]
    “Some things cannot be taken for granted. Take grants for example.”
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