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Events, deaths, births, of JUN 15
[For events of Jun 15  Julian go to Gregorian date: 1583~1699: Jun 251700s: Jun 261800s: Jun 271900~2099: Jun 28]
• “No need for Stalin to resign”... • US~Canadian border established... • Luther excommunié... • Le Quotidien du Peuple chinois est fondé... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • King accepts Magna Charta... • Battle of Petersburg... • Dante named to city government... • Washington heads Continental Army... • Roaches sense air motion... • Peasant Revolt leader is killed...
On a June 15:
^ 2002 “No need for Stalin to resign”
     The BJP's Tamil Nadu unit says that Chennai Mayor and DMK MLA, M. K. Stalin (born 01 Mar 1953), need not resign from his mayoral post, since the Act passed by the Tamil Nadu Assembly, precluding MPs and MLAs from holding posts in civic bodies, has been challenged in the Madras High Court.

      The validity of the retrospective implementation of the law had been challenged in court, which, in all probability, is expected to give credence to the people's verdict in a direct election, says the BJP's state unit Vice-President, V. Vaithialingam.

      The question of resigning from the MLA's post did not arise at all. Even if he did not resign from his Mayor's post, he could not be disqualified from being an MLA, since the Representation of People's Act did not preclude a person elected to the Assembly or Parliament from holding any posts in local bodies.

     Born on 01 Mar 1953, Stalin [1997 photo >] is the son of Thiru M. Karunanidhi, former Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu.
2001 The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe opens an office in Chechnya, which it had left in early 1999 because of kidnappings. The office is in Znamenskoye.
2000 Bishop acquitted of genocide in Rwanda       ^top^
      A Rwandan court acquits bishop Agustin Misago, 56, of charges that he helped carry out the 1994 massacres of more than 500'000 Rwandans. He had been accused of participating in meetings during which Rwanda's former extremist Hutu government discussed plans to kill minority Tutsis.
      Presiding Judge Jaliere Rutaremara dismisses each of the seven charges against him on behalf of the three-judge panel. Misago had denied any responsibility for the massacres, saying he was wrongly arrested on orders from former President Pasteur Bizimungu. If convicted, Misago faced a mandatory death sentence.
      Misago was bishop of the southern Rwandan diocese of Gikongoro, where tens of thousands died at the hands of Hutu soldiers, militiamen and ordinary civilians. Many victims of the 100-day genocide were killed in churches and with the suspected complicity of priests and nuns before the Tutsi-led rebels won power and stopped the massacres.
      In closing arguments in May 2000, defense attorneys said that Misago had no choice but to attend the security meetings where the killings were discussed. "If he had refused to go, he would've been killed himself," said Alfred Pognon, one of Misago's lawyers.
      In the highly publicized trial that strained Rwanda's relations with the Vatican, Misago also was accused of sending three priests and more than 10 schoolchildren to their deaths by denying them shelter in his parish.
      Misago is the ranking Roman Catholic cleric among more than 20 nuns and priests accused of participating in the genocide. Earlier two priests have were convicted and sentenced to death.
      More than 125'000 genocide suspects are jailed in Rwanda. More than 1500 have been tried by this date, and 300 have been sentenced to death. The first 22 were publicly executed on 24 April 1998.
      On 8 June 2001, at the conclusion of a precedent-setting trial in Brussels, two Benedictine nuns, Sister Gertrude (Consolata Mukangango), 42, and Sister Maria Kisito (Julienne Makubutera), 36, would be sentenced respectively to 15 and 12 years in prison, for aiding the genocide.
roaches2000 Cockroaches found highly sensitive to air motion.
      Scientists at NEC Research Institute report that US cockroaches such as those shown here, have an organ that senses the slightest changes in wind speed or direction. It's an organ that most other creatures, including humans, lack. It helps the roaches to scurry out of the way of a foot or anything else that tries to squash them. Their sensing organ is the two appendages that stick out of their rear. The way to defeat this is to use a vacuum cleaner: the cockroach will run away from the wind and right into the nozzle of the vacuum cleaner.
cockroaches  cockroaches. cockroaches cockroaches cockroaches cockroaches

In case you think of cockroaches not as a pests, but as a pets, there is a web site for you.
      Part of the advice given there: "it is important that they always have enough to eat otherwise they will start eating the cage as well as each other."

If you prefer scorpions, click here.

Or perhaps a tarantula?
1998 FCC slashes Internet spending
      The Federal Communications Commission cut back its spending on Internet connections for schools, libraries, and rural health-care centers. The FCC, which had been criticized for its high costs, chops its Internet spending in half, to $1.28 billion
1997 AOL not liable for porn-peddling subscribers
      A Florida judge ruled that America Online could not be held responsible for customers using the service to sell pornography. The judge added that parents, not the law, should protect children from online pornography.
1997 In Bangladesh, at 00:50 the Occidental Bangladesh Limited drilling rig crew of Moulvi Bazar well no 1 at Magurchhara were evacuating the rig in the face of a violent gas flow from the ground. By 01:45 gas was flowing violently from many directions and soon it exploded and caught fire. The devastating blow out, a raging inferno that burnt for 10 days, destroyed the eco-system and thousands of very important installations in Magurchhara.
1994 Israel and the Vatican established full diplomatic relations.
1991 Philippines' volcano Mount Pinatubo continues to erupt with great violence.
1991 India concluded its violence-racked elections, with the Congress Party of recently assassinated former Prime Minister
1991 La mayoría de los ayuntamientos españoles constituyen sus corporaciones. El PSOE logró la alcaldía en 22 capitales de provincia y el PP en 13.
1990 Violeta Barrios de Chamorro, presidenta de Nicaragua, anuncia la "reestructuración" de la institución castrense, que incluye la reducción de más del 50% del Ejército Popular Sandinista, integrado por 90'000 efectivos.
1987 Melina Mercouri, ministra de Cultura griega, entrega al ex presidente italiano Alesandro Pertini el premio Onassis 1987.
1986 Julio Caro Baroja pronuncia su discurso de ingreso en la Real Academia Española.
1986 Pravda announces high-level Chernobyl staff fired for stupidity
1985 En route to Halley's Comet, USSR's Vega 2 drops lander on Venus
1984 Graves inundaciones en Colombia, debidas a lluvias incesantes, que causaron gran número de muertos y desaparecidos, así como cuantiosas pérdidas materiales.
1983 US Supreme Court strikes down state and local restrictions on abortion
1983 Formación en Londres de la Internacional Conservadora.
1979 Estados Unidos y la URSS firman en Viena el acuerdo Salt II, que limita la fabricación de armas estratégicas.
1982 Riots in Argentina after Falklands/Malvinas defeat. — Fin de la guerre des Malouines entre l’Argentine et l’Angleterre, par la reddition de la garnison argentine de " Port-Stanley " qui reconnait le "fait" anglais.
1978 Dimite el presidente italiano,Giovanni Leone, acusado de fraude fiscal y de corrupción en el escándalo de la Lockheed.
1978 Jordan's King Hussein marries Elizabeth Halaby, 26-yr-old US citizen.
1977 Spain's first free elections since 1936 — Adolfo Suárez González, líder del partido Unión del Centro Democrático (UCD), es elegido presidente del Gobierno en las primeras elecciones democráticas en España desde la II República.
1973 Graves enfrentamientos en Chile entre partidarios del presidente Salvador Allende y sus adversarios.
1969 Pompidou président: Election au deuxième tour de scrutin du Président Français, Georges Pompidou, l’ex-secrétaire du Général de Gaule et l’héritier du Gaulisme.
1966 Finalizan en Amsterdam tres días de revueltas desencadenadas por los provos, jóvenes contestatarios.
1962 España ingresa en la Agencia Espacial Europea.
1962 South Africa passes a bill setting death penalty for many crimes.
1960 Argentina complains to UN about Israeli illicit transfer of Eichman.
1946 Swedish ambassador to Moscow Staffan Soderblom meets with Soviet dictator Josef Stalin, but fails to seek the release of Raoul Wallenberg (who was then alive in a Russian prison, according to later information) whom he believed had been killed in Budapest on 17 January 1945 (the original Soviet lie about Wallenberg).
1944 US forces begin their successful invasion of Saipan during World War II. — Los estadounidenses desembarcan en las islas Marianas.
1944 B-29 Superfortresses made their first raids on Japan.
1943 Cover-up of Nazi atrocities       ^top^
      Paul Blobel, an SS colonel, is given the assignment of coordinating the destruction of the evidence of the grossest of Nazi atrocities, the systematic extermination of European Jews. As the summer of 1943 approached, Allied forces had begun making cracks in Axis strongholds, in the Pacific and in the Mediterranean specifically. Heinrich Himmler, leader of the SS, the elite corps of Nazi bodyguards that grew into a paramilitary terror force, began to consider the possibility of German defeat and worried that the mass murder of Jews and Soviet prisoners of war would be discovered.
      A plan was devised to dig up the buried dead and burn the corpses at each camp and extermination site. The man chosen to oversee this yearlong project was Paul Blobel. Blobel certainly had some of that blood on his hands himself, as he was in charge of SS killing squads in German-occupied areas of Russia. He now drew together another kind of squad, "Special Commando Group 1005," dedicated to this destruction of human evidence. Blobel began with "death pits" near Lvov, in Poland, and forced hundreds of Jewish slave laborers from the nearby concentration camp to dig up the corpses and burn them--but not before extracting the gold from the teeth of the victims.
1941 Croacia se incorpora al pacto tripartito.
1940 French fortress of Verdun captured by Germans — II Guerra Mundial. Rota la línea Maginot por los alemanes, cae Verdún.
1940 La flotte française bombarde Gênes
1937 Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, jefe del Estado turco, dona a su patria un patrimonio de 100 millones de francos franceses.
1934 Great Smoky Mountains National Park dedicated
1932 Apertura de la Conferencia de Laussana, que logró zanjar la cuestión de las reparaciones alemanas por la guerra de 1914-1918.
1931 El Primado de España, cardenal Segura, es expulsado de España por el Gobierno Provisional de la República.
1929 First time NY curb stock exchange transacts more shares than NY Stock Exchange
1924 Native Americans are proclaimed US citizens
1924 Ford Motor Company manufactures its 10 millionth automobile
1924 Aparece 20 poemas de amor y una canción desesperada, de Pablo Neruda.
1922 Los aviadores portugueses Gago Coutinho y Sacadura Cabral llegan a Río de Janeiro en hidroavión, realizando así la primera travesía aérea del Atlántico Sur. Habían salido de Lisboa el 30 de marzo.
1920 Se fijan las nuevas fronteras entre Alemania y Dinamarca.
1919 First nonstop Atlantic flight (Alcock and Brown) lands in Ireland.
1918 1" of snow falls in Northern Pennsylvania
1915 US government mints first $50 gold pieces, for Panama Pacific Expo.
1907 44 nations meet in 2nd Hague Peace Conference
1902 Canada's Maritime Provinces switch from Eastern to Atlantic time.
1889 Start of the Sherlock Holmes Adventure The Stockbroker's Clerk
1889 José Zorrilla y del Moral es coronado poeta en el Carmen de los Mártires de Granada.
1878 first attempt at motion pictures (used 12 cameras, each taking 1 picture) done to see if all 4 of a horse's hooves leave the ground
1877 First Black graduate of West Point       ^top^
      Henry Ossian Flipper, born a slave in Thomasville, Georgia, in 1856, becomes the first African-American cadet to graduate from the US Military Academy at West Point, New York. Flipper, who was never spoken to by a white cadet during his four years at West Point, is appointed a second lieutenant in the all-African-American 10th Cavalry, stationed at Fort Sill in Indian Territory.
      The United States Military Academy, the first military school in America, was founded by Congress in 1802 for the purpose of educating and training young men in the theory and practice of military science. Located on the high west bank of the Hudson River, West Point was the site of a Revolutionary-era fort built to protect the Hudson River Valley from British attack.
      In 1780, Patriot General Benedict Arnold, the commander in charge of the fort, agreed to surrender West Point to the British in exchange for six thousand pounds. However, the plot was uncovered before it fell into British hands, and Arnold fled to British protection.
      In 1812, the growing threat of another war with Great Britain resulted in congressional action to expand the US Military Academy’s facilities and increase the West Point corps. Beginning in 1817, the academy was reorganized by superintendent Sylvanus Thayer--later known as the "father of West Point"--and the school became one of the nation’s finest sources of civil engineers.
      During the Mexican-American War, West Point graduates filled the leading ranks of the victorious US forces, and with the outbreak of the Civil War, former West Point classmates regrettably lined up against each other in the defense of their native states.
      In 1870, the first African-American cadet was admitted into the US Military Academy, and in 1976, the first female cadets. The academy is now under the general direction and supervision of the department of the US Army, and has an enrollment of about 4300 students.
1876 Sara Spencer (R) is first woman to address a US presidential cconvention
1871 Phoebe Couzins is first woman graduate of a US collegiate law school
1866 Prussia attacks Austria
1864 Robert E Lee's home area (Arlington, VA) becomes a military cemetery
1864 Battle of Petersburg begins       ^top^
      During the Civil War, Ulysses S. Grant’s Army of the Potomac and Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia collide for the last time when the first wave of Union troops attack Petersburg, a vital Southern rail center thirty-seven kilometers south of the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia. The two massive armies would not become disentangled until April 9, 1865, when Lee surrendered and his men went home.
      In June of 1864, in a brilliant tactical maneuver, Grant marched his army around the Army of Northern Virginia, crossed the James River unopposed, and advanced his forces to Petersburg. Knowing that the fall of Petersburg would mean the fall of Richmond, Lee raced to reinforce the city’s defenses. The mass of Grant’s army arrived first. On June 15, the first day of the Battle of Petersburg, some 10'000 Union troops under General William F. Smith move against the Confederate defenders of Petersburg, made up of only a few thousand armed old men and boys commanded by General P. G. T. Beauregard. However, the Confederates have the advantage of formidable physical defenses, and they hold off the overly cautious Union assault.
      The next day, more Federal troops arrived, but Beauregard is reinforced by Lee, and the Confederate line remains unbroken during several Union attacks occurring over the next two days. By June 18, Grant has nearly 100'000 men at his disposal at Petersburg, but the 20'000 Confederate defenders hold on as Lee hurries the rest of his Army of Northern Virginia into the entrenchments. Knowing that further attacks would be futile, but satisfied to have bottled up the Army of Northern Virginia, Grant’s army digs trenches and began a prolonged siege of Petersburg.
      Finally on April 2, 1965, with his defense line overextended and his troops starving, Lee’s right flank suffered a major defeat against Union cavalry under General Phillip Sheridan, and Grant ordered a general attack on all fronts. The Army of Northern Virginia retreated under heavy fire, the Confederate government fled Richmond on Lee’s recommendation, and Petersburg, and then Richmond, fell to the Union. Less than a week later, Grant’s massive army headed off the remnants of the Army of Northern Virginia at Appomattox Station, and Lee was forced to surrender, effectively ending the Civil War.
1863 Battle of Stephenson's Depot, Virginia
1863 Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana continues
1863 Siege on Vicksburg, Mississippi continues
1862 Gen JEB Stuart completes his "ride around McClellan"
1860 first White settlement in Idaho (Franklin)
1851 Jacob Fussell, Baltimore dairyman, sets up first ice-cream factory
1846 US-Canadian border established, forget 54º40'       ^top^
      Representatives of Great Britain and the United States sign the Oregon Treaty, which settles a longstanding dispute with Britain over who controlled the Oregon territory. The treaty establishes the Forty-ninth parallel from the Rocky Mountains to the Strait of Georgia, just short of the Pacific Ocean, as the boundary between the United States and British Canada. The US gains formal control over the future states of Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and Montana, and the British retain Vancouver Island and navigation rights to part of the Columbia River.
      In 1818, a US-British agreement had established the border along the forty-ninth parallel from Lake of the Woods in the east to the Rocky Mountains in the west. The two nations also agreed to a joint occupation of Oregon territory for ten years, an arrangement that was extended for an additional ten years in 1828. After 1838, the issue of who possessed Oregon became increasingly controversial, especially when mass American migration along the Oregon Trail began in the early 1840s.
      American expansionists urge seizure of Oregon, and in 1844, Democrat James K. Polk successfully ran for president under the platform, "Fifty-four Forty or Fight," which referred to his hope of bringing a sizable portion of present-day Vancouver and Alberta into the United States. However, neither President Polk nor the British government wanted a third Anglo-American war, and on June 15, 1846, the Oregon Treaty is signed.

ART. I. From the point of the forty-ninth parallel of north latitude, where the boundary laid down in existing treaties and conventions between the United States and Great Britain terminates, the line of boundary between the territories of the United States and those of her Britannic Majesty shall be continued westward along the said forty-ninth parallel of north latitude to the middle of the channel which separates the continent from Vancouver's Island, and thence southerly through the middle of the said channel, and of Fuca's Straits, to the Pacific Ocean: Provided, however, That the navigation of the whole of the said channel and straits, south of the forty-ninth parallel of north latitude, remain free and open to both parties.
ART. II. From the point at which the forty-ninth parallel of north latitude shall be found to intersect the great northern branch of the Columbia River, the navigation of the said branch shall be free and open to the Hudson's Bay Company, and to all British subjects trading with the same, to the point where the said branch meets the main stream of the Columbia, and thence down the said main stream to the ocean, with free access into and through the said river or rivers, it being understood that all the usual portages along the line thus described shall, in like manner, be free and open. In navigating the said river or rivers, British subjects, with their goods and produce, shall be treated on the same footing as citizens of the United States; it being, however, always understood that nothing in this article shall be construed as preventing, or intended to prevent, the government of the United States from making any regulations respecting the navigation of the said river or rivers not inconsistent with the present treaty.
ART. III. In the future appropriation of the territory south of the forty-ninth parallel of north latitude, as provided in the first article of this treaty, the possessory rights of the Hudson's Bay Company, and of all British subjects who may be already in the occupation of land or other property lawfully acquired within the said territory, shall be respected.
ART. IV. The farms, lands, and other property of every description, belonging to the Puget's Sound Agricultural Company, on the north side of the Columbia River, shall be confirmed to the said company. In case, however, the situation of those farms and lands should be considered by the United States to be of public and political importance, and the United States government should signify a desire to obtain possession of the whole, or of any part thereof, the property so required shall be transferred to the said government, at a proper valuation, to be agreed upon between the parties.
1844 Charles Goodyear received a patent for his process to strengthen rubber.
1836 Arkansas becomes 25th US state
1815 Début de la campagne de Belgique. La veille, devant Charleroi, face aux troupes prussiennes de Blücher, Napoléon a lancé à ses soldats : "Pour tout Français qui a du coeur, le moment est arrivé de vaincre ou de périr." En ce 15 juin, le soir, il écrit au maréchal comte Grouchy : "A 10 heures, la bataille était finie et nous nous trouvions maîtres de tout le champ de bataille."
1804 12th amendment to the US Constitution is ratified; deals with manner of choosing president
1793 PERRIN François, 44 ans, natif de Rennes (Ille-et-Vilaine), jardinier, domicilié à Guyomarais, est condamné à la déportation, comme complice de la conspiration, dont le ci-devant marquis de la Rouerie était chef dans la ci-devant province de Bretagne, et depuis le 18 messidor an 2, par le même tribunal, comme complice de la conspiration de Bicêtre, où il était détenu pour attendre l'exécution de son premier jugement, tendante à forcer la garde de cette maison, se porter à la Convention et singulièrement aux comités de salut public et de sûreté générale, en égorger les membres les plus marquants, leur arracher le cœur, le rôtir et le manger.
1792 Dumouriez démissionne. Dumouriez devenu très populaire avait accepté le 10 mars 1791, le portefeuille de ministre des Affaires étrangères, demande au roi qui, le 12, vient de renvoyer les ministres Roland, Clavière et Servan et de nommer Dumouriez ministre de la guerre, de revenir sur son veto aux décrets contre les prêtres réfractaires. Une fois encore, le roi refuse. Dumouriez choisit de démissionner. — Charles-François du Périer Dumouriez was a French general who won signal victories for the French Revolution in 1792–93 (Valmy 20 September 1792, Jemappes 06 November 1792) and then, on 05 April 1793, traitorously deserted to the Austrians. He was born on 25 January. 1739 in Cambrai and died on 14 March 1823 in England.
George Washington, age 481775 Washington appointed commander of Continental Army       ^top^
[detail of 1780 portrait by Charles Willson Peale (1741–1827) >]
      In Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, George Washington, a prominent Virginia planter and veteran of the French and Indian War, is named the first commander-in-chief of the Continental Army by a unanimous vote of the 2nd Continental Congress. General Washington, who asked for reimbursement of future expenses but no payment for his services, would assume the command on 03 July.
      George Washington was born in 1732 to a farm family in Westmoreland County, Virginia, and through his extensive reading was essentially self-educated. His first direct military experience came as a major in the Virginia colonial militia in 1754, when he led a small expedition against the French in the Ohio River valley on behalf of the governor of Virginia. Two years later, as a colonel during the French and Indian War between Britain and France, Washington took command of the defenses of the western Virginian frontier.
      After the war, he resigned from his military post, and over the next two decades, openly opposed the escalating British taxation and repression of the American colonies. In 1774, Washington represented Virginia at the Continental Congress and, after the American War for Independence erupted in 1775, was appointed commander-in-chief of the newly established Continental Army. With this inexperienced and poorly equipped army of civilian soldiers, Washington led an effective war of harassment against British forces in America, while employing his extraordinary diplomatic skills to encourage the intervention of the French into the conflict on behalf of the colonists.
      On 19 October 1781, when British General Charles Lord Cornwallis surrendered his massive British army at Yorktown, Virginia, General Washington had defeated one of the most powerful nations on earth. After the war, the victorious general retired to his estate at Mount Vernon, but in 1787 he heeded his nation’s call and returned to politics to preside over the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
      On 30 April 1789, after being unanimously elected, Washington was inaugurated as the first president of the United States, and in 1792, was elected to a second term. While in office, he sought to unite the nation and protect the interests of the new republic at home and abroad. In 1797, Washington retired to Mount Vernon, where he died of natural causes two years later.
1664 NJ established
1567 Jews are expelled from Genoa Italy
1520 Martin Luther menacé d'excommunion.       ^top^
      Condamnation par le Pape Léon X, au moyen de la Bulle "Exsurge Domine", de Martin Luther et de son hérésie le Protestantisme. La légende est peut-être plus vraie que l’histoire ! Elle représente Léon X, pape Médicis de la beauté, arrêtant à peine une chasse à courre pour signer, dans une clairière des monts Albins, peu loins de Rome, la condamnation d’un moine déviant inconnu qui perturbe l’Allemagne. Cette bulle, publiée à Rome le 15 juin 1520, a été préparée au cours de l’hiver précédent par une commission de théologiens, issus en majorité des ordres mendiants prédicateurs officiels des indulgences et des aumônes pour la basilique Saint-Pierre. Cette vente des indulgences que justement Luther attaquait ouvertement.
      Certains théologiens tentaient de nuancer la rédaction, alors que le théologien Jean Eck prônait une condamnation globale et radicale d’un Luther scandaleux et hérétique. Discutée par quatre consistoires de cardinaux de curie, la bulle ménage la personne de Luther — il a soixante jours pour se soumettre — et porte condamnation de quarante et une propositions doctrinales, tirées des œuvres de l’augustin saxon. Inspiré du jugement de la faculté théologique de Louvain du 07 novembre 1519, ce "syllabus", où Jean Eck a fait tout de même passer six articles condamnant Luther comme défenseur hérétique des conciles au détriment de la primauté romaine, constitue le premier condensé de la pensée luthérienne.
      Telle quelle, dans le climat d’une année marquée par la mort de Maximilien Ier et l’élection difficile de Charles Quint (28 juin 1519), la bulle, instrument juridique, ne peut constituer un moyen efficace de paix. Luther, une première fois, en appelle au concile et au pape mal informé. Le pape étant mieux "informé", il lance un deuxième appel. La réponse romaine vient alors sous la forme d’une nouvelle bulle excommuniant cette fois Luther et ses partisans (Decet romanum pontificem , 03 janvier 1521). Cette bulle ne sera que peu appliquée en Allemagne.
      Sur le terrain de l’Empire, la publication de la bulle Exsurge Domine ne se fait qu’en Rhénanie et aux Pays-Bas, parce que Charles Quint y appuie le nonce Alexandre. Jean Eck, passionnément anti-luthérien, réussit à en faire des proclamations officielles dans les cathédrales de Brandenburg, Merseburg, Meissen, dont dépend Wittenberg. Mais l’exécution des sanctions prises rencontre une résistance passive ou active quasi générale en terre allemande. Luther a-t-il jeté au feu un exemplaire de la bulle sous les acclamations des étudiants de Wittenberg (10 decembre 1520)? En tout cas, elle a été souvent jetée à l’eau et piétinée ; on a peu brûlé les écrits de Luther, et le bannissement par Charles Quint hors de l’Empire du réformateur excommunié n’a jamais été effectif, protégé qu’il était par Frédéric le Sage de Saxe, bien d’autres princes, d’autres laïcs et par le peuple.
      Nombre d’évêques allemands même adoptent une attitude "proche du sabotage" (H. Jedin). Cette résistance s’explique par le fait que Rome a mis les évêques hors d’affaire dans une procédure judiciaire qui relève en première instance de leur ressort. Parce que pareille attitude ne donne pas droit aux justes thèses conciliaristes traditionnelles. Parce que la Rome papale de la Renaissance ne se remet pas en cause sous les appels réformistes de Martin Luther, continuant notamment à prélever de lourdes taxes sur l’Église allemande. Parce que l’opinion publique persiste à voir en Luther un fils de l’Église exerçant la liberté chrétienne, résistant mais non hérétique, dont surtout l’Appel à la noblesse allemande de l’été 1520 constitue un véritable programme de concile de réformation.
1520 Leo X issued the papal encyclical 'Exsurge Domine,' which condemned German Reformer Martin Luther as a heretic on 41 counts and branded him an enemy of the Roman Catholic Church.
1502 Descubrimiento de la isla Dominica por Colón durante su cuarto y último viaje a América.
1389 Battle of Kossovo; Turks defeat Serbs, Bosnians
click for portraits of Dante1300 Dante named to city government of Florence       ^top^
      Poet Dante Alighieri, 35, becomes one of six priors of Florence, active in governing the city. Dante's political activities, which include the banishment of several rivals, lead to his own exile from Florence, his native city, after 1302. He will write his great work, The Divine Comedy, as a virtual wanderer, seeking protection for his family in town after town.
      Dante was born on 27 May 1265 to a family with noble ancestry whose fortunes had fallen. His father was a moneylender. Dante began writing poetry in his teens and received encouragement from established poets, to whom he sent sonnets as a young man. At age nine, Dante first caught a glimpse of Beatrice Portinari, also nine, who would symbolize for him perfect female beauty and spiritual goodness in the coming decades. Despite his fervent devotion to Portinari, who did not seem to return his feelings, Dante became engaged to Gemma Donati in 1277, but the two did not marry until eight years later. The couple had six sons and a daughter.
      About 1293, Dante published a book of prose and poetry called The New Life, followed a few years later by another collection, The Banquet. It wasn't until his banishment that he began work on his Divine Comedy. In the poem's first book, Dante takes a tour through Hell with the poet Virgil as his guide. Virgil also guides the poet through Purgatory in the second book. The poet's guide in Paradise, however, is named Beatrice. The work was written and published in sections between 1308 and 1321. Although Dante called the work simply Comedy, the work became enormously popular, and a deluxe version published in 1555 in Venice bore the title The Divine Comedy. Dante died of malaria in Ravenna on 14 September 1321. "Lasciate ogne speranza, voi ch'intrate".
[click on either image for portraits of Dante]
click for portraits of Dante La Divina Commedia
      Poema da Dante Alighieri in terza rima, iniziato nel 1307, composto di tre Cantiche (Inferno, Purgatorio, Paradiso) che comprendono 100 canti complessivi: 34 l'"Inferno", 33 ciascuno il "Purgatorio" e il "Paradiso". Argomento dell'opera è il viaggio compiuto da Dante nell'Oltretomba. Tre guide conducono il poeta: Virgilio nell'Inferno, e parte del Purgatorio, fino all'Eden; Beatrice, la donna amata da Dante in gioventù e il cui ricordo lo ha distolto dal traviamento, conduce il poeta fino all'Empireo, alla Rosa celeste; e San Bernardo che mostra a Dante la gloria di Dio. Il viaggio dura circa una settimana e ha inizio nella notte del Venerdì Santo, l'8 aprile 1300.
     Dante Alighieri nasce nel 1265 da una famiglia guelfa di Firenze, di piccola nobiltà. Amico di Guido Cavalcanti, di cui inizialmente subì l'egemonia culturale, partecipò con lui e con altri poeti al movimento del Dolce Stil Nuovo. Gran parte delle sue rime giovanili sono dedicate ad una "Beatrice", che viene tradizionalmente identificata con l'omonima figlia di Folco Portinari, sposata a Simone de' Bardi, e morta di parto l'8 giugno 1290. Il poeta tra il 1293 e il 1294 rielabora la storia spirituale del suo amore nella "Vita Nuova", un libriccino mescolato di versi e di prosa.
      Dopo questa data Dante comincia a partecipare alla vita politica di Firenze, del cui esercito ha fatto parte in diverse occasioni (nel giugno 1289 lo troviamo tra i "feditori" a cavallo nella battaglia di Campaldino contro i ghibellini di Arezzo, nell'agosto dello stesso anno è nell'esercito fiorentino che tolse ai pisani la fortezza di Caprona). Dante, che aveva trascorso un periodo di studi a Bologna, si iscrisse alla corporazione dei medici e degli speziali per iniziare la carriera politica (gli Ordinamenti di Giustizia di Giano della Bella riservavano il governo del comune solo ai cittadini iscritti a una delle corporazioni d'arti e mestieri).
      Nel 1300 le sue responsabilità politiche aumentarono, e Dante divenne uno dei Priori, dedicando la maggior parte delle sue energie a contrastare i piani del papa Bonifacio VIII. Questi infatti , approfittando del conflitto presente in Firenze fra i Bianchi, capeggiati dalla consorteria dei Cerchi, e i Neri guidati da quella dei Donati, cercava di di estendere la sua autorità su tutta la Toscana.
      Nell'ottobre del 1301 il papa inviò a Firenze Carlo di Valois, fratello del re di Francia, apparentemente come paciere: ma in realtà Carlo aveva l'incarico di debellare i Bianchi. Mentre Dante si trovava a Roma come ambasciatore del comune di Firenze presso il Pontefice, Corso Donati e i neri conquistarono, con uccisioni e violenze, il potere.
      Dante fu condannato all'interdizione perpetua dai pubblici uffici, a una multa e all'esilio per due anni, per furto del denaro pubblico, azioni ostili verso il papa e la città (non essendosi presentato a discolparsi fu condannato ad essere bruciato vivo se fosse caduto in mano al Comune). Dal 1302 comincia il periodo dell'esilio, che durerà fino alla morte del poeta. Iniziò un pellegrinaggio per l'Italia. Prese contatto con Bartolomeo della Scala a Verona e con i conti Malaspina in Lunigiana, e tra il 1304 e il 1307 compose il Convivio (poi rimasto interrotto) per acquisire meriti di fronte all'opinione pubblica (per lungo tempo coltivò l'illusione di poter essere richiamato nella sua città come riconoscimento della sua grandezza culturale). Appartiene allo stesso periodo il De Vulgari Eloquentia.
      Col passare degli anni Dante iniziò a vedere il suo esilio come simbolo del distacco dalla corruzione, dagli odi e dagli egoismi di parte, e si considerò guida per gli uomini alla riconquista di essa, della verità e della pace. Tale vocazione ispira la Divina Commedia, cominciata probabilmente dopo il 1307. Nel 1310 il nuovo imperatore Arrigo VII scese in Italia e Dante, scrisse delle lettere per esortare tutti ad accogliere colui che poteva riportare alla pace; scrisse inoltre il suo trattato politico più importante, la Monarchia. Ma nel 1313 Arrigo morì improvvisamente a Buonconvento presso Siena, e Dante abbandonò ogni speranza di tornare a Firenze. Negli ultimi anni, fu ospite di Can Grande della Scala a Verona e di Guido Novello da Polenta a Ravenna. Qui portò a termine l'ultima parte della Commedia, di cui era già stata pubblicata prima del 1315 la prima cantica, l'Inferno. Lo scrittore muore a Ravenna nella notte di 13 a 14 settembre 1321.
A map of the earth showing Hell and Purgatory 
    Dante Alighieri's La Divina Commedia is the allegorical story of spiritual journey, one which began on Good Friday, 8 April 1300 — when Dante was 35 and thus midway through his allotted span — and lasted for just seven days; but it is also a bitter political polemic, excoriating those in authority in Italy, and above all in his native Florence, and denouncing the papacy for its wealth and corruption. It embraces the celestial and the terrestrial, the mythological and the historical, the practical and the ethical; it discusses reason and faith, of society and the individual;  finally, it claims to speak with the voice of God.
        The earth, we must understand, is the centre of the universe, of which only the northern hemisphere is inhabited. Within this hemisphere is hell, a vast funnel formed by the fall of Lucifer. The earth displaced by the fall descended to the southern hemisphere where it formed the mountain of purgatory, rising from the ocean.
      This too is conical, with seven ledges rising to its summit, paradise. Around the earth are nine concentric revolving heavens , encircling which is the empyrean, home to the nine orders or angels and the seat of God. Dante's journey therefore takes him through the entire universe. It begins in the dark wood of sin where he finds the poet Virgil, who undertakes to guide him. Down they go through the deepening circles, speaking with the damned, who are being punished according to their sins on earth.
      Some are mythological, some historical, some contemporary Florentines. Emerging in the southern hemisphere, Dante and Virgil sail to purgatory, on whose successive ledges they find those guilty of the seven deadly sins. They too suffer horribly but, unlike the denizens of Hell, they have hope; they are working up towards paradise. There the pagan Virgil must take his leave , while Dante finds his long-last Beatrice, through whom he is led to his final vision of God.
      Dante was not the first poet to write in Italian; but he, more than anyone, made his native Tuscan dialect the literary language of the whole peninsula. His limpid Italian might have been written yesterday. The work is not easy, but for anyone prepared to make the effort, the rewards are great.
     The Divine Comedy is a poem which describes the journey of Dante the Pilgrim as he is lead, firstly by Virgil through Hell and Purgatory and secondly by Beatrice through to Heaven. The poem is therefore separated into three volumes. Each volume (Inferno, Purgatory and Paradise) is of 33 cantos, except for Inferno which contains one extra introductory canto which serves as an overview to what will come.
     The interpretation of The Divine Comedy is much more than a simple poem. In fact Dante even tells us so in a letter he wrote. Dante says that in the literal sense his work is a description of 'the state of souls after death' but if his work is to be taken allegorically then the subject is ' Man-as, according to his merits or demerits in the exercise of his free will, he is subject to reward or punishment by Justice...'. The work therefore investigates Mankind's search for salvation where man must first descend into humility before he can raise himself to God. Before man can hope to climb the mountain of salvation he must first know what sin is. This is exactly what the Pilgrims journey represents as his pilgrimage takes Dante (who represents all Mankind) through all the types of sin in preparation for his ascent to God.

ART ABOUT DANTE ONLINE: [for maximum screen area in Windows: press F11]
Salvador Dali's illustrations for The Divine Comedy: http://narthex.com/gallerya.htm
A page from a Divina Commedia codexLa barque de DanteDante drinking the waters of the Lethe Beatrice Meeting Dante at a Marriage Feast, Denies Him Her SalutationDante's dream at the death of Beatrice The First Anniversary of the Death of Beatrice: Dante Drawing the Angel Beatrice addressing Dante from the whirl

  • The Divine Comedy
  • The Divine Comedy
  • The Divine Comedy
  • HellPurgatoryParadise
  • HellPurgatoryParadise
  • The Vision: or, Hell, Purgatory, and Paradise
  • The Divine Comedy (in Italian and English)
  • 1219 King Valdemar brought victory for Denmark
    1215 King John accepts Magna Charta at Runnymede, England
          MAGNA CARTA SEALED: Following a revolt by the English nobility against his rule, King John puts his royal seal on the Magna Carta, or "Great Charter." The document, essentially a peace treaty between John and his barons, guaranteed that the king would respect feudal rights and privileges, uphold the freedom of the church, and maintain the nation's laws. Although more a reactionary than a progressive document in its day, the Magna Carta was seen as a cornerstone in the development of democratic England by later generations.
          John was enthroned as king of England following the death of his brother, King Richard the Lion-Hearted, in 1199. King John's reign was characterized by failure. He lost the duchy of Normandy to the French king and taxed the English nobility heavily to pay for his foreign misadventures. He quarreled with Pope Innocent III and sold church offices to build up the depleted royal coffers. Following the defeat of a campaign to regain Normandy in 1214, Stephen Langton, the archbishop of Canterbury, called on the disgruntled barons to demand a charter of liberties from the king.
          In 1215, the barons rose up in rebellion against the king's abuse of feudal law and custom. John, faced with a superior force, had no choice but to give in to their demands. Earlier kings of England had granted concessions to their feudal barons, but these charters were vaguely worded and issued voluntarily. The document drawn up for John in June 1215, however, forced the king to make specific guarantees of the rights and privileges of his barons and the freedom of the church. On June 15, 1215, John met the barons at Runnymede on the Thames and set his seal to the Articles of the Barons, which after minor revision was formally issued as the Magna Carta.
          The charter consisted of a preamble and 63 clauses and dealt mainly with feudal concerns that had little impact outside 13th century England. However, the document was remarkable in that it implied there were laws the king was bound to observe, thus precluding any future claim to absolutism by the English monarch. Of greatest interest to later generations was clause 39, which stated that "no free man shall be arrested or imprisoned or disseised [dispossessed] or outlawed or exiled or in any way victimised...except by the lawful judgment of his peers or by the law of the land." This clause has been celebrated as an early guarantee of trial by jury and of habeas corpus and inspired England's Petition of Right (1628) and the Habeas Corpus Act (1679).
          In immediate terms, the Magna Carta was a failure--civil war broke out the same year, and John ignored his obligations under the charter. Upon his death in 1216, however, the Magna Carta was reissued with some changes by his son, King Henry III, and then reissued again in 1217. That year, the rebellious barons were defeated by the king's forces. In 1225, Henry III voluntarily reissued the Magna Carta a third time, and it formally entered English statute law.
          The Magna Carta has been subject to a great deal of historical exaggeration; it did not establish Parliament, as some have claimed, nor more than vaguely allude to the liberal democratic ideals of later centuries. However, as a symbol of the sovereignty of the rule of law, it was of fundamental importance to the constitutional development of England. Four original copies of the Magna Carta of 1215 exist today: one in Lincoln Cathedral, one in Salisbury Cathedral, and two in the British Museum.
         Dans une prairie des environs de Windsor, les barons anglais imposent au roi Jean sans Terre la signature d'un traité connu sous le nom de «Grande Charte». Violent et sans scrupules, le plus jeune fils d'Aliénor d'Aquitaine et d'Henri II Plantagenêt a réussi dès le début de son règne à se faire haïr de la noblesse comme des bourgeois, du clergé et des paysans. On le soupçonne d'avoir tué son neveu Arthur pour s'approprier le trône à la mort de son frère Richard Coeur de Lion. Par ses maladresses, Jean sans Terre a perdu la plupart des seigneuries que possédait sa famille en France. Le roi de France Philippe Auguste écrase ses alliés à Bouvines et se prépare à envahir l'Angleterre en vue de le chasser du trône.
          Humilié, Jean sans Terre n'a d'autre issue que de se soumettre aux exigences de ses barons pour conserver leur soutien. C'est ainsi qu'en signant la Grande Charte, il s'engage à ne pas lever d'impôts sans demander l'accord d'un Grand conseil composé de barons et d'ecclésiastiques et à ne pas procéder à des arrestations arbitraires. Vingt-cinq barons, y compris le Maire de Londres, doivent surveiller le respect de ces clauses. Avec la Grande Charte, la noblesse anglaise impose au roi le respect de ses droits féodaux. Mais la postérité verra dans ce texte en 63 articles la première limitation imposée à l'arbitraire monarchique et l'amorce de la démocratie moderne. La Grande Charte est encore de nos jours à la base des institutions britanniques.
         La Grande Charte traduite en français
    --763 -BC- Assyrians record total solar eclipse event on clay tablet
    Deaths which occurred on a June 15:
    2001 Goldfish from fire caused by sun rays focused by their goldfish bowl, in Oxford, England. The fire started in a nearby shed which held a rat-catcher's aluminum phosphide tablets, which gave off fumes when wetted by firemen, resulting in 18 firefighters, four paramedics and four neighbors being hospitalized suffering from vomiting, nausea and burning chest sensations.

    2000 A peaceful black bear, killed by police in Albany NY.
    granted, the animal was exercizing its unalienable right to bear arms (two of them).
    Albany NY police shoot and kill a 200-kg bear that had been taking a peaceful walk through the city's parks and neighborhoods. It was doing no harm to anyone. But joggers and dog-walkers got frightened for no good reason.
          “People were out walking their dogs and running” when they reported seeing the black bear, said Albany police spokesman Jimmy Miller.“The bear came at one of the officers and was shot and killed at about 06:00.” And it wasn't even pulling out a wallet! All it had in the way of arms was its two bare bear arm.
          The bear was not shot with a tranquilizer gun because sleep-inducing drugs, which take about 10-15 minutes to work, can be used only in tightly controlled areas like a tree where there is no risk of flight on the ground, was the excuse alleged by Karl Parker of the New York department of environmental conservation. “Since it happened in the city, the officers had to do what they thought necessary,” said Parker, a senior wildlife biologist at the department, oblivious to the fact that, all too often, police officers think that they have a licence to kill and that it is necessary to kill.
          The animal was believed to be the same bear which had been spotted in several towns in the region over the last two weeks, said Parker. The bear had a tag on its ear indicating it had been previously caught and released in Pennsylvania, at least 200 km away. Pennsylvania natives (especially hairy bare ones, and hairy beery ones) would be well advised to take heed and avoid visiting New York state.
          Bears have made a major comeback in parts of the northeastern United States in recent years. The territory belonged to them long before human settlers invaded it. Heartless residents have come to consider the bears as pests in some areas, especially when the animals, desperate for food, rummage through garbage needlessly created by wasteful people and carelessly stored. Does that deserve the death penalty? -/
    / Reuters

    1995 John Atanasoff       ^top^
          John Atanasoff developed a precursor of the digital computer in the late 1930s. Atanasoff, working with Clifford Berry, developed the Atanasoff Berry Computer (ABC), which could solve differential equations with binary math. The computer used vacuum tubes and other key components of later electronic computers, although it did not have a CPU. In 1941, Atanasoff invited John Mauchly, a University of Pennsylvania physicist with an interest in automatic calculators, to see the ABC machine in Iowa. The visit and later correspondence about computers sparked controversy many years later over who had really invented the computer. In 1973, a judge overturned Mauchly's (and his associate, Presper Eckert's) patent claims to the computer in favor of Atanasoff. Atanasoff, who later headed two engineering firms, received the Computer Pioneer Medal in 1981 and the National Medal of Technology in 1990.
    1994 Carmen Bravo Villasante, escritora española.
    1993 John Connally.       ^top^
         He was the fiscally minded lawyer who survived both the Kennedy assassination and the Nixon Administration. Born in Floresville, Texas in 1916, Connally served as a legislative aide to Lyndon Johnson and fought in World War II. While Connally went to work as President John F. Kennedy's Secretary of the Navy in 1961, the siren song of his home state ultimately proved to be too alluring: Connally left the administration and mounted what proved to be a successful bid to become the Governor of Texas.
          In 1963, Connally joined forces with Kennedy to take what should have been a triumphant ride through the streets of Dallas. But, their tour ended in tragedy: the President was assassinated and Connally, who was riding in Kennedy's motorcade, was wounded. Connally eventually recovered and returned to run Texas.
          In 1969, Connally, a life-long Democrat, signed up to serve in Richard Nixon's Republican Administration; two years later, the former Texas Governor won the nod as the sixty-first Secretary of the Treasury. However, Connally's tenure in the Treasury was marked by turmoil, as he struggled mightily to guide the nation's increasingly troubled finances through the murky waters of the early 1970s. Then, in 1974, Connally was accused of accepting a $10'000 bribe from the American Milk Producers Company; in return for the money, Connally supposedly used his influence to push through increased "price supports" for milk producers. Though he was acquitted of the charges in 1975, Connally's latter years were marked by adversity: along with a failed stab at the Presidency, Connally made an ultimately ruinous attempt to cash in on Texas' oil and real estate businesses.
    1990 Luis Vidales, poeta colombiano, Premio Lenin.
    1972: 107 in 2 train crashes caused by rock fall inside Vierzy Tunnel (France).
    1969: 57 personas cuando se hunde el suelo de un restaurante situado en el complejo Los Ángeles de San Rafael, en la provincia de Segovia, mientras se celebraba un banquete. 150 personas resultan heridas.
    1944 V-1 cruise missile victims in London:       ^top^
          The V-1, or "Buzz Bomb" was a pilotless jet plane loaded with explosives. Adolf Hitler named the rocket after Vergeltung, the German word for "revenge," and instead of firing on Allied bases, he aimed them at civilian London. On June 15, 1944, London is in shock after the first in a series of V-1 assaults. In the following months more than 6000 would die and 75'000 buildings would be destroyed.
    1938 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, German Expressionist painter and sculptor, commits suicide after destroying much of his artwork, despondent over what the Nazis were doing. He was born on 06 May 1880. — MORE ON KIRCHNER AT ART “4” JUNE LINKSSelbstbildnis als SoldatSelf-Portrait with ModelA Group of Artists: Otto Mueller, Kirchner, Heckel, Schmidt-RottluffGirl Under a Japanese ParasolTwo Women in the Street59 prints at FAMSF
    1936 Gilbert Keith Chesterton, escritor inglés.
    1915 Eugene Fredrik Jansson, Swedish painter born on 18 March 1862. — Ring Gymnast No. 2
    1914 Pierre Cloup et 17 autres victimes d'un orage du tonnerre.      ^top^
          En cette après-midi, un orage mémorable prit des allures de cataclysme, un orage qui avait déjà tué six personnes en Angleterre, causé une collision de trains en Belgique, et qui, passant par Paris, s'engouffra dans le sous-sol ébranlé par les travaux du métro, faisant éclater les égoûts, les conduites de gaz. De l'Opéra à Saint Philippe du Roule, la chaussée s'ouvrit sous les pas des piétons et sous les roues des voitures. On compta douze morts, dont deux enfants et un chauffeur de taxi-auto englouti avec sa passagère, place Saint Augustin, dans une excavation profonde de dix mètres.
          Et tandis que les badauds viennent voir "les trous", tandis que les députés et les édites s'interpellent à la Chambre et à l'Hôtel de Ville pour demander "A qui la faute ?", on s'occupe d'enterrer les victimes. Et c'est le chauffeur de taxi, Pierre Cloup, père de cinq enfants et militant syndicaliste, qui aura les plus belles funérailles. Non, seulement le préfet de Police et le Préfet de la Seine se feront représenter, mais de son domicile de Levallois-Perret à la gare d'Austerlitz (d'où le cercueil partira pour la Corèze), ses collèges suivent en voiture le corbillard. Combien étaient-ils ? 400 selon le Figaro, 1000 selon le Petit Parisien, 4000 selon l'Excelsior ... Tous s'étaient cotisés pour offrir des couronnes aux inscriptions revendicatrices : "A une victime du devoir professionnel", "A une victime du mauvais état de la voirie"," A une victime de l'incurie administrative", enfin "A une victime du capitalisme", ce qui était plus astucieux, et assez inattendu !
    1904 More than 1000 persons, in fire aboard steamboat General Slocum in New York's East River.
    1896 Some 27'000 as tsunami strikes Shinto festival on beach at Sanriku Japan. 9000 are injured, 13'000 houses are destroyed.
    1879 Andrés Cerón Serrano, político y militar colombiano.
    1859 David Cox I, British landscape painter born on 29 April 1783. — MORE ON COX AT ART “4” JUNELINKSStonehenge: A Storm Coming OnView Of Fécamp, FranceCastle in an Autumn Landscape — and a Grade-A picture: Grey Day, Calais Pier
    1858 Ary Scheffer, French artist born on 10 February 1795. — MORE ON SCHEFFER AT ART “4” JUNELINKSSelf-portraitMargaret at the FountainThe Souliot WomenFaust and Marguerite in the GardenSaint Augustin et sa Mère MoniqueFrancesca da RiminiMme. Frederick KentThe Death of Gaston Foix in the Battle of Ravenna on 11 April 1512
    1849 James Knox Polk the 11th US Pres, in Nashville, Tennessee
    1844 Thomas Campbell, poeta inglés.
    1795 James Knox Polk, abogado y político estadounidense.

    Condamnés à mort par la Révolution: ^top^
    1795 (27 prairial an III):
    BOURBOTTE Pierre, représentant du peuple, du département de l'Yonne, né au Vaux, district d'Avalon, comme convaincu d'avoir applaudi à toutes les positions de Romme Duroy, Goujon et autres, tendant au réarmement des terroristes, aux visites domiciliaires au renouvellement des comités dans la révolte des 3 et 4 prairial an 3, contre la Convention Nationale.
    1794 (27 prairial an II):
    ALLEGIN François Joseph Marie, confiseur, domicilié à Carpentras (Vaucluse), comme contre-révolutionnaire, par la commission populaire séante à Orange.
    BOIDIN Antoine, 41 ans, né à Chatellerault (Vienne), cabaretier et armurier à Aire, époux de Dubois Christine, guillotiné à Arras
    GILBERT Antoine, voiturier à l'armée, domicilié à Signy-le-Petit (Ardennes), par le tribunal criminel dudit département, comme distributeur de faux assignats.
    GOFF Jean Joseph, soldat du 1er bataillon du Puy-de-Dôme, domicilié à Quimper-Corenten (Finistère), par la commission militaire séante à Auxonne, comme déserteur.
    LEFEBVRE Charles, domestique d'émigré, domicilié à Calais (Pas-de-Calais), comme émigré, par le tribunal criminel du département du Nord.
    PAILLARD Jean, laboureur, domicilié à Beaulieu (Mayenne), comme contre-révolutionnaire, par la commission révolutionnaire de Laval.
    ROULOIR Charles, tisserand, domicilié à Chalons (Mayenne), comme brigand de la Vendée, par la commission révolutionnaire de Laval.
    Par la commission militaire séante à Bordeaux:
    TIEUSE Pierre, (dit Lantourne), ancien gendarme de la garde du tyran roi, 58 ans, né et domicilié à Castillo (Lot & Garonne), comme contre-révolutionnaire.
          ... domiciliés dans le département de la Gironde:
    ARROUCHER Louis (neveu), 38 ans, commis négociant, né et domicilié à Bordeaux, comme aristocrate, et ennemi de la révolution.
    PIBEREAU Jean, fils, négociant, 28 ans, natif de Pondensac, y demeurant, comme ayant dit, par sa correspondance, ces mots: “Si les honnêtes gens et les véritables patriotes, non pas les anarchistes, veulent dire leur façon de penser, et qu'ils ne s'accordent pas à celle de Marat et Robespierre, il sont traités de Brissotins, de Girondins: il faut proposer de tuer, de piller et de massacrer.”
    PIBEREAU Raimond, père, courtier de vins, 72 ans, natif de Pondensac, y demeurant, comme conspirateur et réfractaire.
    VASSEROT Simon, marchand de toiles, 53 ans, natif de la commune de Vis (Hautes-Pyrénées), domicilié à Bordeaux, comme contre-révolutionnaire ayant trouvé son nom dans une lettre écrite à Pibereau père et fils, de Bordeaux où l’on blâmait Robespierre, Marat et le parti de la Montagne.
    Par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris:
    LEVIEILLARD Louis Guillaume, ex gentilhomme du tyran roi, 61 ans, né à Dreux (Eure et Loire), domicilié à Passy (Seine), comme convaincu de s'être opposé à ce que les habitants de la commune de Passy présentassent un mémoire aux États Généraux, contre las exactions et concussions commises par les fermiers généraux dans la perception des impôt.
    DURAND, 43 ans, né à Cutigny (Côte-d'Or), domestique, comme convaincu d'avoir tenu des propos contre-révolutionnaires et d'avoir annoncé de fausses nouvelles.
    SENECHAL Henry, meunier, 40 ans, né et domicilié à Lourgmarez, (Pas-de-Calais), comme contre-révolutionnaire ayant crié, lors de son arrestation : “Vive Louis XVII!”
    DEGLEME Pierre (dit la Fleur), 36 ans, né à St Sauveur, meunier, domicilié à Compiégne (Oise), comme contre-révolutionnaire.
           ... domiciliés à Paris:
    LACROIX Magdeleine, blanchisseuse, âgée de 22 ans, née à Vese-sur-Marne, pour avoir dit qu'elle voulait un roi, qu'elle se f…. de la nation.
    COUTANT Henri, jardinier chasseur au 19ème bataillon de Paris, comme contre-révolutionnaire , .
    LAPLANCHE Pierre Joseph, 46 ans, natif de Rez (Haute Saône), marchand forain, comme contre-révolutionnaire,
                ... et nés à Paris:
    LANGLET Marie Jeanne Charlotte, femme Mantienne, couturière, 27 ans.
    BERTRAND Pierre Louis, 41 ans, confiseur, ex officier de gobelet du dernier tyran roi, pour avoir annoncé de fausses nouvelles.
    BRENON Jean Claude, 67 ans,ancien chef de gobelet du tyran roi, comme convaincu d'avoir tenu des propos contre-révolutionnaires, d'avoir annoncé de fausses nouvelles pour dissoudre la Représentation nationale et les autorités constituées.
    CONSTANT H., 34 ans, jardinier potager, comme convaincu de s'être déclaré l'ennemi du Peuple, soit en tenant des propos contre-révolutionnaires, soit en annonçant de fausses nouvelles.
    LAPORTE D'HIBOURT Jean Etienne, 29 ans, clerc de notaire, comme contre-révolutionnaire, pour avoir cherché à jeter de la défiance contre les autorités constituées, et en cherchant à semer la division dans la commune de Vaugirard, près de Paris.
    MAYEUX Nicolas Vincent, quincaillier, 40 ans, comme contre-révolutionnaire, pour avoir dit dans un café que nous serions bien plus heureux, si, par la suite, nous mangions des chiens et des chats, et d'avoir crié: “Vive Henri IV de l'année dernière!”

          ... comme conspirateurs:
    GAMACHE Claude Henri, ex noble, 50 ans, né à Clair-des-Bois (Indre), propriétaire, domicilié à Bourges (Cher).
                ... domiciliés à Paris:
    GAMARCHE Denis Eléonore Michel, ex comte, guidon de l'ancienne gendarmerie.
    LEBRASSEUR Joseph Alexis, ex intendant de la marine, ex conseiller à la cour des Aides, 52 ans, né à Rambouillet (Seine et Oise).
    LHOMME François, domestique, 26 ans, né à St Aubin (Jura), ... et convaincu de s'être introduit furtivement dans la maison d'arrêt où était détenu la femme Willemain.
    LATREMOUILLE Charles Auguste Godef, ex prince, clerc tonsuré, 29 ans, né à Paris.
    VANEL Jean Baptiste, 97 ans, ci-devant prêtre, domicilié à Tailhac, comme réfractaire à la loi, par le tribunal criminel du département du Cantal (A notre connaissance le doyen des guillotinés)

    1785 Two French balloonists die in world's first fatal aviation accident [not counting Icarus].
    1784 Michel Barthélémy Ollivier (or Olivier), French painter born in 1712. — more
    1734 Giovanni Ceva, Italian mathematician born on 07 December 1647. Author of De lineis rectis (1678), Opuscula mathematica (1682), Geometria Motus (1692), De Re Nummeraria (1711), Opus hydrostaticum (1728).
    1649 Margaret Jones of Charlestown becomes the first person tried and executed for witchcraft in colonial Massachusetts.
    1467 Philip the Good, 76, Duke of Burgundy
    1381 Wat Tyler, leader of English Peasants' Revolt, beheaded in London
    0300 San Vito, mártir del tiempo de Diocleciano.
    ^ 1381 “Wat Tyler” (name traditionally given to leader of Peasant's Revolt)
          At a meeting of the Kentish peasant rebels with King Richard II [06 Jan 1367 – 14 Feb 1400], ”Wat Tyler” utters threats, is insolent toward the king, tries to stab the Mayor of London, whose armor leaves him unhurt, whereupon one of the bystanders runs his sword two or three times through Tyler, who is taken to a hospital mortally wounded, and later dragged out and beheaded on orders of the Mayor.

          What Tyler? Wat Tyler, leader of the Kentish peasants, was from Dartford. Fact and legend have become blurred over time. All contemporary accounts of the Peasants’ Revolt are unreliable. Virtually every aspect of Wat Tyler’s career is controversial, his exact identity and his social and geographical origins. John Stow [–1605], London’s chronicler writing in the sixteenth century, asserts that the revolt was led by John Tyler of Dartford, whose daughter was reputedly indecently assaulted by a visiting tax assessor. A contemporary account in Thomas Walsingham’s Historia Anglicana gives the leader’s name as Walter Helier, an Essex tiler. Thomas Paine in his book The Rights of Man (1791) maintains that Walter Tyler was a resident of Deptford. Dartford, Deptford, Colchester and Maidstone have all claimed Wat Tyler as a local hero. Other identifiable leaders were Abel Ker, John Ball [–15 Jul 1381], Jack Straw (or Rackstraw) and John Wrawe.

         Richard II was crowned on 16 July 1377 aged 10-1/2. His uncle John of Gaunt [1340–1399] became Steward of England. John of Gaunt was unpopular with the businessmen of City of London, the clergy and the commoners of Parliament. He wanted to re-establish the authority of the crown and the Royal Family. He had at the end of Edward III's reign charged the Chancellor and the Treasurer and replaced them with his own men. 'The Good Parliament' spent the rest of Edward III's reign trying to overthrow Gaunt's men and at the start of Richard II's reign politics were complicated and unsettled.
          The country was over-taxed and when in 1381 an extra poll-tax was introduced, it proveked the Peasants' Revolt of 1381, one of the most dramatic events of English history, which, despite its name, was not only of serfs or even of the lower classes. . What began as a local revolt in Essex quickly spread across much of the south east of England, while some of the peasants took their grievances direct to the young King, Richard II, in London.
          The revolt began in Essex when locals in Brentwood reacted to an over-zealous poll-tax collector.

    One of several discrepant versions of how the revolt started:
    “In the Fifth Parliament of King Richard II, amongst other hard Taxes, a Poll Tax was granted at 4d per Head of all Persons, of, or above 14 Years of Age. The Collection of this Tax, which did greatly anger the People ... was also managed by very rude Officials, who collected the Money from the People harshly: And one of them going into the House of John Tyler, who lived in Dartford, demanded the Poll tax for a young Girl that was in the House: The Mother said that she was under Age, the official offered to convince her she was old enough in a very rude manner: of which complaining to her Husband, he was so angry that he beat out the Officer’s Brains; and after that raised the Common People up in Arms, who got together in large Numbers, choosing Tyler as their Captain.” (John Harris, The History of Kent, 1719)

          From Brentwood, resistance to tax collectors spread to neighboring villages, while across counties such as Kent, Suffolk, Hertfordshire and Norfolk, armed bands of villagers and townsmen also rose up and attacked manors and religious houses.
          It was the rebels of Essex and Kent who marched on London. They reached Maidstone ot 07 June, Canterbury on 10 June. By 12 June 1381, the Essex men were camped at Mile End, in fields just beyond Aldgate, and on the following day the Kentish men arrived at Blackheath. Incredibly, neither the government nor the city of London authorities seem to have been prepared, although the king was moved from Windsor to the Tower of London. During the next few days, the different bands of rebels from Essex and Kent were joined by some of London's poor, and they set about attacking political targets in the city. They burned down the Savoy Palace, which was the home of John of Gaunt - Richard II's uncle, and probably the most powerful magnate in the realm. They set fire to the Treasurer's Highbury Manor, opened prisons and destroyed legal records.
          On 14 June, King Richard and a handful of lords and knights met the Essex peasants at Mile End. The peasants pledged their allegiance to Richard, and handed him a petition which asked for the abolition of villeinage, for labor services based on free contracts, and for the right to rent land at fourpence an acre. The King said he would grant these demands. Remarkably, later that day some peasants entered the Tower itself and invaded the Royal bedchambers and the privy wardrobe. Whilst in the Tower, some rebels captured the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Chancellor, and John of Gaunt's physician. They then dragged them onto Tower Hill and executed them. The rebels considered these men 'traitors,' perhaps holding them responsible for the various charges of corruption and extravagance that Parliament had aimed at the Royal administration for the past decade or so. Anyway, after these events it seems that many of the Essex rebels began to disperse.
          On 15 June, King Richard meets the Kentish peasants at Smithfield. They demand an end to all lordship beyond that of the King, that the Church's estates be confiscated and divided among the wider populace and that there be only Bishops throughout the whole kingdom. The numerous radical preachers who took part in the revolt probably put forward these religious demands. As before, the King agrees to all the demands put before him. However, the rebel leader, Wat Tyler, apparently addressed the King with insolence and the Mayor of London pulls Tyler from his horse and a squire kills him.
    ^      The contemporary Anonimalle Chronicle reports the event thus:
          Then the King caused a proclamation to be made that all the commons of the country who were still in London should come to Smithfield, to meet him there; and so they did.
          And when the King and his train had arrived there they turned into the Eastern meadow in front of St. Bartholomew's, which is a house of canons: and the commons arrayed themselves on the west side in great battles. At this moment the Mayor of London, William Walworth, came up, and the King bade him go to the commons, and make their chieftain come to him.
    Tyler (left) provoking a squire      And when he was summoned by the Mayor, by the name of Wat Tighler of Maidstone, he came to the King with great confidence, mounted on a little horse, that the commons might see him. And he dismounted, holding in his hand a dagger which he had taken from another man, and when he had dismounted he half bent his knee, and then took the King by the hand, and shook his arm forcibly and roughly, saying to him, "Brother, be of good comfort and joyful, for you shall have, in the fortnight that is to come, praise from the commons even more than you have yet had, and we shall be good companions."
          And the King said to Walter, "Why will you not go back to your own country?" But the other answered, with a great oath, that neither he nor his fellows would depart until they had got their charter such as they wished to have it, and had certain points rehearsed and added to their charter which they wished to demand. And he said in a threatening fashion that the lords of the realm would rue it bitterly if these points were not settled to their pleasure.
          Then the King asked him what were the points which he wished to have revised, and he should have them freely, without contradiction, written out and sealed. Thereupon the said Walter rehearsed the points which were to be demanded; and he asked that there should be no law within the realm save the law of Winchester, and that from henceforth there should be no outlawry in any process of law, and that no lord should have lordship save civilly, and that there should be equality among all people save only the King, and that the goods of Holy Church should not remain in the hands of the religious, nor of parsons and vicars, and other churchmen; but that clergy already in possession should have a sufficient sustenance from the endowments, and the rest of the goods should be divided among the people of the parish. And he demanded that there should be only one bishop in England and only one prelate, and all the lands and tenements now held by them should be confiscated, and divided among the commons, only reserving for them a reasonable sustenance. And he demanded that there should be no more villeins in England, and no serfdom or villeinage, but that all men should be free and of one condition.
          To this the King gave an easy answer, and said that he should have all that he could fairly grant, reserving only for himself the regality of his crown. And then he bade him go back to his home, without making further delay. During all this time that the King was speaking, no lord or counsellor dared or wished to give answer to the commons in any place save the King himself.
          Presently Wat Tighler, in the presence of the King, sent for a flagon of water to rinse his mouth, because of the great heat that he was in, and when it was brought he rinsed his mouth in a very rude and disgusting fashion before the King's face. And then he made them bring him a jug of beer, and drank a great draught, and then, in the presence of the King, climbed on his horse again.

          At this time a certain valet from Kent, who was among the King's retinue, asked that the said Walter, the chief of the commons, might be pointed out to him. And when he saw him, he said aloud that he knew him for the greatest thief and robber in all Kent.... And for these words Watt tried to strike him with his dagger, and would have slain him in the King's presence; but because he strove so to do, the Mayor of London, William Walworth, reasoned with the said Watt for his violent behaviour and despite, done in the King's presence, and arrested him. And because he arrested him, he said Watt stabbed the Mayor with his dagger in the stomach in great wrath. But, as it pleased God, the Mayor was wearing armour and took no harm, but like a hardy and vigorous man drew his cutlass, and struck back at the said Watt, and gave him a deep cut on the neck, and then a great cut on the head.
          And during this scuffle one of the King's household drew his sword, and ran Watt two or three times through the body, mortally wounding him. And he spurred his horse, crying to the commons to avenge him, and the horse carried him some four score paces, and then he fell to the ground half dead.

          And when the commons saw him fall, and knew not how for certain it was, they began to bend their bows and to shoot, wherefore the King himself spurred his horse, and rode out to them, commanding them that they should all come to him to Clerkenwell Fields.
          Meanwhile the Mayor of London rode as hastily as he could back to the City, and commanded those who were in charge of the twenty four wards to make proclamation round their wards, that every man should arm himself as quickly as he could, and come to the King in St. John's Fields, where were the commons, to aid the King, for he was in great trouble and necessity.... And presently the aldermen came to him in a body, bringing with them their wardens, and the wards arrayed in bands, a fine company of well-armed folks in great strength.
          And they enveloped the commons like sheep within a pen, and after that the Mayor had set the wardens of the city on their way to the King, he returned with a company of lances to Smithfield, to make an end of the captain of the commons. And when he came to Smithfield he found not there the said captain Watt Tighler, at which he marvelled much, and asked what was become of the traitor. And it was told him that he had been carried by some of the commons to the hospital for poor folks by St. Bartholomew's, and was put to bed in the chamber of the master of the hospital.
          And the Mayor went thither and found him, and had him carried out to the middle of Smithfield, in presence of his fellows, and there beheaded. And thus ended his wretched life. But the Mayor had his head set on a pole and borne before him to the King, who still abode in the Fields. And when the King saw the head he had it brought near him to abash the commons, and thanked the Mayor greatly for what he had done. And when the commons saw that their chieftain, Watt Tyler, was dead in such a manner, they fell to the ground there among the wheat, like beaten men, imploring the King for mercy for their misdeeds. And the King benevolently granted them mercy, and most of them took to flight. But the King ordained two knights to conduct the rest of them, namely the Kentishmen, through London, and over London Bridge, without doing them harm, so that each of them could go to his own home.
          Afterwards the King sent out his messengers into divers parts, to capture the malefactors and put them to death. And many were taken and hanged at London, and they set up many gallows around the City of London, and in other cities and boroughs of the south country. At last, as it pleased God, the King seeing that too many of his liege subjects would be undone, and too much blood split, took pity in his heart, and granted them all pardon, on condition that they should never rise again, under pain of losing life or members, and that each of them should get his charter of pardon, and pay the King as fee for his seal twenty shillings, to make him rich. And so finished this wicked war.
         As mentioned above in the Anonimalle Chronicle, when Tyler is mortally wounded, the crowd prepares to rush the King and his men, but Richard confronts them, and convinces them to follow him. As he leads them away, the Mayor makes off to the city where he recruited a force which soon surround the rebels. He has Tyler dragged out of his hospital bed and beheaded. Richard declares that all should be pardoned and should return peacefully to their homes. The London revolt is effectively over.
          Elsewhere, villages around London, such as Clapham, Chiswick and Twickenham had been plundered and burnt. Even in the north of England, there were at least three isolated outbreaks - in York, Scarborough and Beverley. But the most serious risings outside London were in the eastern counties. In St Albans, the local townsmen drained the Abbot's fishpond, killed his game, sacked the houses of his officials and burned the charters that gave him his manorial rights. In Bury St Edmunds, the Prior was tried and beheaded by rebels. In Cambridge, peasants and townsmen damaged parts of the University, burned its archives and drew up a document that formally handed over the University's privileges to the town. In Norfolk, a large band of rebels forced the city authorities of Norwich to open the gates and then took over the castle, while rebel detachments plundered parts of the surrounding area.
          The targets that the peasants attacked, plus the demands that they made to the King, show the pressures they faced at the time. The immediate cause of the revolt was the unprecedented amount of taxation the peasantry faced from the Government. The poll tax of 1380 was three times higher than that of the previous year and, unlike its predecessor, taxed rich and poor at the same rate. Hence, it was very unpopular with the peasantry.
          However, the main call of the peasant rebels was for the abolition of serfdom. This was because, since the middle of the century, their lords had prevented them from making the most of the changing economic conditions. Visitations of the plague since 1348-1349 had reduced the population by between a third and a half. As a result, labor became more scarce, wages rose and the economy began to suit the peasant more than it suited the landowner. But the landowners of Parliament legislated to keep wages low and to restrict the free movement of serfs. Locally, landowners in their capacity as manorial lords also tried to tighten the feudal dues that serfs were obliged to carry out for them. Needless to say, the peasantry resented both these measures and there were local revolts both in the decade before and after 1381. Hence, the rebels attacked symbols of lordship and lordly authority, such as manors and manorial records.
          London was made safe from 16 June 1381 and, over time, the authorities gained control in all the regions that had experienced insurrection. King Richard issued a proclamation denying rumors that he had approved of what the rebels had done and, soon after, revoked the pardons he had granted them. A judicial enquiry followed and the King toured the areas that had experienced revolt. In Essex and Hertfordshire, the rebels were dealt with severely, but generally the judicial proceedings were fair. Many of the main leaders of the revolt were already dead, while those who had survived were executed. Aside from this, no mass reprisals were allowed and, significantly, no late medieval Parliament ever tried to impose a poll tax upon the nation again.
    — As chronicled by Froissard (English translation)
    2553 BC Ny-Nsw-Wsert, overseer of the administrative district , i.e. overseer of workers who built pyramids in Egypt. Neither the date nor the year of his death are known but on 15 June 2002 Egypt's top archaeologist, Zahi Hawass, announced the discovery of the oldest intact sarcophagus ever found. The limestone sarcophagus still had its lid glued to it, which proves that no one opened it since about 4600 years ago. The tomb yielded pieces of pottery showing that it dates back to the 4th Dynasty (2613 BC - 2494 BC). Hieroglyphics found in a tomb discovered shortly earlier near the Giza Pyramids revealed the name and title of the man in the sarcophagus. The tomb, where the sarcophagus was found, is 2 km southeast of the Sphinx in a large cemetery for the workmen who built the pyramids and tombs and temples on the Giza plateau. The overseer's tomb includes a corridor built of stone rubble and is consistent with the interior structure of the Giza Pyramids, The burial chamber was carved in the rocks and has two openings, possibly to allow the soul of the diseased to communicate in and out of the chamber. The same structure is found in the burial chamber of Cheops, also known as Khufu, of Great Pyramid fame. The tomb includes five burial shafts — one where the sarcophagus was found and the others believed to belong to the family of the overseer.
    Births which occurred on a June 15:
    1948 Le Quotidien du Peuple chinois       ^top^
          Fondation du plus grand journal Chinois (près de 40 millions de lecteurs), le Quotidien du Peuple. Quotidien du matin tirant à six millions et demi d’exemplaires sur six pages en une seule édition, Le Quotidien du peuple, organe officiel du comité central du Parti communiste chinois, possède une équipe de mille personnes, dont trois cents journalistes ; il n’a aucun correspondant à l’étranger, 90% de ses acheteurs sont des abonnés.
          Le Quotidien du peuple a eu pour ancêtres Le Guide lors de la première guerre civile révolutionnaire de 1924 à 1927, Le Combat entre 1927 et 1936, Le Quotidien de la nouvelle Chine durant la guerre de résistance antijaponaise de 1936 à 1945, enfin Le Quotidien de la libération entre 1945 et 1948. En tant qu’organe officiel du Parti communiste, Le Quotidien du peuple se voit attribuer des tâches primordiales : propagation de l’idéologie marxiste-léniniste, popularisation de la ligne générale dans les domaines politique, économique et culturel, critique et autocritique de la théorie et de la pratique marxiste-léniniste, éducation des masses laborieuses. Cet ensemble d’impératifs idéologiques passe avant la simple relation des faits et oriente évidemment celle-ci.
          La direction du journal est assurée par le bureau de la rédaction en chef, siège d’un collectif de sept membres qui comprend cinq sections : politique étrangère (70 journalistes), politique intérieure (60 journalistes), propagation de la théorie, littérature et art, travail des masses. Chaque section est elle-même divisée en sous-sections : la politique internationale est assurée par cinq groupes de spécialistes qui se répartissent continents ou sous-continents ; la politique intérieure a sept services de rubriques : agriculture, industrie, éducation (la plus importante), politique, parti, santé, sports.Parmi les quelque trois cents journalistes, deux cents le sont à plein temps et cent soixante sont véritablement rédacteurs, les autres étant assistants. Seuls une centaine de journalistes résident à Pékin ; les autres sont dispersés en province et comprennent une bonne centaine de politiques issus du prolétariat.
          Particularité du Quotidien du peuple, les journalistes n’écrivent généralement que des commentaires ou des éditoriaux concernant les nouvelles qui émanent de l’agence de presse Hsin Hua (Chine nouvelle). La justification de ce système repose sur l’idée que le parti doit prendre en main la rédaction des articles et signifie que l’équipe rédactionnelle accomplit un travail d’agenciers, n’effectuant pas de reportages ou d’enquêtes sur le terrain, mais sélectionnant les informations, les discutant en commissions spécialisées et leur donnant enfin la forme la plus idoine à une lecture extensive et éducative. Le rewriting est donc considérable, car la plupart des journalistes aident les personnalités officielles, cadres subalternes et travailleurs à rédiger leurs articles et à relater leurs expériences.
          Comme l’ensemble de la presse chinoise, Le Quotidien du peuple traite plus qu’il ne fournit l’information. Imprimé dans dix grandes villes en plus de Pékin, le journal voit son très faible tirage compensé par le fait que la plupart des journaux régionaux reprennent in extenso ses articles. Ainsi, par ses "éditions régionales", l’organe du comité central peut véritablement compter quelque 40 millions de lecteurs. Il est imprimé sur huit pages depuis 1980. Introduite en 1979, la publicité occupe moins de 10% de la surface totale du journal.
    click to see what Morton is thinking1943 Poul Nyrup Rasmussen, economista y político danés.
    1939 Aníbal Antonio Cavaco Silva, político portugués.
    1932 Mario Cuomo (Gov-D-NY)
    1924 ] Ezer Weizmann, presidente del Estado de Israel.
    1922 Morris K Udall (Rep-D-Az)
    1914 Yuri Andropov, político ruso.
    1914 Saul Steinberg Romania, cartoonist, illustrator (New Yorker) [click image to see “what Morton's thinking up now” >]
    1903 Victor Brauner, Moldavian painter, sculptor, and draftsman, active in France, who died on 12 March 1966. — more
    1902 Erik H Erickson psychologist (Existentionalist)
    1894 Nikolai Grigorievich Chebotaryov, Ukrainian mathematician who died on 02 July 1947. In 1922 he proved the Chebotaryov Density Theorem generalizing Dirichlet's theorem on primes in an arithmetical progression
    1885 Roland Dorgelès, à Amiens. Il a racontera dans Les Croix de Bois son expérience de poilu. Son livre est le plus poignant témoignage de l'absurdité de la Grande Guerre.
    1869 Celluloid patented by John Wesley Hyatt, Albany, NY
    click for Poussin self-portrait1867 Constantin Dmitrievich E. Balmont, poeta ruso.
    1843 Edvard Hagerup Grieg Bergen Norway, composer (Bewitched One). D'un père consul britanique d'origine écossaise et de mère norvégienne et musicienne il commence le piano à l'âge de six ans. Son caractère paresseux l'empêche de poursuivre des études normales. Il compose en outre "Peer Gynt". Il sera surnommé le " Chopin du Nord ".
    1842 Eloy Alfaro Delgado, militar y político ecuatoriano.
    1805 Anton Winterlin, Swiss artist who died on 30 March 1894.
    1640 Bernard Lamy, French Oratorian priest, scholar, philosopher, theologian, mathematician who died on 29 January 1715. Author of Traitez de Méchanique (1679), Traité de la grandeur en général (1680), Les éléments de géometrie (1685), Traité de perspective (1701).
    1636 Charles de La Fosse, French Baroque era painter who died on 13 December 1716. — MORE ON DELAFOSSE AT ART “4” JUNE LINKSThe Finding of MosesThe Temptation of ChristL'Adoration par les mages
    1594 Nicolas Poussin, French painter and etcher who died on 19 November 1665 in Rome where he had first moved to in 1623. His classicism influenced generations of French painters, including David, Delacroix, and Cézanne. [< click on image for self-portrait of Poussin] MORE ON POUSSIN AT ART “4” JUNELINKS The Holy Family with Ten FiguresApollon et les Muses — Adoration du Veau d'Or — Enlèvement des Sabines — Boaz et Ruth — Jésus et la Femme Adultère — Jésus Guérissant l'Aveugle The Adoration by the ShepherdsThe Death of Germanicus _ detail — The Martyrdom of Saint ErasmusThe Massacre of the InnocentsThe Plague of Ashdod _ detailThe Triumph of David _ detailThe Triumph of Neptune and Amphitrite _ detailBacchanale Before a TempleLandscape with a Man Killed by a SnakeBacchanale Before a TempleMartyrdom of St. ErasmusThe Virgin of the Pillar Appearing to St. James the GreaterThe Rescue of PyrrhusThe Noble Deed of ScipioTriumph of Neptune and AmphitriteMartyrdom of St. ErasmusThe Worship of the Golden CalfThe Rape of the Sabine WomenSeven SacramentsHoly Family on the StepsLandscape with the Body of Phocion Carried out of AthensLandscape with Polyphemus
    1564 Joseph Heinz (or Heintz) Jr., Swiss artist who died on 15 October 1609. — MORE ON HEINZ AT ART “4” JUNE LINKSAdonis Parting from VenusAdonis Parting from VenusDiana and ActeonThe Fall of PhaetonThe Abduction of Proserpina
    1330 Edward “the Black Prince”, prince of Wales (1343-1376)
    Holidays Arkansas : Admission Day (1836) / Denmark : Flag Day/Valdemar Day (1219) / Idaho : Pioneer Day (1910) / Korea : Farmer's Day—day to transplant rice seeds / Oregon : Treaty Day (1846)

    Religious Observances RC : SS Modestus, Crescentia, martyrs / Santos María Micaela, Vito y Libia. / RC : St Vitus, martyr, protector of epileptics / Saint Antoine: Ce prêtre portugais du nom de Fernandez rejoint l'humble communauté de François d'Assise. Il prend le nom d'Antoine et se voue aux tâches les plus humbles jusqu'au jour où l'on découvre ses talents de prédicateur. François l'envoie prêcher dans toute l'Europe, y compris chez les hérétiques albigeois. Antoine meurt à Padoue à 36 ans, en 1231. Il sera plus tard désigné Docteur de l'Eglise et saint patron du Portugal. Anniversaire:

    Thought for the day: “Who to himself is law, no law doth need.”
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