| On a June 19:
2000 The US Supreme Court reaffirms, 6-3, that praying in public schools had to be private, barring officials from letting students lead stadium crowds in prayer before football games.
| 1989 La peseta se incorpora a la banda ancha del mecanismo
restringido de cambios del Sistema Monetario Europeo, para estabilizar el
cambio de la moneda española.
1987 The Supreme Court strikes down a Louisiana law requiring public schools to teach creationism if they taught evolutionism. The court rules that the state law violates the First Amendment.
1986 Graves altercados en Melilla entre grupos de cristianos y musulmanes.
1985 El Consejo de Ministros español acuerda restablecer los derechos de los militares del Ejército de la República.
1981 Heaviest known orange (2.5 kg) exhibited, Nelspruit, S Africa
1977 Paul VI canonizes John Nepomucene Neumann, the first US-born male saint. As fourth Bishop of the Philadelphia Diocese, Neumann is remembered for developing the parochial school system.
1968 50'000 participate in Solidarity Day March of Poor People's Campaign
| 1964 The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is approved after
surviving an 83-day Senate filibuster. El Senado de los EE.UU. adopta
la ley sobre derechos civiles de los negros.
1963 Retour de la première femme cosmonaute, Valentina Terenchkova, à bord du Vostok-6. Elle a accompli 48 révolutions autour de la terre. Soviet cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova returns to Earth after spending nearly three days as the first woman in space.
1961 The US Supreme Court struck down a provision in Maryland's constitution requiring state officeholders to profess a belief in God.
1961 Kuwait regains complete independence from Britain
1959 US Senate rejects Ike's appointment of Lewis Strauss for Secretary of Commerce.
1947 First plane (F-80) to exceed 600 mph (966 km/h) Albert Boyd, Muroc, California.
1945 Abbott and Costello's classic comedy routine "Who's on First?" makes its cinema debut, in The Naughty Nineties. The duo had already made the routine famous in live performances and on the radio.
1945 La Asamblea de las Naciones Unidas rechaza el ingreso de España.
1937 Guerra civil española: las tropas "nacionales" entran en Bilbao.
1934 The US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is created.
1932 Navarra rechaza el Estatuto vasco y aspira a tener uno propio, según su régimen foral.
1931 first photoelectric cell installed commercially West Haven Ct
1917 After WW I King George V orders members of British royal family to dispense with German titles and surnames, they take the name Windsor
1917 La Cámara de los Comunes británica reconoce el derecho al voto de las mujeres mayores de 30 años.
1911 Proclamación oficial de la República en Portugal.
1910 In Spokane, Washington, under sponsorship of the Spokane Ministerial Association and the YMCA, Father's Day is observed for the first time.
1905 El papa Pío X autoriza a los católicos italianos a participar en la vida pública.
1889 Start of Sherlock Holmes adventure The Man with the Twisted Lip
Confederate pirate ship sunk
Off the coast of Cherbourg, France, the Confederate raider C.S.S. Alabama loses a ship-to-ship duel with the USS. Kearsarge and sinks to the floor of the Atlantic, ending an notorious career that saw over sixty Union merchant vessels destroyed by the Confederate pirate.
The construction of the Alabama in secrecy for the Confederacy in Liverpool shipyards, was uncovered by the Union, creating a significant diplomatic crisis between the US government and Britain. Nevertheless, the ship was commissioned on August 24, 1862, and set off into the open seas captained by Confederate Raphael Semmes and manned by an international mercenary crew in which Southerners were the minority. Leaving destroyed US merchant ships in its wake, the Alabama cruised the Atlantic, rounded Africa, and visited Southeast Asia, before redoubling the Cape of Good Hope back to Europe.
On 11 June 1864, the Alabama arrived at Cherbourg, and Captain Semmes requested permission to dock and repair his ship. The US sloop-of-war Kearsarge, which had been pursuing the Alabama, arrived three days later and waited outside of the harbor. On June 19, the Alabama sails out to meet its foe. However, unlike the sixty-odd merchant ships that the Confederate raider had sunk during its two-year rampage, the Kearsarge was prepared. After an initial exchange of gunfire, the battle quickly turns against the Alabama, which lacked the type of high quality powder and shells necessary to penetrate the Kearsarge's chain-cable armor. Within an hour, the Alabama is reduced to a sinking wreck, and Captain Semmes lowers his colors and jumps ship with the other survivors. While the victorious Union vessel rescued much of the Alabama's surviving crew, Semmes and a number of others were picked up by a British yacht that had been observing the sea battle, and escaped to England.
1864 C.S.S. Alabama sinks The most successful and feared Confederate commerce raider of the war, the C.S.S. Alabama, sinks after a spectacular battle with the USS. Kearsage. Built in an English shipyard and sold to the Confederates in 1861, the Alabama was a state-of-the-art ship—220 feet long, with a speed of up to 13 knots. The cruiser was equipped with a machine shop and could carry enough coal to steam for 18 days, but its sails could greatly extend that time. Under its captain, Raphael Semmes, the Alabama prowled the world for three years, capturing US commercial ships. It sailed around the globe, usually working out of the West Indies, but taking prizes and bungling Union shipping in the Caribbean, off Newfoundland, and around the coast of South America. In January 1863, Semmes sunk a Union warship, the Hatteras, after luring it out of Galveston, Texas. The Union navy spent an enormous amount of time and effort trying to track down the Alabama. The ship sailed around South America, across the Pacific, and docked in India in 1864. By the summer, Semmes realized that after three years and 75'000 miles his vessel needed overhauling in a modern shipyard. He sailed around Africa to France, where the French denied him access to a dry dock. Semmes moved out of Cherbourg Harbor and found the USS. Kearsage waiting. In a spectacular battle, the Kearsage bested the Alabama and sent the Confederate raider to the bottom. During its career, the Alabama captured 66 ships and was hunted by more than 20 Federal warships.
CSS ALABAMA SUNK OFF FRANCE: Off the coast of Cherbourg, France, the Confederate raider CSS Alabama loses a ship-to-ship duel with the USS Kearsarge and sinks to the floor of the Atlantic, ending an illustrious career that saw some 68 Union merchant vessels destroyed or captured by the Confederate raider. At the outset of the Civil War, the Union began an increasingly successful blockade of Southern ports and coasts, crippling the economies of the Confederate states. In retaliation, Confederate raiders, outfitted in the South and abroad, launched an effective guerrilla war at sea against Union merchant shipping. In 1862, the CSS Alabama, a 1000-ton screw-steam sloop of war, was built at Liverpool, England, for the Confederate Navy. Britain had proclaimed neutrality in the Civil War but was sympathetic to the Southern cause and gave tacit aid to the Confederacy in the opening years of the conflict. Before the Alabama was put to sea, the Union government learned of its construction, but the protestations of the US ambassador did not prevent it from sailing from Liverpool. After leaving British waters disguised as a merchant ship, the Alabama was outfitted as a combatant by supply ships and placed in commission on August 24, 1862. The CSS Alabama was captained by Raphael Semmes of Mobile, Alabama, who as commander of the Confederate raider Sumter had captured 17 Union merchant ships earlier in the war. The warship was manned by an international crew--about half Southerners, half Englishmen--and rounded out by a handful of other Europeans and even a few Northerners. Leaving sunk and burned US merchant ships in its wake, the Alabama cruised the North Atlantic and West Indies, rounded Africa, and visited the East Indies before redoubling the Cape of Good Hope back to Europe.
By the time the Alabama docked at Cherbourg for a badly needed overhaul on June 11, 1864, it had inflicted immense damage on the seaborne trade of the United States, destroying 60-odd US merchant ships during its two-year rampage. The USS Kearsarge, a steam-sloop that had been pursuing the Alabama, learned of its presence at Cherbourg and promptly steamed to the French port. On June 14, the Kearsarge arrived and took up a patrol just outside the harbor. After being fitted and stocked over five more days, the Alabama steamed out to meet its foe on 19 June. A French ironclad lurked nearby to ensure that the combat remained in international waters. After an initial exchange of gunfire, the battle quickly turned against the Alabama, whose deteriorated gunpowder and shells failed to penetrate the Kearsarge's chain-cable armor. Within an hour, the Alabama was reduced to a sinking wreck. Captain Semmes tried to retreat back to Cherbourg, but his way was blocked by the Kearsarge, and he was forced to strike his colors. The crew abandoned ship, and the Alabama went down into the Channel. The survivors were rescued by the Kearsarge and the British yacht Deerhound, which had been observing the battle. Those picked up by the latter, including Semmes and most of his officers, were taken to England and thus escaped arrest. After traveling to Switzerland for a much-needed rest, Semmes returned to the Confederacy via Mexico. Appointed a rear admiral, he helped command the Confederate Navy in Virginia's James River. After the defeat of the Confederacy in 1865, he returned to Mobile to practice law and write about his war experiences. After years of US protests, the British finally agreed in 1871 to take responsibility for the damages caused by British-built Confederate raiders. In 1872, an international arbitration panel ordered Britain to pay the United States $15.5 million in damages, of which more than $6'000'000 was inflicted by the Alabama.
|1863 Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana continues.
1863 Siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi continues.
1862 Lincoln signs a law prohibiting slavery in the Western territories.
1842 Los restos del Cid y de su esposa Jimena son trasladados desde el monasterio de San Pedro de Cardeña a la Casa Consistorial de Burgos.
1812 El Papa Pío VII, prisionero de Napoleón Bonaparte, es encerrado en el castillo de Fontainebleau.
1808 Se inicia la Batalla de Bailén, conflicto bélico en el que el ejército francés es derrotado por las fuerzas españolas durante la Guerra de Independencia de España.
1790 Revolución francesa. Se decreta la abolición de la nobleza, órdenes militares, libreas, escudos y toda clase de distinciones entre los franceses.
1631 Traité de Cherasco entre la France, l'empereur et le duc de Savoie. Le duc de Nevers prend possession du Montferrat et de Mantoue.
1586 English colonists sail away from Roanoke Island, N.C., after failing to establish England's first permanent settlement in America.
1299 Traité de Montreuil par lequel Philippe IV le Bel rend au roi d'Angleterre Edouard Ier la Guyenne mais conserve la ville de Bordeaux. Pour sceller leur accord, il lui offre d'épouser sa soeur Marguerite et promet le mariage de sa fille Isabelle de France avec celui qui deviendra le futur roi Edouard II.
0325 The month-long Council of Nicaea closes. Known as the first ecumenical council in the history of the Church, it formulated the Nicene Creed and established the method for calculating Easter.
--240 -BC Eratosthenes estimates circumference of Earth.
Deaths which occurred on a June 19:
2003 Avner Mordechai, 63, and a suicide bomber of Islamic Jihad, whom Mordechai, in the grocery of which he is the owner, approaches at 06:05 (03:05 UT), in moshav Sdei Trumot, near Beit She'an, Israel. The terrorist was probably waiting to attack a nearby bus stop when enough people would be gathered there. Mordechai had immigrated to Israel from Kurdistan in the 1950s. He leaves a widow, Shifra Mordechai, six children, and several grandchildren.
2003 A US Army medic, at noon in the southwest Baghdad neighborhood al-Dora, by a rocket propelled grenade hitting the ambulance transporting a wounded US soldier, who is not hurt further. But two other medics are wounded.
2002 Mazen Ismail, 3 other Palestinians, and Israeli Maj. Shlomi Cohen, 26, of Rehovot and St.-Sgt. Yosef Talbi, 20, of Yehud, in an evenirg gunbattle in Qalqilyah, West Bank, when Israeli troops search the home of Ismail, head of Palestinian Authority military intelligence in Qalqiyah.
2002 Gila Sara Kessler, 19, from Eli; Hadassa Yungreis, 20, from Migdal Ha'emek; Shmuel Yerushalmi, 17, from Shilo; Michal Franklin, 22, from Jerusalem; Noa Alon, 60, from Ofra, and her granddaughter Gal Eizenman, 5, from Ma'aleh Adumim; and a suicide bomber from Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades, at 19:10 next to a hitchhiking post at the French Hill intersection in Jerusalem. Some 40 persons, including babies, are injured; one of them dies the next day. The bomber arrived in a car, got out, sprinted toward the hitchhiking post pursued by two Israeli Border Police officers, and blew himself up.
2001 Ivgenia Dorfman, 15, of Bat Yam, Israel, becomes the 21st casualty of the 01 June 2001 suicide bombing at the Tel Aviv Dolphinarium, from head injuries, at Ichilov Hospital.
2001 Juan Raul Garza, 44, by lethal injection at the US federal penintentiary in Terre Haute, Indiana, for killing one man and ordering the deaths of two others as part of a marijuana smuggling ring he operated from Brownsville, Texas, for which he had been sentenced to death in August 1993.
1994 Lauro Olmo, dramaturgo español.
1993 William Golding, escritor británico, Premio Nobel 1983.
1982 John Cheever, escritor estadounidense.
1938 Luis González Obregón, historiador mexicano.
1932 Some 200 by hailstones in Hunan Province, China.
1928 Maria Katarina Wiik, Helsinki painter born on 02 (03?) August 1853. MORE ON WIIK AT ART 4 JUNE — Hilda Wiik (Fröken Hilda Wiik) — Out in the World (Ut i världen) — Portrait of the Artist´s sister Miss Hilda Wiik (Porträtt av Hilda Wiik) — In the Atelier (I ateljén) — Farewell, study for The Obstacle (Avskedet, skiss till målningen Hindret) — Hilja Tukiainen
1902 Federico Augusto, rey de Sajonia.
1884 Ludwig Adrian Richter, Dresden German painter, printmaker, and illustrator, born on 28 September 1803.
1871 Johann Fischbach, Austrian artist born on 05 April 1797.
1867 Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian of Austria, Emperor of Mexico, and his two leading generals Miramón and Mejía, by firing squad
In 1861, after establishing his liberal Mexican government, Benito Juarez had become president of a country in financial ruin, and was forced to default on his debts to European governments. In response, France, Britain, and Spain sent naval forces to Veracruz to demand reimbursement. Britain and Spain negotiated with Mexico and withdrew, but France under Napoléon III decided to use the opportunity to make a dependent empire out of Mexican territory.
Late in 1861, a well-armed French fleet stormed Veracruz, landing a large force and driving President Juarez and his government into retreat. Certain that French victory would come swiftly in Mexico, 6000 French troops under General Charles Latrille de Lorencez set out to attack Puebla de Los Angeles, a small city in east central Mexico. From his new headquarters in the north, Juarez rounded up a rag-tag force of loyal men and sent them to Puebla. Led by Texas-born General Zaragoza, the 2000 Mexicans fortified the town and prepared for the French assault. On the fifth of May, 1862, Lorencez drew his army, well-provisioned and supported by heavy artillery, before the city of Puebla and began their assault from the north. The battle lasted from daybreak to early evening, and when the French finally retreated they had lost nearly 500 soldiers to the less than 100 Mexicans killed.
Although not a major strategic victory in the overall war against the French, Zaragoza's victory at Puebla represented a great moral victory for the Mexican government, and symbolized the country's ability to defend its sovereignty against threat by a powerful foreign nation. The French went on to conquer Mexico City and installed Ferdinand Maximilian as Emperor.
Six years later, under pressure from the newly reUnited States, France withdrew. Abandoned in Mexico, Emperor Maximilian was captured by Juarez's forces, and on 19 June, executed by order of Benito Juarez. This same year Manet made a painting of the event. [click on image above to see full painting].
|1839 Joseph Paelinck, Flemish painter born on 20 March
ON PAELINCK AT ART 4 JUNE
I, King of the Netherlands — The
Fair Anthia Leading her Companions to the Temple of Diana in Ephesus
1805 Louis-Jean-François Lagrenée, French painter born on 21 January 1725. MORE ON LAGRENÉE AT ART 4 JUNE Horatius after Striking his Sister Mars & Venus, an Allegory of Peace
| Births which occurred
on a June 19:
2001 Two Hundred Years Together, 1795-1995, about the relations of Russians and Jews, by Russia's Nobel laureate author and historian Alexander Solzhenitsyn, goes on sale in Moscow.
1935 Rodrigo Borja Cevallos, político ecuatoriano.
1922 Aage Niels Bohr Denmark, physicist/study atomic nucleus (Nobel 1975)
1910 Abe Fortas (US Supreme Court Justice). He died on 6 April 1982.
1909 Tsushima Shuji Osamu Dazai Japan, novelist. Author of Bannen (1936; "The Twilight Years", short stories), Otogi zoshi (1945; "Fairy Tales", new versions of traditional tales), Tsugaru (1944), Shayo (1947; The Setting Sun), Biyon no Tsuma (1947; Villon's Wife), Ningen Shikkaku (1948; No Longer Human). He committed suicide on 13 June 1948, leaving uncompleted a novel entitled Goodbye. .
1903 Henry Louis Gehrig first baseman (NY Yankees) "Iron Horse" (Baseball Hall of Famer: NY Yankees: 7 World Series; his uniform was the first to be retired)
1902 Wallace John Eckert, US astronomer who died on 24 August 1971.
1897 Moe Howard comedian (3 Stooges)
1896 Mrs Simpson [Bessie Wallis Warfield), Duchess of Windsor, divorcee
1889 Enrico Celio pres of Switzerland
1881 Jimmy Walker (politician)
1878 James M Kilroe, priest of St Mary Star of the Sea, in the Bronx
1872 Charles D. Ward, British artist.
1861 José Rizal, escritor y político, caudillo destacado de la independencia filipina.
1856 Elbert Hubbard US, editor/publisher/author, founder of the Roycrofters. He and his wife died in 1915 in the sinking of the Lusitania.. HUBBARD ONLINE: A Message to Garcia
1854 Jacob Simon Hendrik Kever, Dutch artist who died in 1922.
1838 Charles Joseph Staniland, British artist who died in 1916.
1824 Adolf Stademann, Munich German artist who died on 30 October 1895. — A winter's day in the village (20x30cm; 367x529pix, gif 90kb) _ a snowy landscape of a country village with thached roof houses and a church in the background. — Wintervergnügen
1815 Cornelius David Krieghoff, Dutch Canadian painter who died on 08 (04?) March 1872. MORE ON KRIEGHOFF AT ART 4 JUNE — LINKS — Tête d'habitant — The Game of Cards _ detail — Game of Cards, Playing for Apple _ detail — No Money, No Water _ detail — Après le bal chez Jolifou — Bilking the Toll _ detail — Tracking the Moose on the Lake Famine, South of Quebec _ detail — Death of the Moose, South of Quebec _ detail — Habitant in Winter _ detail — Chief Tanaghte, Delegate to Lord Elgin of Montreal — The Basket Seller — Ships on the North Coast of Holland _ detail — Quebec Farm _ detail — Falls of the Little Shawinigan _ detail — Winter Landscape, Laval
1783 Thomas Sully, in England, US portrait painter (Queen Victoria). He died in 1782 in Philadelphia. — Andrew Jackson Patrick Henry Boy in a Torn Hat
1771 Joseph Diaz Gergonne, French mathematician who died on 04 May 1859. From 1810 to 1831 he published the journal Annales de mathématique pures et appliquées commonly known as Annales de Gergonne. His name is also attached to Gergonne's theorem [diagram >].
1764 José Gervasio Artigas general/father of Uruguay José Gervasio Artigas, caudillo independentista y creador de la Provincia Oriental, base del actual Uruguay.
1757 Gervasio Antonio de Posadas, primer jefe supremo de las Provincias Unidas del Río de la Plata.
1705 José Galván, Spanish artist who died on 21 February 1766.
1669 Leonty Filippovich Magnitsky, Russian mathematician who died on 30 October 1739, professor since 1702 and director since 1715 of the Navigation School in Moscow, founded by Peter the Great in 1701. Author of Arithmetic (1703), Tables for Navigation (1722).
1640 Johann Heiß, Schwabian artist of the Baroque Era who died in 1704.