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Events, deaths, births, of JUN 13
[For events of Jun 13  Julian go to Gregorian date: 1583~1699 Jun 231700s Jun 241800s Jun 251900~2099 Jun 26
• Tutu  meets Botha... • Alexander the Great dies... • Nazis launch V~1 missiles at UK... • Peasant army enters London... • New  Vietnam peace agreement... • The “Pentagon Papers”... • Lewis reaches Great Falls... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • Deposition du Doge... • Défaite des Serbes par les Ottomans... • Yeats is born... • Dorothy Sayers is born...
KarzaiOn a June 13:
2002 The Afghan grand council (loya jirga), by 1295 out 1575 votes, elects Karzai [14 Jun 2002 photo >] as interim president for the next two years. The council goes on to discuss the structure of the interim government. Hamid ebn Abdul Ahad Karzai, born on 24 December 1957, has since 22 December 2001 headed the first transitional government after being chosen (05 December 2001) by Afghan leaders meeting in Bonn, Germany, under the auspices of the United Nations.
2002 The stock of communications services company Alamosa Holdings (APS), which on 12 June had fallen from its 11 June close of $1.92 to an intraday low of $1.05 and closed at $1.10, makes a new intraday low of $1.03 at 09:48 and then recovers steadily to make an intraday high of $1.55 several times (14:20, 14:59, 15:26) and closes at $1.47.
2002 The stock of Tyco International (TYC) confirms its 12 June recovery in after-hours trading (from its $10.15 close) by opening at $13.00, making an intraday high of $13.95 (at 15:45) and closing at $13.80. Tyco had announced the authorization of its sale of a subsidiary.
2002 Supreme Court Justice Steven Fisher vacates the conviction and dismisses the indictment of Angelo Martinez, 36, for the 10 April 1985 bingo hall murder of Rudolph Marasco, 70, for which on 24 October 1986 Martinez was sentenced him to 26 1/2-years-to-life in prison. In 1989, Charles Rivera, a federal prisoner in the witness protection program, confessed to the killing. Authorities didn't believe Rivera because he failed a lie detector test. But now investigators were able to confirm Rivera's account through new evidence (a witness who confirmed Rivera's guilt). Martinez will remain in prison until he can convince a federal judge that his 1993 24-year sentence for peddling cocaine while in prison should be reduced.
2000 The presidents of South Korea and North Korea opened a summit in the northern capital of Pyongyang with pledges to seek reunification of the divided peninsula.
2000 Italy pardoned Mehmet Ali Agca, the Turkish gunman who'd tried to kill Pope John Paul II in 1981.
1996 The US Supreme Court placed greater limits on congressional districts intentionally drawn to get more minorities elected to Congress.
1996 The 81-day-old Freemen standoff ended as 16 remaining members of the anti-government group surrendered to the FBI and left their Montana ranch.
1991 The US Supreme Court ruled a jailed suspect represented by a lawyer in one criminal case sometimes may be questioned by police about another crime without the lawyer present.
1990 Wash DC mayor Marion Barry announces he will not seek a 4th term.
1986 Bishop Tutu meets President Botha       ^top^
      Bishop Desmond Tutu, winner of the 1984 Nobel Prize for Peace, meets with South African President P.W. Botha to discuss the nationwide state of emergency declared by Botha in response to the anti-apartheid protests. "This is not likely to help restore law and order and peace and calm," Tutu said of the government crackdown after the meeting. "If we do have any calm, it will be very brittle, it will be superficial, it will be sullen, and at the slightest chance, it will be broken again." In 1948, South Africa's white minority government institutionalized its policy of racial segregation and white supremacy known as apartheid--Afrikaans for "apartness." Eighty percent of the country's land was set aside for white use, and black Africans entering this territory required special passes. Blacks, who had no representation in the government, were subjected to different labor laws and educational standards than whites and lived in extreme poverty while white South Africans prospered.
      Organized anti-apartheid protests began in the 1950s, and in the 1960s Nelson Mandela and other anti-apartheid leaders were imprisoned. In the 1970s, a new phase of protest began, with black trade unions organizing strikes and Steve Biko, leader of the Black Consciousness movement, calling on blacks to defend their African culture.
      After the Soweto uprising of June 1976, more than 500 black activists, including Biko, were killed by police. By the time Pieter W. Botha took power as South African prime minister in 1978, ongoing domestic turmoil and increasing international condemnation made it clear that the South African government could not long sustain the apartheid status quo.
      Botha's administration undertook many reforms, including an end to some racial segregation, a repeal of the "pass laws," and an end to the ban on black trade unions, but made no fundamental change to South Africa's power structure. Protests continued, and Botha resorted to violent tactics, using the military and police to suppress opposition to his minority government. Thousands of blacks were killed.
      Meanwhile, a black Anglican minister named Desmond Tutu, who in 1975 became the first black dean of St. Mary's Cathedral in Johannesburg, was emerging as an important leader of the anti-apartheid movement. He advocated nonviolence and pushed for international sanctions against South Africa. In 1984, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace. The next year, he was installed as Johannesburg's first black Anglican bishop. In 1984, a new constitution took effect that made Botha president of South Africa but failed to grant blacks representation in his government.
      Demonstrations escalated, and on June 12, 1986, Botha declared martial law as a means of preventing demonstrations planned to commemorate the 10th anniversary of the 1976 Soweto uprising. Thousands of black community leaders, clergymen, union organizers, and anti-apartheid activists were arrested, and heavily armed policemen and troops patrolled the black ghettoes.
      On June 13, as a conciliatory gesture, Botha meets with Desmond Tutu in Cape Town, but the meeting failed to temper Tutu's public criticism of Botha's policies.
      In the fall of 1986, the US government and the European Community authorized economic sanctions against South Africa in an effort to end apartheid. In September, Desmond Tutu was elected the first black archbishop of Cape Town, thus becoming the spiritual leader of three million Anglicans in southern Africa. In his new position, he continued his outspoken criticism of apartheid and the oppressive South African government.
      With the South African economy in decline, P.W. Botha stepped down as president in 1989 and was succeeded by F.W. de Klerk, who set about dismantling apartheid. Nelson Mandela was freed, a new constitution enfranchised blacks, and in 1994 Mandela and the African National Congress were elected to power in South Africa's first free elections. Desmond Tutu retired as Anglican archbishop in 1996.
1986 President Reagan criticizes South African state of emergency
1983 First man-made object to leave Solar System       ^top^
      After over a decade in space, Pioneer 10, the world's first outer-planetary probe, leaves the solar system. The next day, it radioes back its first scientific data on interstellar space.
      On March 2, 1972, the NASA spacecraft was launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida, on a mission to Jupiter, the solar system's largest planet. On December 3, 1973, after successfully negotiating the asteroid belt and a distance of 620 million miles, Pioneer 10 reached Jupiter, and sent back to earth the first close-up images of the spectacular gas giant.
      NASA officially ended the project on March 31, 1997, with the spacecraft having traveled a distance of some ten billion km. Headed in the direction of the Taurus constellation, Pioneer 10 will pass within three light years of another star--Ross 246--in the year 34'600 A.D. Bolted to the probe's exterior wall is a gold-anodized plaque, 15 by 23 cm, that displays a drawing of a human man and woman, a star map marked with the location of the sun, and another map showing the flight path of Pioneer 10. The plaque, intended to seen by intelligent life forms elsewhere in the galaxy, was designed by astronomer Carl Sagan.
1982 Fahd becomes king of Saudi Arabia when King Khalid dies at 69
1979 Sioux Indians are awarded $105 million in compensation for the US seizure in 1877 of their Black Hills in South Dakota.
1978 Israelis withdraw the last of their invading forces from Lebanon. (They went back in some years later)
1977 James Earl Ray, the convicted assassin of civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr., was recaptured following his escape three days earlier from a Tennessee prison.
New Vietnam peace agreement       ^top^
      Representatives of the original signers of the January 27 cease-fire sign a new 14-point agreement calling for an end to all cease-fire violations in South Vietnam. Coming at the end of month-long negotiations between Henry Kissinger and Le Duc Tho, the settlement included an end to all military activities at noon on June 15; an end to US reconnaissance flights over North Vietnam and the resumption of US minesweeping operations in North Vietnamese waters; the resumption of US talks on aid to North Vietnam; and the meeting of commanders of opposing forces in South Vietnam to prevent outbreaks of hostilities. Fighting had erupted almost immediately after the original cease-fire that had been initiated as part of the Paris Peace Accords. Both sides repeatedly violated the terms of the cease-fire as they jockeyed for position and control of the countryside. This new agreement proved no more effective than the original peace agreement in stopping the fighting, which continued into early 1975 when the North Vietnamese launched a massive offensive that overran South Vietnam in less than 55 days. The war was finally over on April 30, 1975, when North Vietnamese tanks rolled into Saigon.
1971 The New York Times begins publishing the Pentagon Papers, a secret study of America's involvement in Vietnam.
      The New York Times begins publishing portions of the 47-volume Pentagon analysis of how the US commitment in Southeast Asia grew over a period of three decades. Daniel Ellsberg, a former Defense Department analyst who had become an antiwar activist, had stolen the documents. After unsuccessfully offering the documents to prominent opponents of the war in the US Senate, Ellsberg gave them to the Times. Officially called The History of the US Decision Making Process on Vietnam, the "Pentagon Papers" disclosed closely guarded communiques, recommendations, and decisions concerning the US military role in Vietnam during the Kennedy and Johnson administrations, along with the diplomatic phase in the Eisenhower years. The publication of the papers created a nationwide furor, with congressional and diplomatic reverberations as all branches of the government debated over what constituted "classified" material and how much should be made public. The publication of the documents precipitated a crucial legal battle over "the people's right to know," and led to an extraordinary session of the US Supreme Court to settle the issue. Although the documents were from the Kennedy and Johnson administrations, President Richard Nixon opposed their publication, both to protect the sources in highly classified appendices, and to prevent further erosion of public support for the war. On 30 June the Supreme Court ruled that the Times had the right to publish the material. The publication of the "Pentagon Papers," along with previous suspected disclosures of classified information to the press, led to the creation of a White House unit to plug information leaks to journalists. The illegal activities of the unit, known as the "Plumbers," and their subsequent cover-up, became known collectively as the "Watergate scandal," which resulted in President Nixon's resignation in August 1974
      The New York Times begins to publish sections of the so-called "Pentagon Papers," a top-secret Department of Defense study of America's involvement in the Vietnam War. The papers indicated that the American government had been lying to the people for years about the Vietnam War and the papers seriously damaged the credibility of the US's Cold War foreign policy. In 1967, Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara ordered his department to prepare an in-depth history of US involvement in the Vietnam War. McNamara had already begun to harbor serious doubts about US policy in Vietnam, and the study--which came to be known as the "Pentagon Papers"--substantiated his misgivings. Top-secret memorandums, reports, and papers indicated that the US government had systematically lied to the American people, deceiving them about American goals and progress in the war in Vietnam. The devastating multi-volume study remained locked away in a Pentagon safe for years. In 1971, Daniel Ellsberg, a Vietnam veteran and Defense Department employee who had turned completely against the war, began to smuggle portions of the papers out of the Pentagon. These papers made their way to The New York Times, and on 13 June 1971, the US public read them in stunned amazement. The publication of the papers added further fuel to the already powerful antiwar movement and drove the administration of President Richard Nixon into a frenzy of paranoia about information "leaks." Nixon attempted to stop further publication of the papers, but the Supreme Court refused to issue an injunction. The "Pentagon Papers" further eroded the US public's confidence in their nation's Cold War foreign policy. The brutal, costly, and seemingly endless Vietnam War had already damaged the government's credibility, and the publication of the "Pentagon Papers" showed people the true extent to which the government had manipulated and lied to them. Some of the most dramatic examples were documents indicating that the Kennedy administration had openly encouraged and participated in the overthrow of South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem in 1963; that the CIA believed that the "domino theory" did not actually apply to Asia; and that the heavy American bombing of North Vietnam, contrary to US government pronouncements about its success, was having absolutely no impact on the communists' will to continue the fight.
1967 Thurgood Marshall appointed to Supreme Court       ^top^
      President Lyndon Johnson nominated Solicitor-General Thurgood Marshall to become the first black justice on the US Supreme Court.
      President Lyndon B. Johnson appoints US court of appeals judge Thurgood Marshall to the US Supreme Court to fill the seat of retiring associate justice Tom C. Clark. On August 30, after a heated debate, the Senate confirmed Marshall's nomination by a vote of sixty-nine to eleven. Two days later, he was sworn in by Chief Justice Earl Warren, making him the first African-American in history to sit on America's highest court.
      The great-grandson of slaves, Marshall was born in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1908. In 1933, after studying under the tutelage of civil liberties lawyer Charles H. Houston, he received his law degree from Howard University in Washington, D.C. In 1936, he joined the legal division of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), of which Houston was director, and two years later succeeded his mentor in the organization's top legal post.
      As the NAACP's chief counsel from 1938 to 1961, he argued thirty-two cases before the US Supreme Court, successfully challenging racial segregation, most notably in public education. He won twenty-nine of these cases, including a groundbreaking victory in 1954's Brown v. Board of Education, in which the Supreme Court ruled that ruled that segregation violated the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution and was thus illegal. The decision served as a great impetus for the African-American civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s, and ultimately led to the abolishment of segregation in all public facilities and accommodations.
      In 1961, President John F. Kennedy appointed Marshall to the US Court of Appeals, but his nomination was opposed by many Southern senators, and he was not confirmed until the next year. In June of 1967, President Johnson nominated him to the Supreme Court, and in late August he was confirmed. During his twenty-four years on the high court, Associate Justice Marshall consistently challenged discrimination based on race or sex, opposed the death penalty, and supported the rights of criminal defendants. He also defended affirmative action and women's right to abortion. As appointments by a largely Republican White House changed the politics of the Court, Marshall found his liberal opinions increasingly in the minority. He retired in 1991, and two years later, died.
1966 The US Supreme Court issued its landmark Miranda decision, ruling that criminal suspects had to be informed of their constitutional rights prior to questioning by police.
1951 UN troops seize Pyongyang, North Korea. Lt. Joe Kingston finds himself retreating and advancing in a single day.
1949 Installed by the French, Bao Dai enters Saigon to rule Vietnam.
1944 Wire recorder for audio patented
      The wire recorder for sound recording was invented in the late 1930s by a student at the Armour Institute of Technology in Chicago and is patented on June 13, 1944. The US Navy used the device in 1941.
1943 German spies land on Long Island, New York, and are soon captured. The Pearl Harbor spy provided valuable intelligence to Japanese war planners.
1940 Paris ville ouverte -- Paris is evacuated before the German advance on the city. Four years later, with the Allies marching on Paris, Adolf Hitler decreed that the city should be left a smoking ruin.
1933 first sodium vapor lamps installed (Schenectady NY)
1933 Home Owners Refinancing Act       ^top^
      America's beleaguered homeowners get a dose of relief on this day in 1933, as Congress votes the Home Owners Refinancing Act. The legislation, passed during the furious first 100 days of President Franklin Roosevelt's New Dealing administration, is designed to help Depression-stricken citizens refinance their homes. Towards that end, Act establishes the HomeOwners Loan Corporation (HOLC), a typical Roosevelt-era administration which uses federal funds to fight the Depression. Chaired for a spell by New Deal stalwart Jesse Holman Jones, HOLC helped finance mortgages and even helped pay for repairs on some people's homes. Though HOLC lasted but three years, it doled out loans for roughly one million mortgages.
1927 Charles A. Lindbergh receives the Flying Cross and is treated to a ticker tape parade in New York City to celebrate his successful crossing of the Atlantic. B.F. Mahoney was the 'mystery man' behind the Spirit of St. Louis.
1925 Telecast of a moving object       ^top^
      The first telecast of a moving object shows a model windmill with rotating blades. A radio station in Washington, D.C., transmitted the image to a laboratory elsewhere in the city. Previous telecasts had only transmitted still images. Within three years, the first regularly scheduled television programs would be broadcast. However, the radio industry would outstrip the fledgling television industry in profits until 1953.
1924 Doumergue président Après la victoire aux élections législatives du Cartel des gauches, le président Millerand a démissionné. Gaston Doumergue, président du Sénat qui jouit de la faveur de tous les partis de la Chambre, est élu président de la République.
1923 The French set a trade barrier between the occupied Ruhr and the rest of Germany.
1920 The US Post Office Department rules that children may not be sent by parcel post.
1917 Pershing arrive.       ^top^
      Le Général Américain Pershing, le plus jeune des " hauts-gradés " américains, prend en main l’organisation d’une structure d’accueil pour les Américains en France. Quelques mois plus tôt, le Congrès Américain a donné son accord pour l’entrée en guerre des E.U. C’est quelque chose de phénoménal pour l’époque. 2 millions de soldats vont ainsi entrer en France avant d’être redistribués sur différents fronts. Avec obstination, il lutte pied à pied contre Français et Anglais, pour que les Américains gardent leur autonomie de commandement. En quelques mois, il crée ainsi un instrument que ne possédaient pas encore les E.U. d’Amérique, un corps expéditionnaire opérationnel et une armée de métier.
1907 Lowest temp ever in 48 US states for June, 2ºF in Tamarack Calif
1900 China's Boxer Rebellion against foreigners and Christians erupts into full-scale violence.
1900 Soulèvement des Boxers       ^top^
      Les adeptes de cette société secrète avaient juré de se débarrasser des Occidentaux. Ils envahissent toutes les ambassades de Pékin (Chine). Les autorités chinoises n'interviennent pas. De durs combats se déroulèrent. Les pays européens concernés devront envoyer leurs propres troupes pour écraser la rebellion et dissoudre la société.
1898 Yukon Territory of Canada organized, Dawson chosen as capital
1895 Emile Levassor wins first Paris-Bordeaux-Paris auto race (24 km/h)
1888 US Congress creates the Department of Labor
1876 The Presbyterian Church in England merges with the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland, in creating a more uniform representation of the Reformed faith in the British Isles.
1866 US House of Representatives passes 14th Amendment to the Constitution.
1863 Confederate forces on their way to Gettysburg clash with Union troops at the Second Battle of Winchester, Virginia
1863 Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana continues
1863 Siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi continues
1863 Samuel Butler publishes first part of Erewhon, Christchurch, NZ
1862 Federals, after a brief skirmish, occupy Romney, Virginia (now West Virginia)
1862 Skirmish at New Market, Virginia
1848 Validation de l'élection de Louis-Napoléon       ^top^
      Le 04 Jun, Louis Napoléon Bonaparte a été triomphalement élu dans quatre départements. A Paris, sur les boulevards, on réclame "Poléon" sur l'air des lampions. Ce jour, l'Assemblée valide l'élection de Louis Napoléon qu'une commission exécutive a refusée. Malgré la décision prise, trois jours plus tard, invoquant les soupçons injurieux dont il a été l'objet, il démissionne. Commentaire de Napoléon III quelques années plus tard: " Mieux valait laisser aux utopies et aux passions le temps de s'user. "
1805 Meriwether Lewis reaches the Great Falls       ^top^
      Having hurried ahead of the main body of the expedition, Meriwether Lewis and four men arrive at the Great Falls of the Missouri River, confirming that the explorers are headed in the right direction. Meriwether Lewis and William Clark had set out on their expedition to the Pacific the previous year. They spent the winter of 1804 with the Mandan Indians in present-day North Dakota. The Hidatsa Indians, who lived nearby, had traveled far to the West, and they proved an important source of information for Lewis and Clark. The Hidatsa told Lewis and Clark they would come to a large impassable waterfall in the Missouri when they neared the Rocky Mountains, but they assured the captains that portage around the falls was less than 800 m. Armed with this valuable information, Lewis and Clark resumed their journey up the Missouri accompanied by a party of 33 in April. The expedition made good time, and by early June, the explorers were nearing the Rocky Mountains. On 03 June, however, they came to a fork at which two equally large rivers converged. "Which of these rivers was the Missouri?" Lewis asked in his journal. Since the river coming in from the north most resembled the Missouri in its muddy turbulence, most of the men believed it must be the Missouri. Lewis, however, reasoned that the water from the Missouri would have traveled only a short distance from the mountains and, therefore, would be clear and fast-running like the south fork. The decision was critical. If the explorers chose the wrong river, they would not be able to find the Shoshone Indians from whom they planned to obtain horses for the portage over the Rockies. Although all of their men disagreed, Lewis and Clark concluded they should proceed up the south fork. To err on the side of caution, however, the captains decided that Lewis and a party of four would speed ahead on foot. If Lewis did not soon encounter the big waterfall the Hidatsa had told them of, the party would return and the expedition would backtrack to the other river.
      On this day, four days after forging ahead of the main body of the expedition, Lewis is overjoyed to hear "the agreeable sound of a fall of water." Soon after he "saw the spray arise above the plain like a column of smoke.... [It] began to make a roaring too tremendous to be mistaken for any cause short of the great falls of the Missouri." By noon, Lewis had reached the falls, where he stared in awe at "a sublimely grand specticle [sic].... the grandest sight I had ever held." Lewis and Clark had been correct--the south fork was the Missouri River. The mysterious northern fork was actually the Marias River. Had the explorers followed the Marias, they would have traveled up into the northern Rockies where a convenient pass led across the mountains into the Columbia River drainage. However, Lewis and Clark would not have found the Shoshone Indians nor obtained the horses. Without horses, the crossing might well have failed. Three days after finding the falls, Lewis rejoined Clark and told him the good news. However, the captains' elation did not last long. They soon discovered that the portage around the Great Falls was not the easy half-mile jaunt reported by the Hidatsa, but rather a punishing 29-km trek over rough terrain covered with spiky cactus. The Great Portage, as it was later called, would take the men nearly a month to complete. By mid-July, however, the expedition was again moving ahead. A month later, Lewis and Clark found the Shoshone Indians, who handed over the horses that were so critical to the subsequent success of their mission.
1792 Le roi riposte. L'Assemblée vient de voter deux décrets, l'un pour le bannissement des prêtres réfractaires, l'autre pour la dissolution de la garde royale. Louis XVI réplique en convoquant Roland, Servan et Clavière, ministres girondins, et en les sommant de démissionner
1789 Mrs Alexander Hamilton serves ice cream for dessert to Washington
1777 Marquis de Lafayette lands in the United States to assist the colonies in their war against England.
1774 Rhode Island becomes first colony to prohibit importation of slaves
1525 German Reformer Martin Luther, 42, marries former nun Katherine von Bora, 26. Their 21-year marriage would bear six children. Kate would outlive her husband (who died in 1546) by six years.
1642 Arrestation de Cinq-Mars qui est incarcéré dans la citadelle de Montpellier.
1415 Henry the Navigator, the prince of Portugal, embarks on an expedition to Africa. This marks the beginning of Portuguese dominance of West Africa.
1389 Défaite des Serbes par les Ottomans, au Kossovo.       ^top^
      Les Turcs Ottomans organisent l’administration des Balkans comme en Turquie. Les Balkans adoptent ainsi progressivement la religion musulmane. Les guerres des Balkans au XXème siècle, ne peuvent se comprendre sans cette notion d’opposition multi-séculaire entre Chrétiens Serbes (et Orthodoxes, aidés par la Russie) et Musulmans Turcs (aidés par tout l’Islam).
      L’armée Turque se compose de soldats, les Janissaires, étrangers, encadrés par des Turcs. Ces soldats étrangers sont des jeunes chrétiens arrachés à leur famille dès 12 ans et élevés dans des établissements de formation militaire. La discipline et l’obéissance à la loi musulmane sont leurs seules règles; ils ne craignent plus la mort et leur efficacité est légendaire.
1381 Peasant army marches into London       ^top^
      During the Peasant's Revolt, a large mob of English peasants led by Wat Tyler marches into London and begins burning and looting the city. Several government buildings are destroyed, prisoners are released, and a judge is beheaded along with several dozen other leading citizens.
      The Peasant's Revolt had its origins in a severe manifestation of bubonic plague in the late 1340s, which killed nearly a third of the population of England. The scarcity of labor brought on by the Black Death led to higher wages and a more mobile peasantry. However, Parliament resisted these changes to its traditional feudal system, and passed laws to hold down wages while encouraging landlords to reassert their ancient manorial rights.
      In 1380, peasant discontent reached a breaking point when Parliament restricted voting rights through an increase of the poll tax, and the Peasant's Revolt began. In Kent, a county in southeast England, the rebels chose Wat Tyler as their leader, and he led his growing "army" toward London, capturing Maidstone, Rochester, and Canterbury along the way. After he was denied a meeting with King Richard II, he leads the rebels into London on June 13, 1381, burning and plundering the city.
      The next day, the fourteen-year-old king meets with peasant leaders at Mile End, and agrees to their demands to abolish serfdom and restrictions on the marketplace. However, at the same time, fighting continues elsewhere, and Tyler leads a peasant force against the Tower of London, capturing the fortress and executing the archbishop of Canterbury.
      The next day, the king meets Tyler at Smithfield, and Tyler presents new demands, including one that calls for the abolishment of church property. During the meeting, the mayor of London, angered at Tyler's arrogance in the presence of the king, lunges at the rebel leader with a sword, fatally wounding him. As Tyler lies dying on the ground, Richard manages to keep the peasant mob calm until the mayor returns with armed troops. Hundreds of rebels are executed and the rest dispersed. Over the next few days, the Peasant Revolt is put down with severity all across England, and Richard revokes all the concessions he had made to the peasants at Mile End. For several weeks, Wat Tyler's head is displayed on a pole in a London field.
1378 Déposition du Doge de Gênes, la grande rivale de Venise.       ^top^
      Né d’une famille de marchands génois, au début du XIVe siècle, un certain Rolando Fregoso est châtelain de Voltaggio, de Gavi et de Portovenere. En 1370, son fils Domenico (1325-1390) fait déposer le doge Gabriel Adorno et se fait proclamer à sa place, au terme d’un coup d’État. Pendant un siècle et demi, d’inexplicables luttes familiales entre les Fregoso et les Adorno vont désoler Gênes, allant jusqu’à provoquer des interventions étrangères. La famille fournit treize doges à la république génoise. Domenico est doge pendant huit ans; les aléas de la guerre dite de Chioggia contre Venise sont à l’origine de sa déposition, le 13 juin 1378.
      Violents, factieux et volontiers prêts aux coups de main, les Fregoso sont souvent de remarquables hommes de guerre : Piero, frère de Domenico, conquiert Chypre (1373) ; Abramo, fils de Piero, gouverneur de Corse en 1416, empêche les Aragonais de s’emparer de l’île.
      Quant à Paolo Fregoso (1430-1498), Cardinal, il mène une vie d’aventurier ambitieux. Doge à Gênes, il se montre si rapace et si brutal que les Génois font appel au Prince Sforza pour le chasser en 1464. De même, en 1488, une insurrection met fin à sa seconde expérience de pouvoir seigneurial à Gênes. Comme chez la plupart des membres de sa famille, la culture et le raffinement intellectuel se mêlent chez lui à l’ambition, à la cruauté et à la perfidie. La famille se divise aux XVe et XVIe siècles en de nombreuses branches. Son importance politique décroît et s’éteint à la fin du XVIe siècle.
1373 Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of Alliance (world's oldest) signed.
Deaths which occurred on a June 13:
2003 Israeli Staff Sgt. Mordechai Sayada, 21, from Kiryat Carmel, by a bullet in the neck, as he was in an armored jeep on patrol in Jenin, West Bank.
2003 Fuad Gidawi, by at least two missiles launched at his car from Israel Air Force helicopters, in the evening, in Gaza City. 22 persons, including 7 children, are wounded. Gidawi, was a member of Hamas' military wing, Iz a Din al-Kassam. He had been an aide to Tito Massoud, a Hamas operative killed in an IAF missile strike on 11 June 2003. Gidawi's brother is Hamas' representative in Iran. The Israelis say that the occupants of the car were on their way to launch a Qassam rocket attack on an Israeli residential area.
2003 Ali Jassem, 70, three of his sons, and a relative, trying to extinguish fires in their wheat field caused by US flares, are shot early in the day by US troops, in Elheer, Iraq.
2002 Kevin Strawn, 27, Travis Strawn, 21, and Colby Strawn, 15, in a fall while climbing, roped together, the southeast ridge of 5300-meter Mount Foraker in Denali National Park, Alaska (third highest peak in Alaska). The three brothers, from the Anchorage area, were flown to a base camp on 11 June. On 13 June they radio that they have reached 3200 meters altitude. Then silence. At 16:40 on 17 June a Park Service search helicopter spots their bodies at an altitude of 2600 meters, and they are taken out in the evening.
2002 Maia Wojciechowska, of a stroke, Polish-born (07 August 1927) US private detective, translator for Radio Free Europe, publicity director for Hawthorn Books, professional tennis player and instructor, publisher, and author of 19 children's books, including Shadow of a Bull (1964), about a young boy in Spain who finds his identity after his father, a bullfighter, dies in the ring.
2002 Shim Mi-son, 14, and Shin Hyo-sun, 14, crushed by US armored vehicle (a 40-ton AVLM) driven by Sergeant Mark Walker, 36, with Sergeant Fernando Nino as lookout. . The two Korean girls were walking to a birthday party in Yangju county, Gyeonggi province, South Korea. The two sergeants would be acquitted of vehicular homicide in separate US court martials (Nino on 20 Nov 2002, Walker on 22 Nov 2002), after the US refused to cede jurisdiction to South Korean authorities. This would provoke widespread protests in South Korea, with demands for the withdrawal of the 37'000 US soldiers there.
1994 John Leslie Britton, British mathematician born on 18 November 1927. His major work, which he started after reading a 1959 paper of Novikov [28 (15 Julian) Aug 1901 – 09 Jan 1975] and S. I. Adian, pursued singlemindedly, and published in almost 300 pages in 1973, was what he thought was a solution of the Burnside Problem of 1902. But Adian pointed out that, while individual lemmas were correct, in order to apply them all simultaneously the inequalities needed to make their hypothesis valid were inconsistent.
      The Burnside problem asks whether it is possible for a finitely generated group to be infinite if all its elements have finite order. This version is usually called the General Burnside problem and an example of such a group was found in 1964. The Burnside group B(d, n) is the largest d generator group in which every element satisfies xn = 1.
      The Restricted Burnside problem asks whether, for fixed d and n, there is a largest finite d generator group in which every element satisfies xn = 1. A positive solution to the Restricted Burnside problem would show that there are only finitely many finite factor groups of B(d, n).
1982 King Khalid, 69, of Saudi Arabia
1977 Tom C Clark, 77, former Supreme Court Justice, in NY.
1947 Albert Marquet, French Fauvist painter born on 27 March 1875. — [Il y avait un peintre du nom de Marquet / Qu'à Paris on voyait par rues et par quais. / Il était souvent recherché par le Parquet. / Mais alors pour outremer il s'embarquait, / Et personne ne le remarquait.] MORE ON MARQUET AT ART “4” JUNE LINKSNaplesLe Pont-Neuf14 juilletSergent du Corps ColonialMatisse et la ModèleLe Port de HambourgJour de Pluie à Paris (Nôtre-Dame)Quai des Grands Augustins, ParisLe Quai Conté, Paris
1944 Six Londoners killed by first German V-1 cruise missile       ^top^
      Germany launches 10 of its new V~1 (Fieseler Fi~103) rockets against Britain from a position near the Channel coast. They prove to be less than devastating. Mired in the planning stages for a year, the V~1 is a pilotless, jet-propelled plane that flies by air-driven gyroscope and magnetic compass, and is capable of carrying a ton of explosives. Unfortunately for the Germans, the detonation process is rather clumsy and imprecise, depending on the impact of the plane as the engine quits and the craft crash-lands. They often miss their targets.      This is certainly the case against Britain. Of the 10 V~1, or Reprisal 1, "flying bombs" shot at England, five crash near the launch site, and one is lost altogether--just four land inside the target country. Only one manages to take any lives: Six people are killed in London. The Germans had hoped to also mount a more conventional bombing raid against Britain at the same time the V~1s were hitting their targets-in the interest of heightening the "terror" effect. This too blew up in their faces, as the Brits destroyed the German bombers on the ground the day before as part of a raid on German airfields.
Londoners faced a frightening new threat in Hitler's V-weapon offensive
1931 Santiago Rusiñol y Prats, Catalan painter and writer born on 25 February 1861. — MORE ON RUSIÑOL AT ART “4” JUNE Ramon Casas a Paris — S. Rusiñol i R. Casas retratant~seLa fontMontserratLa noia de la clavellina
1914 Rasputin, advisor to Czar Gregory, poisoned and stabbed to death in St. Petersburg
1886 King Ludwig II of Bavaria drowns.
1876 Anton Schiffer, Austrian artist born on 18 August 1811.
Condamnés à mort par la Révolution: ^top^
1796 (25 prairial an IV):
MIGELLI Charlotte Françoise Carle, 22 ans, native de Paris, y demeurant, marchande fripière, par le tribunal criminel du département de la Seine, comme convaincue (1er) d'avoir, le 1 prairial an 3, coopéré volontairement, sans provocation violente, sans la nécessité actuelle de la défense légitime de soi-même, ou d'autrui, et avec préméditation à l'homicide du représentant du peuple Ferraud; (2éme) d'avoir dans les 1er jours de prairial an 4, participé volontairement sans provocation violente, sans la nécessité actuelle de la défense légitime de soi-même où d'autrui et avec préméditation aux attaques qui ont été faites à dessein de tuer les représentants du peuple Boissy-d'Anglas et Camboulas; elle a été exécutée le 21 fructidor.
1794 (25 prairial an II):
DUPRE Lambert, ex noble, cultivateur, 62 ans, né et domicilié à Moncrabot (Lot et Garonne), comme brigand de la Vendée, par la commission militaire séante à Bordeaux, comme convaincu d'avoir reçu des lettres de son fils depuis son émigration, et pour avoir soustrait une partie assez considérable d'argenterie armoriée à la vigilance des corps constitués.
JOFFROY Antoine Joseph, ex curé, maire d'Arentière, domicilié à Arentière (Aube), par le tribunal criminel dudit département, comme perturbateur.
LOURDEL François Marie, arpenteur, 70 ans, né à Fauquenbergues, domicilié à Renty, comme traître à la patrie et conspirateur, par la commission militaire à Nantes.
MARILLET Claude Marie Antoine, (dit Ladacière), commis écrivain, domicilié à Philippeville (Ardennes), comme émigré, par le tribunal criminel du département des Deux-Sèvres.
AYMARD Charles Louis, notaire et juge de paix, domicilié à Tresques, canton d'Uzés (Gard), comme conspirateur, par le tribunal criminel du département du Gard.
BOUZIGUES Simon, domicilié à Tresqué, canton d'Uzès (Gard), comme conspirateur, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
Par le tribunal révolutionnaire d'Arras:
DUPONT Charles François, 61 ans, né à Campagne (Pas de Calais), ménager, domicilié à Renty, époux de Marechal Jeanne, comme traître à la patrie, et conspirateur.
PLAQUETTE Elisabeth, âgée de 36 ans, née à Montagne sur Mers, demeurant à Aire.
VINCHEQUERRE François, 69 ans, né à Chartres, demeurant à Aire.
LEGAY Jean Joseph, 48 ans, né et demeurant à Aire, célibataire, écrivain, guillotiné.
Par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris:
BANCE Philippe, père, 44 ans?, né à Paris, imprimeur à Lyon, comme convaincu d'avoir pris part à la révolte de Lyon.
DROINET Jean François, 40 ans, né à Rheims (Marne), drapier, teinturier, ceinturier et fourreur, domicilié à Paris, comme fournisseur infidèle.
LORCET Jean Baptiste, ex bernardin, maire, cultivateur et fournisseur de fourrages pour l'armée, 33 ans, né à Baunez, (Meuse), domicilié à Sermaize, département de la Marne, comme fournisseur infidèle.
RUINET Joseph René, marchand de bois, fournisseur des armées, 24 ans, né et domicilié à Sermaise (Marne), comme fournisseur infidèle.
SAUVAGE Claude, juge de paix et fournisseur des fourrages des armées, 59 ans, né et domicilié à Sermaise (Marne), comme fournisseur infidèle.
MOREAU Jean, étapier, 61 ans, né à Dijon, domicilié à Auxonne (Côte-d'Or), .comme convaincu d'avoir dénaturé les vins qu'il était chargé de distribuer aux défenseurs de la partie, en y introduisant une grande quantité d'eau.
FERRET Pierre Antoine, cocher, 45 ans, né à Paris, domicilié à Nusy-du-Bon-Air (Seine et Oise), comme contre-révolutionnaire.
HARMASSON Julie, blanchisseuse, née à Hambourg, 24 ans, domiciliée à Paris, comme contre-révolutionnaire.
TRUDE Jacques Louis, 50 ans, ancien miroitier, natif de Paris, domicilié à Vaux (Seine et Oise), comme contre-révolutionnaire, en fournissant aux armées, de la République des souliers de mauvaise qualité; et en disant que la République était le plus mauvais gouvernement.
      ... comme conspirateurs:
BIZET Pierre, garçon jardinier, 30 ans, né et domicilié à Dreux, (Eure et Loire).
BOGARD Pierre Joseph, 53 ans, né à Sarre-Libre, marchand administrateur du département de la Moselle, maire de Sarre-Libre (Moselle).
DESCHAUX Louis Philippe Gorry (dit Desseures), ex noble et officier, domicilié à Moulins (Allier).
DUCASTELLIER Adrien Louis, 49 ans, né à Lizieux, département du Calvados, ex curé de Fourqeux (Seine et Oise), y demeurant.
CORRY-DE-CHAUX-D'ESCUR L. P., ex noble, capitaine, 43 ans, né à Rouen (Seine Inférieure), domicilié à Moulins (Allier).
MAGNAN Pierre Louis, gendarme près les tribunaux, né à Croisi-le-Châtel (Seine et Marne).
MOLLARD Joseph, 50 ans, boucher, né à St Rambin (Aisne), domicilié à Lagneux, même département.
PERENAY Ferdinand Joseph (dit Bondoux), ébéniste, 48 ans, natif de Châteauroux (Indre), domicilié à Lyon (Rhône), ... ayant figuré dans les rébellion de Lyon où il commandait les chasseurs à cheval du nommé Prisois.
SIBILOT Jean, officier municipal de Belleville, natif de Clermont (Meuse), domicilié à Belleville (Seine), ... ayant empêché l'approvisionnement de Paris, en arrêtant ses subsistances.
THOARD Nicolas Léon, peintre, 41 ans, natif de Paris, domicilié à Belleville (Seine), ... ayant empêché l'approvisionnement de Paris, en arrêtant ses subsistances.
TROUILLON Saint Clair, préposé aux bois de chauffage, domicilié à Alençon (Orne), ... ayant apporté la plus grande négligence dans les fournitures de bois pour la troupe qu'il a exposé à en manquer.
             ... domiciliés à Paris:
BOREZ Jean Baptiste, 30 ans, et BOREZ Maurice, 27 ans, domestiques, nés à Luques (Aveyron)
GUENIER ou GUESNIER Jean Baptiste, 31 ans, né à Thuybert (Eure), compagnon tailleur.
MARIN André François, instituteur et marchand, 63 ans, né à Puiseaux (Seine).
1664 Michel Corneille I, French painter born in 1602.more
1231 Saint Anthony of Padua, Wonder Worker. — Reproductions of artwork representing SAINT ANTHONY ONLINE: The Vision of Saint AnthonyMiracles of Saint Anthony
-- 323 B.C. Alexander the Great, 33,       ^top^
      The young Macedonian military genius who forged an empire stretching from the eastern Mediterranean to India, died in Babylon, in present-day Iraq. Born in Macedonia to King Philip II and Queen Olympias, Alexander received a classical education from famed philosopher Aristotle and a military education from his father.
      At the age of sixteen, Alexander led his first troops into combat, and two years later, commanded a large part of his father's army that won the Battle of Chaeronea and brought Greece under Macedonian rule. In 336 B.C., Philip II. 46, was assassinated (some think at the instigation of spurned Olympias and of Alexander) and Alexander, 20, ascended to the throne. Two years later, the young king led a large army into Asia Minor to carry out his father's plans for conquering Persia. Consistently outnumbered in his battles against superior Persian forces, Alexander displayed an unprecedented understanding of strategic military planning and tactical maneuvers. He never lost a single battle, and by 330 B.C. all of Persia and Asia Minor was under his sway.
      Within his empire, he founded great and lasting cities, such as Alexandria in Egypt, and brought about sweeping political and economic changes based on the advanced Greek models taught to him in his youth. Although Alexander controlled the largest empire in the history of the world, and was regarded as a god by many of his subjects, he launched a new eastern campaign soon after his return from Persia. By 327 B.C., he had conquered Afghanistan, Central Asia, and northern India.
      In the next year, his army, exhausted after eight years of fighting, refused to go further, and Alexander led them on a difficult journey home through the inhospitable Makran Desert. Finally reaching Babylon, Alexander began constructing a large fleet to take his army back to Egypt. However, in June of 323 B.C., just as the work on his ships was reaching its conclusion, Alexander fell sick with a fever and dies. Perhaps earnestly believing himself immortal, he had not selected a successor, and within a year of his death, his army and empire would break up into a multitude of warring factions. Later his body would be returned to Alexandria where it would be laid to rest in a golden coffin.
Alexandre le Grand meurt de fièvre à Babylone en 323 avant JC. Il a 33 ans.
      L'élève d'Aristote a tous les traits d'un héros de l'Illiade, séduisant, énergique, intempérant et brutal. Fils du roi de Macédoine Philippe II, Alexandre se signale à l'attention de la cour en domptant Bucéphale, un cheval célèbre pour sa fougue. A 18 ans, le prince soumet Athènes et Thèbes. Depuis longtemps déjà, ces prestigieuses cités ne sont plus que l'ombre que d'elles-mêmes. Deux ans plus tard, à la mort de son père, il monte sur le trône de Macédoine. Il pacifie les contrées barbares situées au nord de son pays et réprime une ultime révolte des Grecs. Enfin, il part à la conquête du monde à la tête de 40.000 soldats grecs et macédoniens. A Gordion, en Anatolie, Alexandre s'entend dire que celui qui dénouerait un certain noeud soumettrait l'Asie. Le Macédonien tranche le noeud gordien de son épée! Les victoires du Granique, d'Issos et de Gaugamèles livrent à Alexandre l'immense empire perse. Le conquérant entre en Egypte, où il fonde une ville à son nom, Alexandrie, puis il s'empare des trésors de Persépolis et atteint l'Inde où il découvre l'hindouisme et le bouddhisme. Mais ses troupes sont épuisées. Il doit rentrer à Babylone où il se consacre à l'organisation de ses conquêtes. En avance sur son temps, Alexandre impose un gouvernement commun aux Grecs, aux Macédoniens et aux Perses. Il marie ses soldats avec des princesses perses et donne l'exemple en épousant lui-même une fille de l'ancien Roi des Rois. Le grec devient pour 2000 ans la langue des échanges dans la Méditerranée orientale et le Moyen-Orient. Mille ans après l'épopée d'Alexandre, un voyageur chinois relève encore des traces d’hellénisme dans certaines oasis du désert de Gobi (entre le Tibet et la Mongolie).
Births which occurred on a June 13:
1942 The Office of War Information (OWI) is created by US President Roosevelt, who appoints radio news commentator Elmer Davis to be its head.. It would be an important US government propaganda agency during World War II.
1928 John Forbes Nash Jr., US mathematician who suffered from personality disorders since childhood, including schizophrenia from 1959 to the 1990s.
1911 Luis W Alvarez physicist (Nobel-1968)
1908 Maria Elena Vieira da Silva, Portuguese French painter, engraver, stained glass and mosaic artist, who died on 06 March 1992. Married Hungarian painter Arpad Szenes [1897–16 Jan 1985] in 1930. — MORE ON VIEIRA AT ART “4” JUNE O atelierO desastre = A guerra, — O incêndio II = O fogo IIBibliotecaComposição brancaDe Marte à LuaLe promeneur invisibleBataille des rouges et des bleusLa gare inondée
1899 Carlos Chavez Mexico City, conductor/composer (Sinfon¡a India)
1894 Mark van Doren Ill, author (The Happy Critic)
1893 Dorothy L. Sayers, mystery writer, creator of detective Lord Peter Wimsey, in Oxford, England.       ^top^
      Sayers, whose father was an Oxford teacher and minister, became one of the first women to receive a degree from Oxford. Although the family moved to the country when Sayers was four, she received an excellent education in Latin, French, history, and mathematics from her father and won a scholarship to Oxford. She received highest honors on her final exams in 1915. Although women at the time were not granted degrees, the rules changed retroactively in (1920.
      After Oxford, Sayers worked as a poetry editor in Oxford and a teacher in France. She returned to London to work as a freelance editor and an advertising copywriter for England's largest ad agency. She later turned her experiences at the agency into comic fodder in Murder Must Advertise (1933). She began writing detective fiction in the early (1920s, and her first novel, Whose Body?, was published in (1923. It introduced the world to the educated and fanciful Lord Peter Wimsey, who over the course of some dozen novels and many short stories emerged as a complex, intriguing character, comic and lighthearted at times, but plagued with nightmares and nervous disorders from his service in World War I.
      In Strong Poison (1930), Wimsey solves a mysterious poisoning and wins freedom for the wrongly accused mystery novelist Harriet Vane, with whom he falls in love and pursues through several books. In Gaudy Night (1935), set at an Oxford reunion, Vane finally accepts Wimsey. The two, plus Wimsey's butler Bunter, depart on a comical honeymoon, plagued by dead bodies, in Busman's Honeymoon (1937).
      Sayers herself had an unhappy romance in the early 1920s and had a child in (1924. Two years later, she married Scottish journalist Oswald Atherton Fleming, who became an invalid not long afterward. She spent much of the next 25 years caring for him, until his death in 1950. With G.K. Chesteron, Sayers founded the Detection Club, a group of mystery writers. She edited an important anthology called Great Short Stories of Detection, Mystery and Horrors from 1928 to 1934.
      After the late (1930s, she grew tired of detective fiction, and having won enough financial independence to write what she liked, she returned to her academic roots and wrote scholarly treatises on aesthetics and theology, as well as translations of Dante and others. Sayers died on 17 December 1957
      In (1923 Dorothy L. Sayers published her first novel, Whose Body?, which introduced Lord Peter Wimsey, her hero for fourteen volumes of novels and short stories. She also wrote four other novels in collaboration and two serial stories for broadcasting. Writing full time she rose to be the doyen of crime writers and in due course president of the Detection Club. Her work, carefully researched and widely varied, included poetry, the editing of collections with her erudite introductions on the genre, and the translating of the Tristan of Thomas from mediaeval French. She admired E C Bentley and G K Chesterton and numbered among her friends T S Eliot, Charles Williams and C S Lewis.
     Dorothy Sayers's works are:
Whose Body? (1923) — Clouds of Witness (1926) — Unnatural Death (1927) — Lord Peter Views the Body (short stories, (1928) — The Unpleasantness at the Bellona Club (1928) — The Documents in the Case (1930) — Strong Poison (1930) — Five Red Herrings (1931) — Have His Carcase (1932) — Hangman's Holiday (short stories, (1933) — Murder Must Advertise (1933) — The Nine Tailors (1934) — Gaudy Night (1935) — Busman's Honeymoon (1937) — The Greatest Drama Ever Staged (1938) — In the Teeth of the Evidence (short stories, (1939 ) — Strong Meat (1939) — Begin Here (1940) — Creed or Chaos (1940) — The Mind of the Maker (1941) — Why Work? (1942) — The Man Born To Be King (1943) — The Just Vengeance (Lichfield Festival Play, 1946) — Unpopular Opinions (1946) — Striding Folly (short stories, (1973) — Love All (and the play version of Busman's Honeymoon) (1992) — Spiritual Writings (ed. Ann Loades) (1993) — Poetry of Dorothy L Sayers (ed. Ralph Hone) (1996 ) — Letters of Dorothy L Sayers (ed. Barbara Reynolds) - Volume 1: 1899-1936: The Making of a Detective Novelist (1996) - Volume 2: 1937-1943: From Novelist to Playwright (1997) - Volume 3: 1944-1950: A Noble Daring (1999) - Volume 4: (1951-1957: In the Midst of Life) — Thrones, Dominations (co-author Jill Paton Walsh) — The Divine Comedy by Dante Alighieri. translated by DLS (completed by Barbara Reynolds) (1962)
SAYERS ONLINE: Catholic Tales and Christian SongsOp. I.
1891 Pierre Humbert, French scholar and mathematician who died on 17 November 1953. He was a son of Georges Humbert [07 Jan 1859 – 22 Jan 1921].
1888 Fernando António Nogueira Pessoa, who died on 30 November 1935, Portuguese poet whose part in Modernism gave Portuguese literature European significance. From age 7 to 17 he lived in Durban, South Africa, where his stepfather was Portuguese consul. He became fluent in English. He worked as a commercial translator in Lisbon, while becoming a leading aesthetician of the Modernist movement, contributing articles to magazines. In 1918 he started publishing books of his English poetry. It is only after his death that he became famous for his Portuguese poetry, written in different styles under his own name and a variety of pen names embodying what he felt were his multiple personalities, such as Poesias de Fernando Pessoa — Poesias de Alvaro de Campos — Poemas de Alberto Caeiro — Odes de Ricardo Reis.
1876 William Gosset “Student”, English chemist and mathematical statistician who died on 16 October 1937. He invented the t-test to handle small samples for quality control in brewing.
1875 Arthur Segal, Romanian artist who died on 23 June 1944. — more
1871 Ernst Steinitz, German mathematician who died on 29 September 1928. He worked on the theory of fields.
1865 William Butler Yeats, poet.       ^top^
      Yeats was born in Dublin on 13 June 1865 but moved to London when he was two. His family returned to Dublin in 1880. His father was a former lawyer turned painter, and Yeats, too, planned to pursue art. He entered the Metropolitan School of Art in Dublin after high school but soon left to focus on poetry. His first poems appeared in 1885 in the Dublin University Review.
      In 1887, he moved to London and became a writer, devoting himself to visionary, mystic poetry. His first book of verse, The Wanderings of Oisin and Other Poems, was published in 1889, the same year he fell hopelessly in love with actress Maude Gonne, who refused to marry him. In 1891, he helped found the Rhymers Club, a society of poets. In 1898, he met Lady Gregory and spent many subsequent summers at her estate. He later purchased a nearby ruined castle, which he called The Tower, and which figures as an important symbol in his later work.
       On 08 May 1899, his play, The Countess Cathleen, opened at the Irish Literary Theatre in Dublin, the theater's inaugural performance.
      Yeats had been persuaded to help launch the theater by his friend Isabella Augusta, Lady Gregory, a writer and collector of Irish folklore. Until 1907, Yeats managed the theater's business affairs and wrote numerous plays. On occasion, his experimental works sparked riots in the audience.
      As manager of the Irish National Theatre, Yeats became increasingly appreciated as a writer of national stature. His poetry, once ecstatic and dreamy, became tighter, sparser, and more realistic. He published Responsibilities: Poems and a Play in 1914 and The Wild Swans of Coole in 1917. Some of his best work was written after 1917, including Sailing to Byzantium and The Second Coming. In 1922, he was appointed a senator of the new Irish Free State, and the following year he won the Nobel Prize. Yeats died in France on 28 January 1939.
YEATS ONLINE: Michael Robartes and the Dancer, Responsibilities, and Other Poems, The Wild Swans at Coole, The Wind Among the Reeds
1844 Edouard Frédéric Wilhelm Richter, French artist who died on 04 March 1913.
1839 Modesto Urgell e Inglada, Spanish artist who died on 03 April 1919.
1831 James Clerk Maxwell, Scottish mathematical physicist, who died on 05 November 1879. About 1862, he calculated that the speed of propagation of an electromagnetic field is approximately that of the speed of light. He concluded “that light consists in the transverse undulations of the same medium which is the cause of electric and magnetic phenomena.”. By treating gases statistically in 1866 he formulated, independently of Ludwig Boltzmann, the Maxwell-Boltzmann kinetic theory of gases. This theory showed that temperatures and heat involved only molecular movement.
1821 Albert duc de Broglie, France, premier (1873-1874, 1977)
1806 Anton Hartinger, Austrian artist who died on 24 January 1890. — Still Life with Fruit
1805 Magnus von Wright, Finnish painter and illustrator who died on 05 July 1868. — more
1786 Winfield Scott, US Army general famous for his victories in the War of 1812 and the War with Mexico, presidential candidate
1773 Thomas Young proponent of the wave theory of light
1752 Fanny Burney England, author (Camille, Evelina) BURNEY ONLINE: Johnson & Fanny BurneyEvelina: or, The History of a Young Lady's Entrance Into the World
0823 Charles II (the Bald) king of France (843-77), emperor (875-77)
0040 Gnaeus Julius Agricola Roman general; conquered Wales and Northern. England
Holidays Yemen Arab Rep : Reform Movement Day

Religious Observances RC : St Anthony of Padua, patron of lovers, poor / Saint Antoine de Padoue: Ce prêtre portugais du nom de Fernandez rejoint l'humble communauté de François d'Assise. Il prend le nom d'Antoine et se voue aux tâches les plus humbles jusqu'au jour où l'on découvre ses talents de prédicateur. François l'envoie prêcher dans toute l'Europe, y compris chez les hérétiques albigeois. Antoine meurt à Padoue à 36 ans, en 1231. Il sera plus tard désigné Docteur de l'Eglise et saint patron du Portugal.

Thoughts for the day: “To reform a man, begin with his grandmother.”
“To reform your grandmother, teach her to suck eggs.”
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