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Events, deaths, births, of JUL 22
[For Jul 22 Julian go to  Gregorian date: 1583~1699: Aug 011700s: Aug 021800s: Aug 031900~2099: Aug 04]
On a 22 July:
2002 (Monday) The stock of natural gas utilities Williams Companies (WMB) is downgraded by Merrill Lynch from “Near and Long Term Strong Buy” to Near and Long Term Neutral”. On the New York Stock Exchange, WMB drops from its previous close of $5.16 to an intraday low of $1.99 and closes at $2.01. It had traded as high as $48.77 ot 07 January 1999. WMB would drift down further during the rest of the week, reaching a low of $0.84 on 25 July. But, after closing on Friday 26 July at $1.06, it would recover on Monday 29 July to close at its intraday high of $1.99. [5~year price chart >]

Peepers, who lives with Brad and Cheryl Moureau in Des Moines, Iowa, is taking a peaceful walk on SW 2nd Street. Suddenly a woman grabs Peepers and drives away in a van. Neighbors put up a $100 reward for information leading to the arrest of the woman. When the woman, Rita Kane, 62, reads about this in the Des Moines Register, she notifies the police that Peepers seemed lost and possibly in danger from traffic, so she took him to the animal shelter, Peepers being a duck.
"Aflac"      Early on 25 July 2002, the police notifies the Moureaus that he can get the duck back by paying $41 to the shelter. Bill Robertson, regional sales coordinator for AFLAC (American Family Life Assurance Company of Columbus), learns of this and that Peepers resembles the duck in the company's ads [< photo], and that passers-by often call out “Aflac, Aflac” when they see Peepers. So Robertson gets some inexpensive publicity by paying the shelter's fee. Ah... and the Moureaus are told that it is illegal to let any pet roam freely within Des Moines. So Peepers will have to be caged, and his friend the dog Duffy kept on a leash. [It does not seem likely that cats obey that law, but then perhaps they don't consider themselves “pets”, but rather “divinities”.] — [AFLAC motto: “The duck shops here.”]

In Sweden, Tassilla, 6, the bullterrier bitch of Ms. Gunilla Gonon-Sabelstrom swallows two 500-crown bills (equal to $47 each). The bills would be excreted the next day, smelly, yellowed, and wrinkled, but still valid. (reported by the Dagens Nyheter on 24 July 2001)
1998 New president at Microsoft      ^top^
      Bill Gates, chairman and chief executive of Microsoft, names Steve Ballmer president of Microsoft. Gates says that he intends to delegate responsibility for operations to Ballmer, while he himself will focus more on product and technology development. Ballmer, a friend from Gates' Harvard days, had joined the company as its 20th employee.
1997 Upgraded Mac operating system      ^top^
      Apple launches Mac OS 8, the biggest upgrade of the Macintosh operating system to hit the market since 1991. Apple had lost its technological lead to Windows 95 and Intel machines and had seen its sales, profit, and market share plummet since 1995. Among other features, the new system adds increased stability and better Internet access.
1996 Secure online payments      ^top^
      Visa International and VeriSign, an Internet-security company, saf that they have developed a system for secure payment over the Internet. The system enables shoppers to make purchases without providing their actual credit card number. Visa officials say that the system is vastly more secure than mail- or telephone-order methods.
1992 Gruesome murderer arrested      ^top^
      In Milwaukee, Wisconsin, two policemen enter the home of Jeffrey Dahmer, 31, accused of sexually abusing another man, and find a collection of severed heads, body parts preserved in formaldehyde, and photographs of victims at various stages of their deaths. Dahmer attempts to escape, but he is subdued and placed under arrest.
      Over a thirteen-year period beginning in 1982 (???), Dahmer, who lived primarily in the Midwest, murdered at least seventeen young men and boys. Most of his victims were young, homosexual, African Americans, whom Dahmer lured to his home, promising to pay them to pose for nude photographs. He would then drug and strangle them to death, often mutilating, and occasionally cannibalizing, their bodies afterwards.
       When, after several missed opportunities, Dahmer is finally arrested on 22 July 1991, he confesses seventeen murders to the police. In his subsequent criminal trial, he would plead guilty but insane to fifteen of the murders. On February 12, 1992, a Wisconsin jury pronounced guilty and sane in each of the fifteen murders, and five days later he was sentenced to fifteen consecutive life sentences.
      Two years later, Dahmer was beaten to death by fellow inmate Christopher Scarver while performing cleaning duty in a bathroom at the Columbia Correctional Institute gymnasium in Portage, Wisconsin. Scarver, a convicted murderer, also fatally beat the third man on their work detail, inmate Jesse Anderson, who was serving a life sentence for brutally killing his wife. Scarver's motive in killing the two men was not entirely clear; however, in his subsequent criminal trial Scarver maintained that God had told him to kill Dahmer and Anderson.
1988 500 US scientists pledge to boycott Pentagon germ-warfare research
1987 Gorbachev accepts ban on intermediate-range nuclear missiles      ^top^
      In a dramatic turnaround, Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev indicates that he is willing to negotiate a ban on intermediate-range nuclear missiles without conditions. Gorbachev's decision paved the way for the groundbreaking Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty with the United States. Since coming to power in 1985, Gorbachev had made it clear that he sought a less contentious relationship with the United States. His American counterpart, President Ronald Reagan, was a staunch anticommunist and initially harbored deep suspicions about Gorbachev's sincerity. After meeting with Gorbachev in November 1985, however, Reagan came to believe that progress might be made on a number of issues, including arms control. In subsequent summit meetings, the two leaders focused on the so-called intermediate-range nuclear missiles that both nations had massed in Europe and around the world. In late 1986, it appeared that the two nations were close to an agreement that would eliminate the weapons from Europe. Negotiations stumbled, however, when Gorbachev demanded that the elimination of the missiles be accompanied by U.S. abandonment of its development of the strategic defense initiative (the "Star Wars" plan). The talks broke down while Reagan and Gorbachev traded accusations of bad faith. On 22 July 1987, Gorbachev dramatically announced that he was ready to discuss the elimination of intermediate-range missiles on a worldwide basis, with no conditions. By dropping his objection to the strategic defense initiative (which was one of Reagan's pet projects), Gorbachev cleared the way for negotiations, and he and Reagan agreed to meet again. Gorbachev's change of mind was the result of a number of factors. His own nation was suffering from serious economic problems and Gorbachev desperately wanted to cut Russia's military spending. In addition, the growing "no-nukes" movement in Europe was interfering with his ability to conduct diplomatic relations with France, Great Britain, and other western European nations. Finally, Gorbachev seemed to have a sincere personal trust in and friendship with Ronald Reagan, and this feeling was apparently reciprocal. In December 1987, during a summit in Washington, the two men signed off on the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty, which eliminated an entire class of nuclear weapons.
1987 US began escorting re-flagged Kuwaiti tankers in Persian Gulf
1983 -89ºC recorded, Vostok, Antarctica (world record)
1983 Poland's PM Januzelski lifts martial law
1981 Turkish terrorist Mehmet Ali Agca, 23, is sentenced to life imprisonment for his attempted assassination of Pope John Paul II in May of this year.
1975 US Congress restores the citizenship of the Confederate Civil War leader Robert E. Lee.
1966 B-52 bombers hit the Demilitarized Zone between North and South Vietnam for the first time.
1952 Polish constitution adopted (National Day)
1947 -13ºC, Charlotte Pass, NSW (Australian record)
1944 Soviets set up Polish Committee of National Liberation
1944 Bretton Woods conference ends      ^top^
      During the summer of 1944, representatives from forty-four nations gathered at a resort hotel in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, to hash out the global finances for the remaining half of the twentieth century. Cast against the backdrop of World War II, the three-week conference was a striking display of the United States' swelling political and fiscal might. For one, the U.S. used Bretton Woods as a stage to promote the dollar as the standard currency for international transactions. Though some European leaders initially blanched at the idea, American officials stood their ground and the dollar eventually won the day.
      But, the United States' victories at Bretton Woods didn't end there: by the time the conference closed on 22 July the delegates had voted to create both the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF), institutions which, in the minds of some historians, sealed America's role as the leader of the post-war economic order. Though U.S. leaders positioned the World Bank and IMF as "financial institutions" shorn of political entanglements, both bodies bore the traces of American influence. The brainchild of American officials, the IMF was charged with stabilizing exchange rates and enforcing the dollar-centric currency standard. Likewise, the World Bank, which was devised to dole out international loans, received good chunks of its fiscal resources from the United States.
1943 Palermo, Sicily surrenders to General George S. Patton's Seventh Army.
1942 Deportations from Warsaw ghetto to Treblinka begin      ^top^
      The systematic deportation of Jews from the Warsaw ghetto begins, as thousands are rounded up daily and transported to a newly constructed concentration/extermination camp at Treblinka, in Poland.
      On July 17, Heinrich Himmler, head of the Nazi SS, had arrived at Auschwitz, the concentration camp in eastern Poland, in time to watch the arrival of more than 2000 Dutch Jews and the gassing of almost 500 of them, mostly the elderly, sick, and very young. The next day, Himmler promoted the camp commandant, Rudolph Hoess, to SS major and ordered that the Warsaw ghetto, (the Jewish quarter constructed by the Nazis upon the occupation of Poland, enclosed first by barbed wire and then by brick walls), be depopulated — a "total cleansing," as he described it — and the inhabitants transported to what was to become a second extermination camp constructed at the railway village of Treblinka, 100 km northeast of Warsaw.
      Within the first seven weeks of Himmler's order, more than 250'000 Jews would be taken to Treblinka by rail and gassed to death, marking the largest single act of destruction of any population group, Jewish or non-Jewish, civilian or military, in the war. Upon arrival at "T. II," as this second camp at Treblinka was called, prisoners were separated by sex, stripped, and marched into what were described as "bathhouses," but were in fact gas chambers.
      T.II's first commandant was Dr. Irmfried Eberl, 32, the man who had headed up the euthanasia program of 1940 and had much experience with the gassing of victims, especially children. He compelled several hundred Ukrainian and about 1500 Jewish prisoners to assist him. They removed gold teeth from victims before hauling the bodies to mass graves. Eberl was relieved of his duties for "inefficiency." It seems that he and his workers could not remove the corpses quickly enough, and panic was occurring within the railway cars of newly arrived prisoners.
      By the end of the war, between 700'000 and 900'000 would die at either Treblinka I or II. Hoess was tried and sentenced to death by the Nuremberg Tribunal. He was hanged in 1947.
1942 US gasoline rationing with coupons begins along the Atlantic seaboard,. during WW II
1938 The Third Reich issues special identity cards for Jewish Germans.
1937 Senate rejects FDR proposal to enlarge Supreme Court
1937 The US Senate rejects President Franklin D. Roosevelt's proposal to add more justices to the Supreme Court.
1933 First solo round-the-world flight      ^top^
      Just before midnight, American aviator Wiley Post completes the first solo around-the-world flight when he returns to Floyd Bennett Field in New York after seven days, eighteen hours, and forty-nine minutes. Post had begun the journey on July 15, flying nonstop to Berlin, Germany, in just under twenty-six hours. After a brief rest, he flew on to the Soviet Union, where he made several stops as he made his way across Asia. Then he returned to America with a stop in Alaska, another in Canada, and finally a triumphant landing at his starting point on 22 July.
      Two years earlier, Post had won fame when he successfully flew around the northern part of the earth with aviator Harold Gatty. For his solo around-the-world flight in 1933, he flew a slightly greater distance — 25'100 km — in less time. For both flights he used the Winnie Mae, a Lockheed Vega monoplane that was equipped with a Sperry automatic pilot and a direction radio for Post's solo journey. On August 16, 1935, he was flying across the North Pole to the U.S.S.R. on a promotional trip with American humorist Will Rogers when he was killed in a crash near Point Barrow, Alaska.
1926 41ºC, Waterbury, Connecticut (state record)
1926 42ºC, Troy, New York (state record)
1917 Alexander Kerensky becomes Russian PM
1914 Friday : in the aftermath of the June 28 assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand:
  • After viewing the text of the Austrian ultimatum to Serbia, German Undersecretary Arthur Zimmermann comments that "the note is too sharp." [view text of the ultimatum]
  • 1863 Siege of Fort Wagner, Charleston Harbor, South Carolina continues
    1862 President Lincoln presents to the Cabinet the Emancipation Proclamation which he would issue the next 1 January.
    1847 The first large company of Mormon immigrants enters the Salt Lake Valley, in what is still Mexican territory. Soon after, Mormon leader Brigham Young would found Salt Lake City,Utah.
    1814 Five Indian tribes in Ohio make peace with the United States and declare war on Britain.
    1812 Battle of Salamanca, Spain: a British army under the Duke of Wellington defeats the French .
    1796 General Moses Cleaveland draws the plan for the town of Cleaveland, Ohio (In 1832 an a in Cleaveland was dropped to shorten a newspaper's masthead.)
    1793 Alexander Mackenzie reaches the Pacific Ocean      ^top^
          More than a decade before Lewis and Clark, Alexander Mackenzie reaches the Pacific Ocean, becoming the first Euro-American to complete a transcontinental crossing north of Mexico. A young Scotsman engaged in the fur trade out of Montreal, Mackenzie made his epic journey across the continent without any of the governmental financial backing and support given to Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. In 1787, he was assigned to the British North West Company's fur trading post in what is now northern Alberta. Two years later, he led a small expedition north to the Great Slave Lake where he discovered the westward flowing river that now bears his name. To Mackenzie's disappointment, he discovered that the river soon turned north and led to the Arctic Ocean rather than the Pacific. The following year, he tried to reach the Pacific again. This time, he followed the Peace River west accompanied by a party of nine men. In June 1793, the expedition crossed the Continental Divide over an easily portaged pass of 3,000 feet. From there, they moved south down the Fraser River, which Mackenzie hoped was a tributary of the Columbia River. The Fraser River eventually proved impassable, however, and the expedition struck out overland to the west. On this day in 1793, Mackenzie reached the Pacific Ocean across from what is today called Vancouver Island. Using a paint he concocted from grease and vermilion, he wrote on a rock: "Alexander Mackenzie, from Canada, by land, the twenty-second of July, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-three." With this inscription, Great Britain staked its first tenuous claim on the northwest. Aside from the Spanish explorers who had previously crossed the comparatively narrow Mexican land mass, Mackenzie was the first Euro-American to cross the North American continent to reach the Pacific Ocean. Yet, he considered his achievement to be "at least in part a failure" because he had failed to find a passable commercial route. Mackenzie later returned to Scotland and never returned to Canada. Twelve years later, the discoveries he made on his "failed" voyage played a key role in President Thomas Jefferson's decision to send Lewis and Clark on their two-year journey to the Pacific.
    1789 Thomas Jefferson becomes the first head of the U.S. Department of Foreign Affairs.
    1775 George Washington takes command of the troops
    1691 (12 July Julian) Battle of Aughrim (Aghrim) England, William III defeats James II and the allied Irish and French armies
    1652 Prince Conde's rebels narrowly defeat Chief Minister Mazarin's loyalist forces at St. Martin, near Paris.
    1620 A small congregation of English Separatists, led by John Robinson, began their emigration to the New World. Today, this historic group of religious refugees has come to be known as the 'Pilgrims.' which is what William Bradford called them in Mourt's Relation: A Journal of the Pilgrims at Plymouth
    Shakespeare1598 The Merchant of Venice is registered      ^top^
          William Shakespeare's play The Merchant of Venice is entered on the Stationers' Register. By decree of Queen Elizabeth, the Stationers' Register licensed printed works, giving the Crown tight control over all published material. Although its entry on the register licensed the printing of The Merchant of Venice, its first version would not be published for another two years.
          The publication of Shakespeare's plays was a haphazard matter. Playwrights at the time were not interested in publication: They sold their plays to theater companies, which tried to prevent rivals from literally stealing the show. The writer produced only one complete written script for a play, and the players received only their own lines and cues, not the entire play. Sometimes, however, disgruntled actors would prepare their own version of the play from notes cribbed during performances.
          Among other plays, there are pirated versions, or "bad quartos," for Henry VI and Hamlet. Scholars believe, however, that the first printing, in 1600, of The Merchant of Venice came from a clean manuscript of the complete play. During his lifetime, no authorized versions of Shakespeare's plays were printed. However, his sonnets were published in 1609, seven years before his death

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    Funeral Elegy by W.S.

    1515 Emperor Maximillian and Vladislav of Bohemia forge an alliance between the Habsburg and Jagiello dynasties in Vienna.
    1298 Battle of Falkirk: English King Edward I combines bowmen and cavalry to defeat William Wallace's Scots at Falkirk.
    0260 St Dionysius begins his reign as Pope
    1864 The Battle of Atlanta reaches its peak when Confederate General John Bell Hood launches an all-out attack on Union General William T. Sherman's Army. & suffers terrible losses .
    Deaths which occurred on a 22 July:      ^top^
    2003 Norman Lewis, 95, travel writer and novelist. Among his books are Sand and Sea in Arabia (1938), Naples '44 (1978), The Honored Society: A Searching Look at the Mafia (1964), The Changing Sky: Travels of a Novelist (1959), A Dragon Apparent: Travels in Indochina (1951), Golden Earth: Travels in Burma (1952), one of his suspense novels is Cuban Passage (1982), his autobiography is Jackdaw Cake (1985).
    2003 Murasi Jibali, 28, Israeli Arab, shot by Israeli Border Police patrolling in a jeep outside Taibeh, after Jibali failed to stop his car at their checkpoint and then ignored warning shots they fired in the air. Jibali was trying to evade the roadblock because he was driving without a valid license.
    2003 Odai Hussein, 39; Qusai Hussein, 37, and his son Mustafa Hussein, 14; and a bodyguard, in 10:00-to-16:00 attack by US troops from the 101st Airborne Division on a palatial villa in Mosul, Iraq, with small arms and rocket propelled grenades that heavily damage the villa and two adjoining houses. Odai and Qusai were the sons of Saddam Hussein and the highest ranking officials, after him, in his dictatorship.
    2003 A senior officer, 7 jawans and the 3 attackers, armed with guns and handgrenades, in 05:30 attack on Indian army camp at Tanda, in Indian-occupied Kashmir near the Pakistan-held part. Some 12 Indian soldiers are wounded.
    1967 Carl Sandburg, 89, poet (Abraham Lincoln: The Prairie Years)
    1962 Mariner I spacecraft, done in by a software bug      ^top^
         The Mariner I spacecraft, the first US unmanned probe designed to visit another planet, begins flying erratically several minutes after it is launched, and it has to be destroyed in the air
          The potential dangers presented by software bugs become clear to the public when a software error is later found to be responsible. Investigators would discover that the problem resulted from a single incorrect character in the guidance program.
    1959 David van Dantzig, 59, mathematician
    1950 Stepanov, mathematician
    1946, 91 persons as a wing of the King David Hotel in Jerusalem is blown up by the Zionist extremists of the Irgun, led by Menachem Begin
    1943 Osgood, mathematician.
    1934 John Dillinger, gunned down by the Feds      ^top^
          After breaking jail in Indiana with a wooden pistol, notorious bank robber John Dillinger was targeted by FBI chief J. Edgar Hoover as "public enemy number one." The FBI hunt forced him to get a face-lift and eradicate his fingerprints with acid. However, on 22 July 1934, after escaping two previous shootouts, Dillinger steps out of the Biograph movie theater in Chicago and is killed in a hail of bullets fired by Federal agents.
         Outside Chicago's Biograph Theatre, notorious criminal John Dillinger — America's "Public Enemy No. 1" — is killed in a hail of bullets fired by federal agents. In a fiery bank-robbing career that lasted just over a year, Dillinger and his associates robbed 11 banks for more than $300'000, broke jail and narrowly escaped capture multiple times, and killed seven police officers and three federal agents.
          John Dillinger was born in Indianapolis, Indiana, in 1903. A juvenile delinquent, he was arrested in 1924 after a botched mugging. He pleaded guilty, hoping for clemency, but was sentenced to 10 to 20 years at Pendleton Reformatory. While in prison, he made several failed escapes and was adopted by a group of professional bank robbers led by Harry Pierpont, who taught him the ways of their trade. When his friends were transferred to Indiana's tough Michigan City Prison, he requested to be transferred there too.
          In May 1933, Dillinger was paroled, and he met up with accomplices of Pierpont. Dillinger's plan was to raise enough funds to finance a prison break by Pierpont and the others, who then would take him on as a member of their elite robbery gang. In four months, Dillinger and his gang robbed four Indiana and Ohio banks, two grocery stores, and a drug store for a total of more than $40'000. He gained notoriety as a sharply dressed and athletic gunman who at one bank leapt over the high teller railing into the vault.
          With the help of two of Pierpont's women friends, Dillinger set up the jailbreak. Guns were bought and arranged to be smuggled into Michigan City Prison. Prison workers were bribed, and a safe house was set up. On 22 September, however, just days before the jailbreak was scheduled to occur, Dillinger was arrested in Dayton, Ohio. Four days later, Pierpont and nine others broke out of Michigan City. Pierpont's gang robbed a bank in Ohio for $11'000 and on 12 October came to Ohio to free Dillinger from the Lima city jail. The Lima sheriff was killed during the successful breakout. On 30 October, the gang robbed a police arsenal, acquiring weapons, ammunition, and bulletproof vests.
          The Pierpont / Dillinger gang robbed banks in Indiana, Wisconsin, and Chicago for more than $130'000, a great fortune in the Depression era, and eluded the police in several close encounters. In January 1934, the gang headed to Tucson, Arizona, to lay low. By this time, four police officers had been killed and two wounded, and the Chicago police had established an elite squad to track down the fugitives. They were recognized in Tucson and on 25 January captured without bloodshed.
          Dillinger was extradited to Indiana, arraigned for his 15 January murder of Indiana police officer William Patrick O'Malley, and held at Crown Point prison. On 03 March, while still awaiting trial, he executed his most celebrated escape. That morning, he brandished a gun and methodically began locking up the prison officials. The legend is that the weapon was a wooden gun carved by Dillinger and blackened with shoe polish, but it may also have been a real gun smuggled into the prison by an associate. Whatever the case, Dillinger raided the prison arsenal, where he found two sub-machine guns, and then enlisted the aid of another prisoner, an African American man named Herbert Youngblood. Dillinger and Youngblood then made their way to the prison garage, where they stole a sheriff's car and calmly drove off — after pulling the ignition wires from the other vehicles parked there.
          Parting ways with Youngblood, Dillinger traveled to Chicago and formed a new gang featuring "Baby Face" Nelson, a psychopathic killer who used to work for Al Capone. The new Dillinger gang robbed banks in South Dakota and Iowa, netting $101'500 and wounding two more police officers. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) joined the manhunt for Dillinger after he escaped from Crown Point, and on 31 March two FBI agents closed in on him at an apartment in St. Paul, Minnesota. Dillinger and an accomplice shot their way out.
          In April, the Dillinger gang went to hide out at a resort in Wisconsin, but the FBI was tipped off. On 22 April, the FBI stormed the resort. In a disastrous operation, three civilians were mistakenly shot by the FBI, one of whom died; Baby Face Nelson killed one agent, shot another, and critically wounded a police officer; the entire Dillinger gang escaped.
          With two other gang members, Dillinger traveled to Chicago, surviving a shoot-out with Minnesota police along the way. In Chicago, he lived in a safe house and got a facelift to conceal his identity. At some point, he also used acid to burn off his fingerprints. On 30 June, he participated in his last robbery, in South Bend, Indiana. The gang got away with about $30,000 at the cost of one officer killed, four civilians shot, and one gang member shot.
          In July, Anna Sage, a Romanian-born brothel madam in Chicago and friend of Dillinger's, agreed to cooperate with the FBI in exchange for leniency in an upcoming deportation hearing. She also hoped to cash in on the $10'000 bounty that had been put on his head. On 22 July Sage and Dillinger went to see the gangster movie Manhattan Melodrama at the Biograph Theatre around the corner from her house. Twenty FBI agents and police officers staked out the theater and waited for him to emerge with Sage, who would be wearing an orange dress to identify herself.
          At 22:40, Dillinger came out. Sage's orange dress looked red under the Biograph's lights, which would earn her the nickname "the lady in red." Dillinger was ordered to surrender, but he took off running. He made it as far as an alley at the end of the block before he was gunned down, allegedly because he pulled a gun. Two bystanders were wounded in the gunfire. Public Enemy No. 1, as FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover had deemed him, was dead.
          Some researchers have claimed that another man, not Dillinger, was killed outside the Biograph, citing autopsy findings on the corpse that allegedly contradict Dillinger's known medical record.
    1918:: 504 sheep by lightning in Utah's Wasatch National Park
    1916 Ten people killed by the Preparedness Day Bombing      ^top^
          In San Francisco, California, a bombing during a Preparedness Day parade kills ten people and wounds forty. The bomb had been hidden in a suitcase. The parade, which had been traveling up Market Street, was organized by the city's chamber of commerce and business leaders in support of America's possible entrance into World War I. San Francisco had been suffering through several years of labor strife at the time, and most suspected that anti-war labor radicals were responsible for the bombing.
          Labor leader Tom Mooney, his wife Rena, his assistant Warren K. Billings, and two others were soon charged by District Attorney Charles Fickert with the crime. The case attracted international interest because all evidence, with the exception of a handful of questionable witness accounts, seemed to point unquestionably to their innocence. Even after confessions of perjured testimony were made in the courtroom, the trial continued, and in 1917 Mooney and Billings were convicted of first-degree murder, with Billings sentenced to life imprisonment and Mooney sentenced to hang. The other three defendants were acquitted.
          Responding to international outrage at the conviction, President Woodrow Wilson set up a "mediation commission" to investigate the case, and no clear evidence of their guilt was found. In 1918, Mooney's sentence was commuted to life imprisonment. Over the next two decades, many groups and individuals petitioned California to grant the two men a new trial. By 1939, when evidence of perjury and false testimony at the trial had become overwhelming, newly elected Governor Culbert Olson pardoned Mooney and commuted Billing's sentence to time served. Billings was not officially pardoned until 1961.
    1914 Charles Maurin, French painter born on 01 April 1856. — MORE ON MAURIN AT ART “4” JULY Maternity
    1889 Adèle Evrard, Flemish artist born in 1792.
    1864 McPherson, Union general, and many other Yanks and Rebs as the Battle of Atlanta continues      ^top^
          Confederate General John Bell Hood continues to try to drive General William T. Sherman from the outskirts of Atlanta when he attacks the Yankees on Bald Hill. The attack failed, and Sherman tightened his hold on Atlanta. Confederate President Jefferson Davis had appointed Hood commander of the Army of Tennessee just four days before the engagement at Atlanta. Davis had been frustrated with the defensive campaign of the previous commander, Joseph Johnston, so he appointed Hood to drive Sherman back North. Hood attacked Peachtree Creek on July 20, but he could not break the Federals. Two days later, Hood tried again at Bald Hill. The Union force under Sherman consisted of three armies: James McPherson's Army of the Tennessee, John Schofield's Army of the Ohio, and George Thomas' Army of the Cumberland. Thomas' force pressed on Atlanta from the north, at Peachtree Creek, while McPherson swung to Atlanta's eastern fringe to cut the Georgia Railroad, which ran to Decatur. Hood struck at McPherson on 22 July but several problems blunted the Confederate attack. The broken, rugged terrain made coordination difficult, and the attack, which had been planned for dawn, did not begin until after noon. Most important, and unbeknownst to Hood, McPherson extended his line east. The Confederates had assembled along a line—which they thought was behind the Union flank—but was now directly in front of fortified Federal soldiers. Hood's men briefly breached the Union line, but could not hold the position. The day ended without a significant change in the position of the two armies. For the second time in three days, Hood failed to break the Union hold on Atlanta. His already-outnumbered army fared poorly. He lost more than 5000 men, while the Union suffered 3700 casualties. Among them was General McPherson, who had been killed while scouting the lines during the battle. He was one of the most respected and promising commanders in the Union army.
    1853 Christoffer-Wilhelm Eckersberg, Danish artist born on 02 January 1783.
    1802 Marie-François-Xavier Bichat a founder of histology.
    1719 Giovanni Gioseffo dal Sole, Italian painter born on 10 October 1654. — MORE ON DAL SOLE AT ART “4” JULY LINKS Judith with the Head of Holofernes _ ZOOM ITMorte di Priamo
    1696 Hendrich van Minderhout, “den groenen Ridder van Rotterdam”, Dutch artist born in 1632. — more
    1684 Josefa de Óbidos de Ayala, Spanish Portuguese Baroque Era painter born in 1630. — MORE ON ÓBIDOS AT ART “4” JULY LINKSNatividadeMystical Marriage of St. Catherine _ same Mystical Marriage of St. Catherine (1647) _(Catherine di Benincasa [Siena 25 Mar 1347 – Rome 29 Apr 1380] underwent the mystical experience known as the "spiritual espousals", probably during the carnival of 1366. She then began to tend the sick, especially those afflicted with the most repulsive diseases, to serve the poor, and to labor for the conversion of sinners. — LINKS to Mystical Marriage of St. Catherine by 23 other painters
    1639 Rutilio di Lorenzo Manetti, Italian artist born on 01 January 1571.
    1575 Maurolico, mathematician
    1461 Charles VII, 58, king of France (1422-61).
    Births which occurred on a 22 July:
    Mei Xiang in Chinese1998 Mei Xiang (= “Beautiful Fragrance”) [photo grown-up>], female giant panda (tiny at birth), at the Research and Conservation Center for the Giant Panda in Wolong, China. She came to the US in December 2000 together with male giant panda Tian Tian (=“More and More”, born on 27 August 1997) on loan for 10 years to the National Zoo in Washington DC, for $10 million. So, assuming that the two pandas “work” 40 hours a week of regular time and 16 hours of overtime, they each earn for China $150 an hour for regular time and $225 an hour for overtime, and they don't have any income tax, social security, or health insurance withheld. If you wanted a deal like that, you should have been born a member of a cute species of which there are not much more than 1000 left in the world.
    1948 Ana de Palacio del Valle-Lersundi, Spanish politician.
    1931 Guido De Marco, Maltese politician.
    1923 Robert Dole (Sen-R-Ks), 1996 Republican candidate for president of the United States.
    1909 Franz-Josef Röder, Saarland German politician who died on 26 June 1979.
    1908 Fisher Body Company      ^top^
          Albert Fisher and his nephews, Frederic and Charles Fisher, establish the Fisher Body Company to manufacture carriage and automobile bodies. Albert Fisher personally supplied $30'000 of the company’s total of $50'000 in initial capital. Charles and Frederic had been trained in their father’s carriage building shop and supplied the technical know-how required at the company’s inception.
          Fisher Body quickly abandoned carriage building to concentrate on car frames. By 1910, Fisher supplied some car bodies for General Motors (GM), and in 1919 GM purchased controlling interest in the company to shore up a supplier for its car bodies. At that time, Fisher was the largest supplier of car bodies in the world. The Fisher brothers were early advocates of closed-body, steel and wood frames, and they pre-empted their competition by creating more closed-bodied cars than open-bodied. They were also early in their adoption of aluminum and steel frames.
          Fisher Body completed a total merger in 1924 after their initial contracted agreement to supply bodies to GM had expired. On 30 June, 1926 GM traded 667'720 shares of its own stock, at a market value of $136 million, for the remaining 40% of Fisher Body. The firm became the Fisher Body Division of GM, and was still headed by the Fisher family. The Fisher family remained in control of the Fisher Body Division until 1944, though brothers Lawrence and Edward were on the Board of Directors until 1969. The Fisher family’s impact on the automotive industry is second only to that of the Ford family. Every GM body between 1919 and 1944 passed the approval of a Fisher man.
    1908 Amy Vanderbilt authority on etiquette (Complete Book of Etiquette)
    1904 Otto Rombach, German writer who died on 09 May 1984.
    1902 Reinhold Baermathematician whose work was wide ranging; topology, abelian groups and geometry. His most important work, however, was in group theory, on the extension problem for groups, finiteness conditions, soluble and nilpotent groups.
    1898 Alexander “Sandy” Calder, US kinetic artist, painter, sculptor and printmaker, in love with the color red, who died on 11 November 1976. MORE ON CALDER AT ART “4” JULYLINKS LollipopsPapillonFlying Colors(family portrait?) untitled plate at p. 29 in the book Homage to CalderHomage to Calder (book cover) — Composition, p. 61, from the book Prints Sculpture photos on front and back covers of book Alexander Calder 1898-1976Sculpture photo on front cover of book Calder in Connecticut
    1898 Stephen Vincent Benet, poet and short-story writer, author of John Brown's Body
    1893 Karl Menninger, founder of the Menninger Foundation, which studies mental health problems
    1892 Arthur Seyss-Inquart Austrian chancellor and Nazi collaborator (1930s)
    1888 Raymond Chandler Chic, mystery writer (The Long Goodbye)
    1887 Gustav Hertz German quantum physicist (Nobel 1925 jointly with J. Franck), who died on 30 October 1975.
    1882 Knopp, mathematician
    1882 Edward Hopper, US Scene painter who died on 15 May 1967.MORE ON HOPPER AT ART “4” JULYLINKS Self~PortraitNighthawks Portrait of Orleans Two on the Aisle Early Sunday Gas Station House by the Railroad Soir Bleu Western Motel East Side InteriorNight ShadowsWoman with UmbrellaThe Monhegan BoatLes Poilus or, Somewhere in FrancePortrait of Walter Tittle DrawingWilliam GraffThe Bullfight
    1881 Ludwig Heinrich Jungnickel, German artist who died in 1965. — more
    1881 The first volume of The War of the Rebellion: A compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, is published.
    1878 Janusz Korczak, Polish physician who died in August 1942 in the Treblinka concentration camp.
    1876 Walter Ufer, US painter who died in 1936, specialized in the US West MORE ON UFER AT ART “4” JULYLINKS
    1860 Paul Gustav Fischer, Danish painter who liked fish. He died in 1934. — LINKSThe Norwegians become NorwayThe Guard on King Christian's BirthdayThe Christmas RushFeeding the Sea GullsMaid Buying FishMother and Child (1892) — HarrietThe End of the Road
    1849 Emma Lazarus, poet      ^top^
          Raised in a wealthy Jewish family in New York, Emma Lazarus devoted herself to Zionist and Marxist causes after hearing about the pogroms in Russia in the 1880s. She translated several important Jewish works, and on the pedestal of the Statue of Liberty is inscribed "The New Colossus," her famous sonnet (written in aid of Bartholdi Pedestal Fund, 1883.) that welcomes immigrants to the United States with sentiments all too rarely shared by the majority of those already comfortably installed in the US
    — LAZARUS ONLINE: Admetus and Other PoemsAdmetus and Other Poems (page images) — The Poems of Emma Lazarus volume I, . volume II
    NOT like the brazen giant of Greek fame,
    With conquering limbs astride from land to land;
    Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand
    A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame
    Is the imprisoned lightning, and her name
    Mother of Exiles. From her beacon-hand
    Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command
    The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame.
    “Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp!” cries she
    With silent lips. “Give me your tired, your poor,
    Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,
    The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.
    Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me,
    I lift my lamp beside the golden door!”
    1844 Rev. William Archibald Spooner, in London, from whose transpositions of initial sounds of words would be named Spoonerisms. Bridge wings us to Roonerspisms and Spore Moonerisms. Dooner spied in 1390.
    1823 Godfried Egide Guffens, Belgian artist who died in July 1901. — MORE ON GUFFENS AT ART “4” JULY
    1822 Gregor Mendel, in Austria, monk/geneticist, discoverer of the laws of heredity. Il se fit moine et devint plus tard abbé du monastère de Brünn, il étudia et enseigna la biologie dans ce monastère. Il découvrit les lois de l'hérédité, en observant le résultat des croisements de plantes.
    1821 Cesare Felix Georges dell'Acqua, Italian artist who died in 1904.
    1803 Louis Gabriel Eugène Isabey, French artist who died on 27 April 1886. — MORE ON ISABEY AT ART “4” JULYLINKS — La Tentation de Saint Antoine: détail Saint Antoine et anges, image complèteArrival of the Duke of Alba at Rotterdam in 1567Repas Dans Un CouventRetour Au PortLa Réception du CardinalHurricane before Saint MaloLe naufrage28 prints at FAMSF
    1795 Gabriel Lamé, mathematician who worked on a wide variety of different topics. His work on differential geometry and contributions to Fermat's Last Theorem are important. He proved the theorem for n=7 in 1839 (i.e. that there are no integers >1, x, y, z, such that x^7 + y^7 = z^7) .
    1784 Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel , German astronomer and mathematician who died on 17 March 1846. He determined the positions and proper motions of stars and discovered the parallax of 61 Cygni. He also used a method of mathematical analysis involving what is now known as the Bessel function.
    1755 de Prony, mathematician
    1519 Innocent IX 230th pope, for 2 months (29 October – 30 December 1591)
    1478 Philip I (the Handsome) 1st Habsburg king of Spain (1506)
    Holidays Pakistan : Bank Holiday / Poland : Liberation Day (1944) / Swaziland : King's Birthday

    Religious Observances RC, Ang, Luth : St Mary Magdalen, penitent

    Thoughts for the day : “The best way to cheer yourself up is to try to cheer up someone else. Better yet if you succeed.”
    “The best way to cheer up someone else is to have a greater misfortune yourself.”
    “Conclusion: the best way to cheer yourself up is to have greater and greater misfortunes.”
    “Do ‘syllogisms’ use ‘silly logic’?”
    “The love we give away is the only love we keep.”
    — Elbert Hubbard, US author (1856-1915).
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