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Events, deaths, births, of JUN 14
[For events of Jun 14  Julian go to Gregorian date: 1583~1699 Jun 211700s Jun 251800s Jun 261900~2099 Jun 27]
• UNIVAC I... • Fall of Paris... • Argentine surrender in the Falklands... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • Loi sur l’assèchement de l’Ijsselmeer... • Uncle Tom's Cabin author is born... • Bear Flag revolt begins... • The US flag is adopted... • Bounty mutineers reach Timor...
^ On a 14 June:
2003 End of two days of refendum, by which voters in the Czech Republic endorse entry of their country into the European Union.
2003 In Pikeville, Kentucky, some sixty descendants of the Hatfield and McCoy families sign a peace treaty officially ending their feud.
2002 The stock of Alamosa Holdings (APS) is downgraded by Merrill Lynch from “NT Neutral / LT Reduce-Sell” to “NT Reduce-Sell / LT Reduce-Sell” and by Legg Mason from “Hold” to “Sell”. The stock retraces its partial recovery of the previous day (closing at $1.47. Its 12 Jun close was $1.10), opening at $1.30, making an intraday low of $1.09 and closing at $1.25.
2002 After Sprint Corp.–PCS Group (PCS) cuts its subscriber growth forecast, its stock is downgraded by Merrill Lynch from “NT Neural / LT Buy” to “NT Reduce-Sell / LT Neutral”, by Morgan Stanley from “Overweight” to “Equal weight”, by JP Morgan from “Buy” to “Market Perform”, by Legg Mason from “Hold” to “Sell”, by Robert W. Baird from “Market Outperform” to “Market Perform”, by Salomon Smith Barney from “Buy” to “Neutral”, by SoundView Technology and by Wachovia from “Buy” to “Hold”, by Williams Capital, by Robertson Stephens, and by Thomas Weisel from “Strong Buy” to “Buy”. From the previous day's close of $5.99 the stock falls to an intraday low of $3.55 and closes at $3.90.
2001 Un millón de argelinos se manifiestan por la democracia y condenan la represión policial del régimen de Buteflika.
2000 In the biggest step toward peace since the end of the Korean War, the leaders of North and South Korea sign an agreement pledging to work for reconciliation and eventual reunification.
2000 The Southern Baptist Convention declares that women should no longer serve as pastors.
1997 El presidente croata Franjo Tudjman (1922 – 11 Dec 1999), que lidera la nacionalista-conservadora Unión Democrática Croata (HDZ), es reelegido para un nuevo mandato de cinco años.
1996 The FBI disclosed that the White House had obtained bureau background reports on at least 408 people without justification.
1996 World copper markets were thrown into turmoil following disclosure by Sumitomo Corp. that a rogue trader had hidden multibillion-dollar losses.
1993 Se celebra un referéndum en Malawi por el que se aprueba el multipartidismo en dicho país.
1991. The US government reported consumer prices had risen a modest 0.3% in May.
1989 La Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando recibe como pintor al poeta y dramaturgo gaditano Rafael Alberti (16 Dec 1902 – 28 Oct 1999) en un acto presidido por la Reina, por deseo expreso del nuevo académico.
1987 En las elecciones generales anticipadas en Italia, la Democracia Cristiana obtiene 234 escaños, el PCI 177, el Partido Socialista 94 y se produce un significativo progreso de los verdes (3 escaños).
1985 The 17-day hijack ordeal of TWA Flight 847 began as a pair of Lebanese Shiite Muslim extremists seized the jetliner shortly after takeoff from Athens, Greece. Milicianos chiítas libaneses se apoderan de un avión de la TWA con 147 pasajeros, cuando volaba de Atenas a Roma. El secuestro duró 16 días.
1985 Plus de frontière: Signature entre Européens des accords concernant la libre circulation des biens et des marchandises et sur la suppression graduelle des contrôles aux frontières des Etats Membres. Ce sont les accords de Schengen, une tranquille petite ville frontalière Franco-Luxembourgeoise.
1982 Argentine surrender in the Falklands.       ^top^
      After suffering through six weeks of military defeats against Britain’s formidable armed forces, Argentina surrenders to Great Britain, ending the Falkland Islands War. The Falklands Islands, known as the Islas Malvinas to South Americans, are located some five hundred miles east of Argentina in the Atlantic Ocean. There are two large islands, East and West Falklands, and some two hundred small ones that make up the Falklands. South Georgia Island, a scarcely inhabited dependency of the Falkland Islands British crown colony, is located some 2250 km east of the Falklands.
      The British have long claimed South Georgia and the Falklands, based on their discovery by British navigator John Davis in 1592, but they have also been claimed and occupied at various times by Spain, France, and Argentina. In 1832, a seizure of a US vessel near the Falklands led to a US military expedition to the area, and the British responded by formally claiming sovereignty and occupying the Falkland and South Georgia islands.
      In 1981, Argentina petitioned the United Nations for possession of the Falkland Islands, but the UN failed to comply, so on 19 March 1982, Argentine dictator General Leopoldo Galtieri sent a party of civilians to South Georgia to reclaim the island. On 02 April this preliminary operation was followed by a full-scale military invasion of the Falkland Islands by Argentine forces.
      When diplomatic efforts to resolve the conflict failed, Britain sent a task force of thirty warships with supporting aircraft to the islands, and within six weeks had completely routed the Argentines, who surrendered on 14 June 1982. Some one thousand people died as a result of the Falklands War. In 1989, the approximately two thousand residents of the Falkland Islands reaffirmed their allegiance to Britain by rejecting a pro-Argentina political party.
     The war made the British Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher, "the Iron Lady", very popular at home.
     The Falkland Islands War (also called Falklands War, Malvinas War, or South Atlantic War) was a brief, undeclared war fought between Argentina and Great Britain in 1982 over the control of the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) and associated island dependencies. Argentina had claimed sovereignty over the Falkland Islands (which lie 480 km east of its coast) since the early 19th century, but Britain had occupied and administered the islands since 1833 and had consistently rejected Argentina's claims. In early 1982 the Argentine military junta led by Lieutenant General Leopoldo Galtieri gave up on long-running negotiations with Britain and instead launched an invasion of the islands. The decision to invade was chiefly political: the junta, which was being criticized for economic mismanagement and human rights abuses, believed that the “recovery” of the islands would unite Argentines behind the government in a patriotic fervour. An elite invasion force trained in secrecy, but its timetable was shortened on March 19, when a dispute erupted on British-controlled South Georgia island (1600 km east of the Falklands) between Argentine salvage workers and British scientists stationed there. Naval forces were quickly mobilized.
      Argentine troops invaded the Falklands on 02 April, rapidly overcoming the small garrison of British marines at the capital of Stanley (Port Stanley); they obeyed orders not to inflict any British casualties, despite losses to their own units. The next day Argentines seized the associated islands of South Georgia and the South Sandwich group. By late April Argentina had stationed on the Falklands more than 10'000 soldiers, the vast majority of which were poorly trained conscripts. As expected, the Argentine populace reacted favorably, with large crowds gathering at the Plaza de Mayo (in front of the presidential palace) to demonstrate support for the military initiative.
      In response to the invasion, the British government under Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher declared a war zone for 320 km around the Falklands and assembled a naval task force with which to retake the islands. Most European powers voiced support for Great Britain, and European military advisers were withdrawn from Argentine bases; however, most Latin American governments sympathized with Argentina. A notable exception was Chile, which maintained a state of alert against its neighbor, owing to a dispute over islands in the Beagle Channel. The perceived threat from Chile prompted Argentina to keep most of its elite troops on the mainland, distant from the Falklands theatre. In addition, Argentine military planners had trusted that the United States would remain neutral in the conflict, but, following unsuccessful mediation attempts, the United States offered full support to Great Britain, allowing its NATO ally to use its air-to-air missiles, communications equipment, aviation fuel, and other military stockpiles on British-held Ascension Island, as well as cooperating with military intelligence.
      On 25 April, while the British task force was steaming 13'000 km to the war zone via Ascension Island, a smaller British force retook South Georgia island, in the process capturing one of Argentina's vintage diesel-electric submarines. On 02 May the Argentine cruiser General Belgrano was sunk outside the war zone by a British submarine. Following this controversial event, most other Argentine ships were kept distant from the conflict, but Argentine submarine action continued to threaten the British fleet. Meanwhile, the British naval force and the land-based Argentine air force fought intensive battles, during which the Argentines sank the HMS Sheffield and the container ship Atlantic Conveyor with Exocet air-to-sea missiles. In addition, two frigates and another destroyer were sunk and several other vessels damaged, but the majority of Argentine bombs did not detonate. Argentina also failed to prevent the British from making an amphibious landing near Port San Carlos, on the northern coast of East Falkland, on 21 May. From this beachhead the British infantry advanced southward to capture the settlements of Darwin and Goose Green, after which they turned eastward to surround Stanley on 31 May.
      The large Argentine garrison in Stanley surrenders on 14 June, effectively ending the conflict.
      British forces would reoccupy the South Sandwich Islands on 20 June. The British captured some 11'400 Argentine prisoners during the war, all of whom were afterward released. Nearly 750 Argentine military men were killed—including 368 in the sinking of the General Belgrano—while Britain lost 256. Scores of Argentine aircraft of various types were destroyed, most while on the ground, and the British lost 10 Harrier jets and more than two dozen helicopters.
      Military strategists have debated key aspects of the conflict but have generally underscored the roles of submarines (both Britain's nuclear-powered vessels and Argentina's older, diesel-electric subs) and antiship missiles (both air-to-sea and land-to-sea types). The war also illustrated the importance of air superiority—which the British had been unable to establish—and of advanced surveillance. Logistic support was vital as well, because the armed forces of both nations had operated at their maximum ranges.
      Argentina's ignominious defeat severely discredited the military government and led to the restoration of civilian rule there in 1983. Meanwhile, British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher converted widespread patriotic support into a landslide victory for her Conservative Party in that year's parliamentary election.
1982 Fahd Ben Abdelasis Al-Saud, Rey de Arabia, es proclamado rey de Arabia Saudí.
1974 Se descubre en Estados Unidos que el presidente Richard Nixon había utilizado métodos ilegales en su campaña para su reelección, escándalo conocido por Watergate.
1969 US announces troop withdrawal from Vietnam.       ^top^
     The US command announces that three combat units will be withdrawn from Vietnam. They were the 1st and 2nd Brigades of the US Army 9th Infantry Division and Regimental Landing Team 9 of the 3rd Marine Division--a total of about 13'000 to 14'000 men. These troops were part of the first US troop withdrawal, which had been announced on 08 June by President Richard Nixon at the Midway conference with South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu. Nixon had promised that 25'000 soldiers would be withdrawn by the end of the year, and more support troops were later sent home in addition to the aforementioned combat forces in order to meet that number.
1968 Dr. Spock convicted for aiding draft resisters       ^top^
      A Federal District Court jury in Boston convicts Dr. Benjamin Spock and three others, including Yale University Chaplain William Sloane Coffin, Jr., of conspiring to aid, abet, and counsel draft registrants to violate the Selective Service Act. During the Johnson administration, Spock, a physician and the famous author of The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care, was an ubiquitous figure at antiwar demonstrations. In April 1967, Spock, Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., and entertainer Harry Belafonte led an estimated 300,000 people on a march to the United Nations headquarters in New York City, the largest antiwar demonstration to date. Spock was one of the original signers of A Call to Resist Illegitimate Authority, published in September 1967, which supported draft resistance and the right of servicemen to refuse to obey "illegal and immoral orders."
      The 1968 convictions were overturned in 1969. In November of that year, Spock joined a Washington, D.C., antiwar demonstration of more than 250'000 people, sponsored by the New Mobilization Committee, a group organized by Spock and others on 04 July. In 1969, Spock was arrested several times, but he continued his antiwar activities. On 27 November, a new left-wing antiwar movement, the People's Party, nominated Spock as its candidate for president in the 1972 presidential election. Spock remained a prominent antiwar activist until the US withdrew from Southeast Asia.
1966 The Vatican announces that its Index of Prohibited Books (created by Pope Paul IV in 1557) is abolished.
1954 US President Eisenhower signs a congressional resolution which adds the words "under God" to the Pledge of Allegiance. The last phrase now reads: '...one nation, under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.
1954 First nationwide US civil defense drill held       ^top^
      Over 12 million Americans "die" in a mock nuclear attack, as the United States goes through its first nationwide civil defense drill. Though American officials were satisfied with the results of the drill, the event stood as a stark reminder that the United States--and the world-was now living under a nuclear shadow. The June 1954 civil defense drill was organized and evaluated by the Civil Defense Administration, and included operations in 54 cities in the United States, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Alaska, and Hawaii. Canada also participated in the exercise. The basic premise of the drill was that the United States was under massive nuclear assault from both aircraft and submarines, and that most major urban areas had been targeted.
      At 10:00, alarms were sounded in selected cities, at which time all citizens were supposed to get off the streets, seek shelter, and prepare for the onslaught. Each citizen was supposed to know where the closest fallout shelter was located; these included the basements of government buildings and schools, underground subway tunnels, and private shelters. Even President Dwight D. Eisenhower took part in the show, heading to an underground bunker in Washington, D.C. The entire drill lasted only about 10 minutes, at which time an all-clear signal was broadcast and life returned to normal.
      Civil Defense Administration officials estimated that New York City would suffer the most in such an attack, losing over 2 million people. Other cities, including Washington, D.C., would also endure massive loss of life. In all, it was estimated that over 12 million persons in the US would die in an attack. Despite those rather mind-numbing figures, government officials pronounced themselves very pleased with the drill. Minor problems in communication occurred, and one woman in New York City managed to create a massive traffic jam by simply stopping her car in the middle of the road, leaping out, and running for cover. In most cities, however, the streets were deserted just moments after the alarms sounded and there were no signs of panic or criminal behavior. A more cautious assessment came from a retired military officer, who observed that the recent development of the hydrogen bomb by the Soviet Union had "outstripped the progress made in our civil defense strides to defend against it."
1953 Se inicia en Corea una gran ofensiva comunista.
1952 Keel laid for first nuclear powered sub the Nautilus
1949 Archbishop Beran of Czechoslavakia tries to preach his Corpus Christi sermon in Cathedral of St. Vitus but Communist agitators break it up with catcalls.
1949 State of Vietnam formed — Se proclama un Estado vietnamita bajo el Gobierno de Bao Dai.
1948 Cardinal Mindszenty orders church bells tolled throughout Hungary in protest of the nation’s secularization law.
1945 Los británicos celebran la reconquista de Birmania.
1944 first B-29 raid against mainland Japan
1943 The US Supreme Court ruled schoolchildren could not be compelled to salute the flag of the United States if doing so would conflict with their religious beliefs
1941 Computer invention pirated
      Engineer John Mauchly of the University of Pennsylvania pays a visit to John Atanasoff at Iowa State. Atanasoff, who was building a calculating machine using vacuum tubes, had heard Mauchly's paper about weather statistics in which he mentioned a device for calculating equations. Atanasoff invited Mauchly to see the computer he was building in Iowa. In a highly controversial decision over thirty years later, a judge overturned Mauchly's patents on the electronic computer and ruled that Atanasoff was the computer's true inventor.
1940 Les Allemands entrent à Paris -- Le gouvernement français s'installe à Bordeaux -- Rupture du front sur la Somme et l'Aisne -- Echec de l'offensive "Tiger" allemande sur la Ligne Maginot 1940 -- Le Général Dentz, représentant du gouvernement français en fuite, remet ses armes au Maréchal allemand Von Bock.
1940 Paris falls to the Nazis       ^top^
      With the Allied defenders of France evacuated to the British isle, the German army, facing little resistance, captures and occupies Paris. Parisians awaken to the sound of a German-accented voice announcing via loudspeakers that a curfew is being imposed for 20:00. Later in the day, a giant Swastika banner is hoisted onto the Eiffel Tower and another one beneath the Arc de Triomphe.
      Eight weeks earlier, on 12 May 1940, the Nazi invasion of France had begun. In a lightning strike, the German Wehrmacht simply out-flanked the northwest corners of the Maginot Line, previously alleged by the French military command to be an impregnable defense of their eastern border. Within a week, the Germans had also conquered Belgium and the Netherlands, making the Allied defense of France untenable. On 26 May, with German tanks racing across Western Europe, the British initiated Operation Dynamo—the total evacuation of Allied forces from the beach at Dunkirk on the Belgian coast. The ten-day military evacuation, during which 340'000 British, French, and Belgian troops were brought to the safety of the British isle, was the largest such evacuation in history. With Western Europe abandoned by its defenders, the German army swept through the rest of France.
     British Prime Minister Winston Churchill had tried for days to convince the French government to hang on, not to sue for peace, that America would enter the war and come to its aid. French premier Paul Reynaud telegrammed President Franklin Roosevelt, asking for just such aid — a declaration of war, and if not that, any and all help possible. Roosevelt replied that the United States was prepared to send material aid — and was willing to have that promise published — but Secretary of State Cordell Hull opposed such a publication, knowing that Hitler, as well as the Allies, would take such a public declaration of help as but a prelude to a formal declaration of war. While the material aid would be forthcoming, no such commitment would be made formal and public. However, on this day, President Roosevelt froze the US assets of the Axis powers, Germany and Italy.
     By the time German tanks rolled into Paris, 2 million Parisians had already fled, with good reason. In short order, the German Gestapo went to work: arrests, interrogations, and spying were the order of the day. While Parisians who remained trapped in their capital despaired, French men and women in the west cheered--as Canadian troops rolled through their region, offering hope for a free France yet.
     Eight days later, Philippe Pétain and other French leaders signed an armistice with the Nazis at Compiègne, and Germany annexed half the country, leaving the other half in the hands of their puppet French rulers. In July, Pétain took office as "chief of state" at Vichy, a city in unoccupied France. The Vichy government under Pétain and later Pierre Laval collaborated with the Nazis, and French citizens suffered on both sides of the divided nation.
      On 06 June, 1944, liberation of France began with the successful Allied landed at Normandy. Less than three months later, on 25 August, Free French divisions under General Charles de Gaulle marched into Paris followed by the US Fourth Infantry Division. Nazi resistance was light and a quick surrender was negotiated, in spite of Hitler’s orders to burn the city to the ground.
1940 El Gobierno español ocupa la ciudad de Tánger con el fin de garantizar la neutralidad de la ciudad.
1940 Auschwitz, largest of the Nazi concentration camps, is first opened near Krakow, Poland. Before its liberation by the Allies in 1945, over 3 million Jews would be exterminated there.
1938 Chlorophyll patented by Benjamin Grushkin
1938 Dorothy Lathrop wins the first Caldecott Medal (kid books author)
1935 Chaco War between Bolivia and Paraguay ends
1925 Béatification de Bernadette Soubirou, à qui la Vierge est apparue à plusieurs reprises à Lourdes, dans les Pyrénées. Elle ne sera canonisée que 8 ans plus tard en 1933.
1923 Pres Harding is first US president to use radio, dedicating the Francis Scott Key memorial in Baltimore
1919 first nonstop air crossing of Atlantic (Alcock and Brown) leaves Nfld
1918 Pays-Bas: Loi sur l’assèchement de l’Ijsselmeer       ^top^
      Lac d’eau douce des Pays-Bas, l’IJsselmeer occupe la partie septentrionale de l’ancien Zuiderzee, vaste golfe de la mer du Nord (3500 km2), qui a été endigué et poldérisé au cours du XXe siècle. L’origine du Zuiderzee (ou " mer du Sud ") est très récente. Ce n’est qu’au XIVe siècle, sans doute en 1395, que les eaux marines, après avoir rompu le cordon littoral des îles frisonnes, ont fait irruption dans les terres et rejoint un lac d’eau douce connu des Romains sous le nom de Flevo Lacus, lac qui s’étendait au nord-ouest du site actuel d’Amsterdam. La profondeur du golfe, de 4 à 6 mètres au sud, s’accroît progressivement vers le nord jusqu’à 11 ou 12 mètres ; des lits fluviaux, anciens émissaires du lac Flevo, se reconnaissent à leurs méandres et à des profondeurs plus grandes (jusqu’à 15 m). Plusieurs bras secondaires du Rhin, en particulier l’IJssel et le Vecht, viennent s’y jeter.
      Jusqu’au début du XXe siècle, le Zuiderzee a connu une assez grande activité maritime grâce à la pêche et au trafic portuaire d’Amsterdam. Depuis 1918, il est le théâtre d’une extraordinaire entreprise d’assèchement et de colonisation qui n’est toujours pas achevée au milieu des années 1990. À la suite du raz de marée de 1916, qui causa plusieurs ruptures de digues et des inondations, inquiets aussi des difficultés de ravitaillement dues à la Première Guerre mondiale, les Néerlandais décidèrent d’entreprendre des travaux très ambitieux. La loi du 14 juin 1918 confiait à l’État néerlandais le soin de fermer le golfe par une digue, d’y assécher cinq polders et d’y installer des agriculteurs, afin de réaliser les objectifs suivants :
– augmenter l’espace agricole national, trop exigu pour une population nombreuse et en voie d’accroissement rapide ; – raccourcir les lignes de défense contre la mer et, ainsi, mieux protéger l’intérieur du pays contre les dangers d’inondation ;
– améliorer les communications entre le nord et l’ouest du pays, grâce à la route qui reposerait sur la digue ; constituer une réserve d’eau douce dans la partie nord, non asséchée, du golfe.
      Le Zuiderzee se transforma en une mer intérieure, l’IJsselmeer (120'000 ha), séparée de la mer des Wadden et de la mer du Nord par une digue. Avant même l’achèvement de la digue de fermeture (1932), un premier polder était conquis en 1927-1930, celui de Wieringermeer (20'000 ha), par rattachement à la province de Hollande ; inondé par l’armée allemande en 1944, il fut à nouveau exondé en 1945. Le deuxième polder, celui du Nord-Est (48'000 ha), asséché de 1936 à 1942, est lui aussi soudé au continent.
      Les deux suivants sont, au contraire, des îles artificielles, encloses de digues, qui ne communiquent que par des ponts avec le reste du royaume : le Flevoland-Est (54'000 ha), asséché de 1950 à 1957, et le Flevoland-Sud (1959-1967), couvrant 43'000 hectares. Le cinquième polder, le Markerward (d’une superficie de 40'000 ha environ) était encore en cours d’aménagement en 1995.
      Le dernier plan adopté (1982) ne prévoit plus l’assèchement total mais le maintien de lacs (destinés aux loisirs et à la préservation des espèces naturelles) entre la côte de la province de Hollande septentrionale et le nouveau polder. Au nord de celui-ci, une digue relie Enkhuizen à Lelystad. Deux organismes d’État interviennent successivement. Le service des travaux du Zuiderzee s’occupe du génie civil : creusement des canaux de drainage alors que le futur polder est encore inondé, construction de digues avec les matériaux ainsi dragués et des matériaux importés, construction des stations de pompage, des écluses, des routes et des ponts.
      Le service de la colonisation et de la mise en valeur cultive lui-même les polders dans les cinq ans qui suivent l’assèchement, délimite les parcelles, construit les bâtiments agricoles et les agglomérations. Quand elles sont prêtes pour la culture, les nouvelles exploitations sont offertes aux intéressés, la moitié en fermage, l’autre moitié en bail emphytéotique ou en pleine propriété. Le paysage rural est souvent monotone sur ces terres basses, plates, découpées en parcelles géométriques par des routes et des canaux rectilignes.
      En 1994, l’affectation des sols dans l’ensemble des polders était la suivante : la surface agricole occupait 57%, les forêts et autres espaces naturels 16%, l’espace urbanisé 3%, l’eau douce 17%. La population non agricole vit et travaille dans des villages et de petites agglomérations tout neufs, où se rassemblent les services commerciaux, scolaires, administratifs, sociaux, médicaux. Cette conquête pacifique du Zuiderzee témoigne de la haute capacité technique et de la solide organisation sociale du peuple néerlandais.
1917 General Pershing and his HQ staff arrived in Paris during WW I
1904 Fracaso del Ejército ruso en Port Arthur.
1900 Las legaciones extranjeras en China son amenazadas por 20'000 “boxers” que rodean Pekín.
1900 Hawaiian Republic becomes the US Territory of Hawaii
1864 Battle of Pine Mt, Gen Leonidas Polk killed in action
1863 Second assault on Port Hudson, Louisiana 1863 Siege on Vicksbur
1863 Second Battle of Winchester       ^top^
      A small Union garrison in the Shenandoah Valley town of Winchester, Virginia, is easily defeated by the Army of Northern Virginia on the path of the Confederate invasion of Pennsylvania. In early June, General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia began an invasion of the North. Lee's men pulled out of defenses along the Rappahannock River and swung north and west into the Shenandoah Valley. Using the Blue Ridge Mountains as a screen, the Confederates worked their way northward with little opposition. General Joseph Hooker, commander of the Army of the Potomac, was unsure of the Confederates' intentions. He tracked Lee's army from a distance, staying safely away to protect Washington, D.C. During this time, Winchester was in Union hands. The city was literally at the crossroads of the war, so it changed hands continually. Robert Milroy, the commander of the Yankees in Winchester, was unaware that the vanguard of Lee's army was heading his way. He had received some warnings from Washington, but an order to evacuate Winchester did not reach him because the Confederates had cut the telegraph lines. As late as 11 June Milroy bragged that he could hold the town against any Confederate force. His assertion was rendered ridiculous when Richard Ewell's Rebel corps crashed down on his tiny garrison. Ewell's force quickly surrounded the Yankee's. After a sharp battle, Ewell captured about 4000 Federals, while Milroy and 2700 soldiers escaped to safety. Ewell lost just 270 men but captured 300 wagons, hundreds of horses, and 23 artillery pieces. Milroy was relieved of his command and later arrested, although a court of inquiry found that he was not culpable in the disaster.
Ide's flag1846 California's Bear Flag revolt begins       ^top^
      Anticipating the outbreak of war with Mexico, American settlers in California rebel against the Mexican government and proclaim the short-lived California Republic. The political situation in California was tense in 1846. Though nominally controlled by Mexico, California was home to only a relatively small number of Mexican settlers. Former citizens of the United States made up the largest segment of the California population, and their numbers were quickly growing. Mexican leaders worried that many American settlers were not truly interested in becoming Mexican subjects and would soon push for annexation of California to the United States. For their part, the Americans distrusted their Mexican leaders. When rumors of an impending war between the US and Mexico reached California, many Americans feared the Mexicans might make a preemptive attack to forestall rebellion.
      In the spring of 1846, the American army officer and explorer John C. Fremont arrived at Sutter's Fort (near modern-day Sacramento) with a small corps of soldiers. Whether or not Fremont had been specifically ordered to encourage an American rebellion is unclear. Ostensibly, Fremont and his men were in the area strictly for the purposes of making a scientific survey. The brash young officer, however, began to persuade a motley mix of American settlers and adventurers to form militias and prepare for a rebellion against Mexico.
Official California flag      Emboldened by Fremont's encouragement, on this day a party of 33 Americans under the leadership of Ezekiel Merritt and William Ide invade the largely defenseless Mexican outpost of Sonoma just north of San Francisco. Fremont and his soldiers did not participate, though he had given his tacit approval of the attack. Merritt and his men surrounded the home of the retired Mexican general, Mariano Vallejo, and informed him that he was a prisoner of war. Vallejo, who was actually a strong supporter of American annexation, was more puzzled than alarmed by the rebels. He invited Merritt and a few of the other men into his home to discuss the situation over brandy. After several hours passed, Ide went in and spoiled what had turned into pleasant chat by arresting Vallejo and his family.
      Having won a bloodless victory at Sonoma, Merritt and Ide then proceeded to declare California an independent republic. With a cotton sheet and some red paint, they constructed a makeshift flag with a crude drawing of a grizzly bear, a lone red star (a reference to the earlier Lone Star Republic of Texas), and the words "California Republic" at the bottom [first flag, above right]. From then on, the independence movement was known as the Bear Flag Revolt. After the rebels won a few minor skirmishes with Mexican forces, Fremont officially took command of the "Bear Flaggers" and occupied the unguarded presidio of San Francisco on 01 July. Six days later, Fremont learned that American forces under Commodore John D. Sloat had taken Monterey without a fight and officially raised the American flag over California. Since the ultimate goal of the Bear Flaggers was to make California part of the US, they now saw little reason to preserve their "government." Three weeks after it had been proclaimed, the California Republic quietly faded away. Ironically, the Bear Flag itself proved far more enduring than the republic it represented: it became the official state flag [< second flag shown] when California joined the union in 1850.
1841 first Canadian parliament opens in Kingston, Ontario

1822 Babbage proposes "Difference Engine"       ^top^
      Charles Babbage presents the first scientific paper on mechanical computing to the Royal Astronomical Society. He proposes building a machine, which he calls a "Difference Engine," capable of calculating equations and printing results. The British government agreed to fund the construction of the Difference Engine; however, the machine proved extremely costly to build. Babbage devoted more than ten years and most of his personal fortune to building the machine, but he eventually ran out of money. In 1854, a Swedish engineer finally succeeded in constructing a Difference Engine based on Babbage's theories.

1809 Guerra de la Independencia española. Los franceses comienzan el sitio y bombardeo de la plaza de Gerona, que resistió hasta el 10 de diciembre.
1808 Guerra de la Independencia española. La escuadra francesa del almirante Rossilly, en Cádiz, se rinde a las fuerzas navales de Ruiz de Apodaca.
1793 JOURDIE Gracien, vicaire de Sevrac, domicilié à Inox (Lozère), est condamné à la déportation, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
1791 Loi Le Chapelier: Cette loi qui doit son nom à Isaac René Guy Le Chapelier (député du Tiers état aux Etats généraux et fondateur du le Club breton, plus tard Club des Jacobins), interdit le droit de grève, le droit de coalition et le droit d'association aux ouvriers. Commentaire de Marat : "Nous sommes à Paris vingt mille ouvriers qui ne nous laisserons pas endormir par la bourgeoisie."
1789 Survivors of the Bounty mutiny reach Timor       ^top^
      English Captain William Bligh and eighteen others, cast adrift from the HMS Bounty seven weeks before, reach Timor in the East Indies after traveling 6000 km in a small, open boat.
      On 28 April Fletcher Christian, the first mate on the Bounty, had led a successful mutiny against Captain Bligh and his supporters. The British naval vessel had been transporting breadfruit saplings from Tahiti for planting on British colonies in the Caribbean. The voyage was difficult, and ill feelings were rampant, although probably no more than on other long sea voyages of the period. However, Captain Bligh’s famous temper pushed his men over the edge, and on 28 April, mutineers under Fletcher Christian captured the vessel, and the captain and eighteen of his crew were set adrift in a open boat. By remarkable seamanship, they traveled 6000 km and reached Timor in June, and then were transported back to England.
      Meanwhile, Christian and his men traveled back to Tahiti on the Bounty, and, fearing the British authorities, most elected to flee to a remoter Pacific location. Six Tahitian men and twelve women decided to depart of with them. The dozen or so mutineers who stayed on Tahiti were eventually captured and court-martialed in England. Three of these men were executed.
      In 1790, the Bounty settled at unpopulated Pitcairn Island, and the mutineers and Tahitians burned the ship and founded a colony. However, the colony suffered through a decade of turmoil and violence, and, by 1800, all the Tahitian and European men were dead, except one, Englishman John Adams. Nevertheless, the men had been prolific with the Tahitian women before their demise by murder and disease, and Pitcairn’s population soon reached a healthy level. John Adams served as leader of the colony until his death in 1829.
      The population of the English-speaking community peaked in 1937, with 233 people living on Pitcairn Island, which became a British possession in 1839. Descendants of the Bounty mutineers and the Tahitians still live on the island today.
One version od the 1777 flag 1777 US Congress adopts the Stars and Stripes       ^top^

      During the American Revolution, the Continental Congress "RESOLVED, that the flag of the 13 United States be thirteen stripes, alternate red and white: That the union be thirteen stars, white in a blue field, representing a new constellation." Because the resolution was not specific there were a number of variations of the 13 star flag.

     The national flag, which became known as the “Stars and Stripes,” was based on the “Grand Union” flag, a banner carried by the Continental Army in 1776 that also consisted of thirteen red and white stripes. The legend that Betty Ross, a Philadelphia seamstress, was commissioned by Congress to design the first US flag been disputed by many historians.

      With the entrance of new states into the United States after independence, new stripes and stars were added to represent these additions to the Union. However, in 1818, Congress enacted a law stipulating that the thirteen original stripes be restored, and only stars be added to represent new states. On 14 June 1877, the first Flag Day observance was held on the hundredth anniversary of the adoption of the Stars and Stripes. As instructed by Congress, the US flag was flown from all public buildings across the country. In the years after the first Flag Day, several states continued to observe the anniversary annually, and in 1949, Congress officially designated June 14 as Flag Day, a national day of observance.
Another version of the 1777 flag
1658 Turenne remporte la bataille des Dunes contre les Espagnols aidés par Condé.
1645 Las tropas del Parlamento inglés (Cabezas redondas) consiguen la victoria de Naseby sobre las tropas reales del príncipe Rupert, lo que obligó al rey a retirarse a Escocia.
1642 The first compulsory education law in the British Colonies in America is passed by Massachusetts
1619 Decreto de beatificación del futuro San Isidro Labrador, en el que se establece que su fiesta se celebrará el 15 de mayo.
^ Deaths which occurred on a 14 June:
2003 Jim Reed, 43, 110 kg, 1.83-m tall, struck by two cars while crossing a street in the middle of a block, in Phoenix, Arizona, in the evening. The drivers of both cars speed away without rendering assistance or waiting for police. Witnesses note a partial license plate number of the first car, which is traced to Catholic Bishop Thomas Joseph O'Brien, who was driving home after celebrating Mass when he hit Reed. The bishop is arrested on 16 June 2003; he says that he remembers hitting something, but thought it was an animal. He was already in enough trouble without that. Earlier in the month, to avoid prosecution for improperly concealing abuse allegations against priests, he had been forced by prosecutors to delegate part of his authority. O'Brien would resign as Bishop of Phoenix on 18 June 2003. Born on 29 November 1935, O'Brien was ordained a priest of the diocese of Tucson on 07 May 1961, and consecrated bishop of Phoenix on 06 January 1982.
2003 Douglas Davis, of Garibaldi; Dennis Tipton and Kathy Corley, both of Ukiah; Steve Albus of Ephrata, Wash., and his brother Tim Albus, of Madras; Sigmud Bohnet, from Florida; Edward Loil of Cedar Rapids, Iowa; Larry Frick of Spokane, Wash.; Terry Galloway of Portland; Richard Hidalgo of Green Bay, Wis.; Barry Sundberg of Cheney, Wash.; none wearing a life-jacket, drown as 10-m-long chartered fishing vessel Taki-Tooo — with 17 passengers, skipper Davis, and one other crew member aboard — heading out of Tillamook Bay, Oregon, for a day of bottom fishing, is broadsided by 5-m-high breaking surf and capsizes at 07:26 (14:26 UT). The eight survivors, some of them wearing life-jackets, are not seriously hurt.
[below: two views of the boat after it washed ashore]
shore and the Taki-Tooo the Taki-Tooo
2002 Donald Cruse, 57, his wife Mary, 53, daughter Shannon, 23, her daughter Shaniya, 6, and Peter Kiss, 30, who shoots the others and then himself, in Grimsby, Ontario. Kiss had Shannon Cruse at a trucking convention, and then lived maritally with her for about two months in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, his home town. Shannon Cruse ended the relationship in April 2002 and moved back to her parents' house in Grimsby. Kiss shoots Shannon with a semiautomatic weapon in the driveway of a friend's house, then goes down the street to her parents' home where he kills the other three and then himself.
2002 About 100 persons during fighting between “Ninja” rebels and the army in the Kinzoundi district Brazzaville, Congo. The rebels call themselves Ninjas after the ancient Japanese warriors made famous in movies. They reject the 29 December 1999 truce that was supposed to put an end to civil war. They are led by renegade pastor Frederic Bitsangou (aka pasteur Ntoumi) but their original loyalty was to exiled former Prime Minister Bernard Kolelas. They have conducted attacks since 29 March 2002, after President Denis Sassou-Nguesso “won” the 10 March 2002 election, from which his main rivals were excluded.
2002 Eleven Pakistanis by a car bomb exploding outside the US consulate in Karachi at 11:10, possibly hidden and then detonated by remote control in a Khanum Motor Training School's 1981 Toyota Corolla that was carrying four unaware women (Farkhanda Jabeen, 38, Nida Nazeer, 20, Nazish, 19, and Rehana Parveen, 38, returning from the Driving Licence Branch after getting their licences). The dead also include an unidentified person reduced to scattered body parts (who would be the suicide driver of the car bomb, if it is the another possibly for it: a Suzuki Hi-roof, also shattered by the explosion); a policeman guarding the consulate, Constable Munawar Azama; Ikramullah; Ilyas and his son Rizwan; a physician living in Kenya, Dr. Warsi Aliya, and her uncle Shafaat, who had just left the nearby Marriott Hotel after making arrangements for her wedding that was to have taken place the next day. Some 25 persons are injured.
2002 Kaseeran Bibi, 45, and Thoomi Bibi, 40, (both wives of Ghulam Mohammad) when a shell hits their house in Digwar village, Forward Kahuta sector of the southern Bagh district, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan, during Indian shelling from 12:00 to 15:00.
2002 Mohammad Iqbal, 60, his son Shahzad, 6, and a relative, Parveen Akhtar, 22, wife of Mohammad Riaz, after heavy Indian shelling resumes at 09:30 and one of the shells lands in the courtyard of their house in Hatli Bala village, Nakyal sector of the southern district of Kotli, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. Iqbal's wife, Jamila, 35, son Irshad, 15, and daughters, Rabia 4, and Asia, an infant, are injured.
2001 Jay D. Scott, 48, executed by lethal injection for the 06 May 1983 murder of Cleveland V&E Confectionery delicatessen owner Vinney Prince, 75, who was shot in the chest after she prepared food at noon for Scott and an accomplice. Scott killed security guard Ralph Alexander Jones, 64, the next day at about 01:15 at the Shrimp Boat restaurant and was sentenced to death a second time, but that sentence was overturned because it was found that a juror knew of the first sentence. Scott was a schizophrenic with a low IQ who suffered an abusive childhood and spent all but 28 months in prison since the age of 13. Despite international protests, the courts ruled that mental illness did not exempt him from the death penalty, after ordering delays on 17 April and on 15 May to consider his competence. By the time the scheduled 15 May execution was delayed, the execution team had already placed into Scott's arms the shunts that would carry the drugs to kill him.
2001 Leonardo Anselmo Alzate, párroco de Pantanillo, 250 km al Norte de Bogotá, por numerosos disparos de arma de fuego, después de secuestrado desde su domicilio por una banda armada. Su cuerpo es encontrado al día siguiente.
2001 Khamurat Berdyev, 41, hit from behind by train he crossed a railway line at the main railway station in Turkmen capital, Ashgabat. Berdyev was head of the railway since January 2001.
1986 Jorge Luis Borges, 86, Argentine author, in Geneva.
1985 Robert Stethem, passenger on hijacked TWA Flight 847       ^top^
      TWA Flight 847 from Athens, Greece, to Rome, Italy, is hijacked by Shiite Hezbollah terrorists who immediately demand to know the identity of "those with Jewish-sounding names." Two of the Lebanese terrorists, armed with grenades, axes, and a 9-mm pistol, then forced the plane to land at the Beirut Airport in Lebanon. Once on the ground, the hijackers call for passengers with Israeli passports, but there are none. Nor was there any diplomats on board. The hijackers then focus their attention on the several US Navy construction divers aboard the plane. Soon after landing, the terrorists kill Navy diver Robert Stethem and dump his body on the runway.
      TWA employee Uli Dickerson was largely successful in protecting the few Jewish passengers aboard by refusing to identify them. Most of the passengers are released in the early hours of what would turn out to be a 17-day ordeal, but five men are singled out and separated from the rest of the hostages. Of these five, only Richard Herzberg, an American, is Jewish. Luckily, he had told his wife early on in the attack to get rid of a ring bearing a Hebrew inscription. During the next two weeks, Herzberg maintained to his attackers that he was a Lutheran of German and Greek ancestry. Along with the others, he was taken to a roach-infested holding cell somewhere in Beirut, where other Lebanese prisoners were being held and tortured in the makeshift prison.
      Fortunately, however, the TWA hostages were treated fairly well-they were even given a birthday cake on one occasion. On June 30, after careful negotiations, the hostages were released unharmed. Since the terrorists were effectively outside the law's reach in Lebanon, it appeared as though the terrorists would go unpunished. Yet, Mohammed Ali Hamadi, who was wanted for his role in the TWA Flight 847 attack, was arrested nearly two years later at the airport in Frankfurt, Germany, with explosives.
      Within days of his arrest, two German citizens were kidnapped in Lebanon, in a successful attempt to discourage Germany from extraditing Hamadi to the United States for prosecution. Germany decided to try Hamadi instead, and he was convicted and sentenced to life in prison, the maximum penalty under German law. Although both German hostages had already been released by this time, three additional German citizens were kidnapped on the day of the verdict.
1968 Salvatore Quasimodo, poeta italiano, Premio Nobel 1959.
1946 John Logie Baird, TV pioneer, the first man to demonstrate television. Baird invented a 30-line mechanically scanned television system, which was used by the BBC starting in 1929, until it was replaced with a 405-line system with electronic scanning made by Marconi Electrical and Musical Industries in 1936. Baird demonstrated color television in 1928 and continued his research into stereoscopic television until his death in 1946. He also helped develop radar and infrared television.
1946 Federigo Enriques, 75, Italian mathematician who made important contributions to geometry and to the history and philosophy of mathematics.
1944 Joaquín Álvarez Quintero, comediógrafo español, hermano de Serafín A. Q..
1936 G.K. Chesterton, an influential Roman Catholic apologist and wit, noted for his use of paradox.       ^top^
  • The Ballad of the White Horse
  • The Innocence of Father Brown
  • The Innocence of Father Brown
  • The Man Who Knew Too Much
  • The Man Who Was Thursday
  • The Man Who Was Thursday
  • The Man Who Was Thursday
  • The Wisdom of Father Brown
  • The Club of Queer Trades
  • The Club of Queer Trades
  • Manalive
  • Manalive
  • A Miscellany of Men
  • Orthodoxy
  • Heretics
  • Heretics
  • Chesterton Day by Day: Selections
  • Utopia of Usurers, and Other Essays
  • What's Wrong With the World
  • Greybeards at Play: Literature and Art for Old Gentlemen
  • Appreciations and Criticisms of the Works of Charles Dickens
  • Charles Dickens
  • co-author of Leo Tolstoy
  • 1933 Diego Mendoza Pérez, político y escritor colombiano.
    1931 Ahogados varios centenares de personas cuando se hunde una embarcación de recreo en el río Loire (Francia), la mayor catástrofe naval desde el hundimiento del Titanic.
    1926 Mary Stevenson Cassatt, expatriate US Impressionist painter born on 22 May 1844, specialized in Children. — Photo of Mary CassattMORE ON CASSATT AT ART “4” JUNE LINKSSelf-Portrait (1878) — Self-Portrait (1880) — Children Playing with a CatThe CaressJules Being Dried by His MotherGirl Arranging Her HairLydia Seated at an Embroidery FrameHélène de SepteuilLady at the Tea TableMaternal KissElsie in a Blue ChairMoise DreyfusAt the WindowMrs. Cassatt, the Artist's MotherSara Holding a Cat   Portrait of a LadyPortrait of a Little GirlWoman Standing, Holding a FanLydia in a Loge, Wearing a Pearl NecklaceLe théAutumnLydia Crocheting in the Garden at MarlySelf-portraitLydia Seated at an Embroidery FrameDrivingWoman in BlackLady at the Tea TableYoung Girl at a WindowChildren on the BeachGirl Arranging Her HairMother and ChildThe BathThe LampThe LetterYoung Woman Trying on a DressLa ToiletteYoung Women Picking FruitChild Picking a FruitThe Boating PartyThe Banjo LessonSummertime — another Mother and ChildYoung Mother — The Crochet LessonToreadorMrs. Cassatt Reading to her GrandchildrenWoman and Child DrivingRobert and His SailboatMaster Robert Kelso CassattSpanish Dancer Wearing a Lace MantillaThe Cup of TeaLydia Crocheting in the Garden at MarlyPortrait of an Elderly LadyMary Ellison EmbroideringReading Le FigaroThe BathThe LetterIn the Omnibus 220 images at Webshots
    1920 Max Weber, sociólogo alemán.
    1914 Más de 500 en la I Guerra Mundial cuando una escuadrilla de aviones alemanes bombardea Londres.
    1907 Giuseppe Pellizza da Volpedo, Italian painter born on 28 July 1868. — BIOGRAFIA MORE ON PELIZZA AT ART “4” JUNE Il Quarto Stato _ detailSperanze deluse Carità cristianaPanni al soleLo specchio della vita - (E ciò che l'una fa e l'altre fanno)Il sole nascenteIdillio primaverileLa ProcessioneL'appesoLa piazza di VolpedoRicordo di un dolore o Ritratto di Santina Negri — Ritratto di mio papàRitratto di mia mamma
    1905 El comandante y varios oficiales del acorazado ruso Potemkin fusilados por la tripulació que se rebela.
    1887 Vincent Vidal, French artist born on 20 January 1811.
    1886 Guillaume Jules Hoüel, 63, French mathematician who did work on celestial mechanics and on geometry.
    1874 Julien-Léopold (Jules) Boilly, French artist born on 30 August 1797.
    1807 Les soldats russes et français tués à la bataille de Friedland
          Les Français affrontent les 50'000 Russes que dirige Bennigsen. Le lendemain, Napoléon écrit à l'impératrice : "Mes enfants ont dignement célébré l'anniversaire de la bataille de Marengo ; la bataille de Friedland sera aussi célèbre et aussi glorieuse pour mon peuple. Toute l'armée russe mise en déroute ; 80 pièces de canon, 30 000 hommes pris ou tués ; 25 généraux russes, tués, blessés ou pris ; la garde russe écrasée : c'est une digne soeur de Marengo, Austerlitz, Iéna.". En Février, Napoléon avait déjà vaincu les armées du Tsar à Eylau, au terme d’une boucherie dont Victor Hugo s’est fait l’écho.
    click for portrait1801 Benedict Arnold, Revolutionary War general, traitor, in London       ^top^
    [click image for portrait >]
         Born on 14 January 1741 in Norwich, Connecticut, Arnold became an apothecary and smuggler. He served in the army for periods of time during the French and Indian War. 
        Upon the outbreak of hostilities at Lexington, Mass. (April 1775), Arnold volunteered for service and participated with Ethan Allen in the successful colonial attack on British-held Ft. Ticonderoga, N.Y., the following month. That autumn he was appointed by Gen. George Washington to command an expedition to capture Quebec. He marched with 700 men by way of the Maine wilderness, a remarkable feat of woodsmanship and endurance, and, reinforced by Gen. Richard Montgomery, attacked the well-fortified city. The combined assault (31 Dec 1775) failed, Montgomery was killed, and Arnold was severely wounded.
          Promoted to the rank of brigadier general, Arnold constructed a flotilla on Lake Champlain and inflicted severe losses on a greatly superior enemy fleet near Valcour Island NY (11 Oct 1776). He returned a hero, but his rash courage and impatient energy had aroused the enmity of several other officers. When in February 1777 Congress created five new major generalships, Arnold was passed over in favour of his juniors. Arnold resented this affront, and only Washington's personal persuasion kept him from resigning.
          Two months later he repelled a British attack on Danbury, Conn., and was made a major general, but his seniority was not restored and Arnold felt his honor impugned. Again he tried to resign, but in July he accepted a government order to help stem the British advance into upper New York. He won a victory at Ft. Stanwix (now Rome) in August 1777 and commanded advance battalions at the Battle of Saratoga that autumn, fighting brilliantly until seriously wounded. For his services he was restored to his proper relative rank.
          Crippled from his wounds, Arnold was placed in command of Philadelphia (June 1778), where he socialized with families of Loyalist sympathies and lived extravagantly. To raise money, he violated several state and military regulations, arousing the suspicions and, finally, the denunciations of Pennsylvania's supreme executive council. These charges were then referred to Congress, and Arnold asked for an immediate court-martial to clear himself. At the courtmartial in 1779, he was accused of malfeasance, misusing government wagons, illegally buying and selling goods, and favoritism to the British Loyalists. Although Arnold was cleared of most charges, General George Washington issued a reprimand against him, and Arnold became increasingly angered.
          Meanwhile, in April 1779, Arnold married Margaret (Peggy) Shippen, a young woman of Loyalist sympathies. Early in May he made secret overtures to British headquarters, and a year later he informed the British of a proposed Patriot invasion of Canada. While on a trip to the important West Point base to ensure that it could withstand a British attack, Arnold stewed over his slight by Washington and the Patriots. He thought that he had never been properly rewarded or acknowledged for his military success on their behalf. He began corresponding with British spies about the possibility of changing sides. Arnold negotiated his defection to the British and the subversion of West Point over the next several months. The British already held control of New York City and believed that by taking West Point they could effectively cut off the Patriots' New England forces from the rest of the fledgling nation.
          In August 1780, Sir Henry Clinton offered Arnold £20'000 for delivering West Point and 3000 troops. Arnold told General Washington that West Point was adequately prepared for an attack, even though he was busy making sure that it really wasn't. He even tried to set up General Washington's capture as a bonus. His plan might have been successful, but his message was delivered too late and Washington escaped. The West Point surrender was also foiled when a Patriot colonel ignored Arnold's order not to fire on an approaching British ship.
          Arnold's defection was revealed to the Patriots when British officer John André, 30, acting as a messenger, was robbed by AWOL Patriots working as pirates in the woods north of New York City. The notes revealing Arnold's traitorous agreement were stashed in his boots. Arnold and his wife Peggy, who fooled Patriot officers into believing she had no involvement in the betrayal, escaped to New York City and fled on a British ship, leaving André to be hanged as a spy. The sacrifice of André made Arnold odious to Loyalists, and his reputation was further tarnished among his former neighbors when he led a raid on New London, Connecticut, in September 1781.
          At the British surrender at Yorktown, Benedict Arnold was burned in effigy, and his name has since become synonymous with traitor. At the end of 1781 Arnold went to England, where he remained, inactive, ostracized, and ailing, for the rest of his life. After prevailing in a libel action, he was awarded only a nominal amount because his reputation was already so tarnished. He died in 1801 and was buried in England without military honor.
    1800 Général Desaix (et bien d'autres soldats) à la bataille de Marengo       ^top^
          A 09h, la bataille s'engage. Les 22'000 Français font face à 30'000 Autrichiens. A 14h, la situation est critique. Victor est à court de munitions. Il abandonne l'artillerie à l'ennemi. Tout à coup, Desaix arrive à la rescousse et livre un combat d'arrière-garde pour mettre fin à la retraite. Marmont mitraille l'avant-garde autrichienne. Au cours de l'attaque, Desaix est tué. Kellerman et ses cavaliers fondent sur le flanc gauche de l'ennemi. Surpris, les Autrichiens se débandent.
          Commentaire le lendemain de Bonaparte à l'attention des consuls de la République : "Les nouvelles de l'armée sont très bonnes. Je serai bientôt à Paris. Je ne peux pas vous en dire davantage. Je suis dans la plus profonde douleur de la mort de l'homme que j'aimais et que j'estimais le plus." Il s'agit de Desaix. Cette victoire de Napoléon permet de replacer l’Italie sous l’hégémonie de la France.
    Condamnés à mort par la Révolution: ^top^
    1794 (26 prairial an II):
    BILLAUD ou BILLOUD Claude Antoine, 61 ans, ex chanoine de Sully (Loiret), né à Loiret-en-Doubs, canton de Tuyaux, comme convaincu d'avoir tenu des propos contre-révolutionnaire en applaudissant au fédéralisme, en recueillant le portrait du tyran roi.
    BAC Jean André, ex curé de Mens, domicilié à St-Julien-la-Brousse, canton de Mézenec (Ardèche), comme réfractaire à la loi, par le tribunal criminel du département de l'Ardèche.
    Par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris:
    GODEPIN Marie, fille âgée de 36 ans, née et domiciliée à Paris, comme ayant cherché à ébranler la fidélité des citoyens envers la nation, en calomniant la convention nationale.
    AIGUEVILLERS Jean-Jacques-Marie-Joseph-Martin, 56 ans, ex-président aux enquêtes du parlement de Toulouse (Haute Garonne), né et domicilié idem, pour avoir cherché à anéantir la liberté publique, en provoquant et en signant des écrits contre-révolutionnaire, faits au nom du parlement de Toulouse, les 25 et 27 septembre 1790.
    BACQUELOT François, 47 ans, fermier cultivateur à Etang, canton d'Autun, comme convaincu de s'être déclaré l'ennemi du peuple en tenant des propos contre-révolutionnaire.
          ... comme contre-révolutionnaires:
    BLAIN Clément Marie, ex conseiller au ci-devant parlement de Toulouse (Haute-Garonne), comme contre-révolutionnaire , par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris.
    BONHOMME Pierre Jean Baptiste, (dit Dupin), 57 ans, ex noble, conseiller au parlement de Toulouse, né et domicilié à Toulouse (Haute-Garonne).
    BUISSON Samuel Jacques Eugéne Louis Jean François, (dit Daussone), 30 ans, ex marquis, et conseiller aux requêtes du ci-devant parlement de Toulouse (Haute-Garonne).
    CASSAIGNES Joseph Henri, 68 ans, né et domicilié à Toulouse, ex conseiller au ci-devant parlement de Toulouse (Haute Garonne).
    CAZES Jean Paul, 42 ans, ex conseiller aux requêtes du parlement de Toulouse, né et domicilié à Toulouse (Haute Garonne).
    COMBETTE Jean J. Lazare (dit Caumont) 49 ans, ex conseiller au ci-devant parlement de Toulouse, né et domicilié à Gaillac, département du Tarn, comme contre-révolutionnaire, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris.
    DAGUIN Jean Joseph, ex conseiller au parlement de Toulouse, domicilié à Seisses (Haute Garonne).
    DORTET Berd. Marie, (dit Bonne Bitionet), 45 ans, né à St Suplice, ex conseiller au ci-devant parlement de Toulouse (Haute Garonne), y demeurant.
    DUBOURG Mathias Mar. Arm. Pierre, 49 ans, né et domicilié à Toulouse (Haute-Garonne), ex conseiller au ci-devant parlement de Toulouse.
    FOURMESTREAU Ignace Joseph, (dit Brisseuille), ex conseiller au parlement de Paris, 52 ans, né à Lille, département du Nord, domicilié à Sceaux-l’Unité (Seine.
    FRETEAU Emmanuel Marie Michel Philippe, 49 ans, né et domicilié à Paris, département de la Seine, ex conseiller au ci-devant parlement de Paris, ex constituant, juge du tribunal du deuxième arrondissement.
                ... en cherchant à anéantir la Liberté publique, en provoquant, signant ou approuvant des écrits et protestations faits au nom du parlement de Toulouse (Haute-Garonne), les 25 et 27 septembre 1790, contre les lois émanées de la Représentation Nationale:
    LEREBOURS Jean Baptiste Auguste, ex conseiller au ci-devant parlement de Paris, 47 ans, domicilié à Paris.
    TYTON Jean Baptiste Maximilien Pierre, ex conseiller au ci-devant parlement de Paris, 61 ans, natif de Paris, domicilié à Villotran (Loire).
    MARQUIER François Joseph, ex président au parlement de Toulouse, 63 ans, né et domicilié à Toulouse.
    SAJOT Henri Bernard Catherine, 50 ans, président au ci-devant parlement de Toulouse, né et domicilié à Toulouse.
    SENAUX Pierre Madel., ex conseiller aux requêtes du parlement de Toulouse, domicilié à Montbrun (Haute-Garonne).
    LABROUE Joseph Germain Paul, ex conseiller aux requêtes du parlement de Toulouse, 41 ans, né à Moissac (Lot), domicilié à Toulouse.
    LACAZE Raymond, (dit Nonot), ex conseiller aux requêtes du parlement de Toulouse, 48 ans, né et domicilié à Toulouse.
                       ... ex conseillers au ci-devant parlement de Toulouse (Haute-Garonne):
    MOLINERY François (dit Murols), 46 ans, né et domicilié à Mur-de-Barès (Aveyron).
    LARRAGUAN Jean François, 49 ans, né à l'Isle-Jourdain (Gers), domicilié à Toulouse.
    ROCHEFORT François, 47 ans, domicilié à Toulouse.
                              ... nés et domiciliés à Toulouse (Haute-Garonne):
    GAILLARD Jean Louis René, 52 ans. — LEBLANC Clément Marie, 73 ans. — MIEGEVILLE Antoine, 57 ans. — MONTAIGUT Raimond André Philibert, ex noble, 26 ans. — POULHARIEZ Louis Isidore, fils, 31 ans. — SAVY Jean François Madel.,34 ans. — REVERSAC Pierre Marie Emmanuel, (dit Céleste), 52 ans, comme brigand de la Vendée [sic], ... .
          ... comme conspirateurs:
    FAJOT Henri Bernard Catherine, ex président au parlement de Toulouse, 50 ans, né et domicilié à Toulouse (Haute-Garonne),. comme conspirateur en provoquant, signant ou approuvant des arrêtés ou protestations faites au nom du parlement de Toulouse, le 25 et 27 septembre 1790.
    GUERIN Thomas Louis (dit Lorillard), perruquier, 36 ans, né à la Charité-sur-Loire, département de la Nièvre, domicilié à Orléans, (Loiret), ayant applaudi au fédéralisme.
    LECUYER Charles Joseph, major général de la cavalerie de la Belgique, 59 ans, né et domicilié à Charleville (Ardennes), par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme conspirateur, et comme complice de Dumourier.
    FABRE Jean, tailleur d’habits, domicilié à Recoules (Lozère), par le tribunal criminel du département du Cantal, comme brigand de la Lozère.
    MATHIEU Jacques, serrurier, domicilié à Chanac (Corrèze), comme contre-révolutionnaire, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
    Par le tribunal criminel du département de la Lozère:
          ... domiciliés à Chanac, canton de Tulles (Corrèze):
    ROUVIÈRES Jean (dit Brajac), tisserand, comme embaucheur.
    PERSEGOL Pierre, tailleur d'habits, comme contre-révolutionnaire.
    BRIEUDES Joseph, menuisier, comme contre-révolutionnaire.
          ... domiciliés dans le département de la Lozère:
    CHARDON Jean Antoine, vicaire d'Arzene,comme réfractaire.
    GIGONZAC Pierre, ex vicaire de Fontans y demeurant, comme fédéraliste.
    PAPAREL Pierre (dit Chenac), domicilié à Chenac, comme contre-révolutionnaire.
    1746 Colin Maclaurin, Scottish mathematician born in February 1698. In 1742 he published Treatise of fluxions, the first systematic exposition of Newton's methods written as a reply to Berkeley's attack on the calculus for its lack of rigorous foundations.
    1698 Gerrit Berckheyde, Dutch architectural painter born on 06 June 1638. — more
    1381 Simon Sudbury Archbishop of Canterbury and Chancellor of England; the Treasurer of England; and Steward of England John of Gaunt's physician, captured in the Tower of London by the rebels of the Peasants' Revolt, led by Wat Tyler (who would be killed the next day), then dragged out to Tower Hill and beheaded.
    ^ Births which occurred on a June 14:
    1951 UNIVAC I       ^top^
          John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert of Remington Rand demonstrate and dedicate UNIVAC I, the first large-scale electronic computer for commercial use, at the Census Bureau in Philadelphia, its first customer. Using magnetic tape for data input and output, the computer could retain up to one thousand digits, read data at 10'000 characters per second, add, subtract, multiply, divide, sort, collate, and calculate square and cube roots. Mauchly and Eckert manufactured and sold fifty UNIVAC computers in all.
         The US Census Bureau dedicates UNIVAC, the world's first commercially produced electronic digital computer. UNIVAC, which stood for Universal Automatic Computer, was developed by J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly, makers of ENIAC, the first general-purpose electronic digital computer. These giant computers, which used thousands of vacuum tubes for computation, were the forerunners of today's digital computers.
          The search for mechanical devices to aid computation began in ancient times. The abacus, developed in various forms by the Babylonians, Chinese, and Romans, was by definition the first digital computer because it calculated values by using digits. A mechanical digital calculating machine was built in France in 1642, but a 19th century Englishman, Charles Babbage, is credited with devising most of the principles on which modern computers are based. His "Analytical Engine," begun in the 1830s and never completed for lack of funds, was based on a mechanical loom and would have been the first programmable computer.
          By the 1920s, companies such as the International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) were supplying governments and businesses with complex punch-card tabulating systems, but these mechanical devises had only a fraction of the calculating power of the first electronic digital computer, the Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC). Completed by John Atanasoff of Iowa State in 1939, the ABC could by 1941 solve up to 29 simultaneous equations with 29 variables. Influenced by Atanasoff's work, Presper Eckert and John Mauchly set about building the first general-purpose electronic digital computer in 1943. The sponsor was the US Army Ordnance Department, which wanted a better way of calculating artillery firing tables, and the work was done at the University of Pennsylvania.
          ENIAC, which stood for Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator, was completed in 1946 at a cost of nearly $500'000. It took up 1400 square meters, employed 17'000 vacuum tubes, and was programmed by plugging and replugging some 6000 switches. It was first used in a calculation for Los Alamos Laboratories in December 1945, and in February 1946 it was formally dedicated.
          Following the success of ENIAC, Eckert and Mauchly decided to go into private business and founded the Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation. They proved less able businessmen than they were engineers, and in 1950 their struggling company was acquired by Remington Rand, an office equipment company. On 14 June 1951, Remington Rand delivered its first computer, UNIVAC I, to the US Census Bureau. It weighed over 7 tons, used 5000 vacuum tubes, and could perform about 1000 calculations per second. On 04 November 1952, the UNIVAC achieved national fame when it correctly predicted Dwight D. Eisenhower's unexpected landslide victory in the presidential election after only a tiny percentage of the votes were in.
          UNIVAC and other first-generation computers were replaced by transistor computers of the late 1950s, which were smaller, used less power, and could perform nearly a thousand times more operations per second. These were, in turn, supplanted by the integrated-circuit machines of the mid-1960s and 1970s. In the 1980s, the development of the microprocessor made possible small, powerful computers such as the personal computer, and more recently the laptop and hand-held computers.
    1946 Donald Trump
          Reviled by some and revered by others, real estate magnate Donald Trump, remains a symbol of 1980s big business' highflying ways, and equally hard fall. Born in New York, Trump caught the real estate bug from his father, Fred Trump, a successful developer in Queens, New York. After picking up an MBA at the Wharton School of Finance, Trump took a job in his father's company. Demonstrating a fast command of the knotty world of development, Donald translated New York's fiscal woes of the 1970s into a pack of tax concessions and prime property purchases.
          Flush with wealth and burgeoning fame, Trump turned his attention to the world of hotels and high-rise apartments: he renovated war-horses and erected new behemoths, investing his buildings with more than little doses of glitz and flash. Trump continued to pile up wealth during the go-go 1980s--he claimed that his net worth "had been in the billions"-- only to suffer a hard fall in the early 1990s: a severe economic downturn, coupled with the passage of retroactive tax laws, sent the superstar developer spiraling into the red. But, deploying his trademark blend of business savvy and bluster, Trump shook off the effects of what he dubbed "the depression of 1990-1993" and soon started rebuilding his fortune.
    1942 First bazooka rocket gun is produced, Bridgeport CT
    1940 Camp d’extermination d’Auschwitz ouvert officiellement       ^top^
          Les Nazis, en Haute-Silésie, l'ouvrent en Pologne, sur l’emplacement d’un ancien camp militaire Autrichien. Il est destiné aux prisonniers politiques polonais, que les nazis souhaitent traiter avec une dureté toute particulière. Bientôt, les directeurs d’I.G. Farben découvriront qu’Auschwitz est un endroit favorable pour y implanter une usine de pétrole et de caoutchouc synthétiques et qu’ils peuvent profiter du même coup d’une main-d’œuvre d’esclaves à peu près gratuite.
          À la tête du camp, la SS place R. F. Höss, un ancien criminel de droit commun qui se vantera, en 1946, d’avoir exterminé trois millions de personnes (deux millions et demi de tués et un demi-million de personnes mortes de faim). Il fera passer à la chambre à gaz jusqu’à six mille victimes par jour à partir de 1942, essentiellement des Juifs venus de tous les coins d’Europe. Dès l’arrivée, on trie et on élimine ceux qui sont trop faibles pour travailler ; les autres sont utilisés jusqu’à épuisement total par l’I.G. Farben.
          Au cours de l’été 1944, il faut recourir à des fusillades massives pour liquider davantage de Juifs. Des prisonniers de guerre russes ont également été exterminés à Auschwitz et, selon les autorités soviétiques, le nombre total des victimes aurait atteint quatre millions. C’est Auschwitz encore qui fournira au professeur Hirt et à son Institut d’anatomie de Strasbourg des sujets pour ses expériences sur les êtres vivants. Le camp sera libéré par l’Armée Rouge, lors de son offensive de janvier 1945.
    1932 Javier Echevarría Rodríguez, español, prelado de la Prelatura personal del Opus Dei y segundo sucesor de José María Escrivá de Balaguer.
    1928 Ernesto Che Guevara, revolucionario cubano de origen argentino.
    1917 Atle Selberg, Norway.       ^top^
         He would grow up to be a mathematician known, among other achievements, for his work on the zeros of the Riemannt zeta_function. Selberg is also well known for his elementary proof of the prime number theorem, with a generalisation to prime numbers in an arbitrary arithmetic_progression. The history of the prime number theorem is very interesting. The theorem stating:
    The number of primes <n tends to infinity as n/log[e] n,
    was conjectured in the 18th century. Riemann came close to proving the result, but the theory of functions of a complex variable was not sufficiently developed to enable him to complete the proof. The necessary analytic tools were known by 1896 when Hadamard and de la Vallée Poussin independently proved the theorem using complex analysis. The successful proof of this result was seen as one of the greatest achievements of analytic number theory. In 1949 Selberg and Erdös found an elementary proof that makes no use of complex function theory. Subsequent events are not entirely clear but Selberg published two papers An elementary proof of the prime number theorem and An elementary proof of Dirichlet's theorem about primes in an progression in volume 50 of the Annals of Mathematics. The following year he published An elementary proof of the prime number theorem for arithmetic progressions.
    1903 Alonzo Church, he grew up to be a US mathematician whose work is of major importance in mathematical logic, recursion theory, and in theoretical computer science. In the 1930's he created the L-calculus which today is an invaluable tool for computer scientists. Church died on 11 Aug 1995.
    1881 Player piano is patented by John McTammany, Jr, Cambridge, Mass
    1868 Karl Landsteiner immunologist/pathologist (Nobel 1930)
    1864 Alois Alzheimer, Germany, (psychiatrist, pathologist: in a 1907 article he would be the first to describe the disease named after him: Alzheimer's Disease)       ^top^
    14.06.1864 in Marktbreit a. Main als Sohn eines Notars geboren
    1887 Staatsexamen und Promotion in Würzburg
    1888 5 Monate Reisebegleiter einer geisteskranken Frau
    danach Assistenzarzt, später Oberarzt an der Städtischen Irrenanstalt Frankfurt unter der Leitung von Emil Sioli
    Psychiatrische Universitäts-Klinik Heidelberg unter Emil Kraepelin
    mit Emil Kraepelin an die Psychiatrische Universitäts-Klinik München
    außerordentlicher Professor
    1912 Berufung als Ordinarius und Direktor der Psychiatrischen Klinik nach Breslau
    19.12.1915 als ordentlicher Professor in Breslau gestorben
    1858 Manuel José Othón, poeta y escritor mexicano.
    1856 Andrey Andreyevich Markov, Russian mathematician who died on 20 July 1922. He is best known for his work in probability and for stochastic processes especially Markov chains.
    1855 Robert Marion La Follette Wisconsin, presidential candidate (Progressive party)
    1847 Bunson burner is invented, by Bunson (of course). It is a gas burner.which would become ubiquitous in school labs worldwide.
    1844 Antonino Leto da Capri, Italian artist who died in 1913.
    1834 Sandpaper is patented by Isaac Fischer Jr, Springfield, Vermont
    1820 John Bartlett, in Plymouth, Mass. American compiler and publisher. While he worked in his university book store in Cambridge, he compiled the invaluable Familiar Quotations (1855), which ran through nine editions in his lifetime and has been revised and enlarged several times since. Bartlett joined the publishing firm of Little, Brown & Company in 1863 and in 1878 became senior partner. His Shakespeare concordance (1894) is still a standard work. BARTLETT ONLINE: [Bartlett's Quotations by keywords] [by authors]
    1814 Adriana Johanna van Haanen, Dutch artist who died on 08 October 1895.
    1812 Willem Troost, Dutch artist who died after 1881.
    1811 Harriet Beecher Stowe, in Litchfield, Connecticut.       ^top^
         The seventh child of Congregationalist minister Lyman Beecher. Stowe studied at private schools in Connecticut and worked as a teacher in Hartford for five years until her father moved to Cincinnati in 1832. She accompanied him and continued to teach while writing stories and essays. In 1836, she married Calvin Ellis Stowe, with whom she had seven children. She published her first book, Mayflower, in 1843. While living in Cincinnati, Stowe encountered fugitive slaves and the Underground Railroad.
         In reaction to recently tightened fugitive laws, she wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin; or, Life Among the Lowly which, on 05 June 1851, began to appear in serial form in the Washington National Era, an abolitionist weekly. Harriet Beecher Stowe's anti-slavery story would be published in forty installments over the next ten months. For her story Mrs. Stowe was paid $300.
          Although the weekly had a limited circulation, its audience increased as reader after reader passed their copy along to another. In March 1852, a Boston publisher decided to issue Uncle Tom's Cabin as a book and it became an instant best seller. Three hundred thousand copies were sold the first year, and about two million copies were sold worldwide by 1857. For one three-month period Stowe reportedly received $10'000 in royalties. Across the nation people discussed the novel and hotly debated the most pressing socio-political issue dramatized in its narrative, slavery.
         Stowe traveled to England in 1853, where she was welcomed as a literary hero. Along with Ralph Waldo Emerson, she became one of the original contributors to The Atlantic, which launched in November 1857.
         Because Uncle Tom's Cabin so polarized the abolitionist and anti-abolitionist debate, some claim it to be one of the causes of the Civil War. Indeed, when President Lincoln received its author, Harriet Beecher Stowe, at the White House in 1862, legend has it he exclaimed, "So this is the little lady who made this big war?" In 1863, when Lincoln announced the end of slavery, she danced in the streets. Stowe continued to write throughout her life and died in 1896.

  • Read Documentary History of Slavery in the United States from the collection African American Perspectives, 1818-1907 for a concise review of slavery in the US between 1774 and 1850, when the Fugitive Slave Act was passed.
  • Search American Memory on the term Uncle Tom's Cabin to find a wide variety of material concerning the book, subsequent theatrical adaptations, and related music. See, for example, the musical pieces "Eliza's Flight," published in 1852 and "Eva to Her Papa."
  • Search on the term Harriet Beecher Stowe in The 19th Century in Print: Books to find material written by and concerning Mrs. Stowe. Among these items is a review of Uncle Tom's Cabin, entitled "Uncle Tom in England" from the London Times of Friday, September 3, 1852.
  • A search on the term slavery in Narratives of the American South, 1860-1920 will reveal many non-fiction accounts of slavery. Tupelo, by John Hill Aughey, describes the plight of abolitionists living in the South at the time of secession while quoting a Southern perspective on slavery.
  • From Slavery to Freedom: The African-American Pamphlet Collection, 1824-1909 presents 397 pamphlets published from 1824 through 1909 by African-American authors and others who wrote about slavery, African colonization, Emancipation, Reconstruction, and related topics. Search the Subject Index to find a wide variety of materials including personal accounts, orations, reports, and speeches.
  • 1796 Nikolai Dmetrievich Brashman, Czech mathematician who did his work in Russia, mostly in mechanics. He died on 13 May 1866.
    1775 US Army is founded by the Continental Congress.
    1736 Charles-Augustin de Coulomb, French mathematician, physicist, who died on 23 August 1806. He worked on applied mechanics but he is best known for his work on electricity and magnetism (formulated Coulomb's Law).
    1736 Charles-Augustin de Coulomb, à Angoulême.       ^top^
          Il sera le physicien français, connu pour ses travaux sur l'électrostatique et le magnétisme. Il formulera les lois de Coulomb et les vérifiera à l'aide d'une balance de torsion dont il aura été l'inventeur.
          Ces lois restent valables en physique nucléaire; elles permettent d'exprimer la force qui s'exerce entre le noyau atomique et les électrons périphériques. Charles Augustin De Coulomb inaugure le caractère quantitatif de l'étude moderne du magnétisme. Il applique pour la première fois la balance de torsion à la mesure de forces faibles et établit en 1785 les lois d'attractions et de répulsions de masses magnétiques en raison inverse du carré de la distance. Il introduit la notion de moment magnétique et fait remarquer que les masses magnétiques libres n'existent pas, mais qu'il s'agit d'une polarisation à l'échelle moléculaire.
          La Loi de Coulomb est une Loi fondamentale de l'électrostatique qui établit que la force d'attraction ou de répulsion entre deux charges électrique de signes différents ou de même signes est proportionnelle au produit des deux charges Q et Q', et inversement proportionnelle au carré de leurs distances D. Coulomb étendit cette loi aux charges magnétiques. Le Coulomb est une unité de quantité d'électricité définie par la quantité d'électricité transportée par un cournat de 1 Ampère en 1 seconde.
    1699 La primera máquina de vapor es presentada en la Real Sociedad de Londres, por el mecánico inglés Thomas Savery.
    1654 Louis Dorigny, French painter and engraver who died on 29 November 1742. — more
    Holidays Afghanistan : Mother's Day / US : Flag Day (1777)

    Religious Observances Christian : SS Valerius and Rufinus / Luth : Gregory of Nazianzus and Gregory of Nyssa, bishops / old RC, Luth, Ang : St Basil the Great, bp of Caesarea, doc

    Thoughts for the day: "No man's religion ever survives his morals.”
    “Losers of the world, unite! You have nothing to claim but your work.”
    “Claimants of the world, unite! You have nothing to work on but your losses.”
    “Walkers of the world, untie! You have nothing too loose about your chains.”
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