<< Jun 15|         HISTORY “4” “2”DAY          |Jun 17 >>
Events, deaths, births, of JUN 16
[For events of Jun 16  Julian go to Gregorian date: 1583~1699: Jun 261700s: Jun 271800s: Jun 281900~2099: Jun 29]
• Pétain leads Vichy France... • “A house divided...”... • Miranda rights... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • “Laurel” born... • Battle of Secessionville... • Nagy executed by Communists... • US ambassador assassinated... • Nureyev defects... • US military instructors to Vietnam... • More US troops to Vietnam... • Phnom Penh isolated... • Brezhnev becomes absolute Soviet ruler... • Adam Clayton Powell expelled... • Bloomsday... • Keyboard claim rejected by court...
Padre PioOn a June 16:
2003 Dennis Mitchell Allen [14 Mar 1967~], James Ray Barrow [13 Dec 1969~], Freddie Brookins Jr. [19 Mar 1977~], Willie Hall [ [29 Sep 1962~], Christopher Eugene Jackson [02 Apr 1972~], Calvin Kent Klein [23 June 1979~], Joe Welton Moore [30 Jan 1943~], Daniel Olivarez [12 Dec 1980~], Benny Lee Robinson [30 Dec 1976~], Timothy Wayne Towery [07 Feb 1974~], Kareem Abdul Jabbar White [20 Mar 1976~], woman Kizzie White [20 Apr 1977~], and Jason Jerome Williams [12 Dec 1978~] are released on bond from Texas prisons where they were serving drug-crime sentences wrongfully dictated against them solely on the perjured testimony of undercover policeman Thomas Coleman. From ID photos all thirteen are obviously Black, except that Klein could be White, and Olivarez could be of non-Black Mexican ethnicity. Black were almost all the 46 (including these 13) arrested in a drug raid on 23 July 1999 in Tulia, Texas, a town of 4700, 400 of them Black. No drugs, paraphernalia, or any other evidence were ever discovered, yet 38 convictions resulted.
2002 Pope John Paul II canonizes Capuchin Padre Pio da Pietrelcina (Francesco Forgione) [25 May 1887– 23 Sep 1968]. He is reputed to have borne the stigmata since 20 September 1918, and to have had gifts of bilocation, prophecy, conversion, reading of souls, and miraculous cures. [photo >]
2002 Second and decisive round of parliamentary elections in France, with a record low voter turnout (61%). 58 seats were won outright in the first round on 09 June, by the candidates who got more than 50% of the vote in their districts. In all, the moderate rightist Union Pour Une Majorité Présidentielle of President Jacques Chirac with the DVD wins 375 seats, a comfortable majority of the 577-seat Assemblée Nationale. The centrist UDF gets 23 seats. The Parti Socialiste wins 152 seats. The Parti Communiste gets 20 seats, the Parti Vert 3. The extremist rightist Front National doesn't get a single seat. The head of Chirac's caretaker government, Prime Minister Jean-Pierre Raffarin, can expect to keep the job for the next five years.
2002 Parliamentary elections in the Czech Republic. 30% of the vote and 71 of the 200 seats in Parliament go to the Social Democrats, who, led by Vladimir Spidla (a low-key historian), campaigned on greatly increased social spending and quick accession to the European Union. The Civic Democrats, led by contentious former prime minister Vaclav Klaus, 60, called for a steep reduction in taxes and a skepticism the EU, and get 24% of the vote and 57 seats. The Communists get 24% (41 seats), and the Coalition, composed of two moderate parties that defected from the Civic Democrats in 1997, get 14% (31 seats). Vaclav Havel (President until February 2003) will entrust the formation of the new government to Spidla, who will get a narrow parliamentary majority by an alliance with the Coalition.
click for more2001 La Torre di Pisa ora è risanata
The Tower of Pisa is now restored.

      On this Saturday, 16 June 2001, Pisa begins a weekend of celebration coinciding with the feast day of their patron saint, Ranieri, to mark the end of the bulk of the work of restoring the Tower of Pisa to a safe angle of incline.
     Still, tourists will have to wait until November to enter, since experts are still studying how many visitors the tower can handle at once. When the tower was closed in 1990, "it was very, very close to falling over.
     For most of the past decade, the 56-meter-high marble bell tower was wrapped in a kind of steel corset and anchored by a pair of slender steel "suspenders" running across the surrounding piazza. The steel supports are now gone. Completion of work will give Pisans back the ringing of the tower's bronze bells, which were ordered stilled in 1990 for fears vibrations would threaten stability.
      When the tower reopens, it is likely that only 30 visitors will be allowed on the tower at one time. Authorities in this lawsuit-conscious age worry about the possibility of tourists falling off — not their collective weight.
      The tower, which was started in the late 12th century as a point of pride for the then-mighty seafaring republic of Pisa, began leaning almost immediately as the foundations of the 14'500-ton monument shifted in the sandy soil. By using hundreds of tons of lead counterweights at the base and delicately siphoning off soil from under the foundations, engineers have shaved 44 cm off the lean and steered the tower back to where it was in 1838. The tower now leans 410 cm off the perpendicular. The 44-cm change is not visible to the naked eye. With time, the tower will lean again, but much more slowly.
2000 Salah Mehdi Nour Ed-Din is sentenced by a Lebanese military court to one year in jail for “insulting behavior”, namely calling on people to celebrate the 10 June 2000 death of dictator Hafez al-Assad, president of Syria, Lebanon's master state.
2000 Federal regulators approve the merger of Bell Atlantic and GTE Corp., creating the US's largest local phone company.
1998 Keyboard claim rejected by court       ^top^
      Compaq breathed a sigh of relief on this day in 1998 as a Brooklyn jury tossed out a lawsuit filed against the computing giant and its recently acquired subsidiary, Digital Equipment Corp. (DEC). The suit had been filed by a group of nine people who claimed that DEC’s keyboards had caused them "repetitive stress injuries." In return for their pain, the nine plaintiffs had sought a tidy $10 million in damages.
      While the verdict may have been a sharp disappointment for the plaintiffs, it was just another day in court for DEC and the embattled keyboard industry. Indeed, the increasing prominence of computers in the workplace had putatively caused everything from niggling pains to more severe injuries, thus inspiring a rash of suits against the keyboard industry. But, the Brooklyn jury didn’t quite see the connection between the keyboards and the worker’s ailments, which inspired sighs of relief and giddy comments from DEC’s new owners. "We are delighted that the jury decided there is no link between the use of a computer keyboard and these upper extremity conditions," Thomas Siekman, Compaq’s senior vice president and general counsel crowed. But, while the jury may have exonerated Compaq and DCI, their ruling likely did little to quell the roiling debate over injuries caused by the extensive use of computer keyboards.
1996 Russian voters go to the polls in their first independent presidential election; the result was a runoff between President Boris Yeltsin (the eventual winner) and Communist challenger Gennady Zyuganov.
1991 Boris Yeltsin elected president of Russian SSR.
1987 Subway gunman Bernhard Goetz acquitted on all but gun possession charges after shooting 4 black youths who tried to rob him.
1986 One-day general strike in South Africa.
1982 Britain requests Argentina arrange for return of prisoners.
1978 President Carter and Panamanian leader Omar Torrijos exchanged the instruments of ratification for the Panama Canal treaties.
1977 Brezhnev becomes absolute Soviet ruler       ^top^
      Leonid Ilich Brezhnev, first secretary of the Soviet Communist Party since 1964, is elected president of the Supreme Soviet, thereby becoming both head of state and head of government. A member of the Communist party since 1931, Brezhnev had already served as president the Supreme Soviet once before. Following the death of Joseph Stalin in 1953, he was made president under First Secretary Nikita Khrushchev. In October of 1964, he joined in the party coup against Khrushchev, and was named first secretary in Khrushchev’s place. He resigned the Soviet presidency, which was a figurehead position, and initially shared power with Alexei Kosygin, who succeeded Khrushchev as premier.
      However, Brezhnev proved a forceful leader, and as he gradually became the chief figure in Soviet politics, Kosygin’s office was made obsolete. In 1968, after ordering the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia, he proclaimed the so-called "Brezhnev Doctrine," which declared that the USSR could intervene in the affairs of any Eastern European nation if Communist rule was threatened. However, despite his suppression of democratic reform in the Soviet Bloc, he promoted closer relations with the Western powers and the United States. In 1977, he assumed the presidency of the USSR, and thus became the most powerful Soviet leader since Stalin. The last five years of his rule were marked by the USSR’s costly invasion and occupation of Afghanistan, and a return of Cold War tensions. Leonid Brezhnev died on November 10, 1982, and was succeeded by Yuri Andropov.
1976 Student uprisings begin in Soweto, South Africa (Soweto Day)
1971 Racial disturbance in Jacksonville Florida
1970 Communists isolate Phnom Penh       ^top^
      North Vietnamese and Viet Cong attacks almost completely isolate Phnom Penh. The principal fighting raged in and around Kompong Thom, about 140 km north of the capital. On June 17, Cambodia's last working railway line, which ran to the border of Thailand, was severed when communist troops seized a freight train with 200 tons of rice and other food supplies at a station at Krang Lovea, about 60 km northwest of Phnom Penh.
1970 Race riots in Miami Florida
click for portrait1969 US Supreme Court overturns the expulsion of Adam Clayton Powell Jr from House of Representatives.     ^top^   
[click on image for portrait >]
      He was born on 29 November 1908 in New Haven, Conn.
      As pastor (from 1937) of New York City's Abyssinian Baptist Church, he became known as a militant African-American leader and flamboyant US Representative from New York, 1945-71 (22nd District 1945-53, 16th District 1953-63, 18th District 1963-71).
      He was expelled (1967) by the House of Representatives for misusing public funds and unbecoming conduct.
      Adam Clayton Powell died in Miami, Florida, 04 April 1972.
1966 The Miranda rights are established       ^top^
      The Supreme Court hands down its decision in Miranda v. Arizona, establishing the principle that all criminal suspects must be advised of their rights before interrogation. Now considered standard police procedure, "You have the right to remain silent. Anything you say can, and will, be used against you in a court of law. You have the right to an attorney. If you cannot afford one, one will be appointed to you," has been heard so many times in television and film dramas that it has become almost cliché.
      The roots of the Miranda decision go back to March 2, 1963, when an 18-year-old Phoenix woman told police that she had been abducted, driven to the desert, and raped. Detectives investigating her story gave her a polygraph test, but the results were inconclusive. However, tracking the license plate number of a car that resembled that of her attacker's brought police to Ernesto Miranda, who had a prior record as a Peeping Tom. Although the victim did not identify Miranda in a line-up, he was brought into police custody and interrogated.
      What happened next is disputed, but officers left the interrogation with a confession that Miranda later recanted, unaware that he didn't have to say anything at all. The confession was extremely brief and differed in certain respects from the victim's account of the crime. However, Miranda's appointed defense attorney (who was paid a grand total of $100) didn't call any witnesses, and Miranda was convicted after a short trial.
      While Miranda was in an Arizona state prison, the American Civil Liberties Union took up his appeal, claiming that the confession was false and coerced. The Supreme Court overturned his conviction, but Miranda was retried and convicted in October 1966 anyway, despite the relative lack of evidence against him. Remaining in prison until 1972, Ernesto Miranda was later stabbed to death in the men's room of a seedy bar after a poker game in January 1976.
      As a result of the case against Miranda, each and every person must be informed of his or her rights upon arrest. In 1999, the Supreme Court agreed to re-examine the Miranda requirements in the face of persistent complaints that confessions should not be barred from evidence simply because a police officer failed to read the suspect his or her rights.
1965 More US troops to be sent to Vietnam       ^top^
     US Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara announces that 21'000 more US troops are to be sent to Vietnam. He also claimed that it was now known that North Vietnamese regular troops had begun to infiltrate South Vietnam. The new US troops were to join the US Marines and paratroopers from the 173rd Airborne Brigade that had arrived earlier to secure US airbases and facilities. These forces would soon transition from defensive missions to direct combat operations. As the war escalated, more and more US combat troops were sent to South Vietnam. By 1969, there were over 540,000 American troops in Vietnam.
1963 Levi Eshkol replaces David Ben-Gurion as Israeli PM
1963 Valentina Tereshkova, 26, became the first woman to fly in space. From her Vostok 6 capsule, she reported that all was going well to a Soviet television audience. Months later, she would marrying another cosmonaut, and the world's first space couple would make good will visits to other nations in later years.
1961 Soviet ballet dancer Rudolf Nureyev defects to West in Paris       ^top^
      Rudolf Nureyev, the young star of the Soviet Union's Kirov Opera Ballet Company, defects during a stopover in Paris. The high-profile defection was a blow to Soviet prestige and generated international interest. Nureyev became a star of Russian ballet in 1958 when, at barely 20 years old, he was made one of the Kirov Opera Ballet's featured soloists. The Kirov and the Bolshoi ballet companies were two of the jewels of Soviet cultural diplomacy, and their performances earned worldwide accolades and respect for the arts in the USSR. In June 1961, the Kirov Company finished a run in Paris. On 16 June, just as the company was preparing to board a flight home, Nureyev broke from the group and insisted that he was staying in France. According to eyewitnesses, other members of the troupe pleaded with Nureyev to rejoin them and return to the Soviet Union. The dancer refused and threw himself into the arms of airport security people, screaming, "Protect me!" The security officials took Nureyev into custody, whereupon he asked for political asylum.
      The Kirov Company fretted over the loss of its star and Soviet security guards fumed over Nureyev's defection. Eventually, the troupe flew back to Russia without the dancer. Nureyev's high-profile defection was a double blow to the Soviet Union. First, it detracted from the quality of the Kirov Company, which had featured the young prodigy prominently in its performances throughout the world. Second, it severely damaged Soviet propaganda that touted the political and artistic freedom in Russia. Nureyev continued with his career after his defection. During the next 30 years he danced with England's Royal Ballet and the American Ballet Theatre. He was in great demand as both a dancer and choreographer, and even made a few films (including a disastrous turn as the silent film star Rudolf Valentino). In 1983, he took over as ballet director of the Paris Opera. In 1989, he briefly returned to the Soviet Union to perform. He died in Paris in 1993.
1961 Kennedy agrees to send military instructors to Vietnam       ^top^
      Following a meeting between President John F. Kennedy and South Vietnam envoy Nguyen Dinh Thuan, an agreement is reached for direct training and combat supervision of Vietnamese troops by US instructors. South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem had earlier asked Kennedy to send additional US troops to train the South Vietnamese Army. US advisers had been serving in Vietnam since 1955 as part of the US Military Assistance Advisory Group. There would be only 900 US military personnel in South Vietnam at the end of 1961, but in accordance with President Kennedy's pledge to provide American military assistance to South Vietnam, the number of US personnel rose to 3,200 by the end of 1962. The number would climb until it reached 16,000 by the time of President Kennedy's assassination in November 1963.
1955 Pope Pius XII excommunicates Argentine President Juan Perón. The excommunication would be removed 8 years later.
1947 Pravda denounces Marshall Plan
1940 Commuinist government installed in Lithuania
1940 Effondrement du front français -- Au soir, Reynaud démissionne, Pétain est nommé à sa place. --L'évacuation de Saint-Nazaire commence et se terminera le 19.
1940 Marshal Pétain becomes premier of defeated France       ^top^
      Marshal Henri-Philippe Pétain, World War I hero, becomes prime minister of the Vichy government of France. As Germany began to overrun more French territory, the French Cabinet became desperate for a solution to this crisis. Premier Paul Reynaud continued to hold out hope, refusing to ask for an armistice, especially now that France had received assurance from Britain that the two would fight as one, and that Britain would continue to fight the Germans even if France were completely overtaken. But others in the government were despondent and wanted to sue for peace. Reynaud resigned in protest. His vice premier, Henri Pétain, formed a new government and asked the Germans for an armistice, in effect, surrendering.
      This was an ironic position for Pétain, to say the least. The man who had become a legendary war hero for successfully repelling a German attack on the French city of Verdun during the First World War was now surrendering to Hitler. In the city of Vichy, the French Senate and Chamber of Deputies conferred on the 84-year-old general the title of "Chief of State," making him a virtual dictator--although one controlled by Berlin. Pétain believed that he could negotiate a better deal for his country--for example, obtaining the release of prisoners of war--by cooperating with, or as some would say, appeasing, the Germans.
      But Pétain proved to be too clever by half. While he fought against a close Franco-German military collaboration, and fired his vice premier, Pierre Laval, for advocating it, and secretly urged Spain's dictator Francisco Franco to refuse passage of the German army to North Africa, his attempts to undermine the Axis while maintaining an official posture of neutrality did not go unnoticed by Hitler, who ordered that Laval be reinstated as vice premier. Pétain acquiesced, but refused to resign in protest because of fear that France would come under direct German rule if he were not there to act as a buffer.
      But he soon became little more than a figurehead, despite efforts to manipulate events behind the scenes that would advance the Free French cause (then publicly denying, even denouncing, those events when they came to light). When Paris was finally liberated by General Charles de Gaulle in 1944, Pétain fled to Germany. He was brought back after the war to stand trial for his duplicity. He was sentenced to death, which was then commuted to life in solitary confinement. He died at 95 in prison. The man responsible for saving his life was de Gaulle. He and Pétain had fought in the same unit in World War I and de Gaulle had not forgotten Pétain's bravery during that world war.
1933 National Industrial Recovery Act becomes law in the US (later struck down by the Supreme Court)
1933 US Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) is created.
1922 Henry Berliner demonstrates his helicopter to US Bureau of Aeronautics.
1917 first Congress of Soviets convene in Russia
1909 first US airplane sold commercially, by Glenn Curtiss for $5000.
1904: Bloomsday: the day of Leopold Bloom's odyssey through Dublin in James Joyce's Ulysses.       ^top^
           Born in Dublin on 2 February 1882, James Joyce was the eldest of 10 children of a cheerful ne'er-do-well, would eventually go bankrupt. James attended Catholic school and University College in Dublin, where he learned Dano-Norwegian so he could read the plays of Henrik Ibsen in the original. In college, he began a lifetime of literary rebellion, self-publishing an essay rejected by the school's literary magazine adviser.
      After graduation, Joyce moved to Paris. He resolved to study medicine to support himself while writing but soon gave it up. He returned to Dublin to visit his mother's deathbed and remained to teach school and work odd jobs.
      On 16 June 1904, he meets Nora Barnacle, a lively uneducated woman with whom he fell in love. Joyce will immortalize this day in his masterpiece Ulysses, whose narrative unfolds entirely on "Bloomsday" June 16, 1904, day whose anniversary is celebrated by Joyce fans the world over.
      Joyce convinced Nora to return to Europe with him. The couple settled in Trieste, where they had two children, and then in Zurich. Joyce struggled with serious eye problems, undergoing 25 operations for various troubles between 1917 and 1930.
      In 1914, he published The Dubliners , and his 1915 novel, Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, brought him fame and the patronage of several wealthy people, including Edith Rockefeller.
      In 1918, his revolutionary stream of consciousness novel Ulysses began to be serialized in the American journal Little Review. However, the US Post Office stopped the publication's distribution in December of that year on the grounds that the novel was obscene. Sylvia Beach, owner of bookstore Shakespeare and Co. in Paris, where Joyce moved in 1920, published the novel herself in 1922, but it was banned in the United Kingdom, and, until a 6 December 1933 court ruling, in the United States. Joyce's final novel, Finnegans Wake, was published in 1939, and Joyce died in 1941.
more JOYCE ONLINE: DublinersDublinersChamber MusicChamber Music. — Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, — UlyssesUlyssesFinnegans Wake
1897 The US government signed a treaty of annexation with Hawaii.
1896 Temperature hits 53ºC at Fort Mojave, Calif
1879 Gilbert and Sullivan's HMS Pinafore debuts at Bowery Theatre NYC
1864 Skirmish at Lynchburg, Virginia
1864 First attack of Petersburg, Virginia continues
1863 Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana continues
1863 Siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi continues
1862 Engagement at Secessionville, South Carolina
1861 Balloon demonstration in Washington, D.C.
1858 “A house divided against itself cannot stand.”       ^top^
      At the close of the Republican Illinois state convention in Springfield, Illinois, which nominated Abraham Lincoln as its candidate for US Senator, he delivers a speech in which he says:
     “Mr. President and gentlemen of the Convention:
      We are now in the fifth year, since a policy was initiatey, with the avowed object, and confident promise, of putting an end to slavery agitation.
      Under the operation of that policy, that agitation has not only, not ceased, but has constantly augmented.
     In my opinion, it will not cease, until a crisis shall have been reached, and passed.
     “A house divided against itself cannot stand.”
     I believe this government cannot endure, permanently half slave and half free.
     I do not expect the Union to be dissolved — I do not expect the house to fall — but I do expect it will cease to be divided.
     Either it will become all one thing, or all the other.
     Either the opponents of slavery, will arrest the further spread of it, and place it where the public mind shall rest in the belief that it is in course of ultimate extinction; or its advocates will push it forward, till it shall become alike lawful in all the States, old as well as new — North as well as South.
      The result is not doubtful. We shall not fail — if we stand firm, we shall not fail.
    Wise councils may acccelerate or mistakes delay it, but, sooner or later the victory is sure to come.”
1832 Battle of Kellogg's Grove, Illinois.
1794 (28 prairial an III) PEYSSARD Jean Pascal Charles, député du département de la Dordogne à la Convention, natif de Dagonas, même département, est condamné à la déportation, par le conseil militaire établi par décret de la Convention, du 5 prairial, séant à Paris, comme convaincu et même de son propre aveu, I° d'avoir proposé le renouvellement des autorités constituées réorganisées depuis le 9 thermidor; 2° d'avoir lu à la tribune de la Convention un projet de décret dont plusieurs articles avaient de l'analogie avec les motions des factieux dans la révolte contre la convention, les 3 et 4 prairial an 3.
1775 the Second Continental Congress resolves "that there be a chief Engineer for the army, in a separate department, and two assistants under him; that the pay of the chief engineer be sixty dollars per month, and the pay of the assistants each, twenty dollars per month". so that fortifications be prepared in besieged Boston. This was the precursor of the US Army Corps of Engineers..
1755 British capture Fort Beauséjour, expel the Acadians
1654 Réunion de la "Chambre de Saint-Louis" qui élabore 27 articles (diminution des tailles, contrôle des dépenses de l'État, suppression des collecteurs d'impôts, etc..) (le 31 Jul une déclaration royale approuvera certains des 27 articles).
1567 Mary Queen of Scots is imprisoned in Lochleven Castle in Scotland.
0632 Origin of Persian [Yezdegird] Era
Deaths which occurred on a June 16:
2003 Peter William Redgrove, 71, of Parkinson's disease, British poet and writer. His first novel was In the Country of the Skin (1973).
2002 Jordan Curtis, 7, from injuries suffered the previous day when a Stockbridge, Georgia, Wal-Mart 8-meter steel-and-plastic sign fell on his head after being hit by a bus which had veered off the road and jumped an embankment while driven by Terry L. McCrary, 44, who had stolen the empty bus when the driver dropped off tourist at an amusement park near Atlanta and went to lunch. The little boy was attending a Boy Scout yard sale near the Wal-Mart.
2002 24 persons in a fire at an Internet café in the Haidian district in Beijing's northwest where universities are located. The fire broke out at about 02:45 and was put out 45 minutes later.
1977 Wernher von Braun, 65, from smoking
1976 Francis E. Meloy, Jr., US Ambassador to Lebanon       ^top^
Robert Waring, an American economic advisor, both murdered In Beirut, Lebanon.
      Kidnapped Ambassador Meloy. is murdered along with his associate Waring. The two had been en route to a meeting with Lebanese president-elect Elias Sarkis when they were abducted by Muslim guerillas in Beirut.
      In 1975, a bloody civil war erupted in Lebanon, with Palestinian and leftist Muslim guerrillas battling militias of the Christian Phalange Party, the Maronite Christian community, and other groups. Over the next few years, diplomatic efforts to end the factional fighting proved unsuccessful, and Syrian, Israeli, and United Nations military interventions likewise failed.
      In 1982, a cease-fire agreement was finally reached, and on 20 August 1982, a multinational force featuring US Marines landed in Beirut to oversee the Palestinian withdrawal from Lebanon. The Marines left Lebanese territory on 10 September, but returned on 29 September following the massacre of Palestinian refugees by a Christian militia. The next day, the first US Marine to die during the mission was killed while defusing a bomb, and on 18 April, 1983, the US embassy in Beirut was devastated by a car bomb, killing sixty-three people, including the suicide bomber and seventeen Americans.
      On 23 October 1983, Lebanese terrorists evaded security measures and drove a truck packed with explosives into the US Marine barracks in Beirut, killing 241 US military personnel. Fifty-eight French soldiers were killed the same evening in a separate suicide terrorist attack. On 07 February 1984, US President Ronald Reagan announced the end of US participation in the problem-plagued peacekeeping mission, and, on 26 February, the last US Marines left Beirut.
1970 Sydney Chapman, English mathematical physicist born on 29 January 1888.
1958 Imre Nagy, executed by Communists for having lead Hungarian uprising       ^top^
      Imre Nagy, a former Hungarian premier and symbol of the nation’s 1956 uprising against Soviet rule, was hanged for treason by his country’s Communist authorities. After becoming premier of Communist Hungary in 1953, Nagy enacted a series of liberal reforms and grew increasingly critical of Soviet influence in his country’s affairs. Denounced for Titoism, he was removed from office, and in early 1956, expelled from the Hungarian Communist party.
      On 23 October 1956, in response to the Communist backlash against Nagy and his reforms, Hungarian students and workers took to the streets of Budapest in demonstrations against Soviet domination and Communist rule. Within days, the uprising escalated into a full-scale national revolt, and the Hungarian government fell into chaos. Nagy joined the revolution and was reinstated as Hungarian premier, but his minister Janos Kadar formed a counter-regime and asked the USSR to intervene. On 04 November, a massive Soviet force of 200'000 troops and 2500 tanks entered Hungary.
      The same day, US Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., called an emergency meeting of the UN Security Council to protest the Soviet invasion, but Britain and France, embroiled in the Suez Crisis, chose not to support the US resolutions. Nagy took refuge in the Yugoslav embassy, but was later arrested by Soviet agents after leaving the embassy under a safe-conduct pledge. Nearly 200'000 Hungarians fled the country and thousands of people were arrested, killed, or executed before the Hungarian uprising was finally suppressed. Nagy was later handed over to the regime of Janos Kadar, who convicted and executed him for treason. On 16 June 1989, as Communism crumbled in Hungary, Nagy’s body was officially reburied with full honors. Some 300'000 Hungarians attended the service.
1959 George Reeves, actor (Superman, Gone With the Wind), shoots himself.
1948 Marcel Louis Brillouin, French mathematical physicist born on 19 December 1854. He worked on topics ranging from history of science to the physics of the earth and the atom.
1943 Two persons in race riot in Beaumont, Texas.
1933 Chaim Arlozorov, Zionist leader, assassinated.
1910 Julius Weingarten, German mathematician born on 02 March 1836.
1905 Johann Gottfried Steffan, Swiss painter born on 13 December 1815.
1902 Friedrich Wilhelm Karl Ernst Schröder, German mathematician born on 25 November 1841.
1862 Battle of Secessionville       ^top^
     A Union attempt to capture Charleston, South Carolina, is thwarted when the Confederates turn back an attack at Secessionville, just south of the city on James Island. In November 1861, Union ships captured Port Royal, which lay about halfway between Charleston and Savannah. This gave the Federals an important base from which to mount operations along the southern coast. Before dawn on 16 June, Yankee General Henry W. Benham led 9000 soldiers onto James Island. Benham had a checkered career as a commander. He helped clear western Virginia of Confederates in the summer of 1861 but was ordered arrested by General William Rosecrans for "unofficer-like neglect of duty" because he was headstrong and critical of leadership. Eventually, he and Rosecrans made amends, and in the spring of 1862 Benham was sent to Port Royal to command the northern district of General David Hunter's Department of the South. Benham decided to attack the strong fortifications that protected Confederates under the command of General Nathan "Shanks" Evans.
      But the Rebels' fortifications were nearly impenetrable. The approach to the fort was across a strip of firm ground bracketed by marshes, which narrowed the ground that the Confederate artillery needed to cover. Only 500 Confederates were inside, but another 1500 rushed in from Charleston. Benham staged three attacks against the fort, but each failed. The Federals lost nearly 800 men, while the Southerners suffered only 200 losses. After the disastrous battle, Union officials began pointing fingers, and Benham was arrested three days later. His superior, Hunter, had ordered no assault without permission. There was disagreement between Benham and his three subordinates over plans to attack. The three later said they had presented objections on the eve of the battle, but an aide to Benham said there had been no such discussion. Benham blamed one of his commanders, Isaac Stephens, for the botched charge. The Judge Advocate General's Office recommended revocation of Benham's commission. But the aggressiveness he possessed was in short supply among Union generals in 1862, and the Lincoln administration rescinded the revocation. Benham joined Ulysses S. Grant for the Vicksburg campaign, and he commanded the Army of the Potomac's engineering brigade during Grant's Virginia campaign against Robert E. Lee in 1864.

Condamnés à mort par la Révolution: ^top^
1795 (28 prairial an III):
DUQUESNOY Ernest Dominique François Joseph, député de la convention nationale, né à Bouvigny-Boyffete, département du Pas-de-Calais, par le conseil militaire, comme convaincu d'avoir appuyé la proposition d'une commission extraordinaire pour remplacer le comité de sûreté générale, d'avoir demandé l'arrestation des membres de ce comité, et par ces faits d'être un des principaux conspirateur contre la République et la convention nationale, dans la révolte des 1er, 3 et 4 prairial an 3, il s'est poignardé dans sa prison après le jugement et en est mort.
DUROY Jean Michel, né à Bernay, député à la convention nationale du département de l'Eure, par le conseil militaire établi à Paris, comme convaincu d'avoir été un des provocateurs des décrets rendus le 1er prairial, d'avoir demandé le réarmement des terroristes, la liberté des conspirateurs ses collègues, dans la nuit du 12 au 13 germinal, et de ceux qui se sont soustraits à l'arrestation etc.., et par ces faits d'être un des principaux conspirateur contre la République, et contre la Convention nationale, dans la révolte des 1, 2 3 et 4 prairial an 3, il s'est poignardé après la lecture de son jugement, n'étant pas mort de ses blessures, il a été exécuté le même jour.
SOUBRANY Pierre Amable, député du département du Puy-de-Dôme, à la Convention nationale, né à Rivin, même département, par le conseil militaire établi à Paris, comme convaincu d'avoir demandé la suspension et le renouvellement du comité de sûreté général et proposé de prendre toutes les mesures nécessaire pour empêcher que les tyrans du 12 germinal, ne fissent encore une pareille journée; et par ces faits, d'être un des principaux auteurs et conspirateur, conter la République, dans la révolte contre la représentation nationale, les 3 et 4 prairial an 3, il s'est suicidé, n'étant pas mort de sa blessure, il a été exécuté.
1794 (28 prairial an II):
BAUDRY Jacques, 33 ans, né à Lisbourg, époux de Leroy Victoire, à Arras
CONIL Jean Baptiste, fermier, domicilié à Beaucaire (Gard), comme fédéraliste, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
JOUVE Joseph Vincent Xavier, maître d'école, domicilié à Aramon (Gard), par le tribunal criminel dudit département, comme fédéraliste.
DUPREY Thomas Barnabé (dit Epiphant), ex capucin, domicilié à Andelys (Eure), par le tribunal criminel du département de la Somme, comme réfractaire à la loi.
FORESTIER Jean, prêtre, domicilié à Canourgue (Lozère), par le tribunal criminel dudit département, comme réfractaire à la loi.
PERRIN Jean Joseph, marchand voiturier, domicilié à Mézières (Ardennes), comme distributeur de faux assignats, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
RABOT François, faiseur de masses, domicilié à Anvers-l’Union (Sarthe), par la commission militaire de Laval, comme brigand de la Vendée.
REILLON Pierre, tisserand, domicilié à Nuillé-sur-Ouette (Mayenne), comme contre-révolutionnaire, par la commission révolutionnaire de Mayenne.
Domiciliés dans le département de la Gironde, par la commission militaire séante à Bordeaux:
BIRE Jean, huissier, 64 ans, natif de la Chapelle-de-Magenau, canton de Saintes (Charente Inférieure), domicilié à Bordeaux, comme contre-révolutionnaire.
CISSAC Arnaud Antoine (dit St André), perruquier, natif de Lavaur, département du Tarn, domicilié à Bordeaux, comme ayant participé à la force départementale, par suite des malheureuse journées des 31 mai et 2 juin 1793.
COSSON François, ex noble, né et domicilié à Bourg, comme contre-révolutionnaire, par la commission militaire séante à Bordeaux.
PALLANDRE Arnaud Antoine, 45 ans, libraire, né et domicilié à Bordeaux, comme fédéraliste.
PATY Bernard (dit Durayet), ex conseiller, au ci-devant parlement de Guyenne, né et domicilié à Bordeaux, comme contre-révolutionnaire.
Par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris:
RABOURDIN Charles, ex vicaire, 31 ans, né et domicilié à Sermaise (Seine et Oise), comme contre-révolutionnaire et fanatique.
       ... comme complices d'un complot formé par les prisonniers dans la maison d'arrêt de Bicêtre, pour égorger la garde nationale de cette maison, pour de-là se porter aux comités de salut public et de sûreté générale de la Convention pour en poignarder les membres, leur arracher le cœur, les griller et les manger, et faire mourir les plus patriotes dans un tonneau garni de pointes:
BERSON Pierre (dit Sans-Souci), 40 ans, né à Vannes, cordonnier, ci-devant soldat dans le régiment du Cap.
BERTON Etienne, 40 ans, né à Thouars, département de l'Yonne, marchand de vin, y demeurant.
BOURQUIEU Claude, 32 ans, né à Manche, département de la Haute-Saône, ex abbé, domicilié à Neuilly-sut-Seine, détenu à la maison d'arrêt de Bicêtre.
DELATRE F. X., 32 ans, né et domicilié à Dainville, département du Pas-de-Calais, cordonnier.
LA FORCE L., marchand boutonnier, né à Lille, département du Nord, domicilié à Rouen (Seine Inférieure).
LEGRAND L., 22 ans, né à Paris, employé aux charrois et ci-devant, domestique du général d'Ardy dans l'armée d'Ardennes, domicilié à Abbeville (Somme).
TEISSIER L., 26 ans, né à Campinc (Manche), marchand de chevaux, domicilié audit lieu.
DUMONT Pierre, 24 ans, boulanger à Strasbourg, détenu dans la maison de Bicêtre à Paris.
            ... domiciliés à Paris:
BERNARD Antoine, 3? Ans, né à Meaux en brie, domicilié à Paris, sculpteur en marbre,.
BONNE Paul Louis Claude, 17 ans, né à Chartres (Eure et Loire), compagnon menuisier, détenu dans la maison de Bicêtre.
BRIDIER Etienne, 38 ans, né à Bourges, ci-devant, valet-de-chambre du comte de Laval-Montmorency, détenu en la maison d'arrêt de Bicêtre.
CHATELIER M., 26 ans, né à Saint-Anne-Debuc, département de la Manche, tailleur.
CHEVALIER P., 53 ans, né à St Germain-en-Laye, marchand de veaux à Paris.
DUPONT François, 33 ans, né à Verneuil, marchand forain.
GRAND J. P., (dit Lyonnais), 25 ans, né à Avignon, gazier, fils de Suisse, détenu dans la maison de Bicêtre.
JANNIOT N., 60 ans, né à Maurice Court (Meurthe), fondeur racheveur, domicilié à Paris, département de Mayenne et Loire [sic].
LADRY, 24 ans, garçon menuisier, né à Presenlaux.
LEROY J. (dit Sans-Géne), buffetier, 26 ans, né à Auxerre (Yonne).
LUCAS F. N., 28 ans, né à Ferté-sous-Jouare (Seine et Marne), serrurier.
MAUCLERC B. L., 21 ans, né à Troyes, département de l'Aube, libraire à Paris.
OFFROY G., 29 ans, né à Aurillac (Cantal), ci-devant secrétaire aux Invalides.
POUMET F., 22 ans, né à Châtellerault (Vienne).
POIRIER N., Cordonnier, 39 ans, né à Avalon (Yonne).
PREVOST E., 25 ans, né à Chambly (Oise), pâtissier, ci-devant soldat au 22ème régiment, ci-devant Viennois.
QUITRE C., 30 ans garçon tapissier, né à Pont-Audemer (Eure).
SALER A., 22 ans, né à Naples, fabricant de cordes à violon.
TOURNIER G., 30 ans, né à St-Clément (Cantal), brocanteur.
                 ... et nés à Paris:
BALLIN Augustin, 18 ans, né et demeurant à Paris, racheveur de boucles, détenu à Bicêtre.

CERDILLOT ou ARDILLOT, soldat, 41 ans.
CURTON J.H. 18 ans, né à Paris, domestique chez l'ex comte de Sénéchal, à Paris.
DELVEAUX J., 19 ans, brocanteur.
GUYART M., 25 ans,menuisier et colporteur, d'abord condamné comme suspect à être détenu jusqu'à la paix, dans la prison de Bicêtre.
MASSE P. J. (dit Brin d'Amour), 26 ans, cuisinier, ci-devant soldat dans le régiment de Vintimille.
NEVEUX C. P., charron, 17 ans.
RICHET L. C., 27 ans, né à Paris, tanneur et imprimeur en papiers peints.
      ... comme conspirateurs:
BUSSIERE Jean Baptiste, ex clerc d'avoué, domicilié à Bellac (Haute Vienne).
FILOUX Simon, ex curé de Mortemart (Haute-Vienne).
HORION Louis Charles, instituteur et musicien, domicilié à Bellac (Haute Vienne).
MINET Elisabeth, couturière, 46 ans, née à Lagrandville (Ardennes), domiciliée à Quincy (Seine et Marne), ... voyageant sans passeport.
LAMARCHE Jean, 36 ans, natif d'Ormesson (Seine et Marne), jardinier, domicilié à Paris, ... ayant cherché à avilir la représentation nationale, notamment Robespierre, en disant que ce député était fort pauvre avant la révolution, et qu'a présent il était fort riche, et qu'il allait acheter la maison de madame de Chimay, qu'il finirait comme Danton, qui paraissait fort patriote, que son tour viendrait comme les autres, qu'il n'en resterait plus de cette législature, que sept ou huit, que Collot-d'Herbois subirait le même sort, et qu'avant six mois ils seraient tous guillotinés.
VIAL Nicolas, marchand 71 ans, natif de Lyon, département du Rhône, domicilié à Charreton (Seine), ... et ayant conservé chez lui une représentation enluminée de l'assassin de Marat, avec une complainte au bas.
CAUVET Jacques, cuisinier, domicilié à Paris, comme distributeur de faux assignats, par le tribunal criminel du département de Paris.
DELAINAY Jean Baptiste, marchand de vin, domicilié à Paris, comme distributeur de faux assignats, par le tribunal criminel de Paris.
TORTERAT Marie, garde malade, domiciliée à Paris, comme distributrice de faux assignats, par le tribunal criminel de Paris.

1752 Joseph Butler, Anglican theologian born in 1692. His 1736 Analogy of Religion demonstrated the strong probability for the existence of a caring God over against that of a disinterested Creator Deity.— JOSEPH BUTLER ONLINE: Human Nature, and Other SermonsThe Analogy of Religion . Appendix I: Of Personal Identity
1620 Carlo Venziano Saraceni, Italian Baroque era painter born in 1580. — MORE ON SARACENI AT ART “4” JUNE LINKS The Birth of ChristMadonna and Child with St Anne Saint Cecilia and the Angel _ detailSt Gregory the GreatVenus and Mars The Rest on the Flight to Egypt
Births which occurred on a June 16:
1938 Joyce Carol Oates US, novelist (Garden of Earthly Delights)
1937 Erich Segal (writer: Love Story, Acts of Faith, Man, Woman and Child, Oliver's Story)
1937 August Busch III CEO (Anheuser-Busch)
1915 John Wilder Tukey, US mathematician who died on 26 July 2000. He introduced the Fast Fourier Transform and worked in other areas of Statistics.
1903 Ford Motor Co. is incorporated.
1902 Barbara McClintock US, cytogeneticist (Nobel 1983)
1890 Arthur Stanley Jefferson, “Stan Laurel”, in Ulverston, England.       ^top^
      The son of an actress and director, Laurel made his theatrical debut at age 16 and spent years performing in British music halls. Laurel later toured America's vaudeville circuit and began appearing in films in 1917. In 1918, Laurel signed with director and producer Hal Roach and appeared in some 76 films made by studio Hal Roach-Pathe.
      In 1926, director Leo McCarey suggested that the skinny Laurel team up with rotund comic Oliver Hardy. Oliver Norvell Hardy, Jr. , born on 18 January 1892, an actor's son from Georgia, had dropped out of law school to open a movie theater and later began performing in films himself. Their first show together was the short film Duck Soup (1927). The slapstick team became one of the most successful film-comedy duos in history, and the unlikely pair had an unmatched on-screen chemistry. Inevitably, the duo, in their trademark derby hats, turned any situation into chaos.
      Between 1927 and 1950, Laurel and Hardy appeared in more than 100 films, including 27 features, many of which Laurel helped direct. They won an Academy Award in 1933 for The Music Box, the story of two incompetent moving-company owners hired to move a piano up a towering flight of stairs. MGM, which distributed Hal Roach's films, also occasionally used them as comic relief in musicals, including Babes in Toyland. The pair severed their connection with MGM and Hal Roach in 1940 and created their own production company, but they stopped making movies in 1945. Five years later, they attempted a comeback with the flop film Utopia. They were planning another comeback attempt in 1954 when Hardy was debilitated by a stroke. He died on 07 August 1957, and Laurel was inconsolable, vowing never to perform again. He died on 23 February 1965.
1881 Natal'ya Sergeyevna Goncharova, Russian French Cubist painter, stage designer, printmaker, and illustrator, who died on 17 October 1962. — MORE ON GONCHAROVA AT ART “4” JUNELINKS Stage set design for act 1 of the opera-ballet Le coq d'orStage Design for Act I of the ballet Chota RoustaveliChota Roustaveli: Project for the curtainCostume for a Peasant Girl in the ballet Foire de Sorotchinskl'Oiseau de Feu: Costume for the first PrinceL'Oiseau de Feu: Costume for the 12 Simple PrincessesCostume for a Man Dancer in Ballet de TrèfleBaignadeCollecting FruitThe Virgin, Costume design for the ballet La LiturgieCostume design for Saint John the Divine for the ballet La LiturgieThe Archangel Michael — The Evangelists: Panel 1 _ Panel 2 _ Panel 3 _ Panel 4
1874 Arthur Meighen (C) 9th PM of Canada (1920-21, 1926)
1867 (15 June?) René Seyssaud, French painter who died on 26 (24?) September 1952. — more Paysage de ProvencePaysageLabourage
1863 Arturo Michelana, Venezuelan artist who died on 29 July 1898.
1859 Paul Joanovich, Austrian artist who died in 1957.
1850 Aimé-Nicolas Morot, French artist who died on 12 August 1913.
1839 Julius Peter Christian Petersen, Danish mathematician who died on 05 August 1910. He worked on geometry and graph theory. He is best remembered for the Petersen Graph.
1818 Filippo Palizzi, Italian painter who died on 11 (12?) September 1899.
1801 Julius Plücker, German mathematician and physicist who died on 22 May 1868.
1735 Michel~Nicolas~Bernard Lépicié, French painter, draftsman, and professor, who died on 14 September 1784. — MORE ON LÉPICIÉ AT ART “4” JUNELINKS Le Petit DessinateurA Mother Feeding her ChildNarcissusAchilles is Instructed in Music by the Centaur ChironCour de ferme
1686 Francesco Simonini, Italian painter who died in 1753. — moreLINKSA Military Campaign SceneEsercito in marciaDeux Cavaliers Hongrois, Chefs de Hussards Impériaux
1671 Stenka Razin Cossack rebel leader, tortured, executed in Moscow
1216 Innocent III, 54, pope
--1686 -BC- Hammurabi the Great, in Babylon
Religious Observances Christian : St Quiricus (St Cirycus) / RC : Madonna of Carmine, Italy / Ang : Joseph Butler, bishop of Durham

Thoughts for the day :“Selfishness is that vice we see in others, never in ourselves.”
“Not to know is bad. Not to want to know is worse. Not to hope is unthinkable. Not to care is unforgivable.” —
Nigerian saying.
“Not to quote a Nigerian saying is derstandable.”
updated Saturday 21-Jun-2003 5:02 UT
safe site
site safe for children safe site