• No need for Stalin to resign... • US~Canadian border established... • Luther excommunié... • Le Quotidien du Peuple chinois est fondé... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • King accepts Magna Charta... • Battle of Petersburg... • Dante named to city government... • Washington heads Continental Army... • Roaches sense air motion... • Peasant Revolt leader is killed...
| On a June 15:
2000 Bishop acquitted of genocide in Rwanda ^top^
A Rwandan court acquits bishop Agustin Misago, 56, of charges that he helped carry out the 1994 massacres of more than 500'000 Rwandans. He had been accused of participating in meetings during which Rwanda's former extremist Hutu government discussed plans to kill minority Tutsis.
Presiding Judge Jaliere Rutaremara dismisses each of the seven charges against him on behalf of the three-judge panel. Misago had denied any responsibility for the massacres, saying he was wrongly arrested on orders from former President Pasteur Bizimungu. If convicted, Misago faced a mandatory death sentence.
Misago was bishop of the southern Rwandan diocese of Gikongoro, where tens of thousands died at the hands of Hutu soldiers, militiamen and ordinary civilians. Many victims of the 100-day genocide were killed in churches and with the suspected complicity of priests and nuns before the Tutsi-led rebels won power and stopped the massacres.
In closing arguments in May 2000, defense attorneys said that Misago had no choice but to attend the security meetings where the killings were discussed. "If he had refused to go, he would've been killed himself," said Alfred Pognon, one of Misago's lawyers.
In the highly publicized trial that strained Rwanda's relations with the Vatican, Misago also was accused of sending three priests and more than 10 schoolchildren to their deaths by denying them shelter in his parish.
Misago is the ranking Roman Catholic cleric among more than 20 nuns and priests accused of participating in the genocide. Earlier two priests have were convicted and sentenced to death.
More than 125'000 genocide suspects are jailed in Rwanda. More than 1500 have been tried by this date, and 300 have been sentenced to death. The first 22 were publicly executed on 24 April 1998.
On 8 June 2001, at the conclusion of a precedent-setting trial in Brussels, two Benedictine nuns, Sister Gertrude (Consolata Mukangango), 42, and Sister Maria Kisito (Julienne Makubutera), 36, would be sentenced respectively to 15 and 12 years in prison, for aiding the genocide.
2000 Cockroaches found highly sensitive to air motion.
Scientists at NEC Research Institute report that US cockroaches such as those shown here, have an organ that senses the slightest changes in wind speed or direction. It's an organ that most other creatures, including humans, lack. It helps the roaches to scurry out of the way of a foot or anything else that tries to squash them. Their sensing organ is the two appendages that stick out of their rear. The way to defeat this is to use a vacuum cleaner: the cockroach will run away from the wind and right into the nozzle of the vacuum cleaner.
In case you think of cockroaches not as a pests, but as a pets, there is a web site for you.
Part of the advice given there: "it is important that they always have enough to eat otherwise they will start eating the cage as well as each other."
If you prefer scorpions, click here.
Or perhaps a tarantula?
1994 Israel and the Vatican established full diplomatic relations.
1991 Philippines' volcano Mount Pinatubo continues to erupt with great violence.
1991 India concluded its violence-racked elections, with the Congress Party of recently assassinated former Prime Minister
1991 La mayoría de los ayuntamientos españoles constituyen sus corporaciones. El PSOE logró la alcaldía en 22 capitales de provincia y el PP en 13.
1990 Violeta Barrios de Chamorro, presidenta de Nicaragua, anuncia la "reestructuración" de la institución castrense, que incluye la reducción de más del 50% del Ejército Popular Sandinista, integrado por 90'000 efectivos.
1987 Melina Mercouri, ministra de Cultura griega, entrega al ex presidente italiano Alesandro Pertini el premio Onassis 1987.
1986 Julio Caro Baroja pronuncia su discurso de ingreso en la Real Academia Española.
1986 Pravda announces high-level Chernobyl staff fired for stupidity
1985 En route to Halley's Comet, USSR's Vega 2 drops lander on Venus
1984 Graves inundaciones en Colombia, debidas a lluvias incesantes, que causaron gran número de muertos y desaparecidos, así como cuantiosas pérdidas materiales.
1983 US Supreme Court strikes down state and local restrictions on abortion
1983 Formación en Londres de la Internacional Conservadora.
1979 Estados Unidos y la URSS firman en Viena el acuerdo Salt II, que limita la fabricación de armas estratégicas.
1982 Riots in Argentina after Falklands/Malvinas defeat. Fin de la guerre des Malouines entre l’Argentine et l’Angleterre, par la reddition de la garnison argentine de " Port-Stanley " qui reconnait le "fait" anglais.
1978 Dimite el presidente italiano,Giovanni Leone, acusado de fraude fiscal y de corrupción en el escándalo de la Lockheed.
1978 Jordan's King Hussein marries Elizabeth Halaby, 26-yr-old US citizen.
1977 Spain's first free elections since 1936 Adolfo Suárez González, líder del partido Unión del Centro Democrático (UCD), es elegido presidente del Gobierno en las primeras elecciones democráticas en España desde la II República.
1973 Graves enfrentamientos en Chile entre partidarios del presidente Salvador Allende y sus adversarios.
1969 Pompidou président: Election au deuxième tour de scrutin du Président Français, Georges Pompidou, l’ex-secrétaire du Général de Gaule et l’héritier du Gaulisme.
1966 Finalizan en Amsterdam tres días de revueltas desencadenadas por los provos, jóvenes contestatarios.
1962 España ingresa en la Agencia Espacial Europea.
1962 South Africa passes a bill setting death penalty for many crimes.
1960 Argentina complains to UN about Israeli illicit transfer of Eichman.
| 1946 Swedish ambassador to Moscow Staffan Soderblom
meets with Soviet dictator Josef Stalin, but fails to seek the release of
Raoul Wallenberg (who was then alive in a Russian prison, according to later
information) whom he believed had been killed in Budapest on 17 January
1945 (the original Soviet lie about Wallenberg).
1944 US forces begin their successful invasion of Saipan during World War II. Los estadounidenses desembarcan en las islas Marianas.
1944 B-29 Superfortresses made their first raids on Japan.
1940 French fortress of Verdun captured by Germans II Guerra Mundial. Rota la línea Maginot por los alemanes, cae Verdún.
1940 La flotte française bombarde Gênes
1937 Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, jefe del Estado turco, dona a su patria un patrimonio de 100 millones de francos franceses.
1934 Great Smoky Mountains National Park dedicated
1932 Apertura de la Conferencia de Laussana, que logró zanjar la cuestión de las reparaciones alemanas por la guerra de 1914-1918.
1931 El Primado de España, cardenal Segura, es expulsado de España por el Gobierno Provisional de la República.
1929 First time NY curb stock exchange transacts more shares than NY Stock Exchange
1924 Native Americans are proclaimed US citizens
1924 Ford Motor Company manufactures its 10 millionth automobile
1924 Aparece 20 poemas de amor y una canción desesperada, de Pablo Neruda.
1922 Los aviadores portugueses Gago Coutinho y Sacadura Cabral llegan a Río de Janeiro en hidroavión, realizando así la primera travesía aérea del Atlántico Sur. Habían salido de Lisboa el 30 de marzo.
1920 Se fijan las nuevas fronteras entre Alemania y Dinamarca.
1919 First nonstop Atlantic flight (Alcock and Brown) lands in Ireland.
1918 1" of snow falls in Northern Pennsylvania
1915 US government mints first $50 gold pieces, for Panama Pacific Expo.
1907 44 nations meet in 2nd Hague Peace Conference
1902 Canada's Maritime Provinces switch from Eastern to Atlantic time.
1889 Start of the Sherlock Holmes Adventure The Stockbroker's Clerk
1889 José Zorrilla y del Moral es coronado poeta en el Carmen de los Mártires de Granada.
| 1878 first attempt at motion pictures (used 12 cameras,
each taking 1 picture) done to see if all 4 of a horse's hooves leave the
1871 Phoebe Couzins is first woman graduate of a US collegiate law school
1866 Prussia attacks Austria
1864 Robert E Lee's home area (Arlington, VA) becomes a military cemetery
1863 Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana continues
1863 Siege on Vicksburg, Mississippi continues
1862 Gen JEB Stuart completes his "ride around McClellan"
1860 first White settlement in Idaho (Franklin)
1851 Jacob Fussell, Baltimore dairyman, sets up first ice-cream factory
1836 Arkansas becomes 25th US state
1815 Début de la campagne de Belgique. La veille, devant Charleroi, face aux troupes prussiennes de Blücher, Napoléon a lancé à ses soldats : "Pour tout Français qui a du coeur, le moment est arrivé de vaincre ou de périr." En ce 15 juin, le soir, il écrit au maréchal comte Grouchy : "A 10 heures, la bataille était finie et nous nous trouvions maîtres de tout le champ de bataille."
1804 12th amendment to the US Constitution is ratified; deals with manner of choosing president
1793 PERRIN François, 44 ans, natif de Rennes (Ille-et-Vilaine), jardinier, domicilié à Guyomarais, est condamné à la déportation, comme complice de la conspiration, dont le ci-devant marquis de la Rouerie était chef dans la ci-devant province de Bretagne, et depuis le 18 messidor an 2, par le même tribunal, comme complice de la conspiration de Bicêtre, où il était détenu pour attendre l'exécution de son premier jugement, tendante à forcer la garde de cette maison, se porter à la Convention et singulièrement aux comités de salut public et de sûreté générale, en égorger les membres les plus marquants, leur arracher le cœur, le rôtir et le manger.
1792 Dumouriez démissionne. Dumouriez devenu très populaire avait accepté le 10 mars 1791, le portefeuille de ministre des Affaires étrangères, demande au roi qui, le 12, vient de renvoyer les ministres Roland, Clavière et Servan et de nommer Dumouriez ministre de la guerre, de revenir sur son veto aux décrets contre les prêtres réfractaires. Une fois encore, le roi refuse. Dumouriez choisit de démissionner. Charles-François du Périer Dumouriez was a French general who won signal victories for the French Revolution in 1792–93 (Valmy 20 September 1792, Jemappes 06 November 1792) and then, on 05 April 1793, traitorously deserted to the Austrians. He was born on 25 January. 1739 in Cambrai and died on 14 March 1823 in England.
1567 Jews are expelled from Genoa Italy
1502 Descubrimiento de la isla Dominica por Colón durante su cuarto y último viaje a América.
1389 Battle of Kossovo; Turks defeat Serbs, Bosnians
which occurred on a June 15:
2001 Goldfish from fire caused by sun rays focused by their goldfish bowl, in Oxford, England. The fire started in a nearby shed which held a rat-catcher's aluminum phosphide tablets, which gave off fumes when wetted by firemen, resulting in 18 firefighters, four paramedics and four neighbors being hospitalized suffering from vomiting, nausea and burning chest sensations.
1972: 107 in 2 train crashes caused by rock fall inside Vierzy Tunnel (France).
1969: 57 personas cuando se hunde el suelo de un restaurante situado en el complejo Los Ángeles de San Rafael, en la provincia de Segovia, mientras se celebraba un banquete. 150 personas resultan heridas.
1936 Gilbert Keith Chesterton, escritor inglés.
1915 Eugene Fredrik Jansson, Swedish painter born on 18 March 1862. Ring Gymnast No. 2
1896 Some 27'000 as tsunami strikes Shinto festival on beach at Sanriku Japan. 9000 are injured, 13'000 houses are destroyed.
1879 Andrés Cerón Serrano, político y militar colombiano.
1859 David Cox I, British landscape painter born on 29 April 1783. MORE ON COX AT ART 4 JUNE LINKS Stonehenge: A Storm Coming On View Of Fécamp, France — Castle in an Autumn Landscape and a Grade-A picture: Grey Day, Calais Pier
1858 Ary Scheffer, French artist born on 10 February 1795. MORE ON SCHEFFER AT ART 4 JUNE LINKS — Self-portrait — Margaret at the Fountain — The Souliot Women — Faust and Marguerite in the Garden — Saint Augustin et sa Mère Monique — Francesca da Rimini — Mme. Frederick Kent — The Death of Gaston Foix in the Battle of Ravenna on 11 April 1512
1849 James Knox Polk the 11th US Pres, in Nashville, Tennessee
1844 Thomas Campbell, poeta inglés.
1795 James Knox Polk, abogado y político estadounidense.
1784 Michel Barthélémy Ollivier (or Olivier), French painter born in 1712. — more
1734 Giovanni Ceva, Italian mathematician born on 07 December 1647. Author of De lineis rectis (1678), Opuscula mathematica (1682), Geometria Motus (1692), De Re Nummeraria (1711), Opus hydrostaticum (1728).
1649 Margaret Jones of Charlestown becomes the first person tried and executed for witchcraft in colonial Massachusetts.
1467 Philip the Good, 76, Duke of Burgundy
1381 Wat Tyler, leader of English Peasants' Revolt, beheaded in London
0300 San Vito, mártir del tiempo de Diocleciano.
1381 “Wat Tyler” (name traditionally given
to leader of Peasant's Revolt)
At a meeting of the Kentish peasant rebels with King Richard II [06 Jan 1367 – 14 Feb 1400], ”Wat Tyler” utters threats, is insolent toward the king, tries to stab the Mayor of London, whose armor leaves him unhurt, whereupon one of the bystanders runs his sword two or three times through Tyler, who is taken to a hospital mortally wounded, and later dragged out and beheaded on orders of the Mayor.
What Tyler? Wat Tyler, leader of the Kentish peasants, was from Dartford. Fact and legend have become blurred over time. All contemporary accounts of the Peasants’ Revolt are unreliable. Virtually every aspect of Wat Tyler’s career is controversial, his exact identity and his social and geographical origins. John Stow [–1605], London’s chronicler writing in the sixteenth century, asserts that the revolt was led by John Tyler of Dartford, whose daughter was reputedly indecently assaulted by a visiting tax assessor. A contemporary account in Thomas Walsingham’s Historia Anglicana gives the leader’s name as Walter Helier, an Essex tiler. Thomas Paine in his book The Rights of Man (1791) maintains that Walter Tyler was a resident of Deptford. Dartford, Deptford, Colchester and Maidstone have all claimed Wat Tyler as a local hero. Other identifiable leaders were Abel Ker, John Ball [–15 Jul 1381], Jack Straw (or Rackstraw) and John Wrawe.
Richard II was crowned on 16 July 1377 aged 10-1/2. His uncle John of Gaunt [1340–1399] became Steward of England. John of Gaunt was unpopular with the businessmen of City of London, the clergy and the commoners of Parliament. He wanted to re-establish the authority of the crown and the Royal Family. He had at the end of Edward III's reign charged the Chancellor and the Treasurer and replaced them with his own men. 'The Good Parliament' spent the rest of Edward III's reign trying to overthrow Gaunt's men and at the start of Richard II's reign politics were complicated and unsettled.
The country was over-taxed and when in 1381 an extra poll-tax was introduced, it proveked the Peasants' Revolt of 1381, one of the most dramatic events of English history, which, despite its name, was not only of serfs or even of the lower classes. . What began as a local revolt in Essex quickly spread across much of the south east of England, while some of the peasants took their grievances direct to the young King, Richard II, in London.
The revolt began in Essex when locals in Brentwood reacted to an over-zealous poll-tax collector.
From Brentwood, resistance to tax collectors spread to neighboring villages, while across counties such as Kent, Suffolk, Hertfordshire and Norfolk, armed bands of villagers and townsmen also rose up and attacked manors and religious houses.
It was the rebels of Essex and Kent who marched on London. They reached Maidstone ot 07 June, Canterbury on 10 June. By 12 June 1381, the Essex men were camped at Mile End, in fields just beyond Aldgate, and on the following day the Kentish men arrived at Blackheath. Incredibly, neither the government nor the city of London authorities seem to have been prepared, although the king was moved from Windsor to the Tower of London. During the next few days, the different bands of rebels from Essex and Kent were joined by some of London's poor, and they set about attacking political targets in the city. They burned down the Savoy Palace, which was the home of John of Gaunt - Richard II's uncle, and probably the most powerful magnate in the realm. They set fire to the Treasurer's Highbury Manor, opened prisons and destroyed legal records.
On 14 June, King Richard and a handful of lords and knights met the Essex peasants at Mile End. The peasants pledged their allegiance to Richard, and handed him a petition which asked for the abolition of villeinage, for labor services based on free contracts, and for the right to rent land at fourpence an acre. The King said he would grant these demands. Remarkably, later that day some peasants entered the Tower itself and invaded the Royal bedchambers and the privy wardrobe. Whilst in the Tower, some rebels captured the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Chancellor, and John of Gaunt's physician. They then dragged them onto Tower Hill and executed them. The rebels considered these men 'traitors,' perhaps holding them responsible for the various charges of corruption and extravagance that Parliament had aimed at the Royal administration for the past decade or so. Anyway, after these events it seems that many of the Essex rebels began to disperse.
On 15 June, King Richard meets the Kentish peasants at Smithfield. They demand an end to all lordship beyond that of the King, that the Church's estates be confiscated and divided among the wider populace and that there be only Bishops throughout the whole kingdom. The numerous radical preachers who took part in the revolt probably put forward these religious demands. As before, the King agrees to all the demands put before him. However, the rebel leader, Wat Tyler, apparently addressed the King with insolence and the Mayor of London pulls Tyler from his horse and a squire kills him.
The contemporary Anonimalle
Chronicle reports the event thus:
Then the King caused a proclamation to be made that all the commons of the country who were still in London should come to Smithfield, to meet him there; and so they did.
And when the King and his train had arrived there they turned into the Eastern meadow in front of St. Bartholomew's, which is a house of canons: and the commons arrayed themselves on the west side in great battles. At this moment the Mayor of London, William Walworth, came up, and the King bade him go to the commons, and make their chieftain come to him.
And when he was summoned by the Mayor, by the name of Wat Tighler of Maidstone, he came to the King with great confidence, mounted on a little horse, that the commons might see him. And he dismounted, holding in his hand a dagger which he had taken from another man, and when he had dismounted he half bent his knee, and then took the King by the hand, and shook his arm forcibly and roughly, saying to him, "Brother, be of good comfort and joyful, for you shall have, in the fortnight that is to come, praise from the commons even more than you have yet had, and we shall be good companions."
And the King said to Walter, "Why will you not go back to your own country?" But the other answered, with a great oath, that neither he nor his fellows would depart until they had got their charter such as they wished to have it, and had certain points rehearsed and added to their charter which they wished to demand. And he said in a threatening fashion that the lords of the realm would rue it bitterly if these points were not settled to their pleasure.
Then the King asked him what were the points which he wished to have revised, and he should have them freely, without contradiction, written out and sealed. Thereupon the said Walter rehearsed the points which were to be demanded; and he asked that there should be no law within the realm save the law of Winchester, and that from henceforth there should be no outlawry in any process of law, and that no lord should have lordship save civilly, and that there should be equality among all people save only the King, and that the goods of Holy Church should not remain in the hands of the religious, nor of parsons and vicars, and other churchmen; but that clergy already in possession should have a sufficient sustenance from the endowments, and the rest of the goods should be divided among the people of the parish. And he demanded that there should be only one bishop in England and only one prelate, and all the lands and tenements now held by them should be confiscated, and divided among the commons, only reserving for them a reasonable sustenance. And he demanded that there should be no more villeins in England, and no serfdom or villeinage, but that all men should be free and of one condition.
To this the King gave an easy answer, and said that he should have all that he could fairly grant, reserving only for himself the regality of his crown. And then he bade him go back to his home, without making further delay. During all this time that the King was speaking, no lord or counsellor dared or wished to give answer to the commons in any place save the King himself.
Presently Wat Tighler, in the presence of the King, sent for a flagon of water to rinse his mouth, because of the great heat that he was in, and when it was brought he rinsed his mouth in a very rude and disgusting fashion before the King's face. And then he made them bring him a jug of beer, and drank a great draught, and then, in the presence of the King, climbed on his horse again.
At this time a certain valet from Kent, who was among the King's retinue, asked that the said Walter, the chief of the commons, might be pointed out to him. And when he saw him, he said aloud that he knew him for the greatest thief and robber in all Kent.... And for these words Watt tried to strike him with his dagger, and would have slain him in the King's presence; but because he strove so to do, the Mayor of London, William Walworth, reasoned with the said Watt for his violent behaviour and despite, done in the King's presence, and arrested him. And because he arrested him, he said Watt stabbed the Mayor with his dagger in the stomach in great wrath. But, as it pleased God, the Mayor was wearing armour and took no harm, but like a hardy and vigorous man drew his cutlass, and struck back at the said Watt, and gave him a deep cut on the neck, and then a great cut on the head.
And during this scuffle one of the King's household drew his sword, and ran Watt two or three times through the body, mortally wounding him. And he spurred his horse, crying to the commons to avenge him, and the horse carried him some four score paces, and then he fell to the ground half dead.
And when the commons saw him fall, and knew not how for certain it was, they began to bend their bows and to shoot, wherefore the King himself spurred his horse, and rode out to them, commanding them that they should all come to him to Clerkenwell Fields.
Meanwhile the Mayor of London rode as hastily as he could back to the City, and commanded those who were in charge of the twenty four wards to make proclamation round their wards, that every man should arm himself as quickly as he could, and come to the King in St. John's Fields, where were the commons, to aid the King, for he was in great trouble and necessity.... And presently the aldermen came to him in a body, bringing with them their wardens, and the wards arrayed in bands, a fine company of well-armed folks in great strength.
And they enveloped the commons like sheep within a pen, and after that the Mayor had set the wardens of the city on their way to the King, he returned with a company of lances to Smithfield, to make an end of the captain of the commons. And when he came to Smithfield he found not there the said captain Watt Tighler, at which he marvelled much, and asked what was become of the traitor. And it was told him that he had been carried by some of the commons to the hospital for poor folks by St. Bartholomew's, and was put to bed in the chamber of the master of the hospital.
And the Mayor went thither and found him, and had him carried out to the middle of Smithfield, in presence of his fellows, and there beheaded. And thus ended his wretched life. But the Mayor had his head set on a pole and borne before him to the King, who still abode in the Fields. And when the King saw the head he had it brought near him to abash the commons, and thanked the Mayor greatly for what he had done. And when the commons saw that their chieftain, Watt Tyler, was dead in such a manner, they fell to the ground there among the wheat, like beaten men, imploring the King for mercy for their misdeeds. And the King benevolently granted them mercy, and most of them took to flight. But the King ordained two knights to conduct the rest of them, namely the Kentishmen, through London, and over London Bridge, without doing them harm, so that each of them could go to his own home.
Afterwards the King sent out his messengers into divers parts, to capture the malefactors and put them to death. And many were taken and hanged at London, and they set up many gallows around the City of London, and in other cities and boroughs of the south country. At last, as it pleased God, the King seeing that too many of his liege subjects would be undone, and too much blood split, took pity in his heart, and granted them all pardon, on condition that they should never rise again, under pain of losing life or members, and that each of them should get his charter of pardon, and pay the King as fee for his seal twenty shillings, to make him rich. And so finished this wicked war.
As mentioned above in the Anonimalle Chronicle, when Tyler is mortally wounded, the crowd prepares to rush the King and his men, but Richard confronts them, and convinces them to follow him. As he leads them away, the Mayor makes off to the city where he recruited a force which soon surround the rebels. He has Tyler dragged out of his hospital bed and beheaded. Richard declares that all should be pardoned and should return peacefully to their homes. The London revolt is effectively over.
Elsewhere, villages around London, such as Clapham, Chiswick and Twickenham had been plundered and burnt. Even in the north of England, there were at least three isolated outbreaks - in York, Scarborough and Beverley. But the most serious risings outside London were in the eastern counties. In St Albans, the local townsmen drained the Abbot's fishpond, killed his game, sacked the houses of his officials and burned the charters that gave him his manorial rights. In Bury St Edmunds, the Prior was tried and beheaded by rebels. In Cambridge, peasants and townsmen damaged parts of the University, burned its archives and drew up a document that formally handed over the University's privileges to the town. In Norfolk, a large band of rebels forced the city authorities of Norwich to open the gates and then took over the castle, while rebel detachments plundered parts of the surrounding area.
The targets that the peasants attacked, plus the demands that they made to the King, show the pressures they faced at the time. The immediate cause of the revolt was the unprecedented amount of taxation the peasantry faced from the Government. The poll tax of 1380 was three times higher than that of the previous year and, unlike its predecessor, taxed rich and poor at the same rate. Hence, it was very unpopular with the peasantry.
However, the main call of the peasant rebels was for the abolition of serfdom. This was because, since the middle of the century, their lords had prevented them from making the most of the changing economic conditions. Visitations of the plague since 1348-1349 had reduced the population by between a third and a half. As a result, labor became more scarce, wages rose and the economy began to suit the peasant more than it suited the landowner. But the landowners of Parliament legislated to keep wages low and to restrict the free movement of serfs. Locally, landowners in their capacity as manorial lords also tried to tighten the feudal dues that serfs were obliged to carry out for them. Needless to say, the peasantry resented both these measures and there were local revolts both in the decade before and after 1381. Hence, the rebels attacked symbols of lordship and lordly authority, such as manors and manorial records.
London was made safe from 16 June 1381 and, over time, the authorities gained control in all the regions that had experienced insurrection. King Richard issued a proclamation denying rumors that he had approved of what the rebels had done and, soon after, revoked the pardons he had granted them. A judicial enquiry followed and the King toured the areas that had experienced revolt. In Essex and Hertfordshire, the rebels were dealt with severely, but generally the judicial proceedings were fair. Many of the main leaders of the revolt were already dead, while those who had survived were executed. Aside from this, no mass reprisals were allowed and, significantly, no late medieval Parliament ever tried to impose a poll tax upon the nation again.
— As chronicled by Froissard (English translation)
|2553 BC Ny-Nsw-Wsert, overseer of the administrative district , i.e. overseer of workers who built pyramids in Egypt. Neither the date nor the year of his death are known but on 15 June 2002 Egypt's top archaeologist, Zahi Hawass, announced the discovery of the oldest intact sarcophagus ever found. The limestone sarcophagus still had its lid glued to it, which proves that no one opened it since about 4600 years ago. The tomb yielded pieces of pottery showing that it dates back to the 4th Dynasty (2613 BC - 2494 BC). Hieroglyphics found in a tomb discovered shortly earlier near the Giza Pyramids revealed the name and title of the man in the sarcophagus. The tomb, where the sarcophagus was found, is 2 km southeast of the Sphinx in a large cemetery for the workmen who built the pyramids and tombs and temples on the Giza plateau. The overseer's tomb includes a corridor built of stone rubble and is consistent with the interior structure of the Giza Pyramids, The burial chamber was carved in the rocks and has two openings, possibly to allow the soul of the diseased to communicate in and out of the chamber. The same structure is found in the burial chamber of Cheops, also known as Khufu, of Great Pyramid fame. The tomb includes five burial shafts — one where the sarcophagus was found and the others believed to belong to the family of the overseer.|
| Births which occurred
on a June 15:
1939 Aníbal Antonio Cavaco Silva, político portugués.
1932 Mario Cuomo (Gov-D-NY)
1924 ] Ezer Weizmann, presidente del Estado de Israel.
1922 Morris K Udall (Rep-D-Az)
1914 Yuri Andropov, político ruso.
1914 Saul Steinberg Romania, cartoonist, illustrator (New Yorker) [click image to see what Morton's thinking up now >]
1903 Victor Brauner, Moldavian painter, sculptor, and draftsman, active in France, who died on 12 March 1966. — more
1902 Erik H Erickson psychologist (Existentionalist)
1894 Nikolai Grigorievich Chebotaryov, Ukrainian mathematician who died on 02 July 1947. In 1922 he proved the Chebotaryov Density Theorem generalizing Dirichlet's theorem on primes in an arithmetical progression
1885 Roland Dorgelès, à Amiens. Il a racontera dans Les Croix de Bois son expérience de poilu. Son livre est le plus poignant témoignage de l'absurdité de la Grande Guerre.
1869 Celluloid patented by John Wesley Hyatt, Albany, NY
1867 Constantin Dmitrievich E. Balmont, poeta ruso.
1843 Edvard Hagerup Grieg Bergen Norway, composer (Bewitched One). D'un père consul britanique d'origine écossaise et de mère norvégienne et musicienne il commence le piano à l'âge de six ans. Son caractère paresseux l'empêche de poursuivre des études normales. Il compose en outre "Peer Gynt". Il sera surnommé le " Chopin du Nord ".
1842 Eloy Alfaro Delgado, militar y político ecuatoriano.
1805 Anton Winterlin, Swiss artist who died on 30 March 1894.
1640 Bernard Lamy, French Oratorian priest, scholar, philosopher, theologian, mathematician who died on 29 January 1715. Author of Traitez de Méchanique (1679), Traité de la grandeur en général (1680), Les éléments de géometrie (1685), Traité de perspective (1701).
1636 Charles de La Fosse, French Baroque era painter who died on 13 December 1716. MORE ON DELAFOSSE AT ART 4 JUNE LINKS The Finding of Moses The Temptation of Christ — L'Adoration par les mages
1594 Nicolas Poussin, French painter and etcher who died on 19 November 1665 in Rome where he had first moved to in 1623. His classicism influenced generations of French painters, including David, Delacroix, and Cézanne. [< click on image for self-portrait of Poussin] MORE ON POUSSIN AT ART 4 JUNE LINKS The Holy Family with Ten Figures Apollon et les Muses Adoration du Veau d'Or Enlèvement des Sabines Boaz et Ruth Jésus et la Femme Adultère Jésus Guérissant l'Aveugle — The Adoration by the Shepherds — The Death of Germanicus _ detail — The Martyrdom of Saint Erasmus — The Massacre of the Innocents — The Plague of Ashdod _ detail — The Triumph of David _ detail — The Triumph of Neptune and Amphitrite _ detail Bacchanale Before a Temple — Landscape with a Man Killed by a Snake — Bacchanale Before a Temple Martyrdom of St. Erasmus The Virgin of the Pillar Appearing to St. James the Greater The Rescue of Pyrrhus The Noble Deed of Scipio Triumph of Neptune and Amphitrite Martyrdom of St. Erasmus The Worship of the Golden Calf The Rape of the Sabine Women Seven Sacraments Holy Family on the Steps Landscape with the Body of Phocion Carried out of Athens Landscape with Polyphemus
1564 Joseph Heinz (or Heintz) Jr., Swiss artist who died on 15 October 1609. MORE ON HEINZ AT ART 4 JUNE LINKS Adonis Parting from Venus Adonis Parting from Venus Diana and Acteon — The Fall of Phaeton — The Abduction of Proserpina
1330 Edward “the Black Prince”, prince of Wales (1343-1376)