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Events, deaths, births, of JUN 22
[For events of Jun 22  Julian go to Gregorian date: 1583~1699: Jul 021700s: Jul 031800s: Jul 041900~2099: Jul 05]
• Hitler invades USSR... • Appel du général de Gaulle... • Angolan cease fire... • Santa Anna dies... • Napoléon's final abdication... • Louis XVI arrêté à Varennes... • Galilée condamné par l'Inquisition... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • Bataille de Morat... • Rough Riders land in Cuba... • Continental paper money...
On a 22 June:
2000 Independent Counsel Robert Ray ended his investigation of the 1993 firings in the White House travel office, issuing no indictments but saying he'd found "substantial evidence" that First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton played a role in the dismissals. "
1998 Online Privacy Alliance founded
      Newspapers report that some fifty large online retailers have banded together to form the Online Privacy Alliance. The group hoped to convince the government that online merchants could protect consumer privacy without government interference. The new association failed to say how the group would discipline members that did not adhere to its privacy principles.
1996 At their first summit in six years, Arab leaders meeting in Cairo, Egypt, urge Israel to prove its commitment to peace by resuming negotiations without delay.
1994 Rusia firma su adhesión a la Asociación para la Paz de la OTAN, como miembro número 21.
1992 El presidente de España, Felipe González designa a Javier Solana ministro de Asuntos Exteriores y a Alfredo Pérez Rubalcaba ministro de Educación.
1990 Desmantelado el Checkpoint Charlie, el más conocido punto de cruce en el Muro de Berlín.
1991 Underwater volcano, Mount Didicas, erupts in Philippines
1990 Florida passes a law prohibits wearing nothing more than a thong bathing suit.
1989 Cease-fire established in Angolan civil war       ^top^
      After nearly 15 years of civil war, opposing factions in Angola agree to a cease-fire to end a conflict that had claimed hundreds of thousands of lives. The cease-fire also helped to defuse US-Soviet tensions concerning Angola. Angola was a former Portuguese colony that had attained independence in 1975. Even before that date, however, various factions had been jockeying for power. The two most important were the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), which was favored by the United States, and the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), which was supported by the Soviets. Once independence became a reality in November 1975, the two groups began a brutal contest for control, with the Soviet-supported MPLA eventually seizing control of the nation's capital. UNITA found support from Zaire and South Africa in the form of funds, weapons, and, in the case of South Africa, troops. The United States provided covert financial and arms support to both Zaire and South Africa to assist those nations' efforts in Angola. The Soviets responded with increasingly heavy support to the MPLA, and Cuba began to airlift troops in to help fight against UNITA. The African nation quickly became a Cold War hotspot. President Ronald Reagan began direct US support of UNITA during his term in office in the 1980s. Angola suffered through a debilitating civil war, with thousands of people killed. Hundreds of thousands more became refugees from the increasingly savage conflict. In 1988, Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev set into motion a series of events that would lead to a cease-fire the following year. Gorbachev was desperately seeking to better Soviet relations with the United States and he was facing a Soviet economy that could no longer sustain the expenses of supporting far-flung "wars of national liberation" like in Angola. He therefore announced that the Soviet Union was cutting its aid to both the MPLA and Cuba. Cuba, which depended on the Soviet subsidy to maintain its troops in Angola, made the decision to withdraw, and its forces began to depart in early 1989. South Africa thereupon suspended its aid to UNITA. The United States continued its aid to UNITA, but at a much smaller level. UNITA and the MPLA, exhausted from nearly 15 years of conflict, agreed to talks in 1989. These resulted in a cease-fire in June of that year. It was a short-lived respite. In 1992, national elections resulted in an overwhelming victory for the MPLA, and UNITA went back on the warpath.
1986 El PSOE obtiene, por segunda vez consecutiva, la mayoría absoluta en las elecciones legislativas y también consigue la mayoría en las autonómicas de Andalucía.
1981 Mark David Chapman pleaded guilty to killing rock star John Lennon.
1981 El Congreso español aprueba la ley del divorcio.
1977 Former AG John Mitchell starts 19 months in Alabama prison
1972 New troops sent to An Loc       ^top^
      South Vietnam's 21st Division, decimated by repeated attempts to relieve An Loc, is replaced by the 25th Division. At the same time, US helicopters flew 18th Division troops to positions south of An Loc to replace badly battered 9th Division troops that had also been trying to get to the city. The 21st Division and attached units had been trying to reach the besieged city since April 9, when the group had been moved from its normal station in the Mekong Delta and ordered to attack up Highway 13 from Lai Khe to open the route to An Loc. The South Vietnamese forces had been locked in a desperate battle with a North Vietnamese division blocking the highway since the very beginning of the siege. As the 21st Division tried to open the road, the defenders inside An Loc fought off repeated attacks by two North Vietnamese divisions that had surrounded the city early in April. This was the southernmost thrust of the North Vietnamese invasion that had begun on March 30; the other main objectives were Quang Tri in the north and Kontum in the Central Highlands. The arrival of the fresh South Vietnamese soldiers would eventually result in the lifting of the siege at An Loc. The 18th Division troops successfully attacked the North Vietnamese forces surrounding the city and most of the communist troops within An Loc had been eliminated by the end of the month. The 25th Division was less successful and the North Vietnamese forces continued to block Route 13 south of the city.
1971 South Vietnamese fight for Fire Base Fuller       ^top^
      In a major engagement near the Demilitarized Zone, some 1500 North Vietnamese attack the 500-man South Vietnamese garrison at Fire Base Fuller. Despite US B-52 raids dropping 60 tons of bombs on 21 June and a 1000-man reinforcement on 24 June, the South Vietnamese had to abandon the base since a North Vietnamese bombardment had destroyed 80 percent of their bunkers. In an attempt to clear the surrounding area of enemy mortar and rocket sites, South Vietnamese forces swept the region on 25 June. On 28 June, a Saigon spokesman announced that 120 South Vietnamese had reoccupied Fire Base Fuller, but would not rebuild the fortifications. Casualty figures were reported at nearly 500 North Vietnamese dead, with 135 wounded. On 01 July, fighting again flared up around the base, as 300 communists were pushed back with the help of US and South Vietnamese air power and with 150 additional South Vietnamese troops.
1970 President Nixon signs 26th amendment (voting age lowered to 18)
1965 Guerra de Vietnam: primer ataque aéreo estadounidense al norte de Hanoi.
1961 En el Congo, el general Mobutu libera a Moshé Tshombe, que se compromete a poner fin a la secesión de Katanga.
1954 Congress passes revised organic act for Virgin Islands.
1952 Entra en vigor en Polonia una nueva Constitución, estalinista, según la cual se sustituye el oficio del presidente por el Consejo del Estado y el estado recibe el nuevo nombre de República Popular Polaca.
1944 Ofensiva soviética contra los ejércitos alemanes del Centro.
1944 FDR signs "GI Bill of Rights" (Servicemen's Readjustment Act)
1943 La aviación aliada bombardea Rotterdam (Holanda).
1941 Alors que les armées d'Hitler envahissent l'URSS, Pierre Laval, du gouvernement de Vichy, déclare: "Je souhaite la victoire de l'Allemagne parce que, sans elle, le bolchevisme demain s'installerait partout ".
1941 Germany invades the USSR       ^top^
      Operation Barbarossa begins with over 3 million German troops invading Russia in three parallel offensives, in what is the most powerful invasion force in history. Nineteen panzer divisions, 3000 tanks, 2500 aircraft, and 7000 artillery pieces pour across a 1600-km front as Hitler goes to war on a second front. Despite the fact that Germany and Russia had signed a "pact" in 1939, each guaranteeing the other a specific region of influence without interference from the other, suspicion remained high. When the Soviet Union invaded Rumania in 1940, Hitler saw a threat to his Balkan oil supply. He immediately responded by moving two armored and 10 infantry divisions into Poland, posing a counterthreat to Russia.
      But what began as a defensive move turned into a plan for a German first-strike. Despite warnings from his advisers that Germany could not fight the war on two fronts (as Germany's experience in World War I proved), Hitler became convinced that England was holding out against German assaults, refusing to surrender, because it had struck a secret deal with Russia. Fearing he would be "strangled" from the East and the West, he created, in December 1940, "Directive No. 21: Case Barbarossa"--the plan to invade and occupy the very nation he had actually asked to join the Axis only a month before! On 22 June, 1941, having postponed the invasion of Russia after Italy's attack on Greece forced Hitler to bail out his struggling ally in order to keep the Allies from gaining a foothold in the Balkans, three German army groups struck Russia hard by surprise.
      The Russian army was larger than German intelligence had anticipated, but they were demobilized. Stalin, unwisely believing that Hitler would never open another front until Britain was subdued, had shrugged off warnings from his own advisers, even Winston Churchill himself, that a German attack was imminent. (Although Hitler had signaled his territorial designs on Russia as early as 1925--in his autobiography, Mein Kampf.)
      By the end of the first day of the invasion, the German air force had destroyed more than 1000 Soviet aircraft. And despite the toughness of the Russian troops, and the number of tanks and other armaments at their disposal, the Red Army was disorganized, enabling the Germans to penetrate up to 500 km into Russian territory within the next few days.
      Aided by its greatly superior air force, the German Wehrmacht raced across the Russian plains, inflicting terrible casualties on the Red Army and the Soviet population. Aided by their Rumanian, Finnish, Hungarian, and Italian allies, the Germans conquered vast territory, and by mid-October, the great Russian cities of Leningrad and Moscow were under siege. However, like other great military leaders before him, Hitler failed to take into account the Russian people’s historic ability to resist the invader. Although millions of Soviet soldiers and citizens perished by the year’s end, and to the rest of the world it seemed certain that the USS.R would fall, the defiant Red Army and bitter Russian populace were steadily crushing Hitler’s hopes for a quick victory.
      The German offensive against Moscow stalled only thirty kilometers from the Kremlin, Leningrad’s spirit of resistance remained unbroken, and Soviet industry--transported by train to the safety of the east--was carrying on oblivious of the war. Finally, what the Russians call “General Winter” rallied again to their cause, crippling the Germans’ ability to maneuver and decimating the ranks of the divisions ordered to hold their positions until the next summer offensive.
      Hitler failed to learn a lesson from history. Exactly 129 years and one day before Operation Barbarossa, another "dictator" invaded Russia--making it all the way to the capital. But despite this early success, Napoléon would be beaten back to France--by Russian troops.
      Les troupes allemandes pénétrent en Union soviétique sur un ordre de Hitler. Cette attaque surprise, dénommée «Barbarossa», survient juste un an après l'armistice entre la France et l'Allemagne. Désarçonné par la perfidie de son ancien allié, Staline sombre dans une dépression profonde. Le dictateur soviétique reste cloîtré dans sa datcha pendant plusieurs jours. Pendant ce temps, la Wehrmacht remporte des succès spectaculaires face à une Armée rouge démoralisée et décapitée par les purges staliniennes. Avec 3 millions d'hommes, 3.600 chars et 4.200 avions lancés vers l'est, les envahisseurs prennent Kiev sans coup férir et entament le siège de Léningrad (aujourd'hui Saint-Pétersbourg). Celui-ci durera 900 jours. Sur le terrain, la guerre se fait impitoyable. Les nazis maltraitent les prisonniers, multiplient les exécutions sommaires et, surtout, entament l'extermination des juifs. Mais la Wehrmacht est arrêtée par l'hiver avant d'avoir eu le temps d'atteindre Moscou. Pour la première fois depuis le début de la guerre, elle va céder du terrain devant l'ennemi. Dans le même temps, les Etats-Unis vont entrer dans le conflit suite à l'attaque japonaise sur Pearl Harbor. Ce sera le tournant de la deuxième guerre mondiale.
1941 Moscou tombe Hitler Le fürher a vu trop grand : abattre l’empire soviétique. C’est le principal objectif du dictateur depuis deux ans. Il s’y préparait depuis six ans, avant même le déclenchement de la guerre. Staline, qui était au pouvoir de la principale puissance communiste dans le monde, ne l’ignorait pas et s’y préparait lui aussi. Le pacte qu’il signa quelques mois auparavant avec Hitler n’avait pour objectif que de gagner du temps. Lorsque ce 22 juin 1941, le fürher décida d’attaquer l’URSS, c’est tout le pays qui l’attendait. Hitler fit pourtant les choses en grand : il déploya ses troupes sur un front de 4500 km. Cela permit aux militaires nazis d’entrer profondément en territoire soviétique et de s’y installer. Ils prennent Kiev et encerclent Leningrad. Et rien ne semble les arrêter : à Briansk et à Viazma, la Wehrmacht (l’armée allemande) avait vaincu neuf armées soviétiques et fait 673'000 prisonniers. En octobre 1941, elle s’approche dangereusement de Moscou et n’est plus qu’à une trentaine de kilomètres du Kremlin. Hitler va-t-il s’emparer de l’URSS ? La bataille de Moscou s’engage. Violente. Incertaine. Décisive. Hitler met tout son poids dans la bataille. Un allié d’envergure se présente alors aux Soviétiques : l’hiver, précoce cette année-là. Les chutes de neige, le sol impraticable et le froid empêchent la Wehrmacht de progresser sur un terrain transformé en marécage. L’infanterie sibérienne oppose une résistance farouche. L’armée allemande recule. C’est le moment que choisit le général Joukov pour organiser la défense de Moscou assiégée. Les choses s’inversent : les nazis en sont réduits à organiser seulement leur défense et renoncent à attaquer. Ils reculeront petit à petit, et rappelleront au monde cette autre retraite militaire d’une armée historique : celle de la Grande Armée de Napoléon, lui aussi vaincu par l’hiver Moscou. Hitler venait de subir sa première grande défaite. Le mythe du monstre tombait. Mais l’URSS a payé un prix élevé dans sa guerre contre le nazisme : 20 millions de morts.
1941 Using the opportunity of Hitler's invasion of the USSR, Finland starts to retake Karelia (which the Soviet Union had taken from it at the conclusion of the Winter War of 1939-1940)
1940 France falls to Nazi Germany; armistice signed, France disarmed — Signature de l'armistice entre la France et l'Allemagne à Rethondes par général Huntziger pour la France et le général Keitel pour le Reich. Hitler a voulu que cette cérémonie se passe dans le wagon-salon où, à Rethondes, Foch a signé avec l'allemand Erzberger le 11 novembre 1918, pour effacer cette humiliation. La France est divisée entre une zone occupée et une zone libre. Elle doit, en outre, payer 400 millions de francs par jour pour l'entretien des troupes d'occupation.

Appel du Général de Gaulle lancé à la radio de Londres le 22 juin 1940       ^top^

     Le gouvernement français, après avoir demandé l'armistice, connaît maintenant les conditions fixées par l'ennemi.
      Il résulte de ces conditions que les forces Françaises de terre de mer et de l'air seraient entièrement démobilisées , que nos armes seraient livrées, que le territoire français serait totalement occupé et que le gouvernement français tomberait sous la dépendance de l'Allemagne et de l'Italie.
      On peut donc dire que cette armistice serait non seulement une capitulation mais encore un asservissement.
      Or, beaucoup de français n'acceptent pas la capitulation ni la servitude pour des raisons qui s'appellent l'honneur, le bon sens, l'intérêt supérieur de la patrie.

      Je dis l'honneur, car la France s'est engagée a ne déposer les armes que d'accord avec ses alliés.
      Tant que ses alliés continuent la guerre, son gouvernement n'a pas le droit de se rendre à l'ennemi .
      Le gouvernement polonais, le gouvernement norvégien, le gouvernement hollandais, le gouvernement belge, le gouvernement luxembourgeois quoique chassés de leur territoire ont compris ainsi leur devoir .

      Je dis le bon sens, car il est absurde de considérer la lutte comme perdue.
      Oui, nous avons subi une grande défaite, un système militaire mauvais, les fautes commises dans la conduite des opérations, l'esprit d'abandon du gouvernement pendant ces derniers combats nous ont fait perdre la bataille de France, mais il nous reste un vaste Empire, une flotte intacte, beaucoup d'or, il nous reste des alliés dont les ressources sont immenses et qui dominent les mers, il nous reste les gigantesques possibilités de l'industrie américaine.
      Les mêmes conditions de la guerre qui nous ont fait battre par cinq mille avions et six mille chars, peuvent nous donner demain la victoire par vingt mille chars et vingt mille avions.

      Je dis l'intérêt supérieur de la patrie, car cette guerre n'est pas une guerre franco-allemande qu'une bataille puisse décider, cette guerre est une guerre mondiale.
      Nul ne peut prévoir si les peuples qui sont neutres aujourd'hui le resteront demain.
      Même les alliés de l'Allemagne, resteront ils toujours ses alliés ?
      Si les forces de la liberté triomphent finalement de celles de la servitude, quel serait le destin d'une France qui se serait soumise à l'ennemi ?

      L'honneur, le bon sens, l'intérêt supérieur de la patrie, commandent à tous les français libres, de continuer le combat, là où ils seront et comme ils le pourront.
      Il est par conséquent nécessaire de grouper partout où cela se peut, une force française aussi grande que possible, tout ce qui peut être réuni, français, d'éléments militaires français et de capacité militaire française de production d'armement doit être organisé, partout où il y en a.
      Moi, général de Gaulle, j'entreprend, ici, en Angleterre, cette tache nationale.
J'invite tous les militaires français des armées de terre, de mer et de l'air.
      J'invite les ingénieurs et les ouvriers français spécialistes de l'armement, qui se trouvent en territoire britannique, ou qui pourraient y parvenir, a se réunir à moi .
      J'invite les chefs, les soldats, les marins, les aviateurs des forces françaises de terre, de mer, de l'air, où qu'ils se trouvent actuellement, à se mettre en rapport avec moi.
      J'invite tous les français qui veulent rester libres à m'écouter et à me suivre.

Vive la France libre dans l'honneur et dans l'indépendance.

1936 Virgin Islands receives a constitution from US (Organic Act)
1934 Estados Unidos ingresa en la Organización Internacional del Trabajo.
1925 Acuerdo franco-español para una ofensiva común en Marruecos.
1918 I Guerra Mundial: la ofensiva alemana es detenida a 70 kilómetros de París por el general Mangin.
1912 Theodore Roosevelt and his supporters secede from the Republican Party, to form that will be the Progressive Party, thus ensuring the election, in November, of a Democrat, Woodrow Wilson..
1911 King George V of England crowned in Westminster.
1910 1st airship with passengers sets afloat—Zeppelin Deutschland
1898 Rough Riders land at Daiquiri       ^top^
      During the Spanish-American War, the US invasion of Cuba got underway with a preparatory shelling of the Cuban coast at Daiquiri by six US warships. Less than an hour later, a troop of Cuban rebels rode out onto the beach and signaled to the Americans that the Spanish had retreated. By the evening, some 6000 US troops were ashore, including the “Rough Riders,” a volunteer cavalry regiment under the command of Col. Leonard Wood and Lt. Col. Theodore Roosevelt.
      Spain's brutal response to the Cuban rebellion against Spanish rule, the mysterious explosion of the US battleship Maine in Havana harbor, and the heavy losses to American investment caused by the Cuban conflict, were all factors that intensified US feeling against Spain. In late April, the US Congress prepared for war, adopting joint congressional resolutions demanding a Spanish withdrawal from Cuba and authorizing President McKinley to use force.
      On 23 April President McKinley asked for 125'000 volunteers to fight against Spain, and the next day, Spain issued a declaration of war. One week later, the US Navy under Admiral George Dewey won a decisive victory over the Spanish fleet at Manila Bay in the Philippines, and, on 11 June, six hundred US Marines landed at Guantanamo, Cuba, followed by a larger landing at Daiquiri on 22 June.
      In Cuba, US forces triumphed at the battles of El Caney and San Juan Heights, and on July 3, the remaining Spanish fleet was destroyed near Santiago de Cuba. On 17 July, nearly 25'000 Spanish soldiers surrendered at Santiago de Cuba, and the war effectively came to an end. An armistice was signed on 12 August, and representatives were sent to Paris, France, to arrange peace.
      On 10 December the Treaty of Paris was signed, officially ending the Spanish-American War, virtually dissolving the once-proud Spanish Empire, and granting the United States its first overseas empire. Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines were ceded to the United States, and Cuba became a US protectorate. Hawaii, an independent republic run by American expatriates since 1894, was also formally annexed during the Spanish-American War.
1874 Dr. Andrew T. Sill, of Macon, Missouri, founds “science” of osteopathy.
1873 Prince Edward Island joins Canada.
1870 US Congress creates Department of Justice.
1868 Arkansas re-enters US
1866 Alzamientos de militares y paisanos en Madrid contra el Gobierno de Isabel II presidido por O'Donnell, pronto sofocado por éste.
1864 Skirmish at Ream's Station, Virginia on Wilson's Raid
1864 Battle of Jerusalem Plank Road begins in Virginia
1864 Battle of Kolb's Farm (Culp's Farm), Georgia.
1864 Lee strikes back at Petersburg       ^top^
      Union forces attempt to capture a railroad that had been supplying Petersburg from the south and extend their lines to the Appomattox River. The Confederates thwarted the attempt, and the two sides settled into trenches for a nine-month siege. The struggle for Petersburg began on June 15. Union General Ulysses S. Grant spent six weeks fighting his way around Richmond. His adversary, General Robert E. Lee, commander of the Army of Northern Virginia, had inflicted tremendous casualties on the Army of the Potomac. Most recently, at Cold Harbor, Grant ordered a disastrous attack on Rebel entrenchments and lost 7,000 men. Afterward, Grant swung south to capture the rail center of Petersburg, 23 miles from Richmond. When the troops arrived, they found the Confederates already digging trenches. For four days, Grant tried to break through the lines. On June 18, Union losses were particularly heavy. After pausing to reconsider his tactics, Grant refrained from further frontal assaults. Instead, Grant resumed the flanking movements he had followed throughout the campaign. He extended his left flank on June 21 to cut off the Weldon Railroad, which supplied Petersburg from the south. Part of the Union Second and Sixth Corps moved past the Jerusalem Plank Road, where they ran into Ambrose Powell Hill's Confederates. Hill's troops rolled up on the Union flank, inflicting nearly 3,000 casualties and capturing 1,700 prisoners. Hill provided breathing room for Lee's army, and the armies settled in for a long siege.
1863 Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana continues
1863 Siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi continues
1848 Barnburners (anti-slavery) party nominates Martin Van Buren for President
1847 Doughnut created
1815 Napoléon’s final abdication       ^top^
      Following his crushing defeat at the Battle of Waterloo four days before, Napoléon Bonaparte abdicates as emperor of France for the second and final time, he says: "Je m'offre en sacrifice à la haine des ennemis de la France. Puissent-ils être sincères dans leurs déclarations et n'en avoir jamais voulu qu'à ma personne. Unissez-vous tous pour le salut public et pour rester une nation indépendante. Je proclame mon fils sous le nom de Napoléon II, empereur des Français."
      Two weeks later, the allies would enter Paris, restore Louis XVIII to the throne, and exile Napoléon to the remote island of Saint Helena in the southern Atlantic Ocean.
      The Corsica-born Napoléon, one of the greatest military strategists in history, rapidly rose in the ranks of the French Revolutionary Army during the late 1890s. By 1899, France was at war with most of Europe, and Napoléon returned home from his Egyptian campaign to take over the reigns of French government and to save his nation from collapse.
      After becoming first consul in February of 1800, he reorganized his armies and defeated Austria. In 1802, he established the Napoleonic Code, a new system of French law, and in 1804, was crowned emperor of France in Notre Dame Cathedral. By 1807, he controlled an empire that stretched from the River Elbe in the north down through Italy in the south, and from the Pyrenees to the Dalmation coast.
      Beginning in 1812, Napoléon began to encounter the first significant defeats of his military career, suffering through a disastrous invasion of Russia, losing Spain to the Duke of Wellington in the Peninsula War, and enduring total defeat against an allied force by 1814. Exiled to the island of Elba, he escaped to France in early 1815, and raised a new Grand Army that enjoyed temporary success before its crushing defeat at Waterloo against an allied force under Wellington on June 18, 1815. Napoléon was subsequently exiled to the island of Saint Helena off the coast of Africa. Six years later, on May 5, 1821, he died, most likely of stomach cancer, and in 1840, his body was returned to Paris, where it was interred in the Hotel des Invalides.
1808 Zebulon Pike reaches his peak
1807 British board USS Chesapeake, a provocation leading to War of 1812
1791 Varennes! Stop!       ^top^
      Au matin du 21 juin, la famille royale était montée dans la lourde berline que le comte de Fersen a fait préparer. Le roi voulait rejoindre les armées de Bouillé qui, à Metz, lui sont restées fidèles. D'étape en étape, la berline prend du retard. Au soir, à Sainte-Menehould, la berline s'arrête encore. On change les chevaux. Celui qui veut passer pour un boulanger, accompagnée de sa femme et de ses enfants les mitrons, tend au maître du relais de poste un louis pour payer les chevaux. Jean-Baptiste Drouet s'étonne. Celui qui vient de lui donner cette pièce ressemble extraordinairement au roi Louis XVI qui figure sur le côté face de la pièce. La berline repart vers Metz.
       Drouet part à bride abattue vers Varennes et se précipite chez le procureur-syndic de la commune. Il lui fait part de ses soupçons. Lorsque la berline arrive, la garde nationale barre la route. Le procureur, un certain Sauce, épicier, fait descendre la famille et la fait entrer dans sa boutique. Peu après minuit, le juge Destez que l'on a appelé parce qu'il a vécu à Versailles, reconnaît sans le moindre doute le roi qui est arrêté.
      Malgré l'arrivée, à la tête d'un détachement de cavaliers, du duc de Choiseul qui s'impatientait de ne pas voir arriver la berline, le roi refuse le recours à la force. Il craint que l'un ou l'autre des membres de sa famille ne soit blessé. A 6 heures du matin, des émissaires de l'Assemblée nationale arrivent. A 8 heures, on reprend la route de Paris. La monarchie n'est désormais plus ce qu'elle était.
1775 Continental paper currency issued       ^top^
      In the spring of 1775 colonial leaders, long since tired of the constraining yoke of British rule, led their forces into the battle against the crown. But, the American revolutionaries encountered a small problem on their way to the front: they lacked the funds necessary to wage a prolonged war. And so, on this day in 1775, Congress lends a fiscal hand to the Revolution and authorizes the issue of some $2 million in bills of credit.
      Though hardly the colonies' first dalliance with paper notes--the Massachusetts Bay colony issued its own bills in 1690--the large scale distribution of the Revolutionary currency was fairly new ground for America. Moreover, the bills, known at the time as "Continentals," notably lacked the then de rigeur rendering of the British king; instead, some of the notes featured likenesses of Revolutionary soldiers and the inscription "The United Colonies."
      But, whatever their novelty, the Continentals proved to be a poor economic instrument: backed by nothing more than the promise of "future tax revenues" and prey to rampant inflation, the notes ultimately had little fiscal value. As George Washington noted at the time, "A wagonload of currency will hardly purchase a wagonload of provisions." Thus, the Continental failed and left the young nation saddled with a hefty war debt. Duly frustrated by the experience with Continental Currency, America resisted the urge to issues new paper notes until the dawn of the Civil War.
1772 Slavery outlawed in England
1675 Royal Greenwich Observatory established in England by Charles II.
1633 Condamnation de Galilée par le Tribunal de l’Inquisition       ^top^
     L’astronome et physicien italien Galileo Galilei, dit Galilée, est né à Pise en 1564, et mort en 1642). A l'université de Pise, il étudia la philosophie puis la médecine. A dix-neuf ans, observant les oscillations du lustre de la cathédrale, il découvre que la période des oscillations d'un pendule est indépendante de leur amplitude. A Pise également, du haut de la célèbre tour penchée, il observe le mouvement des corps tombants. Ses observations, confirmées par des expériences de chute ralentie le long d'un plan incliné, le conduisent à énoncer que l'accélération des mouvements de chute est constante.
      Ces découvertes, qui font, à juste titre, considérer Galilée comme le promoteur de la méthode expérimentale en physique et l'un des fondateurs de la dynamique classique, battent en brèche les théories d'Aristote, enseignées par les maîtres de Galilée. En butte aux attaques de ceux-ci, Galilée quitte Pise pour Padoue en 1592, puis se fixe en 1610 à Florence.
      Pendant l'année 1593, il mit au point le premier thermomètre. Avec la lunette qui porte son nom, il découvre les satellites de Jupiter et les phases de Vénus. Ses observations astronomiques le conduisent à admettre, à la suite de Copernic, que la Terre et les autres planètes gravitent autour du Soleil en tournant sur elles-mêmes. Cette conception du monde, considérée à l'époque comme une hérésie, est combattue par l' Inquisition et Galilée est contraint, en 1633, de déclarer solennellement qu'elle est fausse. La nouvelle de cette condamnation arrive en France ce qui convaincra Descartes de ne pas publier le livre qu’il écrivait sur ce sujet!
1611 Henry Hudson & son set adrift in Hudson Bay by mutineers
1559 In England, Queen Elizabeth's Prayer Book is issued. During her 45-year reign, Elizabeth I rejected the Catholic faith, adopting instead the Thirty-Nine Articles of the Anglican Church.
1530 Malta given to the the Knights Of Malta,       ^top^
by the Holy Roman emperor Charles V, together with the Maltese archipelago. The new name of the order replaces their previous name (from 1309) of Order Of The Knights Of Rhodes, island from which Süleyman the Magnificent had driven them on January 1, 1523, after a six-month siege. Their foundation had been recognized on February 15, 1113, byn a papal bull of Paschal II, as Hospitallers Of St. John Of Jerusalem. From 1961 their official name is Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order Of St. John Of Jerusalem, Of Rhodes And Of Malta.
     The Knights ruled Malta until 1798, when Napoleon on his way to Egypt occupied the island. The Order no longer rules any territory, but it issues passports, and its sovereign status is recognized by the Holy See and some other Roman Catholic states. Now headquartered in Rome, and with no military objective, it continues its humanitarian tasks in most parts of the modern world
1529 Real cédula autorizando las obras del Canal Imperial de Aragón.
1476 Bataille de Morat       ^top^
      Le Duc de Bourgogne, Charles le Téméraire, un prince féodal aussi puissant que le roi de France (Louis XI). Charles voulait agrandir ses possessions et y rattacher la Lotharingie (Lorraine) et la Suisse Occidentale (Vaud et Valais), initialement contenue dans la Lorraine. Déjà battu à Granson par les Suisses, en Mars 1476, il subit encore, ce 22 Juin, une sérieuse défaite face aux forces suisses soutenues par les Français de Louis XI, au bord du lac de Morat, canton de Fribourg.
      En Janvier 1477, il sera vaincu une troisième fois par les Suisses et les Lorrains, à Nancy. Son cadavre sera relevé dans la neige, à moitié dévoré par les loups. C’est la fin du rêve des Ducs de Bourgogne de créer un état central entre l’Empire Germanique et la France, qui ressemble plus ou moins à la Francia Mediana (Francie médiane) qui avait été attribuée à Lothaire, lors du Traité de Verdun en 843.
1038 Fernando I es coronado rey de Castilla-León.
0816 Stephen IV begins his reign as Pope
0431 Council of Ephesus (3rd ecumenical council) opens.
Deaths which occurred on a 22 June:
2003 One US soldier after a grenade attack on a military convoy, in Khan Azad, Iraq, 20 km south of Baghdad. The other wounded US soldier survives.
2002 Some 250 persons in earthquake of magnitude 6.3 with epicenter 10 km deep at 35º40'N 48º56' near the town of Bou'in-Zahra in Qazvin province, Iran, at 02:58 UT (07:28 local). Some 1300 are injured. The quake hits the northern, central and western provinces of Gilan, Tehran, Kurdestan, Qazvin, Zanjan and Hamedan and is followed by several aftershocks.
2002 Eppie Lederer, “Ann Landers” advice columnist, of multiple myeloma. Daughter of a Jewish immigrant from Vladivostok, she was born Esther Pauline Friedman on 04 July 1918, 17 minutes before her twin Pauline “Popo” Friedman, who who became Mrs. Phillips and advice columnist “Abigail Van Buren“ “Dear Abby” at the San Francisco Chronicle. Popo was folloying the lead of Eppie who, in 1955 after the death of Ruth Crowler, writer of The Chicago Sun-Times advice column “Ask Ann Landers” had taken her place (in 1987 she switched to the Chicago Tribune). Owning the rights to the name, Ann Landers (Lederer) provided that she would not have a successor.
2001 Two Israeli soldiers and Palestinian suicide bomber Ismail Maoussabie, 27, of the Hamas organization, who had phoned to them for help from his explosive laden car, near the Jewish enclave settlement of Dugit in the northern Gaza Strip.
2001 Michael D. Kelly, 23, hangs himself with a 6-meter noose from a 60-meter construction crane in Atlanta, Georgia, at about 02:50. Kelly, deranged, had been on the crane since before 06:00 on 21 June, observed by police.
2000 Gary Graham, by lethal injection, for the 1981 killing of a man in a holdup outside a Houston supermarket; Graham insists to the end that he is innocent.
1995 Yves Marie-Joseph Congar, cardenal francés.
1974 Darius Milhaud, 81, in Geneva,. a principal French composer of the 20th century known especially for his development of polytonality.
1945 Lieutenant General Mitsuru Ushijima, Japanese commander on Okinawa, with some of his officers and troops, suicide       ^top^
as the US Tenth Army overcomes the last major pockets of Japanese resistance on Okinawa Island, ending one of the bloodiest battles of World War II.
      On 01 April 1945 the Tenth Army under Lt. Gen. Simon Bolivar Buckner Jr. had launched the invasion of Okinawa, a strategic Pacific island located midway between Japan and Formosa. Possession of Okinawa would give the US a base large enough for an invasion of the Japanese home islands. Although there were over 100'000 Japanese defenders on the island, most were deeply entrenched in the island's densely forested interior, and by the evening of 01 April , 60'000 US soldiers had come safely ashore.
      However, on 04 April, Japanese land resistance stiffened and at sea kamikaze pilots escalated their deadly suicide attacks on US vessels. Over the next month, the battle raged on land and sea, with the Japanese troops and flyers making the Americans pay dearly for every strategic area of land and water won. On 18 June, with US victory imminent, General Buckner, 58, the hero of Iwo Jima, was killed by Japanese artillery. Three days later, his Tenth Army reached the southern coast of the island, and on 22 June, Japanese resistance effectively came to an end.
      The Japanese lost 120'000 soldiers in the defense of Okinawa, while the Americans suffered 12'500 dead and 35'000 wounded. Of the thirty-six Allied ships lost, most were destroyed by the 2000 or so Japanese pilots who gave up their lives in kamikaze missions. With the capture of Okinawa, the Allies prepared for the invasion of Japan, a military operation predicted to be far bloodier than the 1944 Allied invasion of Western Europe. The plan called for invading the southern island of Kyushu in November of 1945, and the main Japanese island of Honshu in March of 1946.
1925 Felix Christian Klein, Prussian mathematician born on 22 June 1925. He profoundly influenced mathematical development with the Erlanger Programm, his synthesis of geometry as the study of the properties of a space that are invariant under a given group of transformations.
1917 Kristian Peter Henrik Zahrtmann, Danish painter born on 31 March 1843. — moreOnce upon a time there were a king and a queen
1906 Fritz Shaudinn, Zoólogo y bacteriólogo alemán.
1892 Pierre Ossian Bonnet, French mathematician born on 22 December 1819.
1884 William Henry Haines, British artist born on 25 December 1812.
1876 Antonio López de Santa Anna.       ^top^
      Embittered and impoverished, the once mighty General Santa Anna dies in Mexico City. Born in 1792 at Jalapa, Vera Cruz, Mexico, Santa Anna was the son of middle-class parents. As a teen, he won a commission in the Spanish army and might have been expected to live out an unspectacular career as a middle-level army officer. However, the young Santa Anna quickly distinguished himself as a capable fighter and leader, and after 1821, he gained national prominence in the successful Mexican war for independence from Spain. In 1833, he won election to the presidency of the independent republic of Mexico by an overwhelming popular majority. His dedication to the ideal of a democratic role proved weak, though, and he proclaimed himself dictator in 1835.
      Santa Anna's assumption of dictatorial power over Mexico brought him into direct conflict with a growing movement for independence in the Mexican state of Texas. During the 1820s and 1830s, large numbers of Euro-Americans had settled in the area of Texas, and many of them remained more loyal to the United States than to their distant rulers in Mexico City. Some viewed Santa Anna's overthrow of the Mexican Republic as an opportunity to break away and form an independent Republic of Texas that might one day become an American state. Determined to crush the Texas rebels, Santa Anna took command of the Mexican army that invaded Texas in 1836. His forces successfully defeated the Texas rebels at the Alamo, and he personally ordered the execution of 400 Texan prisoners after the Battle of Goliad. However, these two victories planted the seeds for Santa Anna's defeat. "Remember the Alamo" and "Remember Goliad" became the rallying cries for a reinvigorated Texan army. Lulled into overconfidence by his initial easy victories, Santa Anna was taken by surprise at San Jacinto, and his army was annihilated on 21 April 1836.
      The captured Santa Anna, fearing execution, willingly signed an order calling for all Mexican troops to withdraw. Texas became an independent republic. Deposed during his captivity with the Texan rebels, Santa Anna returned to Mexico a powerless man. During the next two decades, however, the highly unstable political situation in Mexico provided him with several opportunities to regain-and again lose-his dictatorial power. All told, he became the head of the Mexican government 11 times. Overthrown for the last time in 1855, he spent the remaining two decades of his life scheming with elements in Mexico, the United States, and France to stage a comeback. Although he was clearly a brilliant political opportunist, Santa Anna was ultimately loyal only to himself and he had an insatiable lust for power. While Santa Anna played an important role in achieving Mexican independence, his subsequent governments were also at least partially responsible for the loss of the Southwest to the United States. He died in poverty and squalor in Mexico City at the age of 82, no doubt still dreaming of a return to power.
1874 Howard Staunton world chess champion, designer of chess pieces
1865 Ángel de Saavedra Ramírez de Baquedano, duque de Rivas, escritor español.
1850 Vicente López Portaña, pintor español.
1845 Joseph Moessmer, Austrian artist born on 20 March 1780.
1813 Anton Graff “van Dyck of Germany”, Swiss German painter specialized in portraits, born on 18 November 1736. — MORE ON GRAFF AT ART “4” JUNE LINKSSelf-Portrait at the Age of 58The Artist's Family before the Portrait of Johann Georg SulzerLe Comte Christophe UrbanowskiGeorge Leopold de Gogul

Condamnés à mort par la Révolution: ^top^
1794 (04 messidor an II):
ANDRE François Adrien, ex commandant de la gendarmerie nationale, domicilié à Avignon, département du Vaucluse, condamné à mort comme fédéraliste, le 4 Messidor an 2, par la commission populaire, séante à Orange.
Par la commission militaire séante à Bordeaux, domicilié dans le département de la Gironde:
BELCIER François, (sit Crain), ex-noble, domicilié à Bordeaux, condamné à mort comme contre-révolutionnaire le 4 messidor an 2, par la commission militaire séante à Bordeaux.
Par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris:
BLANC Jean, âgé de 46 ans, né à St Afrique, département de l'Aveyron, négocient, y demeurant condamné à mort le 4 messidor an 2, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme convaincu d'avoir pris part à la révolte de Lyon, en fournissant des fonds aux révoltés, en discréditant les assignats, et en cherchant à avilir la représentation nationale.BLANC Jean, marchand quincaillier, domicilié à la Montagne, département de l'Aveyron, condamné à mort comme contre-révolutionnaire le 4 messidor an 2, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris.
CARRA Remy, âgé de 27 ans, né à Chaumont, district de St Etienne, département de Rhône et Loire, maréchal des logis de dragons, condamné à mort, le 4 messidor an 2, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme convaincu d’avoir secondé les projets des révoltés de Lyon.
BOUCHER François, journalier, âgé de 26 ans, né et domicilié à Marres, département de l'Eure, condamné à mort le 4 messidor an 2, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme convaincu de s'être déclaré ennemi du Peuple, en corrompant la dissolution de la Convention.
CALMAR Jean Baptiste, âgé de 29 ans, né à St Bonnet-Château, fabricant et marchand de rubans, domicilié à St Etienne, département de la Loire, condamné à mort comme contre-révolutionnaire le 4 messidor an 2, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris.

1678 Otto Marseus “Snuffelaer” van Schrieck, Dutch painter born in 1619. — MORE ON VAN SCHRIECK AT ART “4” JUNE LINKSStill-Life with Insects and Amphibians _ detailStill-life with Plants and ReptilesSnakes and Butterflies in an UnderbrushSnake, Frog, and Butterflies
1646 Daniel Dumonstier (or du Monstier; Dumontier; Dumoustier; du Moustier), French portrait painter and draftsman baptized as an infant on 11 May 1574. — more
1627 Les comtes de Montmorency-Bouteville et de Chapelles, exécutés en place de Grève.
1535 John Fisher, 66, decapitated
English humanist, martyr, and prelate, who, devoted to the pope and to the Roman Catholic church, resisted King Henry VIII of England by refusing to recognize royal supremacy and the abolition of papal jurisdiction over the English church. Canonized 19 May 19, 1935; feast day 09 July.
1527 Nicolás Maquiavelo, escritor político italiano.
Births which occurred on a 22 June:
1947 Jerry John Rawlings, presidente de Ghana.
1946 Józef Oleksy, político polaco.
1945 Pere Gimferrer, escritor y académico español.
1936 Juan José Alonso Millán, comediógrafo español.
1934 Conception of the “People’s Car”       ^top^
      Ferdinand Porsche contracts with the Automobile Manufacturers Association of Germany (RDA) to build three prototype “people’s cars” over a ten-month period. The contract is a direct result of Hitler’s personal request to Porsche, and the result, of course, was the Volkswagen. But it would take years for Porsche to accomplish his dream of bringing a small, affordable car to the market.
      In 1899, at the age of twenty-four, Ferdinand Porsche had become one of Europe’s most famous automotive engineers with the introduction of his Porsche-Lohner electric car. It was his first offering to the world, and it was characteristically ingenious. Ferdinand Porsche has been called the automotive world’s answer to “the Natural”; his designs have always been incomprehensibly ahead of their times. At a time when all automotive designers focused all their energies on mustering speed, Porsche’s car came with two separate brake systems, one mechanical and one electric, while still supplying competitive speed.
      For the next thirty-five years Porsche would strive, often under the auspices of the company then known as Daimler Motors, to produce the smallest, fastest cars in the world. So recognizable was Porsche’s genius that his quest was sadly hindered by outside interference. Consider that in 1932, while first working on the design for a “Volksauto” for Zundapp Motors in Germany, Porsche was approached by a group of Russian engineers with a remarkable offer. Having studied his work, the Russian engineers had deemed Porsche the greatest automotive engineer and as such offered to take him back to Russia to show him the state of their country’s industry. Porsche didn’t know what they wanted but, flattered by the invitation, he went along. He was received like royalty, an honored guest of the state. The Russians’ offer was inconceivable: they offered him the position of State Designer of Russia, a position in charge of all automobile, tank, and electric vehicle production. Every one of his designs would be realized by the country’s vast sources of material wealth. All he had to do was sign a contract.
      Porsche respectfully declined, but such was his prowess that only two years later Adolf Hitler approached Porsche with the project of designing a people’s car for the State of Germany. Because making a small, affordable car was Porsche’s dream, he jumped at the offer. The Volkswagen prototype was completed in 1936, but war in Europe erupted before production could begin. Porsche was asked to supply tank designs, which he did, creating the “Tiger,” “Ferdinand,” and “Mouse” tanks for the German army. Hitler moved Porsche from Stuttgart to the remote Austrian town of Gmund, to keep him away from Allied bombing.
      At the end of the war the US Army captured Porsche, interrogated him, and released him to his villa in Gmund. French officials later arrested him for his participation in the war cause and Porsche served a two-year sentence at the Renault estate in France. He was finally released in 1947, and he returned to Gmund. There he undertook, with his son Ferry, the project of building a small performance car with his own name. Meanwhile, the Volkswagen had gone into mass production. The first Porsche, the 356, was a convertible sports car version of the Volkswagen with much improved suspension.
1933 Dianne Feinstein (Mayor-D-SF)
1930 Francisco Fernández Ordóñez, político español.
1911 Émile Grau-Sala, Catalan French painter who died on 21 June 1975. FigurasPaddock
1910 Konrad Zuse, German computer pioneer.      ^top^
     He would grow up to be a mathematician and computer pioneer. He built a small electromechanical binary calculator in his parents' living room in 1941. The major difference between Zuse's machine and those developed by US and UK scientists in the 1940s was that Zuse did not use vacuum tubes in his design. The German government ordered several computers from Zuse, but all were destroyed by Allied bombing in 1944. Zuse later claimed that a patent he had filed on his machines predated those of any other computer developer, making him the father of the digital computer.
     Zuse set up his own computing company in 1950 and it was taken over by the Siemens electronics firm in 1967. By 1958 he had reached the Z22 computer, which was one of the first to be designed with transistors. Zuse continued to undertake research on computers and acted as a consultant to Siemens after the firm took over complete control of Zuse's computer company in 1969.
      As well as his hardware developments Zuse was also interested in software and he developed the first algorithmic programming language known as "Plankalkül" in 1945. He used the language to design a chess playing program. Although the language was not widely used it formed the basis for the next generation language ALGOL which became a widely used language world-wide.
      Zuse died on 18 December 1995.
1906 Anne Morrow Lindbergh, writer and pilot, in Englewood, New Jersey, to a well-to-do family..       ^top^
Anne Morrow Lindbergh      Anne attended Smith College, where her writing won several coveted literary awards. While her father was ambassador to Mexico, she met the young hero, Charles Lindbergh, after his 1927 historic transatlantic solo. They married on May 27, 1929. . He taught her to fly and to navigate. The couple flew frequently, and she became the first woman to receive a glider pilot's license. She got her airplane pilot's license in 1931 and published several books about her experiences, including North to the Orient (1935), about the couple's flight over Canada and Alaska to Asia, and Listen! The Wind about their 50'000-km survey of north and south Atlantic air routes.
      The couple's infant son was kidnapped for ransom and murdered in 1932. The tragedy affected the entire nation. She was pregnant again when he was kidnapped. In all, the Lindberghs had six children.
      In 1934, she became the first woman to win the National Geographic Society Hubbard Gold Medal. Her 1944 book, Gift from the Sea, became a bestseller and was reissued in a special anniversary edition 25 years after its publication. Some of her other books are “Bring Me A Unicorn;” “Hour of Gold, Hour of Lead;” “Locked Rooms and Open Doors;” “The Flower and the Nettle.”
1903 John Dillinger, one of America's Most Wanted [shouldn't it be "Most Unwanted"?]
1898 Erich Maria Remarque novelist (All Quiet on the Western Front)
1887 Sir Julian Huxley London, biologist/philosopher, Darwin's Bulldog.
1869 William McGregor Paxton, US artist who died in 1941.
1864 Hermann Minkowski, Lithuania-born German mathematician who died on 12 January 1909. He developed a new view of space and time and laid the mathematical foundation of the theory of relativity.
1861 Conde Von Spee, Maximilian, marino y estratega alemán.
1860 Mario Pieri, Lucca Italian mathematician who died on 01 March 1913.
1858 Giacomo Puccini Italy, operatic composer (Madama Butterfly)
1857 Max Gaisser, German artist who died in 1922.
1856 H Rider Haggard author (King Solomon's Mine, She)
1845 Richard John Seddon, político y abogado británico.
1837 Paul Morphy New Orleans, greatest chess player of his time (1857-1861), some say of all time
1837 Paul Gustav Heinrich Bachmann, German mathematician who died on 31 March 1920. His most important work is a complete survey of number theory giving both the results and an evaluation of the methods of proof: Zahlentheorie. Versuch einer Gesamtdarstellung dieser Wissenschaft in ihren Hauptteilen (5 volumes, 1892-1923). Other major works includeNiedere Zahlentheorie (2 volumes, 1902, 1910), Das Fermat-Problem in seiner bisherigan Entwicklung (1919).
1805 Giuseppe Mazzani, patriote écrivain italien, farouche partisan de l'unité italienne et de la libération de l'Italie du joug autrichien. En 1848, après la fuite du pape de Rome, Mazzani fait parti du triumvirat romain. Obligé de s'enfuir en Suisse, puis en Angleterre, il ne cesse pas de lutter pour l'unité de son pays.
1757 George Vancouver, who would survey the Pacific coast from San Francisco to Vancouver Island.
1636 Jan van de Venne, Dutch artist who died after 1672.
0972 La mosquée Al-Azhar, la plus grande du monde, est inaugurée au Caire.       ^top^
      Construite en à peine plus de 2 ans, c’est un record pour une époque où les techniques de construction sont plus lentes qu’aujourd’hui. L’esplanade en face de la Mosquée (et qui la sépare du Palais du Calife Aziz) pouvait contenir facilement 10'000 hommes de troupe en marche. La mosquée proportionnelle à cet espace, contient en plus des lieux du culte, une université islamique ainsi que les bâtiments d’accueil et de logement des professeurs et de leurs élèves. Un hôpital est également couplé à cette université dont le rôle n’est donc pas purement théologique, mais aussi scientifique. Et l’on sait que dans le domaine de la médecine, les musulmans avaient plusieurs siècles d’avance sur les Européens, toujours embarrassés dans leurs recherches par l’interdiction d’autopsier et d’ouvrir les cadavres.
Holidays Congo : Army Day / El Salvador : School Teacher's Day/D¡a del Maestro / Haiti : Sovereignty Day/President's Day / Virgin Islands : Organic Act Day (1954) / Yemen PDR : Corrective Move Day
Religious Observances RC : SS John Fisher, bp, martyr, & Thomas More, martyr / witch : Alban Hefin sabbat / Ang : Alban, 1st martyr of Britain / RC : St Paulinus, bishop of Nola, confessor / Santos Paulino de Nola, Clemente, Tomás e Inocencio. / Saint Silvère: Alban est un païen qui vivait en Angleterre au temps de l'empereur Dioclétien. Il hébergea par charité un prêtre chrétien pourchassé par la police. Lorsque celle-ci frappa à sa porte, elle s'empara d'un homme vêtu d'un habit ecclésiastique. C'était Alban qui, pour sauver son hôte, avait emprunté son manteau. Le malheureux fut flagellé et décapité en 287. C'est le premier martyr dont s'honorent les Anglais. Sa ville natale porte le nom de Saint-Alban in Hertfordshire.

Thoughts for the day: “ You are not judged by how much you love, but by how much you are loved by others.”
“To understand is hard. Once one understands, action is easy.”
— Sun Yat-sen, Chinese statesman (1866-1925).
updated Sunday 22-Jun-2003 14:50 UT
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