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Events, deaths, births, of JUN 26
[For events of Jun 26  Julian go to Gregorian date: 1583~1699: Jul 061700s: Jul 071800s: Jul 081900~2099: Jul 09]
• “Ich bin ein Berliner”... • March Against Fear... • US WW I troops arrive in France... • FBI provokes shootout at Pine Ridge... • Pizarro assassinated... • Pearl Buck born... • Berlin Airlift... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • Battle of Mechanicsville... • Custer dead, Reno takes command... • Birth of UN...
ANCC price chartOn a 26 June:

2003 Wireless communications base station products corporation Airnet Communications (ANCC) announces that it expects fiscal 2003 2nd quarter revenue to exceed $4.3 million, an improvement of at least 100% compared to revenue in the 1st quarter. On the NASDAQ, 5.3 million of the 24 million ANCC shares are traded, surging from their previous close of $0.58 to an intraday high of $1.37 and close at $1.34. They had traded as low as $0.29 as recently as 25 April 2003 and as high as $60.00 on 28 Feb 2000, after starting being traded on 06 Dec 1999, at $41.06. [4~year price chart >]

2003 In Stogner v. California, 01-1757. the US Supreme Court rules 5 (Breyer, Stevens, O'Connor, Souter, Bader) to 4 (Kennedy, Scalia, Thomas, Rehnquist) that it is unconstitutional to retroactively extend a statute of limitation.
Qwest price chart2002 AG Edwards upgrades (yes: up!) from Sell to Hold the shares of Qwest Communications International (Q), which fall from their previous close of $4.19 to an intraday low of $1.20 and close at $1.79. They had traded as high as $64.00 on 28 February 2000 (it would be interesting to know what the people who bought it at that price thought then, what they think now, and what they think now about what they thought then. More likely than not they were short-sellers who got squeezed. Short-selling is a great way to lose money even when you are fundamentally right.). [< 5~year price chart]

2002 On the NASDAQ the stock of recording software company Roxio (ROXI) Roxio price chartfalls from its previous close of $14.95 to an intraday low of $6.12 and closes at $6.28. After its start at $15.89 on 30 April 2001, the stock had traded as high $25.30 on 18 April 2002. [1~year price chart >]

2002 A Jefferson County, Kentucky, grand jury delivers a 42-count indictment charging Louis Miller, 71, Catholic priest (secularized after 46 years in the Louisville Archdiocese in March 2002 with more than 50 lawsuits against him), with indecent or immoral practices and sexual abuse while working at three Louisville parishes between 1960 and 1982, for multiple sexual encounters with 15 children, who were all under age 15.
2002 On the UN's Day of Solidarity With the Victims of Torture, the Vatican, which, unlike the practice (if not the law) on most other states, abandoned torture centuries ago, becomes the 129th country to ratify the 1987 UN Convention Against Torture.

2000 Rival scientific teams completed the first rough map of the human genetic code after a 10-year race.
2000 The US Supreme Court gave new power to its landmark Miranda decision of 1966, ruling that police still must warn the people they arrest of their "right to remain silent" when questioned.
1998 Workers forced not to work         ^top^
      During the early stretch of the 1990s, corporate America grew fond of downsizing, the practice of slashing work rolls in order to boost the bottom line. But, with the bull run of the late 1990s, downsizing was putatively discontinued and replaced by gentler methods of goosing profits.
      Thus, on this day in 1998, struggling electrical giant AMP, Inc. opts not to lay off a part of its workforce, but instead forces 22'000 employees to take "mandatory furloughs." Along with this respite — which took the form of either a week without pay or a "week-long holiday" — AMP also announces that 2200 of its workers are volunteering for early retirement.
      Despite its status as the international leader in the field of electrical connections, AMP's sales had been hit hard by the recent Asian economic crisis. Company chief William Hudson also placed blame on "higher than normal pricing pressures in the marketplace and a strong dollar, which led to losses in foreign currency translations." The move marked the second time in as many months that AMP had mandated furloughs in hopes of soothing its various ailments. Despite their efforts to avoid layoffs, AMP later laid off nearly 4000 employees in 1998, and while most jobs were replaced within a few months, an additional fifteen percent of AMP’s workforce (including the jobs that were replaced from the first round of layoffs) was eliminated in April 1999 when AMP was bought out by Tyco International, Ltd. That same April, AMP’s chairman and CEO Robert Ripp resigned, becoming yet another casualty of Tyco’s buyout.
1998 The US Supreme Court issues a landmark sexual harassment ruling, putting employers on notice that they can be held responsible for supervisors' misconduct even if they knew nothing about it.
1997 Communications Decency Act unconstitutional
      The Supreme Court rejected the Communications Decency Act on this day in 1997. The Act, part of the Telecommunications Act of 1996, made it a felony to distribute "indecent material" on the Internet. The court unanimously ruled that the law violated the First Amendment and that the Internet should merit the same broad protection as print media.
1996 Facing the threat of reimposed United Nations sanctions against Yugoslavia, Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic and other Yugoslav leaders demand the resignation of Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic, who officially complies in July.
1996 E-zine's paper version
      Microsoft announces that it will issue a print version of its online magazine, Slate. The print version, Slate on Paper, will be sold at Starbucks coffeehouses for $2.95. Slate, an online political magazine, was one of a number of online publishing ventures launched by Microsoft in 1996 and 1997. However, by 1998, Microsoft had severely cut back on its online publishing ventures in favor of sales and transaction sites, like CarPoint, and Expedia, an online travel service.
1994 Se celebra la mayor manifestación internacional de homosexuales de la historia. Un millón de personas recuerdan el 25 aniversario del incidente de Stonewall, que marcó el inicio del movimiento gay.
1993 Clinton punishes Iraq for plot to kill Bush
      In retaliation for an Iraqi plot to assassinate former US President George Bush during his April visit to Kuwait, President Bill Clinton orders US warships to fire Tomahawk cruise missiles at Iraqi intelligence headquarters in downtown Baghdad. On 13 April 1993, the day before George Bush was scheduled to visit Kuwait and be honored for his victory in the Persian Gulf War, Kuwaiti authorities foiled a car-bomb plot to assassinate him. Fourteen suspects, most of them Iraqi nationals, were arrested, and the next day their massive car bomb was discovered in Kuwait City. Citing "compelling evidence" of the direct involvement of Iraqi intelligence in the assassination attempt, President Clinton ordered a retaliatory attack against their alleged headquarters in the Iraqi capital on 26 June. Twenty-three Tomahawk missiles, each costing more than a million dollars, were fired off the USS Peterson in the Red Sea and the cruiser USS Chancellorsville in the Persian Gulf, destroying the building and, according to Iraqi accounts, killing several civilians.
1991 A Kentucky medical examiner announced that test results showed President Zachary Taylor had died in 1850 of natural causes - and not arsenic poisoning, as speculated by a writer. (Taylor's remains were exhumed so that tissue samples could be taken.)
1990 La CE decide en Dublín su ayuda financiera a la URSS para apoyar la reforma económica de Mijail Gorbachov.
1989 The US Supreme Court rules that the death penalty may be imposed on murderers who committed their crimes as young as age 16, and on mentally retarded killers.
1988 Vigdis Finnbogadottir es reelegida presidenta de Islandia.
1987 US Supreme Court Justice Lewis F. Powell Jr. announces his retirement, leaving a vacancy that would be filled by Anthony M. Kennedy.
1986 Los irlandeses opuestos al divorcio ganan en referéndum a los partidarios de legalizarlo.
1982 US vetos UN Security Council resolution for a limited withdrawal from Beirut of Israeli & Palestine Liberation Organization forces
1978 Brittany separatists bomb Palace of Versailles in France
1975 Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi is convicted of election fraud and declares a state of emergency
1972 US aircraft shifted to Thailand
      The shift of fighter-bomber squadrons, involving up to 150 US planes and more than 2000 pilots from Da Nang, to bases in Thailand is completed. The shift was necessitated by the pending withdrawal of the US infantry brigade that provided security for flyers at Da Nang. The departure of the US unit was part of President Richard Nixon's Vietnamization program that he had instituted in June 1969. Under this program, the responsibility for the war was to be gradually transferred to the South Vietnamese so US forces could be withdrawn.
1971 The US Justice Department issues a warrant for Daniel Ellsberg, accusing him of giving away the Pentagon Papers.
1970 Alexander Dubcek es expulsado del Partido Comunista de Checoslovaquia.
1968 Iwo Jima & Bonin Islands returned to Japan by US
1966 March Against Fear ends in Jackson, Mississippi         ^top^
      It was started on 06 June by James H. Meredith, who in 1962 became the first African American to attend the University of Mississippi. In his "March Against Fear," Meredith had been walking from Memphis, Tennessee, to Jackson, Mississippi, in an attempt to encourage voter registration by Southern African Americans.
      A former serviceman in the US Air Force, Meredith applied to the University of Mississippi in 1962, was accepted, but then had his admission revoked when the registrar learned of his race. A federal court ordered "Ole Miss" to admit him, but when he went to register on 20 September 1962, he found the entrance to the office blocked by Mississippi Governor Ross Barnett. On 28 September the governor was found guilty of civil contempt and was ordered to cease his interference with desegregation at the university or face arrest and a fine of $10'000 a day.
      On 30 September Meredith was escorted onto the Ole Miss campus by US Marshals, setting off riots that resulted in the deaths of two students. The next day, Meredith returned and began classes. The next year, he graduated with a degree in government. Three years later, Meredith returned to the public eye when he began his March Against Fear.
      On 07 June, two days into the march, he was sent to a hospital by a sniper’s bullet. However, other civil rights leaders, such as Martin Luther King, Jr., and Stokely Carmichael, arrived to continue the march without him. It was during the March Against Fear that Carmichael, who was leader of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, first spoke publicly of "Black Power," which was his concept of militant African-American nationalism. James Meredith later recovered and rejoined the march he had originated, and on 26 June, the marchers successfully reached their goal, Jackson, Mississippi.
1965 Combat by US forces in Vietnam is authorized.
      General William Westmoreland, senior US military commander in Vietnam, is given formal authority to commit US troops to battle when he decides they are necessary "to strengthen the relative position of the GVN [Government of Vietnam] forces." This authorization permitted Westmoreland to put his forces on the offensive. Heretofore, US combat forces had been restricted to protecting US airbases and other facilities. The first major offensive by US forces under this new directive was launched two days later by 3000 soldiers of the 173rd Airborne Brigade, in conjunction with 800 Australian soldiers and a Vietnamese airborne unit. These forces assaulted a jungle area known as Viet Cong Zone D, 30 km northeast of Saigon. The operation was called off after three days when it failed to make any major contact with the enemy. One American was killed, and nine Americans and four Australians were wounded.
crowd click to zoom in1963 Kennedy's “Ich bin ein Berliner” speech         ^top^
     In June of 1963, President John F. Kennedy embarked on a visit to five Western European nations for the purpose of spreading good will and building unity among America's allies.
      His first stop was Germany, a nation that less than 20 years before had been engaged in a quest for world conquest under the dictatorship of Hitler. Following Germany's defeat in the Second World War, the country had been divided in half, with East Germany under Soviet control and West Germany becoming a democratic nation.
      East-West Germany soon became the focus of growing political tensions between the two new superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union. Berlin, former capital of Hitler's Reich, became the political hot spot in this new 'cold' war. Although the city was located in East Germany, Berlin itself was divided, with East Berlin under Soviet control and West Berlin under US, English and French jurisdiction.
      In 1948, the Soviets conducted a blockade of West Berlin's railroads, highways and waterways. For the next eleven months, the US and Britain conducted a massive airlift, supplying nearly two million tons of food, coal and industrial supplies to the besieged people.
      In 1961, East German authorities began construction of a 4-meter-high wall which would eventually stretch for 160 km around the perimeter of West Berlin, preventing anyone from crossing to the West and to freedom. (Nearly 200 persons would be killed trying to pass over or dig under the wall.)
      President Kennedy arrived in Berlin on 26 June, 1963, following appearances in Bonn, Cologne and Frankfurt, where he had given speeches to huge, wildly cheering crowds. In Berlin, an immense crowd gathered in the Rudolph Wilde Platz near the Berlin Wall to listen to the President who delivered this memorable speech above all the noise, concluding with the now famous ending, which however was unintentionally humorous. Kennedy wanted to say "I am a Berliner", but it was like saying I am a Hamburger instead of I am from Hamburg. Outside of Berlin, a well-known jelly donut is usually called a Berliner, short for Pfannkuchen Berliner. Comedians in Germany sometimes mention it in their routines, and everyone gets the double meaning.
I am proud to come to this city as the guest of your distinguished Mayor, who has symbolized throughout the world the fighting spirit of West Berlin. And I am proud to visit the Federal Republic with your distinguished Chancellor who for so many years has committed Germany to democracy and freedom and progress, and to come here in the company of my fellow American, General Clay, who has been in this city during its great moments of crisis and will come again if ever needed.

Two thousand years ago the proudest boast was "civis Romanus sum." Today, in the world of freedom, the proudest boast is "Ich bin ein Berliner."

I appreciate my interpreter translating my German!

There are many people in the world who really don't understand, or say they don't, what is the great issue between the free world and the Communist world. Let them come to Berlin. There are some who say that communism is the wave of the future. Let them come to Berlin. And there are some who say in Europe and elsewhere we can work with the Communists. Let them come to Berlin. And there are even a few who say that it is true that communism is an evil system, but it permits us to make economic progress. Lass' sie nach Berlin kommen. Let them come to Berlin.

Freedom has many difficulties and democracy is not perfect, but we have never had to put a wall up to keep our people in, to prevent them from leaving us. I want to say, on behalf of my countrymen, who live many miles away on the other side of the Atlantic, who are far distant from you, that they take the greatest pride that they have been able to share with you, even from a distance, the story of the last 18 years. I know of no town, no city, that has been besieged for 18 years that still lives with the vitality and the force, and the hope and the determination of the city of West Berlin. While the wall is the most obvious and vivid demonstration of the failures of the Communist system, for all the world to see, we take no satisfaction in it, for it is, as your Mayor has said, an offense not only against history but an offense against humanity, separating families, dividing husbands and wives and brothers and sisters, and dividing a people who wish to be joined together.

What is true of this city is true of Germany — real, lasting peace in Europe can never be assured as long as one German out of four is denied the elementary right of free men, and that is to make a free choice. In 18 years of peace and good faith, this generation of Germans has earned the right to be free, including the right to unite their families and their nation in lasting peace, with good will to all people. You live in a defended island of freedom, but your life is part of the main. So let me ask you as I close, to lift your eyes beyond the dangers of today, to the hopes of tomorrow, beyond the freedom merely of this city of Berlin, or your country of Germany, to the advance of freedom everywhere, beyond the wall to the day of peace with justice, beyond yourselves and ourselves to all mankind.

Freedom is indivisible, and when one man is enslaved, all are not free. When all are free, then we can look forward to that day when this city will be joined as one and this country and this great Continent of Europe in a peaceful and hopeful globe. When that day finally comes, as it will, the people of West Berlin can take sober satisfaction in the fact that they were in the front lines for almost two decades.

All free men, wherever they may live, are citizens of Berlin, and, therefore, as a free man, I take pride in the words "Ich bin ein Berliner."

1961 A Kuwaiti vote opposes Iraq's annexation plans
1960 British Somaliland (now Somalia) gains independence from Britain
1960 Madagascar gains independence from France (National Day)
1959 St. Lawrence Seaway opened         ^top^
      In a ceremony attended by US President Dwight D. Eisenhower and Queen Elizabeth II, the St. Lawrence Seaway is officially opened, creating a navigational channel from the Atlantic Ocean to all of the Great Lakes. The seaway, made up of a system of canals, locks, and dredged waterways, extends a distance of some 4000 km, from the Atlantic Ocean through the Gulf of St. Lawrence to Duluth, Minnesota, on Lake Superior.
      Work on the massive project was initiated by a joint US-Canadian commission in 1954, and five years later, on 25 April 1959, the icebreaker D’Iberville began the first transit of the St. Lawrence Seaway. Since its officially opening on 26 June 1959, more than two billion tons of cargo with an estimated worth of over $300 billion have moved along its canals and channels.
1951 The Soviet Union proposes a cease-fire in the Korean War. During the Korean War, a brief incident near Vladivostok pitted Grumman F9F-5s against MiG-15s.
1948 US denounces Soviet blockade of Berlin
1948 Berlin Airlift begins         ^top^
      In response to the Soviet blockade of land routes into West Berlin, the United States begins a massive airlift of food, water, and medicine to the citizens of the besieged city. For nearly a year, supplies from US planes sustained the over 2 million people in West Berlin. On 24 June 1948, the Soviet Union blocked all road and rail travel to and from West Berlin, which was located within the Soviet zone of occupation in Germany. The Soviet action was in response to the refusal of US and British officials to allow Russia more say in the economic future of Germany. The US government was shocked by the provocative Soviet move, and some in President Harry S. Truman's administration called for a direct military response. Truman, however, did not want to cause World War III. Instead, he ordered a massive airlift of supplies into West Berlin. On 26 June 1948, the first planes took off from bases in England and western Germany and landed in West Berlin. It was a daunting logistical task to provide food, clothing, water, medicine, and other necessities of life for the over 2 million fearful citizens of the city. For nearly a year, US planes landed around the clock. Over 200'000 flights carried in more than one-and-a-half million tons of supplies. The Soviets persisted with the blockade until May 1949. By then, however, it was apparent to everyone concerned that the blockade had been a diplomatic fiasco for the Russians. Around the world, the Soviets were portrayed as international bullies, holding men, women, and children hostage in West Berlin and threatening them with starvation. The unbelievably successful US airlift also backfired against the Russians by highlighting the technological superiority of the United States. By the time the Soviets ended the blockade, West Germany had become a separate and independent nation and the Russian failure was complete.
1947 Conferencia en París entre la URSS, Gran Bretaña y Francia relativa al Plan Marshall.
1947 Transatlantic car-phone call
      US Ambassador James Clement Dunn, in Milan, Italy, calls the president of the New York City Council. Both men are on the road in automobiles at the time of the call. The call commemorates Marconi Day at the Milan Fair, honoring Guglielmo Marconi, the father of radio.
1941 Finland enters WW II against Russia —
1940 Rumanía cede a la URSS Bucovina septentrional y Besarabia.
1940 Turkey declares nonbelligerence         ^top^
      Turkey announces neutrality in the widening world war. Turkey was precariously positioned, prime real estate for both the Soviet Union to the north and the Axis Powers to the west. For the Soviets, an occupied or "satellite" Turkey could be yet another buffer zone, protection against invasion. For Germany, it was a means to an end, a bridge to conquests in the Middle East. Turkey could not afford to antagonize one or the other.
      But that position would not hold. By the time the Soviet Union had reconquered Crimea from Germany in 1944, Turkey needed to be seen as an "ally" of the Russian Bear so as not to invite, unwittingly, Russian troops onto its territory. Consequently, Turkey stopped chrome shipments to Germany and — with added prodding by Winston Churchill — declared itself "pro-Allied" but still not a belligerent. But by February 1945, Turkey, anticipating Hitler's defeat, finally formally declared war on Germany.
1940 End of USSR experimental calendar; Gregorian readopted 6/27
1935 El Gobierno italiano decide intervenir en Abisinia, alegando su derecho a civilizar a los habitantes de este país.
1934 FDR signs Federal Credit Union Act establishing credit unions
1934 W E B Du Bois resigns position at NAACP
1924 After 8 years of occupation, US troops leave the Domincan Republic
1924 El general Dámaso Berenguer, separado del servicio por su responsabilidad en los sucesos de Annual (1921).
1918 After a brief respite, the Germans begin firing their huge 420 mm howitzer "Big Bertha" at Paris. A line of bayonets protruding from the earth still testifies to French valor at Verdun in World War I.
1917 First US troops arrive in France         ^top^
      During World War I, the first 14'000 US infantry troops landed in France at the port of Saint Nazaire. The landing site had been kept secret because of the menace of German submarines, but by the time the US soldiers had lined up to take their first salute on French soil, an enthusiastic crowd had gathered to welcome them. However, the “Doughboys,” as the British referred to the green US troops, were untrained, ill-equipped, and far from ready for the difficulties of fighting along the Western Front. One of US General John J. Pershing’s first duties as commander of the US Expeditionary Force was to set up training camps in France and establish communication and supply networks.
      Four months later, on 21 October, the first US soldiers entered combat when units from the US Army’s First Division were assigned to Allied trenches in the Luneville sector near Nancy, France. Each US unit was attached to a corresponding French unit. Two days later, Corporal Robert Bralet of the Sixth Artillery became the first US soldier to fire a shot in the war when he discharged a French 75mm gun into a German trench half-a-mile away.
      On 02 November Corporal James Gresham and Privates Thomas Enright and Merle Hay of the Sixteenth Infantry became the first US soldiers to die when Germans raided their trenches near Bathelemont, France. After four years of bloody stalemate along the Western Front, the entrance of America’s well-supplied forces into the conflict was a major turning point in the war. When the war finally ended on 11 November 1918, more than two million US soldiers had served on the battlefields of Western Europe, and over fifty thousand of these men had lost their lives.
Wheels of the AEF.
1916 Russian General Aleksei Brusilov renews his offensive against the Germans.
1911 Nieuport sets an aircraft speed record of 134 km/h
1908 Shah Muhammad Ali's forces squelch the reform elements of Parliament in Persia.
1907 Russia's nobility demands drastic measures to be taken against revolutionaries.
1902 Start of Sherlock Holmes The Adventure of the 3 Garridebs (Case Book)
1900 A commission led by Dr. Walter Reed pursues his fight against Yellow Fever
1900 The United States announces it will send troops to fight against the Boxer rebellion in China.
1890 El gobierno de Sagasta establece el sufragio universal en España.
1876 Reno takes command of 7th Cavalry         ^top^
      Following Lieutenant Colonel George Custer's death the previous day in the Battle of the Little Big Horn, Major Marcus Reno takes command of the surviving soldiers of the 7th Cavalry. A West Point graduate who fought for the North during the Civil War, Marcus Reno was an experienced soldier and officer. Yet, despite having been sent west in 1868 as a major in Custer's 7th Cavalry, Reno had never actually fought any Indians prior to the Battle of the Little Big Horn.
      On June 25, 1876, Custer's scouts reported they had located a gigantic village of Sioux and Cheyenne Indians encamped nearby along the banks of the Little Big Horn River in southern Montana. Believing that his scouts must have grossly overestimated the size of the village, Custer immediately prepared to attack. He divided the 600 soldiers of the 7th Cavalry into four battalions, placing Reno in command of one of them. Custer and Reno led their two battalions down a small creek (later called Reno Creek) toward the Little Big Horn River. A third battalion commanded by Captain Frederick Benteen scouted the hills to the west, while the fourth stayed in the rear to protect the army's horses.
      About 5 or 6 km from the Little Big Horn, Custer and Reno spotted a group of about 50 Sioux and Cheyenne warriors. Fearing that the village ahead was already fleeing, Custer ordered Reno and his battalion to give pursuit, promising "the whole outfit" would soon support him. Reno and his men quickly rode down the valley and crossed the Little Big Horn. As they charged toward the Indian village, they began to encounter growing numbers of warriors mounting a strong defense.
      Uncertain of what lay ahead, Reno called a halt and ordered his men to dismount and fight on foot. Within minutes, he was under attack by a massive force of Sioux and Cheyenne braves. With no sign of the support Custer had promised, Reno decided he had no choice but to retreat and try to regain a defensible position on the high bluffs across the river. Some witnesses later said Reno panicked at this point and at least temporarily gave conflicting and confused orders. In any event, the retreat quickly became chaotic, allowing the Indians to easily pick off about one third of Reno's troops before they reached the bluffs. There, Benteen and his battalion soon joined them.
      Benteen had received a dispatch from Custer downstream ordering the troops to hasten forward, but there was considerable disagreement among the officers about what to do. Their battalions had been badly hurt, and they needed time to regroup. Finally, the officers led the troops downstream toward the sound of heavy gunfire, but the presence of many wounded slowed their advance. Unbeknownst to Reno and Benteen, by this point the Indians had already wiped out Custer's battalion. The braves now rushed upstream to attack the advancing soldiers, forcing them to retreat to their entrenched positions on the bluffs.
      The soldiers held off the Indians for another three hours of heavy fighting. When darkness fell, the Indians withdrew. The following day, 26 June, Reno took formal command of the remnants of the 7th Cavalry, and he succeeded in fighting a holding action until the Indians decided to withdraw around noon. On 27 June fresh troops under General Terry arrived, and the soldiers began the grisly task of identifying and burying the dead.
      In the postmortem of the disastrous battle, some refused to believe that the magnificent Custer could have been responsible and they blamed Reno. At Reno's request, in early 1879 the army staged a formal inquiry into the battle. After more than 26 days of testimony, a panel of three officers exonerated Reno. They ruled that he had fought desperately and bravely to keep his own battalion from being wiped out during the battle, and he could not be blamed for failing to go to Custer's aid. Some civilian critics labeled the ruling a whitewash, and Reno never managed fully to redeem himself in their eyes.
1870 the first section of the Atlantic City Boardwalk opens along the New Jersey beach.
1863 Jubal Early and his Confederate forces move into Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. Did Lt. Gen. Richard Ewell lose Gettysburg?
1863 Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana continues
1863 Siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi continues
1862 Battle of Beaver Dam Creek — Union repulse Confederacy in Virginia
1862 General Robert E. Lee attacks McClellen's line at Mechanicsville, Ellerson's Mill, (Beaver Dam Creek), during Day 2 of the Seven Days near Richmond. The hard-fighting 44th Georgia suffered some of the heaviest losses of any regiment in the Civil War.
1862 Battle of Mechanicsville         ^top^
      Confederate General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia strikes Union General George B. McClellan's Army of the Potomac, beginning the Seven Days' Battles. Although the Confederates sustained heavy losses and did not succeed in decisively defeating the Yankees, the battle had unnerved McClellan. During the next week, Lee drove him from the outskirts of Richmond back to his base on the James River. This was Lee's first battle as commander of the army.
      On 01 June 1862, he had replaced Joseph Johnston, who was severely wounded at the Battle of Fair Oaks. McClellan's offensive had stalled just five miles from Richmond, and his army remained there until late June. During that time, General J.E.B. Stuart and his Rebel cavalry made a spectacular ride around McClellan's force, bringing back information that indicated that McClellan's right flank was "in the air," or unprotected by natural barriers.
      Lee informed his commanders on 23 June of his intention to attack the flank, occupied by Fitz John Porter's V corps, which was separated from the rest of the Union army by the Chickahominy River. This was a bold move—because it meant leaving a skeleton force to face the rest of McClellan's army south of the Chickahominy—and an early indication of Lee's audacious style.
      But the attack did not go as planned. McClellan, alerted to the vulnerability of his flanks by Stuart's ride two weeks prior, had shored up his left, and moved Porter's men to high ground with a deep creek in front of them. Lee's plan had called for several smaller forces to overwhelm Porter's men, but it required precise timing. When the assault came, the coordination did not materialize. A major problem, among others, was General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson's corps, which was slow to move into place. Jackson was just back from his brilliant campaign in the Shenandoah Valley, but he showed none of his previous vigor and speed at Mechanicsville. Lee planned to bring about 55'000 soldiers against Porter, but the mistakes made by Jackson and others meant there were only about 11,000. Lee lost 1,475 men; Union losses were only 361. But Lee had stunned McClellan, who then began to fall back away from Richmond. Lee continued to hammer on McClellan for the next week, and the Yankees retreated to the James River. McClellan did not threaten Richmond again, and he eventually sailed his army back to Washington.
1848 1st pure food law enacted in US
1822 El Estado decide asumir la compra, manufactura y venta del tabaco en España, primer paso hacia el monopolio estatal de este producto.
1813 Metternich menace Napoléon
      L'entretien se veut de paix, mais il est tendu entre le ministre des Affaires étrangères de l'empereur d'Autriche, Metternich, et l'empereur des Français. Metternich se présente en tant que médiateur entre la France, d'une part, et la Russie et la Prusse, de l'autre. Napoléon le soupçonne de n'être pas impartial. " Sire, nous ne pouvons rester neutres ; il faut que nous soyons ou pour vous ou contre vous. " L'entretien s'achève sur cette menace : " Vous êtes perdu, Sire ; j'en avais le pressentiment en arrivant, maintenant j'en suis convaincu. " Quelques deux semaines plus tard, l'Autriche déclare encore la guerre à la France...
1804 Lewis and Clark Expedition reaches the mouth of the Kansas River after completing a westward trek of nearly 400 river miles.
1797 Charles Newbold patents 1st cast-iron plow. He can't sell it to farmers, though, they fear effects of iron on soil!
1794 French defeat an Austrian army at the Battle of Fleurus.
1794 Bataille de Fleurus
      Le général en chef Jourdan, à la tête de trois bataillons, charge, alors que, depuis des heures, l'issue de la bataille est incertaine. Pour enrayer un mouvement de panique, Lefebvre a hurlé à sa division entourée par les flammes : "Pas de retraite aujourd'hui !" Le poste de Lambusart a tenu. Au centre, Championnet a résisté à tous les assauts autrichiens. La fougue de Kléber est restée toujours la même, assaut après assaut. Enfin, le prince de Saxe-Cobourg ordonne que l'on sonne la retraite. La route de Bruxelles est ouverte.
1791 Le duc d'Orléans renonce à la régence.
      Le roi Louis XVI est déchu depuis son retour de Varennes. Parce que les frères du roi sont émigrés, la Constitution permet que le duc d'Orléans assume la régence jusqu'à la majorité du Dauphin Louis. Danton et Laclos poussent le duc à faire état de ses droits, mais l'influence de la maîtresse du duc, Mme de Genlis, l'emporte. Il fait insérer une profession de foi dans plusieurs journaux révolutionnaires par laquelle il renonce à la régence et déclare qu'il préfère rester un simple citoyen.
1714 Felipe V, rey de España, firma la paz con Holanda en el Pardo.
1706 El archiduque Carlos de Austria es proclamado rey de España en un balcón de la Casa de la Panadería durante la Guerra de Sucesión española.
1483 Richard III usurps English throne
1243 The Seljuk Turkish army in Asia Minor is wiped out by the Mongols. The Mongol Invasion of Europe.
1097 The armies of the First Crusade (1096-99) occupy the ancient Byzantine city of Nicea.
1096 Peter the Hermit's crusaders force their way across Sava, Hungary. Their first victorious encounter with Europeans had left the Turks with a low opinion of Crusaders, but the second Christian wave was made of sterner stuff.
0684 St Benedict II begins his reign as Pope.
Deaths which occurred on a 26 June:
2003 Hundreds of residents of Monrovia, Liberia, since 24 June, as fighting and rocket shelling rages in an effort to topple criminal-against-humanity (according to UN-backed indictment disclosed on 04 June) president Charles Taylor, who has reneged on the 17 June 2003 cease-fire agreement calling for him to relinquish power, and the US regime of usurper-President “Dubya” Bush does nothing beyond words to help.
2002 Daniel H. Case, 44, of brain cancer, former chairman of San Francisco's investment bank JPMorgan Hambrecht & Quist, which specializes in advising technology and life companies. Daniel Case was the older brother of Stephen Case, chairman of AOL Time Warner.
2002 Ten Pakistani soldiers and two of the Al Qaeda terrorrists conducting a surprise pre-dawn attack with shoulder-fired rockets on the Pakistanis in the village of Azam Warsak, about 10 km from the Afghan border, in the South Waziristan tribal area of Pakistan.
1990 Joseph C. R. Licklider, following complications from asthma, computer scientist, born on 11 March 1915.
1990 Manuel de Pedrolo, escritor español.
1989 Antonio Abad Ojuel, periodista y ensayista español.
1987 Cincuenta personas al estrellarse un avión en la isla de Luzón (Filipinas).
1975 José María Escrivá de Balaguer, sacerdote español, fundador del Opus Dei.
1975 Ron Williams, 27, and Jack Coler, 28, FBI agents, and Joe Stuntz, Amerindian.         ^top^
     The two FBI agents entered the Jumping Bull Ranch, private property. They allegedly come to arrest a young Native American man, fugitive Jimmy Eagle, whom they believed they had seen riding in a red pickup truck. A large number of AIM supporters were camping on the property at the time. A shoot out begins, trapping a family with small children in the crossfire. The more than thirty men, women and children present were surrounded by over 150 FBI agents, SWAT team members, BIA police and local posse members, and barely escape through a hail of bullets. When the gun fight is over, Joe Stuntz lies dead. His killing would never be investigated. FBI agents Coler and Williams had been wounded in the gun fight and then shot point blank through the head by a still unidentified assailant.
      At the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, a shoot out breaks out between the two FBI agents in unmarked cars and local residents and members of AIM. The two agents and one Native man were killed. Three people went to trial for the deaths of the agents, one of whom was Leonard Peltier, 30. No investigation of the Native man's death took place. Two of those who went to trial, Darrelle (Dino) Butler and Robert Robideau, were found not guilty, on grounds of self defense.
      Leonard Peltier, who had fled to Canada, was tried later, in a different district by a different judge, after being illegally extradited from Canada. On 18 April 1977, after a five-week jury trial, Peltier was convicted of two counts of first-degree murder and sentenced to two consecutive life sentences, in one of the most controversial trials of the century.
      When faced with previously withheld evidence on appeal pointing to Leonard Peltier's innocence, the prosecution admitted, and later established that they in fact could not prove who actually shot the agents or what involvement Leonard Peltier may have had in their deaths. Despite this Mr. Peltier remains in prison. For this reason, there is an international outcry for his freedom and Leonard Peltier has become a notorious symbol of injustice against Native Peoples. Since his conviction, many world leaders, lawmakers, and entertainers have supported Peltier in his quest for clemency. They include: Desmond Tutu, Nelson Mandela, the Dalai Lama, Amnesty International, Robert Redford, Willie Nelson and Winona Ryder, among others.
     Even some law enforcement officials have major doubts over Peltier’s guilt and there is evidence that the FBI interfered with the investigation. Even the United States attorney admits no one knows who killed that FBI agent, who fired those fatal shots. The woman who claims to have witnessed the killing later admitted she signed those affidavits only after the FBI threatened to take away her children. The FBI ballistics tests showing that the bullet could not have come from Mr. Peltier’s gun was concealed from the jury and also from the defense. Two other people charged in the shooting were not convicted for lack of evidence.
     From prison, Leonard Peltier has continued to advocate for the human rights of Indigenous peoples and in doing so has won numerous human rights awards. He was recently declared an official Human Rights Defender at the Human Rights Defenders Summit in Paris which commemorated the 50th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. He has also established himself as a talented artist, using oils to paint portraits of his people which portray their cultures and histories. Leonard has been an integral part of the movement to establish access to the practice of Native religions in prison. He says that it is the sweat lodge, the love and support of so many people, and his relationship with his grandchildren that allows him to keep hope into the third decade of his imprisonment.
     Anyone who has even a basic understanding of the history and plight of Native Americans recognizes their terrible treatment at the hands of the US Government. That history cannot be altered. Nothing can change the broken promises and treaties and subjugation of the first peoples to inhabit this continent. It is easy to understand how and why The Spirit of Crazy Horse, fostered by four hundred years of distrust, prevails. Viewing an event like the shooting at Pine Ridge on 26 June, 1975, from these divergent perspectives, provides dissimilar accounts of what exactly may have happened. It is crucially important to carefully measure the words and deeds of those involved to form an accurate composite of the event.
1970 Leopoldo Marechal, escritor argentino.
1951 George Udny Yule Jr., British physicist and mathematical statistician born on 18 February 1871. He developed his approach to correlation via regression with a conceptually new use of least squares. Author of On the Theory of Correlation (1897), Introduction to the Theory of Statistics (1911), The statistical study of literary vocabulary (1944).
1946 Béla Kerékjártó, Hungarian mathematician born on 01 October 1898. He was wrong most of the time.
1927 Jean-Baptiste-Armand Guillaumin, French Impressionist landscape painter and engraver born on 16 February 1841. — MORE ON GUILLAUMIN AT ART “4” JUNE LINKSSelf-PortraitSelf~PortraitSelf~Portrait With EaselRainy WeatherEnfant Couché [le fils de l'artiste] — Paysage au ChariotLa SeineSunset at IvryOutskirts of ParisLa Place Valhubert, ParisLe Quai de BercyPath in SnowRocks by the Sea at Agay
1906 Alexander Muir, 76, Canadian school teacher, poet. — MUIR ONLINE: 13 poems (of which the most famous is The Maple Leaf Forever, which Muir set to music).
1835 baron Antoine-Jean Gros, by suicide, French Neoclassical and Romantic painter. He was born on 16 March 1771. — Antoine-Jean Gros a L'Age de Vingt Ans attributed to François Gérard. — MORE ON GROS AT ART “4” JUNE LINKSNapoléon Bonaparte on Arcole Bridge on 17 November 1796 (1797) _ Napoléon Bonaparte on Arcole Bridge (Gros' copy of the 1797 painting) — Napoléon on the Battlefield of Eylau on 9 February 1807 _ detailNapoléon in the Pesthouse at JaffaMadame Récamier 
1829 Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein, German painter specialized in Portraits born on 15 February 1751. — MORE ON TISCHBEIN AT ART “4” JUNE LINKSGoethe in The Roman Campagna (Tischbein was a friend of Goethe [28 Aug 174922 March 1832]) — Elisabeth von Breitenbach
1809 Georg Frederik Ziesel, Flemish artist born in 1756.

Condamnés à mort par la Révolution:         ^top^
1794 (08 messidor an II):
GUNTHER Michel, domicilié à Sehweincheim (Bas-Rhin), par le tribunal criminel dudit département, comme receleur de Grains.
GUILLABERT Joseph Martin Basile, ex vicaire, domicilié à Colobrières (Var), par le tribunal criminel du département de l'Isère, comme réfractaire à la loi.
BEVENAS François Marie, ex vicaire, domicilié à Damezieux (Ain), comme infracteur à la loi, par le tribunal criminel du département de l’Isère.
MONIN Jean Pierre, 26 ans, natif de Séciné (Isère), déserteur du 2ème bataillon du 33ème régiment, domicilié à Lyon (Rhône), comme déserteur , par la commission militaire d'Avesnes.
BERNARD Toussaints, perruquier, domicilié à Nancy (Meurthe), comme émigré, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
FOULON Anne Angélique, femme Garbet, domiciliée à Paris, par le tribunal criminel du département de la Meurthe, comme émigrée.
HUSSON Claude, domestique domicilié à Preny (Meurthe) , par le tribunal criminel dudit département, comme émigré.
DUBROEUCQ Reine Françoise, âgée de 38 ans, née à Camblain Chatelain, demeurant à Loos, veuve de Vuvelois N., guillotinée à Arras
PRUVOST Jean Simon, 43 ans, né à Loos, cultivateur, époux de Delambre Marie Madeleine, à Arras
VESTAVELLE Jean Baptiste, 31 ans, né à Hazebroucq, marchand à St Omer, époux de De Voor Louise, à Arras
Domiciliés dans le département du Vaucluse, par la commission populaire séante à Orange:
PRATICOUX Joseph, ouvrier taffetatier, domicilié à Avignon, comme contre-révolutionnaire.
GROS Charles, messager et salpêtrier, domicilié à Roubion, comme fédéraliste.
      ... domiciliés à Avigron, comme fédéralistes:
MARIA Antoine Joseph, ouvrier taffetier — MONTAUD Félix, salpêtrier — VACHET Claude, marchand charcutier — VINCENT René, sellier
Domiciliés dans le département de la Gironde, par la commission militaire séante à Bordeaux:
BILLOI Jacques, gantier, 55 ans, né dans la commune de Rudy (Basses-Pyrénées), domicilié à Bordeaux, comme receleur de prêtres réfractaire.
DORNAL Mathurin (dit Degui), prêtre insermenté, natif de St Ferme, domicilié à Bordeaux, comme réfractaire à la loi.
DURAND Marguerite, ex religieuse, âgée de 26 ans, née à Marmande (Lot et Garonne), domicilié à Bordeaux,
MAUVIGNÉ Pierre Colas, ancien militaire et cultivateur, domicilié à St Christophe-de-Doubs, comme contre-révolutionnaire.
Par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris:
LOPS Léon, faiseur de balances, 50 ans, né à Amsterdam, domicilié à Paris, comme convaincu d'avoir acheté du numéraire, avili les assignats, la Convention et le gouvernement révolutionnaire.
MAILLETCONTE Jean Baptiste, domestique, 16 ans, né à Mezene (Mont-Blanc), domicilié à Paris, comme convaincu d'avoir acheté du numéraire, d'avoir avili les assignats, la Convention nationale, le gouvernement révolutionnaire.
MERET Nicolas, 54 ans, commissionnaire, né à Macot, domicilié à Paris, comme convaincu d'avoir acheté du numéraire, avili les assignats, la Convention et le gouvernement révolutionnaire.
VALTON Antoine, 29 ans, natif de Collet, département du Rhône, domicilié à Paris,comme ennemi du peuple, ayant acheté du numéraire, le faisant passer aux ennemis de la République, et discréditant les assignats.
WENANTSPIES Laurent, 56 ans, né à Rotterdam en Hollande, domicilié à Paris, comme ennemi du peuple en faisant des achats en numéraire, pour le faire passer aux ennemis de la république.
ROSSIER Bernard, marchand mercier, tenant échoppe, 47 ans, né au Fort-Baneau (Isère), domicilié à Paris, comme convaincu d’avoir été un des généraux perfides.
BAIL SIMON, employé aux charrois, domicilié à Jussy, canton de Metz (Moselle), comme contre-révolutionnaire
BILLON Louis Charles Maurice, clerc de procureur, domicilié à Paris, comme contre-révolutionnaire
DESAULNETS Maxime, huissier prieur, et administrateur du département de Paris, domicilié à Paris, comme contre-révolutionnaire.
      ... comme convaincus d'être complices du complot des prisonniers dans la maison d'arrêt de Bicêtre, d'égorger la garde cette maison, d'en forcer les portes, de se porter à la convention, et singulièrement aux comités de sûreté générale et de salut public; d'en égorger les membres, de leur arracher le cœur, de la faire rôtir, de le manger, et de livrer Paris au pillage, pour servir la faction de l'étranger:
AMAND Louis, 35 ans, maçon, né et domicilié à Vincennes (Seine).
BARON Maurice- Laurent, sergent au batil. De la réunion, domicilié à Franciade (Seine).
DARCON Jean (dit Darcu), 35 ans, né à Drude, scieur de long, domicilié à Fontainebleau (Seine et Marne).
DARTHUS Adrien, tailleur, 25 ans, né et domicilié à Rouen (Seine Inférieure).
CARBONNIER Louis, (dit Bauf), manœuvrier, 36 ans, né à St Aubin (Oise).( exécuté place de Vincennes, inhumé à Picpus)
JACQUINET François (dit Montauciel), soldat dans la légion Belge, 33 ans, né et domicilié à Bourbonne-les-Bains (Haute Marne).
LAPOINTE L. Cl. Raimond, 26 ans, né à Nantes (Loire Inférieure), homme de loi, domicilié à Romainville (Seine).
LARCHE Joseph, maçon, 36 ans, né à Fontainebleau (Seine et Marne).
LEMASSON Joseph Marie, 65 ans, né à Rennes (Ille-et-Vilaine), domicilié à St Servan, même département, chirurgien, qui avait été condamné à la déportation, le 18 juin 1793, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme complice de la conspiration, connue sous le nom de "Bretagne", dont le ci-devant marquis de la Rouerie était le chef ou l'un des principaux agents sous l'autorisation et l'appui des frères du ci-devant, roi.
LENDROIT Louis Frédéric, batteur de plâtre, 23 ans né et domicilié à Montdricourt (Aisne).
MARQUIERT Louis Vincent, prêtre et hussard, 32 ans, né et domicilié à Carcassonne (Landes).
MIGNARD Antoine, brocanteur, 26 ans, né et domicilié à St Flour département du Cantal, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme complice d'un complot dans la maison d'arrêt de Bicêtre, tendant à égorger la garde de cette maison, se porter aux comités de salut public, de sûreté générale, en égorger les membres, leur arracher le cœur, le faire rôtir et le manger.
MOURET Antoine, soldat du 78ème régiment, 29 ans, né et domicilié à Strasbourg département du Bas-Rhin, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme complice d'un complot dans la maison d'arrêt de Bicêtre, tendant à égorger la garde de cette maison, se porter aux comités de sûreté générale, en égorger les membres, leur arracher le cœur, le faire rôtir et le manger.
PICHON Nicolas, limonadier, 34 ans, natif de Chalon-sur-Saône (Saône et Loire), domicilié à Lyon (Rhône).
SIMON S., employé aux charrois, 34 ans, natif de Sasie (Moselle).
TROUVE Louis Michel, 58 ans, ex curé de Moissy, né à Allouville (Seine Inférieure), domicilié à Moissy (Seine et Marne).
VIEILLEPEAU François, marchand de sel, 23 ans, natif de Mabrie (Orne)
BILLION Louis Claude Marie, clerc de procureur, 26 ans, né à Paris.
             ... domiciliés à Paris:
ADET Charles, marchand de vin, 31 ans, né à Andelet (Haute Marne). — ALLAIN Jean Baptiste, 26 ans, né à Pleinseuvre, fabricant de Plombs.
ASSELINOT Jean Gabriel, 31 ans, né à Cosne, épicier. —
BEAUFORT Marc François, 32 ans, tabletier
BLOT Joseph, fils, négociant. — DANGERS Claude François, 47 ans, né à Chasey, ex administrateur de police.
DURUT Claude Louis, teneur de livres. — FRANCOT Pierre, brocanteur, 61 ans, né à Beville (Seine et Oise).
GUY Michel Clément, 36 ans, né à Macot (Mont-Blanc), commis marchand de vin à Paris. — HOT Hugues, jockey, 17 ans, né aux Avanchais (Mont-Blanc).
HUSSE François, 40 ans, né à Cé, .condamné d'abord à 16 années de fers, en conséquence détenu à Bicêtre, puis à mort .
MESTRIOT Jacques François, gendarme de la 29ème division, né à Dezouy en Zosias, . par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme complice d'un complot dans la maison de Bicêtre, tendant à égorger la garde de cette maison, se porter aux comités de salut public, de sûreté générale, en égorger les membres, leur arracher le cœur le faire rôtir et le manger.
PICARD Louis Paul, pâtissier, 35 ans, natif de Ste Magnance (Yonne)
                       ... et nés à Paris:
OSSELIN Charles Nicolas, 40 ans, homme de loi, ex président du tribunal du 17 août 1792, député de Paris à la convention nationale, condamné à la déportation, le 15 frimaire an 2, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme convaincu d'avoir, en abusant de son caractère et de sa qualité de membre du comité de sûreté général de la convention, pour prêter secours à Charlotte Félicité Luppé, femme du ci-devant marquis de Charry, émigré, il a été déposé dans la maison de Bicêtre en attendant qu'il partit. Lorsqu'il était apprit qu'il était compris dans cette conspiration, et qu'il devait paraître au tribunal, il arracha un clou de sa chambre qu'il s'enfonça dans le côté; il fut conduit à l'audience sur un brancard, et presque mourant; il ne fut pas possible alors d'entendre ses paroles tant sa voix était affaiblie, ce qui obligea le président à se transporter près de lui pour prendre ses réponses.
BEAUDOT Louis, 21 ans, chirurgien, comme contre-révolutionnaire — BOSQUET Louis Jérôme Auguste, gagnedenier, 26 ans
COTTEL Claude, 20 ans, soldat au 19ème régiment — DESCHARMES-SILLERY Charles Alexis, 19 ans, ex aide de camp, comme contre-révolutionnaire ...
SENLISSE Henri, ex vicaire de Dt Louis en l'Isle, 34 ans, qui avait été condamné à la déportation, le 22 frimaire an 2, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme convaincu d'avoir tenu des propos inciviques.

PAGES Antoine, déserteur, domicilié à Bruel-d’Esclanèdes (Lozère), comme contre-révolutionnaire, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.

1541 Francisco Pizarro, assassinated         ^top^
      The governor of Peru and conqueror of the Inca civilization is assassinated in Lima by his Spanish rivals. Pizarro, the illegitimate son of a Spanish gentleman, served under Spanish conquistador Alonso de Ojeda during his expedition to Colombia in 1510, and was with Vasco Nunez de Balboa when he discovered the Pacific Ocean in 1513.
      Hearing legends of the great wealth of the Incas in South America, Pizarro formed an alliance with fellow conquistador Diego de Almagro in 1524, and sailed back to the Americas. Their first expedition only penetrated as far as present-day Ecuador, but their second reached further, and they discovered the first real evidence of the existence of the Inca kingdom. Securing aid from Emperor Charles V, and a guarantee that he, not Almagro, would receive the majority of the expedition’s future profits, Pizarro sailed to Peru and landed at Tumbes in 1532. He led his army up the Andes Mountains to the Inca city of Cajamarca and met with Atahualpa, the king of the Inca kingdom of Quito.
      After winning his trust, Pizarro arrested Atahualpa, exacted a room full of gold as ransom, and then treacherously executed him. The conquest of Peru came quickly to Pizarro and his army, and in 1533, Inca resistance came to an end with their defeat at Cuzco. Pizarro, now the governor of Peru, founded new settlements, including Lima, and granted Almagro the conquest of Chile as appeasement for claiming the riches of the Inca civilization for himself. However, Pizarro failed to provide Almagro with the land he had promised, and Almagro responded by seizing Cuzco in 1538. Pizarro sent his half brother, Hernando, to reclaim the city, and Almagro was defeated and put to death. Three years later, on 26 June, 1541, a group hired by Almagro’s supporters penetrated Pizarro’s palace and slew the conquistador while he was eating dinner. Shortly after his death, Diego el Monzo, Almagro’s son, proclaimed himself governor of Peru.
1732 Abate Andrea Belvedere, Italian painter born in 1652 (1642?).
1274 Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Tusi “Nasir al-Din al-Tusi”, aka Muhaqqiq-i Tusi, or Khwaja-yi Tusi, or Khwaja Nasir, Persian scholar, astronomer, mathematician, born on 18 February 1201.
Births which occurred on a 26 June:         ^top^
1964 Zeng Jinlian, Hunan, China, she would grow up... and up... and up... and become tallest woman known 2.46 m
1946 Virgilio Zapatero Gómez, político español.
1945 UN Charter is signed         ^top^
      The Charter for the United Nations is signed in San Francisco by 50 nations. The United Nations was born of perceived necessity, as a means of better arbitrating international conflict and negotiating peace than was provided for by the old League of Nations. The growing Second World War became the real impetus for the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union to begin formulating the original UN Declaration, signed by 26 nations in January 1942, as a formal act of opposition to Germany, Italy, and Japan, the Axis Powers.
      But now that the war — at least in the West — was over, negotiating and maintaining the peace was the practical responsibility of the new UN Security Council, made up of the United States, Great Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and China. Each would have veto power over the other. A year later, after the war in the East was won as well, Winston Churchill called for the United Nations to employ its Charter in the service of creating a new, united Europe — united in its opposition to communist expansion — East and West. Given the composition of the Security Council, this would prove easier said than done.
      Cinquante nations signent la Charte des Nations Unies, s'engageant ainsi à protéger tous les pays contre une quelconque agression. Le Quartier Général de O.N.U. se trouve à New York. Malgré quelques échecs, cet organisme poursuit son action en faveur de la paix et des pays sous développés.
     In the Herbst Theater auditorium in San Francisco, delegates from 50 nations sign the United Nations Charter, establishing the world body as a means of saving "succeeding generations from the scourge of war." The Charter was ratified on 24 October, and the first UN General Assembly met in London on 10 January 1946. Despite the failure of the League of Nations in arbitrating the conflicts that led up to World War II, the Allies as early as 1941 proposed establishing a new international body to maintain peace in the postwar world. The idea of the United Nations began to be articulated in August 1941, when US President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill signed the Atlantic Charter, which proposed a set of principles for international collaboration in maintaining peace and security. Later that year, Roosevelt coined "United Nations" to describe the nations allied against the Axis powers — Germany, Italy, and Japan. The term was first officially used on 01 January 1942, when representatives of 26 Allied nations met in Washington, D.C., and signed the Declaration by the United Nations, which endorsed the Atlantic Charter and presented the united war aims of the Allies.
      In October 1943, the major Allied powers — Great Britain, the United States, the USSR, and China — met in Moscow and issued the Moscow Declaration, which officially stated the need for an international organization to replace the League of Nations. That goal was reaffirmed at the Allied conference in Tehran in December 1943, and in August 1944 Great Britain, the United States, the USSR, and China met at the Dumbarton Oaks estate in Washington, D.C., to lay the groundwork for the United Nations. Over seven weeks, the delegates sketched out the form of the world body but often disagreed over issues of membership and voting. Compromise was reached by the "Big Three" — the United States, Britain, and the USSR — at the Yalta Conference in February 1945, and all countries that had adhered to the 1942 Declaration by the United Nations were invited to the United Nations founding conference.
      On 25 April 1945, the United Nations Conference on International Organization convened in San Francisco with 50 nations represented. Three months later, during which time Germany had surrendered, the final Charter of the United Nations was unanimously adopted by the delegates. On 26 June, it was signed. The Charter, which consisted of a preamble and 19 chapters divided into 111 articles, called for the UN to maintain international peace and security, promote social progress and better standards of life, strengthen international law, and promote the expansion of human rights. The principal organs of the UN, as specified in the Charter, were the Secretariat, the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the International Court of Justice, and the Trusteeship Council.
      On 24 October 1945, the UN Charter came into force upon its ratification by the five permanent members of the Security Council and a majority of other signatories. The first UN General Assembly, with 51 nations represented, opened in London on January 10, 1946. On 24 October 1949, exactly four years after the United Nations Charter went into effect, the cornerstone was laid for the present United Nations headquarters, located in New York City. Since 1945, the Nobel Peace Prize has been awarded five times to the United Nations and its organizations and five times to individual UN officials.
1933 Bertín Pozo Mozo, político e ingeniero español.
1927 Juan Velarde Fuertes, economista español.
1918 Yudell Leo Luke, US mathematician who died on 06 May 1983.
1911 Sir Frederick Williams         ^top^
      Frederick Williams invented an early form of computer memory. An electrical engineer who had worked on code-breaking systems during World War II, Williams also made important contributions to the development of radar. In 1947, as a professor at the University of Manchester, Williams started building an experimental computer to test the feasibility of a memory system like the one laid out by John von Neumann in a report about computer memory.
      In June 1948, his tiny experimental computer, which lacked a keyboard or printer, successfully tested a memory system. The system, based on a cathode-ray tube, could store programs, whereas previous computers like ENIAC had to be rewired to execute each new type of problem. Although Williams' cathode-ray memory system would soon be replaced by magnetic-core memory, the creation of a stored program computer represented a great step forward for computer science.
1911 Ernst Witt, German mathematician who died on 03 July 1991. His work was mainly concerned with quadratic forms and various related fields such as algebraic function fields, Witt vectors, Lie rings and Mathieu groups. He is best known for his introduction of Witt vectors.
1901 Stuart Symington (Sen-D-Mo)
1898 Wilhelm Emil Messerschmitt, German engineer who build fighters and jet aircraft for Nazi Germany.
1892 Pearl Comfort Sydenstricker, (name from first marriage: Pearl Buck)         ^top^
      She would grow up to be US Presbyterian missionary to China, Nobel Prize-winning author. She is born in West Virginia to parents on furlough from their missionary work in China. The family soon returned to China, where Buck lived for the better part of 40 years. Her novel The Good Earth (1930), a poignant tale of a Chinese peasant and his slave-wife and their struggle upward, became an international bestseller. Young Pearl learned to speak Chinese before English. She returned to the US to attend college, then married an US agriculture specialist in China. The two settled down to live in the province where she later set The Good Earth. The couple later moved to Nanking to teach college.
      In 1930, Buck created a literary sensation with The Good Earth. Her novel won the Pulitzer and Nobel prizes and was translated into 30 languages. In the '30s, The Good Earth and other novels and stories by Buck were more widely read in Europe than those of any other US author. However, today few of her 80 novels and books retain as much interest as The Good Earth.
      Buck created several charitable foundations for Asian-American children abroad, including an adoption agency. She spoke strongly against the internment of Japanese during World War II and wrote a letter of protest to The New York Times in 1954 that helped change immigration policy. She received many awards for her humanitarian activities. Pearl Buck died on 06 March 1973.
1880 Douglas MacArthur, jefe militar estadounidense.
1887 Anthony G de Rothschild Britain, philanthropist
1878 Leopold Löwenheim, German mathematician who died on 05 May 1957. He is remembered for the Löwenheim-Skolem paradox (which Skolem [23 May 1887 – 23 March 1963] pointed out is not a paradox!) which produces non-standard models, for example a denumerable model of the reals.
1874 Frank Tenney Johnson, US painter who died in 1939, specialized in the US West. — MORE ON JOHNSON AT ART “4” JUNE LINKSThe RustlerSouthern NightGrizzly Bear in Winter ForestTexas Night Riders
1824 William Thomson (Lord Kelvin), son of Scottish mathematics professor James Thomson, William would become a mathematician, engineer, physicist, who died on 17 December 1907. His thermodynamics studies led to his proposal (1848) of an absolute scale of temperature.
1821 Bartolomé Mitre, estadista y general argentino.
1819 Abner Doubleday, Civil War General who was incorrectly credited with inventing US baseball.
1819 Elias Pieter van Bommel, Dutch artist who died in 1890.
1783 Jean-Antoine Duclos, French artist who died on 21 May 1868.
1763 George Morland, British painter who died on 29 October 1804. — MORE ON MORLAND AT ART “4” JUNELINKS LouisaWayside GossipsSketches of farm animals, an old man and two little girlsTwo boys in garden, rake and barrel on groundMorning: Higglers Preparing for MarketThe Gravel DiggersDoor of a Village InnThe Fortune TellerThe Ale House DoorRoadside InnThe Tea GardenInside of a StableRabbitingOutside the Ale-House DoorCowherd and MilkmaidOutside an Inn, Winter
1735 Joseph Ducreux, French pastelist, miniaturist, First Painter to Queen Marie-Antoinette. Ducreux died on 24 July 1802. — MORE ON DUCREUX AT ART “4” JUNELINKS Portrait de l'Artiste Sous les Traits d'un Moqueur Portrait de l'Artiste Sous les Traits d'un Moqueur [presqu'identique aux deux tiers du haut du précédent] Self-Portrait, YawningLe Discret _ another self-portrait? Louis XVI's last portraitLouis XVII Louis-Antoine, comte de Bougainville
1730 Charles Messier, French comet-hunting astronomer who discovered 13 comets and made a catalog of 103 fuzzy astronomical objects (all called nebulae at the time) so as not to confuse them with comets. These “Messier objects” [NOT named thus because they are more messy than stars] turned out to include Open Clusters, Globular Clusters, Planetary Nebulae, Diffuse Nebulae, Spiral Galaxies, Elliptical Galaxies, Irregular Galaxies, Lenticular Galaxies, Supernova Remnants, Systems of 4 stars or Asterisms, Milky Way Patches, Binary stars, and even some objects of dubious existence (M 40, 47, 48, 91, 102). Messier died on 12 April 1817.
1557 Leandro Bassano da Ponte, Italian Mannerist painter who died on 15 April 1622. — MORE ON BASSANO AT ART “4” JUNE LINKSMoses Striking the RockPortrait of an Old Man
Holidays Malagasy Republic & British Somaliland : Independence Day (1960)

Religious Observances RC : SS John & Paul, martyrs in Rome / Santos Juan, Pablo, Virgilio, Salvio y Pelayo.

Thoughts for the day: “Statistics are often used as a drunk uses a light pole: For support rather than illumination.”
“Statistics on lightly drunk Poles do not support the theory that they are illuminated.”
updated Thursday 26-Jun-2003 21:23 UT
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Artwork inspired by one of the history items above (can you guess which?)

Full Moon



Lashing out