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Events, deaths, births, of JUN 29
[For events of Jun 29  Julian go to Gregorian date: 1583~1699: Jul 091700s: Jul 101800s: Jul 111900~2099: Jul 12]
• German invasion of USSR rolls on... • Sanctions against China... • Polish Pianist President dies... • Wife succeeds Juan Perón as President... • Vietnam air war escalates...
On a June 29:
2001 The Tourism Authority of Thailand announces plans to erect four billboards with the full name of the country's capital: Krungthep Mahanakhon Amon Rattanakosin Mahinthara Ayutthaya Mahadilokphop Noppharat Ratchathani Burirom Udomratchaniwet Mahasathan Amon Piman Awatan Sathit Sakkathatthiya Witsanukam Prasit (meaning City of Angels, Great City of Immortals, Magnificent City of the Nine Gems, Seat of the King, City of Royal Palaces, Home of the Gods Incarnate, Erected by Visvakarman at Indra's Behest). It is usually just called Krungthep by locals, and Bangkok ("City of Wild Plums") in the rest of the world. It was founded in 1782 by King Rama I,
2000 US President Clinton nominates former Congressman Norman Mineta to lead the Commerce Department and become the first Asian-American Cabinet Secretary.
1998 AOL upgrades CompuServe
      Nine months after agreeing to purchase CompuServe's online business, America Online launches an overhauled version of the service. AOL chose to revise CompuServe rather than fold it into its existing online service, because the CompuServe brand was more appealing to business and technical users than AOL, which was largely known for its chat rooms and celebrity forums.
1998 Macy's online
      Federated Department Stores, the owner of Macy's, says it will expand Macy's existing Web site into an electronic catalog site. The expanded site, slated to launch in October 1998, will include 250'000 products and an online bridal registry
1996 US allies back US President Clinton's demand that Bosnian Serb leaders indicted for war crimes be forced "out of power and out of influence."
1995 Microsoft pays IBM patent fee         ^top^
      Microsoft agrees to pay IBM a multimillion-dollar licensing fee for many basic software functions. The one-time fee covers more than one thousand patents IBM holds on software basics, such as the movement of a cursor based on the tab key. Industry observers compare the agreement to a divorce settlement: The two companies had worked together for twelve years, with Microsoft providing the operating system for IBM computers, but the two companies had been at war since launching competing operating systems-Windows and OS/2. This was the first time IBM had demanded fees its software patents.
1994 El socialista Tomiichi Murayama es elegido primer ministro de Japón.
1994 El transbordador estadounidense Atlantis y la estación rusa Mir se unen en el espacio, 20 años después del primer acoplamiento orbital ruso-norteamericano.
1989 US Congress votes new sanctions against China         ^top^
      In yet another reaction to the Chinese government's brutal massacre of protesters in Tiananmen Square in Beijing earlier in the month, the House of Representatives unanimously passes a package of sanctions against the People's Republic of China. American indignation, however, was relatively short-lived and most of the sanctions died out after a brief period. On June 4, 1989, Chinese troops and police smashed into hundreds of thousands of protesters who had gathered in Tiananmen Square in central Beijing to protest for greater democracy and freedom. Thousands were killed and tens of thousands arrested. In the United States, the public and government reacted with horror. President George Bush immediately ordered sanctions against the Chinese government, including a ban on arms shipments, the cessation of high-level talks with Chinese officials, and a suspension of talks about nuclear cooperation.
      Bush hoped that these sanctions would be enough to indicate the US government's displeasure and anger over the events in Tiananmen Square, but many members of Congress felt that the president had not gone far enough in punishing China for its egregious human rights violations. Over Bush's objections, the House of Representatives unanimously passed a new package of sanctions on 29 June. The new package included the proviso that the previous sanctions enacted by Bush could not be lifted until there were assurances that China was making progress in the area of human rights. The new sanctions focused on economic and trade relations with China. They suspended talks and funds for the expansion of US-Chinese trade, and also banned the shipment of police equipment to China.
      In the face of these sanctions, China remained largely unrepentant. It was not until May 1990 that the Chinese government began to release some of the thousands of protesters arrested the year before. However, diplomacy and economics eventually won out over moral indignation. The United States government had spent nearly 20 years trying to cultivate better relations with China, which it saw as a growing power and one that might be profitably used to balance against the Soviet Union. In addition, US businesspeople were filled with anticipation about the economic possibilities of the Chinese market. Finally, in 1991 the collapse of the Soviet Union meant the end of the Cold War, and all talk of "evil empires." In the face of these pressures and events, most of the sanctions fell by the wayside over the next few years.
1982 Voting Rights Act of 1965 extended
1981 Hu Yaobang, a protege of Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping, was elected Communist Party chairman, replacing Mao Tse-tung's handpicked successor, Hua Guofeng.
1977 Supreme Court ruled out death penalty for rapists of adults
1976 Proclamation de l’Indépendance des Seychelles         ^top^
     Le pays adopte une Constitution libérale, démocratique, de type occidental. Elles sont membres du Commonwealth, mais pratique une politique de " non-alignement " assez idéaliste. Cet état de l’Océan Indien, au nord-est de Madagascar, est constitué d’un archipel volcanique de moins de 500 km². Il compte près de 70'000 autochtones, mais de nombreuses sociétés et de riches hommes d’affaires ou vedettes étrangers choisissent d’y habiter pour des raisons fiscales (Paradis !). Sa capitale est "Victoria" sur la petite île de Mahé. On y parle le créole, ainsi que le français et l’anglais, suite aux occupations coloniales. Occupée par les Français dès 1756, les Seychelles passèrent sous contrôle britannique après la défaite de Napoléon.
1974 Isabela de Perón takes office as Argentine President         ^top^
      With Argentine President Juan Perón on his deathbed, vice president Isabela Martínez de Perón, 43, his third wife, is sworn in as the leader of the South American country. President Isabel Perón, a former dancer and Perón's third wife, is the Western Hemisphere's first female head of government. Two days later, Juan dies from heart disease, and Isabel is left alone as leader of a nation suffering from serious economic and political strife.
      Juan Domingo Perón was first elected president of Argentina in 1946, thanks in part to the efforts of his charismatic second wife, Eva Duarte de Perón and to the support of the underprivileged laborers (the descamisados), After becoming president, Perón constructed an impressive populist alliance that included workers, the military, nationalists, clerics, and industrialists. Perón's vision of self-sufficiency for his country won wide support from the Argentine people, but over the next decade he became increasingly authoritarian, jailing political opponents, restricting freedom of the press, and organizing trade unions into militant groups along Fascist lines. In 1952, the president's greatest political resource, "Evita" Perón, died, and his unusual social coalition collapsed, leading to a military coup in 1955 that forced him to flee the country.
     In exile in Madrid, in 1961 Juan Perón married for the third time (his first wife had died of cancer, as had Evita); his new wife was the former María Estela (called Isabel) Martínez, an Argentine dancer. In Spain, Perón worked to ensure, if not his return to Argentina, at least the eventual assumption of power by the millions of Peronist followers, whose memory of his regime improved with time and with the incapacity of the Argentine governments following Perón's decade of power.
      Perón's economic reforms remained popular with the majority of Argentineans long after his departure.In election after election the Peronists emerged as a large, indigestible mass in the Argentine body politic. Neither the civilian nor the military regimes that precariously ruled in Argentina after 1955 were able to solve the relatively rich nation's condition of “dynamic stagnation,” in part because they refused to give political office to the Peronists.
      The military regime of General Alejandro Lanusse, which took power in March 1971, proclaimed its intention to restore constitutional democracy by the end of 1973 and allowed the reestablishment of political parties, including the Peronist party. Upon invitation from the military government, Perón returned to Argentina for a short time in November 1972. In the elections of March 1973, Peronist candidates captured the presidency and majorities in the legislature, and, in June 1973 , Perón was welcomed back to Argentina with wild excitement. In October, in a special election, he was elected president and, at his insistence, his wife “Isabelita” — whom the Argentines disliked and resented — became vice president. After his sudden illness and impending death in the following year, his wife assumes the presidency.
      President Isabel Perón would prove unable to command the support of any powerful group, let alone construct a necessary coalition, and the political and economic situation in Argentina worsened. On 24 March 1976, following a sharp rise in political terrorism and guerrilla activity, the military deposed Isabela de Perón, and instituted one of the bloodiest regimes in South American history. Isabel de Perón was imprisoned for five years on a charge of abuse of property, and upon her release in 1981 settled in Madrid
1972 US Supreme Court kills death penalty         ^top^
      In Furman v. Georgia (69-5003), the US Supreme Court rules by a vote of five to four that capital punishment, as it then employed on the state and federal level, is unconstitutional. The majority holds that, in violation of the Eighth Amendment to the Constitution, the death penalty qualifies as "cruel and unusual punishment" primarily because states employ execution in "arbitrary and capricious ways," especially in regard to race.
      It is the first time that the nation's highest court had ruled against capital punishment. However, because the Supreme Court suggests new legislation that could make death sentences constitutional again, such as the development of standardized guidelines for sentencing juries, it is not an outright victory for opponents of the death penalty.
      In 1976, with 66% of the US population still supporting capital punishment, the Supreme Court would acknowledged progress made in jury guidelines and revive the death penalty under a "model of guided discretion." In 1977, Gary Gilmore, a career criminal who had murdered an elderly couple because they would not lend him their car, was the first person to be executed since the end of the ban. Defiantly facing a firing squad in Utah, Gilmore's last words to his executioners before they shot him through the heart were "Let's do it."
1970 España y la Comunidad Económica Europea firman en Luxemburgo un acuerdo comercial preferente.
1970 US ground troops leave Cambodia         ^top^
      US ground combat troops end two months of operations in Cambodia and return to South Vietnam. Military officials reported that 354 US soldiers had been killed and 1689 were wounded in the operation. The South Vietnamese reported 866 killed and 3724 wounded. About 34'000 South Vietnamese troops remained in Cambodia. US and South Vietnamese forces had launched a limited "incursion" into Cambodia to clear North Vietnamese sanctuaries 30 km inside the Cambodian border. Some 50'000 South Vietnamese soldiers and 30'000 US soldiers were involved, making it the largest operation of the war since Operation Junction City in 1967.
      The incursion into Cambodia had given the antiwar movement in the United States a new rallying point. News of the crossing into Cambodia set off a wave of antiwar demonstrations, including one at Kent State University that resulted in the killing of four students by Army National Guard troops, and another at Jackson State in Mississippi resulting in the shooting of two students when police opened fire on a women's dormitory. The incursion also angered many in Congress, who felt that Nixon was illegally widening the scope of the war; this resulted in a series of congressional resolutions and legislative initiatives that would severely limit the executive power of the president.
1967 Jerusalem is re-unified as Israel removed barricades separating the Arab Old City from the Israeli sector.
1966 Vietnam air war escalates         ^top^
      During the Vietnam War, US aircraft bombed the major North Vietnamese population centers of Hanoi and Haiphong for the first time, destroying oil depots located near the two cities. The US military hoped that by bombing Hanoi, the capital of North Vietnam, and Haiphong, North Vietnam's largest port, Communist forces would be deprived of essential military supplies and thus the ability to wage war.
      In 1961, US President John F. Kennedy had sent the first large force of US military personnel to Vietnam to bolster the ineffectual autocratic regime of South Vietnam against Communist forces. Three years later, with the South Vietnamese government crumbling, President Lyndon B. Johnson ordered limited-bombing raids on North Vietnam and Congress authorized the use of US troops. By 1965, Vietcong and North Vietnamese offensives left President Johnson with two choices: escalate US involvement or withdraw. Johnson ordered the former, and troop levels soon jumped to over 300'000 as US air forces commenced the largest bombing campaign in history.
      However, as the Vietcong were able to fight with an average daily flow of only twenty tons of supplies from North Vietnam, and US forces in Vietnam required one thousand times as much, the bombing of Communist industry and supply routes had little impact on the course of the war. Nevertheless, North Vietnamese leader Ho Chi Minh placed the destruction of US bombers in the forefront of his war effort, and by 1969, over 5000 US planes had been lost.
      In addition, the extended length of the war, the high number of US casualties, and the exposure of US involvement in war crimes such as the massacre at My Lai had turned many in the United States against the Vietnam War. In 1970, President Richard M. Nixon began withdrawing US troops, but intensified bombing across Indochina in an effort to salvage the embattled war effort. Large US troop withdrawals continued in the early 1970s, but Nixon expanded air and ground operations into Cambodia and Laos in attempts to block enemy supply routes along Vietnam's borders. This expansion of the war, which accomplished few positive results, led to new waves of protests in the United States and elsewhere.
      Finally, in 1973, representatives of the United States, North and South Vietnam, and the Vietcong signed a peace agreement in Paris, ending the US military involvement in the Vietnam War. By the end of 1973, the US contingent in Vietnam had shrunk to only fifty military advisors. On 30 April 1975, the last of these and other US persons were airlifted out of Vietnam as Communist forces launched their final triumphant offensive into South Vietnam. The Vietnam War was the longest and most unpopular foreign war in US history, and cost fifty-eight thousand US lives.
1964 Civil Rights Act of 1964 passed after 83-day filibuster in Senate
1964 First New Zealand troops arrive in Vietnam         ^top^
      Twenty-four New Zealand Army engineers arrive in Saigon as a token of that country's support for the American effort in South Vietnam. The contingent was part of the Free World Military Forces, an effort by President Lyndon B. Johnson to enlist other nations to support the American cause in South Vietnam by sending military aid and troops. The level of support was not the primary issue; Johnson wanted to portray international solidarity and consensus for US policies in Southeast Asia and he believed that participation by a number of countries would achieve that end. The effort was also known as the "many flags" program. In June 1965, New Zealand increased their commitment to the war with the arrival of the Royal New Zealand Artillery's 161st Battery. Two rifle companies from the Royal New Zealand Infantry Regiment arrived in South Vietnam in 1967 along with a platoon from New Zealand's commando force, the Special Air Service. These New Zealand forces were integrated with the forces of the Australian Task Force and operated with them in Phuoc Tuy Province, southeast of Saigon along the coast. In 1971, New Zealand withdrew its military forces from South Vietnam.
1959 Pope John XXIII encyclical Ad Petri Cathedram, on Truth, Unity and Peace
1956 US Federal interstate highway system act signed
1954 US Atomic Energy Commission votes against reinstating Dr J Robert Oppenheimer's access to classified information.
1951 The United States invites the Soviet Union to the Korean peace talks on a ship in Wonson Harbor. A fresh perspective on the Korean War.
1950 President Harry S. Truman authorizes a sea blockade of Korea. He relied heavily on Dean Acheson for his most significant foreign policy achievements.
1949 Las tropas holandesas abandonan Indonesia.
1949 South Africa begins implementing apartheid; enacting a ban against racially-mixed marriages.
1949 US troops withdraw from Korea after WW II (it would not be for long)
1946 British arrest 2700 Jews in Palestine as alleged terrorists
1945 Ruthenia, formerly in Czechoslovakia, becomes part of Ukrainian SSR
1941 Overwhelming follow-through to German invasion of USSR.         ^top^
      Soon after their surprise assault on Russia, Nazi divisions make staggering advances on Leningrad, Moscow, and Kiev. Joseph Stalin had ignored warnings that Hitler would betray the 1939 Nazi-Soviet non-aggression pact, and the Germans seized over 1'300'000 square kilometers of Russian territory in the first two months of the invasion. However, the tenacity of the Red Army and the severity of the Russian winter had yet to be experienced by the Germans.  
     One week after launching a massive invasion of the USSR, German divisions make staggering advances on Leningrad, Moscow, and Kiev. Despite his signing of the Nazi-Soviet Pact of 1939, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin knew that war with Nazi Germany--the USSR's natural ideological enemy--was inevitable. In 1941, he received reports that German forces were massing along the USSR's eastern border. He ordered a partial mobilization, unwisely believing that Nazi leader Adolf Hitler would never open another front until Britain was subdued. Stalin was thus surprised by the invasion that came on 22 June 1941. On that day, 150 German divisions poured across the Soviet Union's 2900-km-long eastern frontier in one of the largest and most powerful military operations in history. Aided by its far superior air force, the Wehrmacht, the Germans raced across the USSR in three great army groups, inflicting terrible casualties on the Red Army and Soviet civilians. On June 29, the cities of Riga and Ventspils in Latvia fell, 200 Soviet aircraft were shot down, and the encirclement of three Russian armies was nearly complete at Minsk in Belarus. Assisted by their Romanian and Finnish allies, the Germans conquered vast territory in the opening months of the invasion, and by mid-October the great Russian cities of Leningrad and Moscow were under siege.
      However, like Napoleon Bonaparte in 1812, Hitler failed to take into account the Russian people's historic determination in resisting invaders. Although millions of Soviet soldiers and citizens perished in 1941, and to the rest of the world it seemed certain that the USSR would fall, the defiant Red Army and bitter Russian populace were steadily crushing Hitler's hopes for a quick victory. Stalin had far greater reserves of Red Army divisions than German intelligence had anticipated, and the Soviet government did not collapse from lack of popular support as expected.
      Confronted with the harsh reality of Nazi occupation, Soviets chose Stalin's regime as the lesser of two evils and willingly sacrificed themselves in what became known as the "Great Patriotic War." The German offensive against Moscow stalled only 30 km from the Kremlin, Leningrad's spirit of resistance remained strong, and the Soviet armament industry--transported by train to the safety of the east--carried on, safe from the fighting. Finally, what the Russians call "General Winter" rallied again to their cause, crippling the Germans' ability to maneuver and thinning the ranks of the divisions ordered to hold their positions until the next summer offensive.
      The winter of 1941 came early and was the worst in decades, and German troops without winter coats were decimated by the major Soviet counteroffensives that began in December. In May 1942, the Germans, who had held their line at great cost, launched their summer offensive. They captured the Caucasus and pushed to the city of Stalingrad, where one of the greatest battles of World War II began. In November 1942, a massive Soviet counteroffensive was launched out of the rubble of Stalingrad, and at the end of January 1943 German Field Marshal Friedrich Paulus surrendered his encircled army. It was the turning point in the war, and the Soviets subsequently recaptured all the territory taken by the Germans in their 1942 offensive.
      In July 1943, the Germans launched their last major attack, at Kursk; after two months of fierce battle involving thousands of tanks it ended in failure. From thereon, the Red Army steadily pushed the Germans back in a series of Soviet offensives. In January 1944, Leningrad was relieved, and a giant offensive to sweep the USSR clean of its invaders began in May. In January 1945, the Red Army launched its final offensive, driving into Czechoslovakia and Austria and, in late April, Berlin. The German capital was captured on 02 May, and five days later Germany surrendered in World War II. More than 18 million Soviet soldiers and civilians lost their lives in the Great Patriotic War. Germany lost more than three million men as a result of its disastrous invasion of the USSR.
1940 II Guerra Mundial: los alemanes llegan a la frontera franco-española y ocupan las islas anglonormandas.
1940 US passes Alien Registration Act requiring Aliens to register
1939 Dixie Clipper completes first commercial plane flight to Europe
1936 Pope Pius XI encyclical to US bishops "On motion pictures"
1932 Siam’s army seizes Bangkok and announces an end to the absolute monarchy.
1931 Pope Pius XI publishes his Non Abbiamo Bisogno, on Catholic Action in Italy
1931 43ºC, Monticello, Florida (state record)
1930 Canonisation par le Pape Pie XI de Jean de Brébeuf.         ^top^
     Le missionnaire Jésuite Français "en Huronie" est né en 1593, mort en 1649, il a participé à l’évangélisation et à la " civilisation " de ces vastes régions du Québec. Jean de Brébeuf a vécu pendant quinze années au milieu des Hurons. Nul ne les connaissait mieux que lui : il leur a consacré des pages qui comptent parmi les plus précieuses de l’ethnographie amérindienne.
      Né à Condé-sur-Vire, en Normandie, il entre chez les Jésuites en 1617 : il est ordonné prêtre en 1622. Désigné pour la nouvelle mission jésuite du Canada, il débarque à Québec en 1625. Pendant cinq mois, il suit les Algonquins dans leurs courses vagabondes. Mais c’est à la nation huronne, à 800 milles de Québec, que son supérieur le destine. Il s’y rend en 1626, y séjourne trois ans, étudiant la langue et les mœurs huronnes, mais ne fait aucun progrès dans l’évangélisation.
      Rappelé à Québec en 1629, il est forcé de rentrer en France et ne retourne dans la colonie qu’en 1633, après l’occupation anglaise. Dès 1634, il remonte en Huronie, comme supérieur, avec l’ordre de fonder et d’organiser une mission permanente. Le travail missionnaire semble, cette fois, devoir donner des résultats. Mais, coup sur coup, en 1634, 1636 et 1639, des épidémies d’une rare violence déciment les Hurons. De 30'000, la population tombe à 12'000. Il n’en fallait pas tant pour que les Jésuites fussent accusés de sorcellerie, et la religion nouvelle décriée. Une lutte ouverte s’engage entre les Indiens courroucés et apeurés et les missionnaires résignés à mourir assassinés. Plusieurs de ceux-ci se voient à la dernière extrémité, mais la crainte que les Hurons ont des Français de Québec les retient toujours de massacrer les Jésuites.
      Brébeuf, qui a fondé trois postes avant de céder le supériorat en 1638, est victime d’un accident et doit regagner Québec en 1641. Il exercera pendant trois ans les fonctions de procureur de la mission. Quand Brébeuf retourne en Huronie, en 1644, la guerre atteint son point culminant. Décimés par les maladies, divisés et désorientés par l’introduction d’une religion et de coutumes nouvelles, démoralisés, les Hurons sont désormais une proie facile pour leur puissant ennemi. Incapables de résistance, ils se convertissent par milliers.
      Mais la fin est proche. À partir de 1647, les Iroquois détruisent systématiquement la Huronie, bourg après bourg, et massacrent les missionnaires. Le 16 mars 1649, Brébeuf est capturé. Les Iroquois le martyrisent longuement, atrocement, avec les raffinements d’une cruauté inouïe.
1926 Fascists in Rome add an hour to the work day in an economic efficiency measure.
1917 The Ukraine proclaims independence from Russia — Se proclama la República Autónoma de Ucrania.
1916 Boeing aircraft flies for first time
1916 British diplomat convicted of treason         ^top^
      Sir Roger David Casement, the Irish-born diplomat who in 1911 was knighted by King George V, is convicted of treason for his role in Ireland's Easter Rebellion, and sentenced to death. Casement, an Irish Protestant who served as a British diplomat during the early part of the twentieth century, won international acclaim after exposing the illegal practice of slavery in the Congo and parts of South America. Despite his Ulster Protestant roots, he became an ardent supporter of the Irish independence movement, and after the outbreak of World War I, traveled to the United States and then to Germany to secure aid for an Irish uprising against the British. Germany, which was at war with Great Britain, promised limited aid, and Casement was transported back to Ireland in a German submarine.
      On 21 April 1916, just a few days before the outbreak of the Easter Rebellion in Dublin, he landed in Kerry, and was picked up by British authorities almost immediately. By the end of the month, the Easter Rebellion had been suppressed, and the majority of its leaders were executed. Casement was tried separately because of his illustrious past, but nevertheless was found guilty of treason on 29 June. On 03 August, he was hanged in London.
1914 Monday: in the aftermath of the previous day's assassination in Sarajevo of Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary and his wife, Sophia:         ^top^
  • Belgrade wires its condolences to Vienna.
  • Serbian Prime Minister Nikola Pasic renounces the Black Hand and orders all public meeting places closed.
  • The week long Serb festival celebrating St. Vitus Day is cancelled.
  • Widespread rioting and looting by Croats and Moslems in Sarajevo directed towards the Serbian population. Good deal of property damage with injuries.
  • Austrian Foreign Minister Count Leopold von Berchtold's initial stance is one of moderation; dismiss Belgrade's minister of police, jail all suspected terrorists, and dissolve extremist groups. Austrian army Chief of Staff General Conrad von Hotzendorff wants invasion but needs sixteen days to mobilize his troops.
  • The Austrians are aware of a trip by French President Raymond Poincare and Prime Minister Rene Viviani to Russia that will end 23-Jul-1914. It was agreed that no action should take place until then. It would not do to have French and Russians in such close contact during the crisis to follow.
  • Hungarian Prime Minister, Count Istvan Tisza, does not want any action that could bring war with Russia. He is in direct conflict with Austrian counterpart, Count Berchtold.
  • London newspaper runs headline: "To Hell with Serbia". However, King George V decrees seven days of mourning.
  • Not to be outdone, Czar Nicholas II orders twelve days of mourning.
  • 1913 Beginning of the 2nd Balkan War
    1913 El Parlamento noruego concede a las mujeres todos los derechos electorales.
    1906 Hepburn Act controls US railroads         ^top^
          Overwhelmingly elected to the presidency in 1904, Theodore Roosevelt immediately asked Congress for substantial powers to regulate interstate railroad rates. Public demand for effective national regulation of interstate railroad rates had been growing since the Supreme Court had emasculated the Interstate Commerce Commission's (ICC) rate-making authority in the 1890s. Determined to bring the railroads--the country's single greatest private economic interest--under effective national control, Roosevelt waged an unrelenting battle with an uncooperative Congress in 1905 and 1906.
          The outcome--the Hepburn Act of 1906--was his own personal triumph, giving teeth to the previously flaccid ICC, despite Congress dragging its heels and tacking on several self-serving "amendments" before agreeing to pass the bill. The Hepburn Act greatly enlarged the ICC's jurisdiction and forbade railroads to increase rates without its approval. By giving the ICC the authority to set maximum rates, Roosevelt effectively created the first of the government's regulatory commissions and thus cleared a milestone on the long road to the modern social-service state.
          By using the same tactics of aggressive leadership, Roosevelt in 1906 also obtained passage of a Meat Inspection Act and a Pure Food and Drug Act. Passage of the former was aided by the publication of Upton Sinclair's famous novel, The Jungle (1906), which revealed in ghastly detail the unsanitary conditions of the Chicago stockyards and meat-packing plants.
    1905 Russian troops intervene as riots erupt in ports all over the country, leaving many ships looted
    1903 The British government officially protests Belgian atrocities in the Congo.
    1900 Comienza a regir la Fundación Nobel que otorga los premios de este mismo nombre.
    1897 Conventions entre l’Etat Italien et la République libre de Saint-Marin (San-Marino).         ^top^
          Comme Monaco pour la France, le Liechtenstein pour la Suisse, Saint-Marin, à l’est de Florence, est une enclave indépendante. Elle est sous "protectorat", comme les deux exemples précités. Elle ne compte que 61 km² et 5000 habitants, qui vivent essentiellement dans la capitale, Saint-Marin.
          San-Marino est indépendante depuis le XIème siècle. A cette époque, en Europe Occidentale, beaucoup de villes se sont développées (suite à la croissance démographique et à l’évolution vers le commerce et l’artisanat semi-industriel consécutif aux Croisades) et se sont détachées du Pouvoir Seigneurial. Elles ont racheté leurs libertés au Seigneur qui avait besoin d’argent. Elles se sont dotés de lois propres, d’un Conseil législatif, d’un exécutif propre et d’armées (ainsi que de murailles) pour garantir leurs droits.
          Actuellement, le Grand Conseil (60 membres élus " directement) forment le législatif ; lequel élit deux "capitaines-régents" pour 6 mois. La république de San-Marino applique la loi italienne dans son ensemble, utilise la lire (bientôt l’Euro) mais possède des lois propres (fiscalité, commerce, taxation etc) régies depuis 1935 par une nouvelle Convention avec l’Italie de Mussolini. Ces accords n’ont pas encore été revus. Parce que cette situation relève d’un folklore qui attire beaucoup de touristes.
    1890 Tratado franco-español por el que se reconoció a España un territorio en el Golfo de Guinea, actual Guinea Ecuatorial.
    1880 Tahiti becomes a French colony, from the. French protectorate it was since 1842.
    1868 Pío IX convoca el Concilio Vaticano I, que debía inaugurarse en Roma el 8 de diciembre del año siguiente.
    1863 Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana continues
    1863 Siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi continues
    1863 Lee orders his forces to concentrate near Gettysburg, PN
    1862 Day 5 of the 7 Days Campaign--Union forces continue to fall back from Richmond, but put up a fight at the Battle of Savage’s Station, Virginia. Tall Tales of the Civil War.
    1862 Battle of Savage's Station         ^top^
          Confederate General Robert E. Lee attacks Union General George McClellan as he is pulling his army away from Richmond, Virginia, in retreat during the Seven Days' Battles. Although the Yankees lost 1,000 men—twice as many as the Rebels—they were able to successfully protect the retreat. George McClellan spent the spring of 1862 preparing the Army of the Potomac for a campaign up the James Peninsula toward Richmond. For nearly three months, McClellan landed his troops at Fort Monroe, at the end of the peninsula, and worked northwest to Richmond. The Seven Days' Battles were the climax of this attempt to take the Confederate capital. Although he had an advantage in numbers, McClellan squandered it and surrendered the initiative to Lee, who attacked the Yankees and began driving them away from Richmond. As McClelland retreated, Lee hounded his army. When the Union army moved past Savage's Station—a stop on the Richmond and York River Railroad and the site of a Union hospital—Lee ordered an assault on the troops screening the retreat. This was a chance to break McClellan's flank and deal a shattering defeat to the Yankees. But although Lee's strategy was sound, it was complicated, requiring precise timing on the part of several generals. The Confederates inflicted serious damage on the Northerners but were not able to break the rear guard. Fighting continued until nightfall, when a torrential rainstorm ended the battle.
    1858 China cedes north bank of Amur River to Russia in compliance with the "unequal treaty" of Algun of May 16, 1858.
    1835 Texan William Travis prepares for war with Mexico         ^top^
          Determined to win independence for the Mexican State of Texas, William Travis raises a volunteer army of 25 soldiers and prepares to liberate the city of Anahuac. Born in South Carolina and raised in Alabama, William Travis moved to Mexican-controlled Texas in 1831 at the age of 22. He established a legal practice in Anahuac, a small frontier town about 40 miles east of Houston. From the start, Travis disliked Mexicans personally and resented Mexican rule of Texas politically. In 1832, he clashed with local Mexican officials and was jailed for a month.
          When he was released, the growing Texan independence movement hailed him as a hero, strengthening his resolve to break away from Mexico by whatever means necessary. Early in 1835, the Mexican President Antonio López de Santa Anna overthrew the republican government and proclaimed himself dictator. Rightly fearing that some Texans would rebel as a result, Santa Anna quickly moved to reinforce Mexican control and dispatched troops to Anahuac, among other areas. Accustomed to enjoying a large degree of autonomy, some Texans resented the presence of Santa Anna's troops, and they turned to Travis for leadership.
          On 29 June 1835, Travis raises a company of 25 volunteer soldiers. The next day, the small army easily captured Captain Antonio Tenorio, the leader of Santa Anna's forces in Anahuac, and forced the troops to surrender. More radical Texans again proclaimed Travis a hero, but others condemned him for trying to foment war and maintained that Santa Anna could still be dealt with short of revolution. By the fall of 1835, however, conflict had become inevitable, and Texans prepared to fight a war of independence. As soon as the rebels had formed an army, Travis was made a lieutenant colonel in command of the regular troops at San Antonio.
          On 23 February 1836 Travis joined forces with Jim Bowie's army of volunteers to occupy an old Spanish mission known as the Alamo. The following day, Santa Anna and about 4000 of his men laid siege to the Alamo. With less than 200 soldiers, Travis and Bowie were able to hold off the Mexicans for 13 days. On 06 March Santa Anna's soldiers stormed the Alamo and killed nearly every Texan defender, including Travis. In the months that followed, "Remember the Alamo" became a rallying cry as the Texans successfully drove the Mexican forces from their borders. By April, Texas had won its independence. Travis, who first hastened the war of independence and then became a martyr to the cause, became an enduring symbol of Texan courage and defiance.
    1776 Virginia state constitution adopted and Patrick Henry made governor
    1767 The British Parliament approves the Townshend Revenue Acts, which imposed import duties on glass, lead, paint, paper and tea shipped to America. Colonists bitterly protested the Acts, which were repealed in 1770.
    1707 Felipe V de España abole los fueros de Aragón e implanta los primeros Decretos de Nueva Planta.
    1706 Guerra de Sucesión. Una columna de caballería, a las órdenes del marqués de Villaverde, toma posesión de Madrid en nombre del archiduque Carlos.
    1694 Le corsaire Jean Bart (1650 - 1702) est anobli.         ^top^
          Corsaire et chef d’escadre dunkerquois, issu d’une famille de marins, Jean Bart sert d’abord dans la flotte des Provinces-Unies (Les Pays Bas, la Hollande) sous les ordres de l’amiral De Ruyter (1666). Quand éclate la guerre franco-hollandaise (1672), il rentre à Dunkerque, s’embarque sur un navire corsaire et est rapidement promu au commandement d’un bâtiment (1674). À la fin de la guerre en 1678, il est un des plus célèbres "capres" (corsaires) de sa ville natale, avec quatre-vingt-une prises à son actif.
          La guerre de la Ligue d’Augsbourg porte sa réputation à son zénith. Fait prisonnier en 1689 avec son lieutenant Claude de Forbin, tous deux s’évadent de Plymouth à bord d’une barque et rejoignent la côte française à force de rames. Capitaine de vaisseau, il se voit confier par le roi une escadre légère avec laquelle il multiplie les croisières en mer du Nord contre le commerce anglais et hollandais, à qui il fait subir des dommages considérables. Et c’est en vain que les escadres ennemies font le blocus de Dunkerque et bombardent la ville à deux reprises (1694-1695) dans l’espoir déçu de lui interdire la haute mer, ainsi qu’aux autres corsaires.
          En 1694, alors que la France souffre de la disette, il protège les arrivages de blé russe, notamment le 29 juin, quand il reprend aux Hollandais, qui venaient de s’en emparer, un énorme convoi qu’il amène à bon port, exploit pour lequel il est anobli. Promu chef d’escadre en 1697, il est commandant de la marine de Dunkerque, quand il meurt à la veille d’entrer en campagne dans la guerre de la Succession d’Espagne.
          Le succès de Jean Bart résulte de la conjonction de trois éléments : d’une part, ses qualités personnelles d’homme de mer, audace et sens tactique (croisières foudroyantes sur de légères frégates, rapides et bonnes manœuvrières, combat au plus près, terminé à l’abordage) ; d’autre part, le milieu dunkerquois avec sa nombreuse population de marins qui lui fournit officiers et équipages d’un courage héroïque ; et enfin la politique navale du secrétaire d’État, Louis de Ponchartrain, qui encourage systématiquement la guerre de course.
    1652 Massachusetts declares itself an independent commonwealth
    1613 Shakespeare's theater burns down         ^top^
          The Globe Theater, where most of Shakespeare's plays debuted, burns down on this day in 1613. The Globe was built by Shakespeare's acting company, the Lord Chamberlain's Men, in 1599 from the timbers of London's very first permanent theater, Burbage's Theater, built in 1576. Before James Burbage built his theater, plays and dramatic performances were ad hoc affairs, performed on street corners and in the yards of inns.
          However, the Common Council of London, in 1574, started licensing theatrical pieces performed in inn yards within the city limits. To escape the restriction, actor James Burbage built his own theater on land he leased outside the city limits. When Burbage's lease ran out, the Lord Chamberlain's Men moved the timbers to a new location and created the Globe.
          Like other theaters of its time, the Globe was a round wooden structure with a stage at one end, and covered balconies for the gentry. The galleries could seat about 1000 people, with room for another 2000 "groundlings," who could stand on the ground around the stage. The Lord Chamberlain's men built Blackfriars theater in 1608, a smaller theater that seated about 700 people, to use in winter when the open-air Globe wasn't practical.
    1529 Se firma el tratado de Barcelona, que restablece la paz entre el papa Clemente VII y el emperador Carlos I de España y V de Alemania.
    1236 Saint Ferdinand III of Castile and León takes Córdoba in Spain from the Moors.
    Deaths which occurred on a June 29:         ^top^
    2003 Seven persons from Chicago and its Illinois suburbs: Eileen Lupton, 22, of Lake Forest; Shea Fitzgerald, 19, of Winnetka; Sam Farmer, 21, of Winnetka; Julie Sorkin, 25, of Glenview; Kelly McKinnell, 26, of Barrington; Robert Koranda, 23, of Chicago; Muhammed Hameeduddin, 24, of Chicago; and five persons from out-of-state: John Jackson, 22, of Kansas City, MO; Henry Wischerath, 24, of Buffalo NY; Margaret Haynie, 25, of Evansville IN; Katherine Sheriff, 23, of PA; Eric Kumpf, 30, of Hoboken NJ; as 3rd-floor porch gives way and collapses 2nd- and 1st-floor porches into basement stairwell at 713 W. Wrightwood Avenue on Chicago's North Side at 00:25 (05:25 UT). 57 persons are injured. A sedate party, mostly of former New Trier High School students and University of Chicago Law School students, was winding down; there were perhaps 50 of them overloading the 3rd-floor porch, others on the 2nd-floor porch, and other leaving, going down the stairs.
    2002 Jennifer (née Watson) Wright, hit in the jaw with a coffee cup, beaten with a baseball bat, and strangled with her own sports bra by her recently separated husband from whom she was seeking a divorce, Master Sgt. William Wright, 36, of the 96th Civil Affairs Battalion of Fort Bragg, North Carolina, who had been from mid-March to mid-May 2002 in Afghanistan, where his unit was administered the anti-malaria drug mefloquine (“Lariam”), known to produce psychotic side effects. Sgt. Wright then puts the corpse in a parachute recovery bag and buries it. He would hang himself while awaiting trial in prison on 23 March 2003. Similar wife murders were committed at Fort Bragg by Sgt. 1st Class Rigoberto Nieves (with suicide, 11 June 2002); Sgt. Cedric Griffin (09 July 2002); and Sgt 1st Class Brandon Floyd (with suicide, 19 July 2002). On 23 July 2002, Maj. David Shannon, of Fort Bragg, was murdered by his wife Joan Shannon.
    2002 A Palestinian boy, age 9, shot by Israeli troops. A 13-year-old Palestinian boy is wounded.
    2002 Cho Chong-hyong, three other South Korean Navy enlisted men and Lt. Yoon Young-ha, and some North Korean sailors, when a North Korean naval vessel shoots at and sets fire to their patrol boat with a crew of 27, of which another 20 are injured and only 2 are unhurt, during the 21-minute firefight that ensues. This in the Yellow Sea 5 km inside South Korean waters at 10:25, when two South Korean navy vessels warned over their loudspeakers two North Korean navy warships and some Northern fishing boats that they should withdraw, a Communist boat fired from about 500 meters away, and the South Koreans returned fire, setting the Northern boats on fire. After the armistice that ended the 1950-53 Korean War did not demarcate a sea border between the two Koreas, the UN Command set one which North Korea has never accepted.
    2002 Van Yu Tu, Chinese consul, in the evening, shot while driving in the center of Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, with Uighur businessman Nurmachamed Umarov.
    2000 All but 10 of the nearly 500 aboard in the sinking of an overloaded ship, in Indonesia. Many of the passengers were fleeing sectarian violence in the Maluku islands.
    1992 Mohammed Boudiaf, Chef de l'Etat Algérien, assassiné à Annaba — Mohamed Budiaf, presidente argelino, asesinado a tiros por un extremista del FIS, en Anaba.
    1991 Henri Lefebvre, filósofo y sociólogo francés.
    1990 Irving Wallace, 74, author (Book of Lists, Peoples Almanac)
    1989 Juan Vicente Chiarino Ravenna, político, abogado y periodista uruguayo.
    1975 Dionisio Ridruejo, escritor y político español.
    1971 Los tres tripulantes de la nave espacial soviética Soyuz II al producirse un accidente poco antes de aterrizar.
    1969 Moise Tshombe, 49, of a heart attack (or assassination?)         ^top^
         He was a politician, president of the secessionist African state of Katanga, and premier of the united Congo Republic (now Congo [Kinshasa]) who took advantage of an armed mutiny to announce the secession of mineral-rich Katanga province in July 1960. With covert military and technical assistance from Belgium and the aid of a white mercenary force, Tshombe maintained his independent Republic of Katanga for three years in the face of combined United Nations and Congolese efforts to end the secession of the province. Often accused of being a pawn of foreign commercial interests, Tshombe was an adroit politician, who used his foreign supporters to help him achieve his personal ambitions in the Congo.
          Tshombe came from a wealthy family and at his father's death inherited sizable business holdings. After the businesses began to fail, however, Tshombe turned to politics. From 1951 to 1953 he was one of the few Congolese to serve on the Katanga Provincial Council. In 1959 he became president of Conakat (Confédération des Associations Tribales du Katanga), a political party that was supported by Tshombe's tribal group, the powerful Lunda, and by the Belgian mining monopoly Union Minière du Haut Katanga, which controlled the province's rich copper mines.
          At a conference called by the Belgian home government in 1960 to discuss independence for the Congo, Tshombe presented Conakat's proposals for an independent Congo made up of a loose confederation of semiautonomous provinces. Tshombe's proposals, as well as those of other federationists such as Joseph Kasavubu, were rejected in favor of Patrice Lumumba's plan for a strongly centralized republic. Conakat won only 8 of 137 seats in the Congolese Parliament in the first national elections of May 1960, but Tshombe's party and its allies won a majority in Katanga's Provincial Assembly, and Tshombe became president of the province.
          Although he appeared to accept Lumumba's national government, with the mutiny of the Force Publique (militia) two weeks after independence, Tshombe declared Katanga independent on 11 July 1960. After the ouster of Congolese Premier Lumumba by President Kasavubu and the army in September 1960, Tshombe opened negotiations with Kasavubu toward a possible end to Katanga secession but later abandoned the talks. He may have been implicated in the subsequent death of Lumumba.
          Tshombe failed to win diplomatic recognition for his state, and after the United Nations intervened with force in Katanga in January 1963 and defeated his troops, Tshombe fled to Spain. Recalled from exile in 1964 by President Kasavubu to assume the post of premier to quell a rebellion in the eastern Congo, Tshombe was dismissed in 1965, ostensibly for using white mercenaries against the rebels, though it is also contended that he was attempting to oust Kasavubu. Tshombe returned to Spain.
          In 1967, when there were rumours that he planned to return to the Congo, Tshombe was kidnapped and taken to Algeria. Algerian officials refused the demands of Congolese President Joseph Mobutu (later Mobutu Sese Seko) for Tshombe's extradition to stand trial for treason. Tshombe remained under house arrest near Algiers, where he died of "a heart attack".
    1955 Hermann Max Pechstein, German Expressionist painter and printmaker born on 31 December 1881. — MORE ON PECHSTEIN AT ART “4” JUNELINKS BathersFlute Playing in the Country Dancer Reflected in a MirrorStrawberry Girl
    1944 Philippe Henriot, membre d'une organisation d'extrême droite avant la guerre, député, il est devenu le secrétaire de l'Information du gouvernement de Laval à Vichy. La Résistance le condamne à mort. Alors qu'il cherche à fuir en Allemagne, il est arrêté et fusillé.
    1941, 3000 political prisoners slaughtered by Soviet NKVD, as Nazis capture Lvov         ^top^
          The Germans, in their invasion of Soviet territory,occupy Lvov, in eastern Galicia, in Ukraine. The Russians followed a scorched-earth policy upon being invaded by the Germans; that is, they would destroy, burn, flood, dismantle, and remove anything and everything in territory they were forced to give up to the invader upon retreating, thereby leaving the Germans little in the way of crops, supplies, industrial plants, or equipment. (It was a policy that had proved very successful against Napoleon in the previous century.)
          As the Germans capture Lvov, the Soviet NKVD, the forerunner of the KGB secret police, murders 3000 Ukrainian political prisoners. Lvov had had a long history of being occupied by foreign powers: Sweden, Austria, Russia, Poland, and since 1939, the Soviet Union, which had proved especially repressive. The German invaders were seen as liberators, if for no other reason than they were the enemy of Poland and Russia--two of Lvov's, and Ukraine's-- enemies.
          But release from the Soviet grip only meant subjection to Nazi terror. Within days, administrative control of Ukraine was split up between Poland, Romania, and Germany. Some 2.5 million Ukrainians were shipped to Germany as slave laborers, and Ukrainian Jews were subjected to the same vicious racial policies as in Poland: Some 600,000 were murdered. (Ukrainian nationalists also had blood on their hands in this respect, having gone on the rampage upon the withdrawal of Russian troops by scapegoating Jews for "Bolshevism," killing them in the streets
    Polish statesman, pianist and composer Ignace Jan Paderewski, in New York exile.         ^top^
    1941 Ignacy Jan Paderewski
    , 80 ans, à New York.
          Né à Kurylowka, dans la province de Podolie, de la Pologne sous le joug de la Russie. Ce grand virtuose du piano s'engagera en 1914 au côté du président Wilson, en faveur de l’indépendance polonaise. En décembre 1918, ses compatriotes lui font un accueil d’un enthousiasme délirant. Son combat obstiné pour la libération de la Pologne a fait de Paderewski un véritable héros national.
          Président du Conseil et Ministre des Affaires Étrangères, il participe à ce titre, à la signature du traité de Versailles, en 1919, par lequel la Posnamie, une partie de la Prusse Occidentale et le "couloir de Dantzig" sont cédés à la Pologne. Il décède en pleine deuxième Guerre Mondiale, la Pologne étant occupée par les nazis.
    1940 Paul Klee, Swiss German Expressionist painter born on 18 December 1879. MORE ON KLEE AT ART “4” JUNELINKS 1914SeiltanzerInsula DulcamaraSüdliche GärtenTunisian GardensAncient SoundsLegend of the NileThe Golden FishThreat of LightningCaptiveParnassusDer Marsch zum Gipfel — JesterKronenarr — Red and White DomesRemembrance of a GardenOnce Emerged from the Gray of Night
    1924 Robert Simpson Woodward, US mathematician born on 21 July 1849.
    1923 General JC Gomez Venezuala's first VP, assassinated
    1905 Centenares de muertos por la intervención del Ejército en violentos enfrentamientos en los puertos rusos, especialmente en Odessa.
    1905 Lewis Robinson (or Robertson), Richard Robinson, Sandy Price, Claude Elder, Robert Harris, Gene Yerby (or Jim Yearly), Richard Allen, all Blacks, and Lon J. Aycock, a White, shot by a lynch mob of masked White men, in Georgia, 200 m from the center of Watkinsville, where the mob had taken them from the jail. Some of the Blacks had confessed to a double murder and robbery, implicating Aycock. One more Black, Joe Patterson, was among the intended victims, but escaped the shots by falling to the ground and playing dead. The Robinsons, Elder, Allen, and Aycock were accused of murder; Harris of murderous assault; Price of attempted rape; and Yerby of burglary.
    1886 Adolphe Joseph Thomas Monticelli, Marseille painter born on 14 October 1824. — MORE ON MONTICELLI AT ART “4” JUNE LINKSFête champêtreMeeting Place of the HuntFountain in a ParkStill Life with White PitcherFlowersLandscapes.
    1874 The Freedmen's Bank, created to assist former slaves in the United States, closes. African American depositors had some $3 million in the bank which they would never see.
    1852 Henry Clay , 75, the great compromiser, American statesman, US congressman (1811-14, 1815-21, 1823-25) and US senator (1806-07, 1810-11, 1831-42, 1849-52), who was a major promoter of the Missouri Compromise (1820)
    1779 Anton Raphaël Mengs, German Neoclassical painter specialized in Portraits who born on 22 March 1728. — MORE ON MENGS AT ART “4” JUNELINKS Self-PortraitAnother Self-PortraitPerseus and AndromedaParnassusNoli Me Tangere Ferdinand IV, King of NaplesMaria Luisa of ParmaCharles IIICharles IV as PrinceThe Adoration by the Shepherds
    1701 Pieter Mulier (or de Mulieribus) “cavaliere Tempesta”, Dutch Baroque painter born in 1637. — LINKSLa TempestaSea StormStormy SeaThe Deluge with Animals on a Rocky Promontory
    --323 B.C. Alexandre le Grand   Il est monté sur le trône de Macédoine à l'âge de vingt ans. Il conquit la Grèce, la Perse et l'Égypte et préparait une nouvelle expédition quand il mourut à Babylone.
    Births which occurred on a June 29:         ^top^
    1935 José María Cuevas, español, presidente de la CEOE.
    1943 Douglas Donald Michels, US architect, “artist” founding member of Ant Farm, a radical art and design collective of the late 1960's and 70's. He died on 12 June 2003.
    1909 Les Carnets de Alexandr Alexandrovitch Blok paraissent.        ^top^
         Le poète russe est le principal représentant du symbolisme dans La Ville; et Les Douze. Dans son poème L’Artiste (1913), Blok décrit le processus de la création artistique :
    J’attends qu’effraye mon ennui mortel
    Le tintement léger, jusqu’ici jamais entendu.
    Est-ce un tourbillon venu de la mer ?
    Ou est-ce que les oiseaux du Paradis
    Chantent dans les feuilles ?
    Ou est-ce que le temps s’arrête ?
    Ou est-ce que les pommiers de mai ont effeuillé
    Leur floraison de neige ?
    Ou est-ce un ange qui vole ?
    Durant les heures qui portent l’universel
    S’élargissent les sons... le passé se mire passionnément dans le futur:
    Il n’y a pas de présent.

          "Parvenue à sa limite, la poésie se noiera probablement dans la musique ", écrit Blok (Carnets, 29 juin 1909). Né en 1880 à Saint-Pétersbourg, il y mourra en 1921.
    1905 Manuel Altolaguirre, poeta español.
    1904 Witold Hurewicz, Polish US mathematician who died on 06 September 1956 falling off a Uxmal pyramid on a conference outing at the International Symposium on algebraic topology in Mexico. He is best remembered for two remarkable contributions to mathematics, his discovery of the higher homotopy groups in 1935-1936, and his discovery of exact sequences in 1941. His work led to homological algebra.
    1900 Antoine Saint-Exupéry France, aviator/writer. SAINT-EXUPERY ONLINE: Le Petit Prince — English translation: The Little Prince.
    1900 Richard Oelze, German painter and draftsman who died on 27 May 1980. — moreRichard Oelze mit rotem Frosch by Roland — Foto-Selbstporträt mit FreundinPortrait on cover of book about Oelze
    1893 Mikhail Fedorovich Subbotin, Russian mathematician who died on 26 December 1966.
    1893 Eduard Cech, Czech [it figures] mathematician who died on 15 March 1960.
    1886 Robert Schumann, político francés, uno de los padres de Europa.
    1884 Wilhelm Winkler, Austrian mathematician who died on 03 September 1984.
    1873 Alexis Carrel, médico y humanista francés, Nobel 1912.
    1870 Frederick William Elwell, British artist who died on 03 January 1958.
    1865 Shigechiyo Izumi achieved oldest authenticated age (120 years 237 days) at the time of his death. Record since surpassed by French woman (Calment, 122 years).
    1863 James Harvey Robinson Ill, historian (Ordeal of Civilization)
    1861 William James Mayo surgeon/co-founder Mayo clinic in Minnesota.
    1849 Francesco Gioli, Italian artist who died in 1922.
    1756 Gerrit Jan van Leeuwen, Dutch artist who died on 28 April 1825.
    1672 Pietro Nelli, Italian artist who died in February 1740.
    Religious Observances RC, Ang, Luth: SS Peter and Paul, apostles / Santos Pedro y Pablo; Marcelo, Siro y Casio.

    Thoughts for the day: “The minute a man is convinced that he is interesting, he isn`t.”
    “The Minute Man is convinced that he is interested in American independence.”
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