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Events, deaths, births, of MAR 07

[For Mar 07 Julian go to Gregorian date:
1583~1699: Mar 171700s: Mar 181800s: Mar 191900~2099: Mar 20]
• USSR denies Klaus Fuchs was spy... • “Stopping By Woods on a Snowy Evening”... • Kansas quarantines Texas cattle... • Korean troops in Vietnam war... • WW II: British forces arrive in Greece... • Alessandro Manzoni nasce... • Bangladesh's first democratic leader... • Hitler occupies the Rhineland... • Tsar, blind to unrest, leaves Petrograd... • 20 years in prison for Wall Street swindler... • Alexander Graham Bell patents the telephone... • US Army finds bridge over Rhine... • Battle of Pea Ridge... • BMW precursor company... • Russian aggressors destroyed in Sintolanniemi, Finland... • Herschel is born... • Piet Mondrian is born... • Fatal fall from a balloon... • A new US Treasury Secretary... • Iwo Jima flag raiser is born...
On a March 07:
2003 UAL Corp., the bankrupt parent company of United Airlines, announces that sales of 3.9 million shares of UAL by the company’s employee benefit plans (authorization by the IRS announced on 04 March) have lowered employee ownership in those plans below 20%, thereby triggering the "Sunset" provisions contained in the company’s certificate of incorporation that affect UAL’s corporate governance structure. The changes that have occurred due to "Sunset" include:
  • Elimination of special Board, Board committee and shareholder votes, such as for acquisitions, divestitures and CEO appointments, among others;
  • Elimination of the 55% shareholder voting power of the Employee Stock Ownership Plan (ESOP);
  • Board discretion to change its committee structure and membership; and
  • Possible changes in Board members, other than those representing the Air Line Pilots’ Association (ALPA), International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers (IAM) and salaried and management employees. Decisions regarding potential Board nominees would be made by the Board’s outside public director nomination committee. UAL Corp. reaffirms that the triggering of "Sunset" does not jeopardize tax benefits related to UAL’s net operating losses (NOL). Preserving the NOL should generate substantial tax benefits following UAL’s emergence from Chapter 11 protection.

    2003 The Pope accepts the resignation of Tucson's bishop Manuel D. Moreno [27 Nov 1930~], who has prostate cancer, is in the early stages of Parkinson's disease, and whose diocese is in financial difficulties after the failure of its television network 20 years earlier ($32 million debt) and sexual abuse suits ($14 million and counting) since January 2002, for which 19 priests (of the 83 active and 31 inactive) of the diocese were suspended in 2002. Moreno is succeeded by his coadjutor (appointed on 30 Oct 2001) Bishop Gerald Frederick Kicanas [18 Aug 1941~]. [Moreno's 06 March 2003 retirement letter to diocese]

    2003 Joseph Menconi escapes from the prison of Borgo (Haute-Corse), France, where he was held after his 03 January 2003 arrest in Les Yvelines, accused of three murders. He had already escaped from the same prison in 1998.

    2002 Saudi surgeons' attempt to be on the cutting edge of progress: the International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics reports on the world's first uterus transplant, performed by Dr. Wafa Fageeh, Dr. Hassan Raffa, Dr. Hussain Jabbad and Dr. Anass Marzouki, of the King Fahd Hospital and research center in Jidda, Saudi Arabia in April 2000. Before operating, the team practiced on 16 baboons and 2 goats. The operation is difficult because the blood vessels that have to be sewn together are tiny, much smaller than those in other organ transplants. In fact the blood circulation failed and the uterus had to be removed after 99 days. The advisability of such an operation is questionable, because: 1– it is not a life-saving procedure; 2– a transplanted organ requires potent anti-rejection drugs which might be harmful to a foetus.

    2001 Sharon takes office as Prime Minister of Israel.    ^top^
          Having formed a unity government, Ariel Sharon takes office as Prime Minister of Israel, to which, on 06 February, he was overwhelmingly elected by popular vote over outgoing Prime Minister Ehud Barak.
         The Knesset (120 members) approves 72-to-21 Sharon's cabinet, which consists of:
  • Prime Minister - Ariel Sharon, Likud Party.
  • Foreign Minister - Shimon Peres, Labor Party.
  • Defense Minister - Binyamin Ben-Eliezer, Labor Party.
  • Finance Minister - Silvan Shalom, Likud Party.
  • Public Security Minister - Uzi Landau, Likud Party.
  • Education Minister - Limor Livnat, Likud Party.
  • Justice Minister - Meir Shitreet, Likud Party.
  • Interior Minister - Eli Yishai, Shas Party.
  • Communications Minister - Ruby Rivlin, Likud Party.
  • Transportation Minister - Ephriam Sneh, Labor Party.
  • Environment Minister - Tzahi Hanegbi, Likud Party.
  • Infrastructure Minister - Avigdor Lieberman, Israel Beiteinu Party.
  • Tourism Minister - Rehavam Zeevi, National Union Party.
  • Industry and Trade Minister - Dalia Yitzik, Labor Party.
  • Sport and Culture Minister - Matan Vilnai, Labor Party.
  • Agriculture Minister - Shalom Simchon, Labor Party.
  • Housing and Construction Minister - Natan Sharansky, Israel B'Aliya.
  • Labor Minister - Shlomo Binizri, Shas Party.
  • Social Affairs Coordination Minister - Shmuel Avital, One Nation Party.
  • Health Minister - Nissim Dahan, Shas Party.
  • Religious Affairs Minister - Asher Uhana, Shas Party.
  • Jerusalem Affairs Minister - Eli Suissa, Shas Party.
  • Regional Cooperation Minister - Tzipi Livneh, Likud Party.
  • Minister without portfolio - Salah Tarif, Labor Party.
  • Minister without portfolio - Raanan Cohen, Labor Party.
  • Minister without portfolio - Danny Naveh, Likud Party.
  • Ariel Sharon 
        Ariel Sharon was born to Russian immigrants in a farming community outside Tel Aviv on 26 February 1928. In 1948, after fighting in a Jewish militia opposed to British control, he serves with distinction in Israel's war of independence with Arab states.
         In 1953, Sharon heads Unit 101, a force carrying out reprisals for the killing of an Israeli woman and her two children. In October 1953, Sharon's troops blow up more than 40 houses in Qibya, a village in the West Bank, then ruled by Jordan. Sixty-nine Arabs die, about half of them women and children. Sharon says later that he thought the houses were empty.
         In 1956 he is rebuked for engaging his troops in what his commanders regard as an unnecessary and unplanned battle with Egyptian forces at Mitla Pass in Sinai Peninsulae But in 1967 he receives broad praise for his command of an armored division in the Mideast War, in which Israel captures the West Bank, the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula.
         In 1971 Ariel Sharon is placed in charge of curbing terrorism in the Gaza Strip. He is responsible for more than 100 suspected militants killed and hundreds detained. The number of attacks by Palestinians is reduced from 34 in June to one in December.
         In 1973, Sharon commands drive by Israeli troops across the Suez Canal into Egypt during Mideast war. The daring assault cuts off Egypt's 3rd Army and helps turn the tide in fighting, establishing his reputation as war hero to many.
         During the 1970s, 80s, early 90s, as government minister, Sharon leads the push to build dozens of Jewish settlements in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, despite Palestinian and international protest. However, when Israel has to return the Sinai desert to Egypt in 1982, Sharon overrides resistance from Jewish settlers and has their homes bulldozed to rubble.
          In 1982, as defense minister, Sharon directs Israel's invasion of Lebanon. It is portrayed as quick, limited strike to drive Palestinian fighters from Israel's northern border. However, Israeli troops advance to outskirts of Beirut and war escalates. Israeli-allied Christian militia kill hundreds of Palestinians at refugee camps in west Beirut, provoking international outrage that leads to Sharon losing his job. Fighting in Lebanon lasts 18 years, until Barak unilaterally withdraws Israeli troops in May 2000.
          Sharon conducts a high profile visit to the disputed Temple Mount next to the al-Aqsa mosque, on 28 September 2000, to emphasize Israel's claim of sovereignty. Muslims, who call the site the Noble Sanctuary, are outraged, and widespread violence breaks out a day later. The intifada results in a Israeli political crisis, leading to Sharon's landslide victory over Barak in the 06 February 2001 election for prime minister.
  • 2000 President Hafez Assad of Syria has the govenment of Mahmoud el-Zouebi resign and names Mohammed Mustafa Miro, governor of Aleppo province, as the new prime minister, charged with forming a new government.
    2000 The Nasdaq composite index goes above 5000 intraday.
    1999 El partido Democrático de Guinea Ecuatorial (PDGE), del presidente Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, consigue 75 de los 80 escaños de la Cámara de Representantes de Pueblo, en las segundas elecciones legislativas desde la independencia del país.
    1999 El Gobierno de Ucrania decide poner en marcha el tercer reactor de la central nuclear de Chernóbil, con la consiguiente preocupación de Occidente, temeroso de sufrir un nuevo desastre nuclear.
    1999 Francisco Guillermo Flores Pérez, candidato a la presidencia de El Salvador por la derechista Alianza Republicana Nacionalista (ARENA), vence en las elecciones presidenciales con un 51,98% de los votos.
    1998 En medio de las protestas de los ciudadanos y de los partidos políticos en Chile, el criminal general Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte es nombrado "comandante en jefe benemérito" del Ejército, en reconocimiento a su mando dictatorial de más de 24 años.
    1997 Estados Unidos veta el borrador de una resolución del Consejo de Seguridad de la ONU elaborado por la UE contra los planes israelíes de construir un barrio judío en Jerusalén oriental.
    1997 Wall Street swindler sentenced to 20 years in prison.    ^top^
          Declaring that Steven Hoffenberg had "wreaked havoc on innocent lives," Federal Judge Robert Sweet sentenced the notorious Wall Street swindler to a twenty-year prison term. In the ruling, handed down on this day in 1997, Sweet ordered the former chief of Towers Financial Corps to pay out $462 million in restitution, as well as a $1 million in fines. Hoffenberg had been accused of pawning off vast sums of "worthless" Tower-backed bonds to unsuspecting investors. All told, Hoffenberg had conned investors out of a whopping $500 million, money which he used to fund his extravagant habits. Though this wasn’t Hoffenberg’s first brush with the law—he confessed to a series of charges, including obstruction of justice and tax evasion, it was certainly his biggest. Indeed, Hoffenberg’s attorney, Daniel Meyers, questioned the severity of Sweet’s sentence. However, Robert Blackburn, associate director of enforcement at the Securities and Exchange Commission, deemed the ruling "very reasonable" given the "horrible, massive" scope of Hoffenberg’s crimes.
    1996 Three US servicemen are convicted in the rape of a 12-year-old Okinawan girl and sentenced by a Japanese court to up to seven years in prison.
    1994 The Supreme Court rules that parodies that poke fun at an original work can be considered "fair use" that doesn't require permission from the copyright holder.
    1989 Partial eclipse of the Sun (Hawaii, NW North America, Greenland)
    1988 Intento fracasado de golpe de Estado contra el Presidente de Santo Tomé y Príncipe por el Santo Tomé y Príncipe (FNRSTP).
    1977 Israeli PM Yitzhak Rabin meets Pres Carter
    1975 The US Senate revises filibuster rule, it now allows 60 senators to limit debate in most cases, instead of the previously required two-thirds of senators present.
    1973 Bangladesh gets its first democratic leader.    ^top^
          Sheikh Mujib Rahman, a leader of the Bangladeshi independence movement and first prime minister of Bangladesh, wins a landslide victory in the country's first general elections. At the end of British rule in the Indian subcontinent in 1947, East Pakistan was declared a possession of Pakistan to the west, despite the fact that the two regions were separated by over 1,000 miles of Indian territory. Although the two Pakistans shared the Islamic religion, significant cultural and racial differences existed between the regions, and by the late 1960s, East Pakistan began to call for greater autonomy from West Pakistan. In March of 1971, the independent state of Bangladesh was proclaimed and West Pakistani forces were called in to suppress the revolt. An estimated one million Bengalis--the largest ethnic group in Bangladesh--were killed by the Pakistani forces over the next several months, while over ten million more took refuge in India. In December of 1971, India, which had provided substantial clandestine aid to the East Pakistani independence movement, launched a massive invasion of the region, and routed the West Pakistani occupation forces. A few weeks later, Sheikh Mujib was released from a year-long imprisonment in West Pakistan and returned to Bangladesh to assume the post of prime minister. In March of 1973, the Bangladeshi people overwhelmingly confirmed his government in democratic elections, and in the next year, Pakistan agreed to recognize the independence of Bangladesh.
    1973 Comet (Lubos) Kohoutek discovered at Hamburg Observatory.
    1972 In the biggest air battle in Vietnam in 3 years, US jets battle 5 North Vietnamese MiGs and shoot one down 275 km north of the Demilitarized Zone. The 86 US air raids over North Vietnam in the first two months of 1972 equaled the total for all of 1971.
    1972 El cardenal Vicente Enrique y Tarancón es elegido presidente de la Conferencia Episcopal Española.
    1971 Egypt refuses to renew the Suez ceasefire.
    1967 South Korean forces active in Vietnam war.    ^top^
          The largest South Korean operation to date starts, forming a link-up of two Korean division areas of operations along the central coastal area of South Vietnam. South Korean forces had been in South Vietnam since August 1964, when Seoul sent a liaison unit to Saigon. The South Korean contingent was part of the Free World Military Forces, an effort by President Lyndon B. Johnson to enlist allies for the United States and South Vietnam. By securing support from other nations, Johnson hoped to build an international consensus behind his policies in Vietnam. The effort was also known as the "many flags" program. The first South Korean contingent was followed in February 1965 by engineer units and a mobile hospital. Although initially assigned to non-combat duties, they came under fire on 03 April when the Viet Cong attacked them.
          In September 1965, in response to additional pleas from Johnson, the South Korean government greatly expanded its troop commitment to Vietnam, agreeing to send combat troops. By the close of 1969 there were over 47'800 Korean soldiers actively involved in combat operations in South Vietnam. Seoul began to withdraw its troops in February 1972, following the lead of the United States as it drastically reduced its troop commitment to South Vietnam.
    1966 In the heaviest air raids since the bombing began in February 1965, US Air Force and Navy planes fly some 200 sorties against North Vietnam, including some against an oil storage area 100 km southeast of Dien Bien Phu and a staging area 100 km northwest of Vinh.
    1965 A march by civil rights demonstrators is broken up in Selma, Alabama, by state troopers and a sheriff's posse.
    ^ 1953 The first division of power is agreed to by the top Soviet leaders, following the death of Joseph Stalin [21 Dec 1879 – 05 Mar 1953]. They find themselves in a predicament: How are they to choose Stalin's successor? How are they to ensure that no one acquires his awesome power? This would put their careers, and even lives, at risk. Collective leadership is the only possibility. Georgy Maksimilianovich Malenkov [13 Jan 1902 – 14 Jan 1988] becomes chairman of the Council of Ministers (prime minister), and Lavrenty Pavlovich Beria [29 Mar 1899 – 23 Dec 1953] becomes first deputy prime minister and also heads the amalgamated Ministry of State Security and Ministry of Internal Affairs. Vyacheslav Mikhaylovich Molotov [09 Mar 1890 – 08 Nov 1986] returns to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and is also a first deputy prime minister. Bulganin becomes minister of defense. When Stalin died there was no title that identified the head of the Communist Party. Stalin had given up the title of general secretary of the party in 1934 and was afterward merely described as secretary of the Central Committee Secretariat. Malenkov's name appears at the top of the list of secretaries on 07 March. Hence he has succeeded Stalin as head of government and party. This nice arrangement would break down within a week: there was too much power concentrated in one pair of hands. The main beneficiary would be Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev [17 Apr 1894 – 11 Sep 1971]. His name would be placed at the top of the list of five secretaries of the secretariat. Khrushchev would then be in charge of the party, although he would not formally be made first secretary until September 1953. Malenkov, in choosing to remain prime minister, makes a grave mistake, even though Lenin and Stalin had both occupied the office. Khrushchev now has a power base from which to attack Malenkov and win precedence for the party over the government.
    1950 Soviet Union denies Klaus Fuchs served as its spy    ^top^
          Just one week after British physicist Klaus Fuchs was sentenced to 14 years in prison for his role in passing information on the atomic bomb to the Russians, the Soviet Union issues a statement denying any knowledge of Fuchs or his activities. Despite the Russian disclaimer, Fuchs' arrest and conviction led to the uncovering of a network of individuals in the United States and Great Britain who had allegedly engaged in spying activities for the Soviet Union during World War II. Fuchs worked on developing the atomic bomb during World War II, both in Great Britain and as part of the super-secret Manhattan Project in the United States. In February 1950, British officials arrested him and charged him with passing information concerning the atomic bomb to the Soviets. After his arrest, Fuchs implicated an American, Harry Gold, as someone who served as a courier between himself and Soviet agents. Gold fingered David Greenglass, who also worked on the Manhattan Project, and Greenglass informed on his brother-in-law and sister, Julius and Ethel Rosenberg. Eventually, Gold and Greenglass were sentenced to jail terms for their roles. The Rosenbergs were convicted and sentenced to death; they were executed in 1953. The Soviets consistently denied any part in the spy ring. In a statement released on 07 March 1950, the Russians declared that any confession by Fuchs indicating that he was working for the Soviet Union was a "gross fabrication since Fuchs is unknown to the Soviet Government and no 'agents' of the Soviet Union had any connection with Fuchs." The exact level of Soviet spying, as well as the value of any information it succeeded in digging up as a result of such activity, has never been precisely determined. Fuchs was released from prison in 1959 and spent his remaining years living with his father in East Germany.
    1945 US Army finds usable bridge over the Rhine    ^top^
         During World War II, tanks of the US Third Corps reach the Rhine River opposite the small German town of Remagen, Germany, and find the Ludendorff Bridge damaged but still usable The bridge, which had miraculously survived the massive Allied air assaults on Nazi Germany and then the country's own efforts to protect its interior from the Allied invasion, is an unexpected strategic coup for the US First Army. Troops and vehicles are immediately rushed across, and for the first time, the US forces secure a foothold on the eastern side of the fortified Rhine River shore.
          Nazi dictator Adolf Hitler is so furious to learn of the US'o use of the intact Ludendorff Bridge that he fires General Gerd von Rundstedt as commander of western German forces. German bombers attempt to destroy the bridge, but the US troops continue to move across and expand the beachhead on the other side. On 17 March, after transporting thousands of troops and military vehicles across the Rhine, the bridge collapses, killing twenty-five Americans. Nevertheless, the Allies now hold the area and engineers erect other bridges nearby. Supreme Allied Commander General Dwight D. Eisenhower later says that the discovery of the intact bridge "put victory just around the corner."
    1944 De Gaulle assouplit la pression sur les Algériens En cette année 1944, alors que la guerre prenait une tournure plus favorable pour les Alliés, De Gaulle, qui était le chef de la France libre, signait le 7 mars une ordonnance qui allait encore plus loin que le fameux décret Blum-Violette et qui abolissait toutes les mesures d’exception applicables aux musulmans. L’ancien collège électoral musulman, qui était restrictif, était désormais ouvert à tous les Algériens de plus de 21 ans. La nationalité française est accordée à une grande partie des musulmans algériens. Mais les mesures étaient encore trop loin de la revendication principale: l’indépendance.
    1941 British troops invade Italian-held Abyssinia (Ethiopia)
    1941 WW II: British forces arrive in Greece.    ^top^
         A British expeditionary force from North Africa lands in Greece. In October 1940, Mussolini's army, already occupying Albania, invaded Greece in what proved to be a disastrous military campaign for the Duce's forces. Mussolini surprised everyone with this move against Greece, but he was not to be upstaged by recent Nazi conquests. According to Hitler, who was stunned by a move that he knew would be a strategic blunder, Mussolini should have concentrated on North Africa by continuing the advance into Egypt. The Italians paid for Mussolini's hubris, as the Greeks succeeded in pushing the Italian invaders back into Albania after just one week, and the Axis power spent the next three months fighting for its life in a series of defensive battles.
          Mussolini's precipitate maneuver frustrated Hitler because it opened an opportunity for the British to enter Greece and establish an airbase in Athens, putting the Brits within striking distance of valuable oil reserves in Romania, which Hitler relied upon for his war machine. It also meant that Hitler would have to divert forces from North Africa, a high strategic priority, to bail Mussolini out of Greece-and postpone Hitler's planned invasion of the Soviet Union.
          The Brits indeed saw an opening in Greece, and on 7 March 1941, Prime Minister Winston Churchill diverted troops from Egypt and sent 58'000 British and Aussie troops to occupy the Olympus-Vermion line. But the Brits would be blown out of the Pelopponesus Peninsula when Hitler's forces invaded on the ground and from the air in April. Thousands of British and Australian forces were captured there and on Crete, where German paratroopers landed in May.
    Las tropas de Hitler ocupan la zona desmilitarizada de Renania.
    1936 Hitler occupies the Rhineland
         Nazi dictator Adolf Hitler violates the Treaty of Versailles and the Locarno Pact by sending German military forces into the Rhineland, a demilitarized zone along the Rhine River in western Germany. The Treaty of Versailles, signed in July of 1919, eight months after the guns fell silent in World War I, called for stiff war reparation payments and other punishing peace terms for defeated Germany. Having been forced to sign the treaty, the German delegation to the peace conference indicated its attitude by breaking the ceremonial pen. As dictated by the Treaty of Versailles, Germany’s military forces were reduced to insignificance, while the Rhineland was to be demilitarized.
          In 1925, at the conclusion of a European peace conference held in Switzerland, the Locarno Pact was signed, reaffirming the national boundaries decided by the Treaty of Versailles and approving the German entry into the League of Nations. The so-called "spirit of Locarno" symbolized hopes for an era of European peace and good will, and by 1930, German Foreign Minister Gustav Stresemann had negotiated the removal of the last Allied troops in the demilitarized Rhineland.
          However, just four years later, Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party seized full power in Germany, promising vengeance against the Allied nations that had forced the unjust Treaty of Versailles on the German people. In 1935, Hitler unilaterally canceled the military clauses of the treaty, and in March of 1936, denounced the Locarno Pact and began the remilitarization of the Rhineland. Two years later, Nazi Germany burst out of its territories, absorbing Austria and portions of Czechoslovakia. In 1939, Hitler invaded Poland, leading to the outbreak of World War II in Europe.
    1935 Saar incorporated into Germany
    1931 Los obispos alemanes de la provincia eclesiástica de Colonia advierten de los peligros del nacionalsocialismo.
    1930 Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi inicia la "marcha de la sal".
    1926 First transatlantic radio-telephone call (London-New York)
    1925 Mongolia Exterior es ocupada por el Ejército Rojo de la URSS.
    1921 Are made cardinals: Juan Benlloch y Vivó [29 Dec 1864 – 14 Feb 1926]
    1917 (22 February Julian) Tsar Nicholas II leaves Petrograd, blind to the unrest there.    ^top^
         After spending two months in Petrograd and at the palace in Tsarskoe Selo, Nicholas II returns to Staff Headquarters at Mogilyov, near the front. He does so, confident that no serious challenges threaten his authority. He accepted the assurances of his minister of internal affairs, Aleksandr Protopopov (a trusted favorite who had been supported by the now defunct Rasputin) that the situation was under control.
          He was unmoved by the steady stream of supplicants who had been coming to the palace since the start of the new year — grand dukes, provincial nobles, and conservative and liberal members of the Duma — to convince him that revolution was impending if political changes were not made. Even the army's acting chief of staff, General Vasily Gurko (General Mikhail Alekseev was ill), reportedly warned Nicholas, "Your Imperial Majesty, you are willfully preparing yourself for the gallows. Do not forget that the mob will not stand on ceremony."
         The strike that would precipitate his abdication would start the next day.
    1912 Roald Amundsen announces discovery of the South Pole
    1911 The US sends 20'000 soldiers to the Mexican border as a precaution because of the Mexican Revolution.
    1889 A new Secretary for US Treasury Department.   ^top^
          Lawyer turned Republican legislator William Windom stepped into office as the 33rd Secretary of the Treasury and promptly set about attacking the nation's various fiscal maladies. Windom's primary task was taming the mountain of pubic debt that had piled up in the wake of the Civil War. Flying in the face of the drive to refund the debt through government issued bonds, Windom called on the nation's banks to ease the situation by swapping their high-interest bonds for issues that were pegged at a far lower rate. Bank leaders initially resisted the plan, prompting Windom to resort to a bit of arm twisting to win their compliance. Once executed, Windom's bond swap proved effective: though the maneuver came in at a cost of roughly $10,000 to the government, the savings generated by the interest rate charge stretched past the $10 million mark. Windom's run in the Treasury was soon cut short by the assassination of President James Garfield; after eight rather eventful months in office, Windom retired his post on November 13, 1881. However, later in the decade, Windom returned for another term as the Secretary of the Treasury, this time under the charge of President Benjamin Harrison.
    1885 Kansas quarantines Texas cattle.    ^top^
          The Kansas legislature passes a law barring Texas cattle from the state between March 1 and December 1, the latest action reflecting the love-hate relationship between Kansas and the cattle industry. Texans had adopted the practice of driving cattle northward to railheads in Kansas shortly after the Civil War. From 1867 to 1871, the most popular route was the legendary Chisholm Trail that ran from San Antonio to Abilene, Kansas. Attracted by the profits to be made providing supplies to ranchers and a good time to trail-weary cowboys, other struggling Kansas frontier towns maneuvered to attract the Texas cattle herds. Dodge City, Caldwell, Ellsworth, Hays, and Newton competed with Abilene to be the top "Cow Town" of Kansas.
          As Kansas lost some of its Wild West frontier edge, though, the cowboys and their cattle became less attractive. Upstanding town residents anxious to attract investment capital and nurture local businesses became increasingly impatient with rowdy young cowboys and their messy cattle. The new Kansas farmers who were systematically dividing the open range into neat rectangles of crops were even less fond of the cattle herds. Although the cowboys attempted to respect farm boundaries, stray cattle often wreaked havoc with farmers' crops. "There was scarcely a day when we didn't have a row with some settler," reported one cowboy.
          Recognizing that the future of the state was in agriculture, the Kansas legislature attempted to restrict the movement of Texas cattle. In 1869, the legislature excluded cattle entirely from the east-central part of the state, where farmers were settling most quickly. Complaints from farmers that the Texas cattle were giving their valuable dairy cows tick fever and hoof-and-mouth disease eventually led to even tighter controls. On this day in 1885, the Kansas legislature enacted a strict quarantine. The quarantine closed all of Kansas to Texan cattle for all but the winter months of December, January, and February-the time of the year when the diseases were not as prevalent.
          These laws signaled the end of the Kansas role in the Texas cattle industry. The open range was rapidly closing, hemmed in by miles and miles of barbed wire fence. With the extension of rail lines into Texas itself, the reason for making the long drives north to Kansas began to disappear by the late 1880s anyway. The Kansas quarantine laws became irrelevant as most Texans could more easily ship cattle via railheads in their own states.
    Daniel Webster, 18501885 Estreno de La vida alegre y muerte triste, del dramaturgo José de Echegaray.
    1862 Siege of New Madrid, Missouri continues
    1861 Pruebas satisfactorias del submarino de Monturiol "Ictíneo" en aguas de Alicante, aunque el inventor no consiguió apoyo oficial.

    1850 In a notorious 3-hour speech to the US Senate, Massachusetts' Daniel Webster [18 Jan 1782 – 24 Oct 1852] endorses the Compromise of 1850 proposed by Kentucky Senator Henry Clay on 29 January 1850, as a means of preserving the Union. It called for California to be admitted as a free state; for the passage of an inhumane Fugitive Slave law; for new territories in the Southwest to he allowed to organize without restrictions on slavery; for protecting slavery in the District of Columbia while abolishing domestic slave trade there; and for a settlement of $10 million to Texas if the state would relinquish claims to one-third of its territory (now in New Mexico, Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, and Wyoming). The compromise would be adopted on 09 September 1850.
    — [1850 portrait of Danier Webster attributed to James Reid Lambdin {1807-1889} >]
    [below: Webster's notes for the beginning of his speech: “I wish to speak, today, not as a Mass. man – nor a Northern man – but as an American, & a member of the Senate of the U. S.”]
    Beginning of Webster's speech
    1848 In Hawaii, Great Mahele (division of lands) signed
    1847 US General Scott occupies Vera Cruz Mexico
    1836 En la guerra contra Texas, fin de la Batalla del Álamo. El general mexicano López de Santa Anna toma el fuerte de El Álamo, en San Antonio de Béjar, Texas. Santa Anna ordena fusilar a todos los sobrevivientes.
    1822 Ante la negativa de los gobernadores españoles de las Californias (la Alta y la Baja), de no reconocer la Independencia de México, el alférez José María Mata y el alcalde de Loreto, Baja California, aprovechan el ataque del filibustero inglés Thomas Cochrane a San José del Cabo, y organizan la resistencia, logrando vencerlo, situación que les permite acaudillar al pueblo y proclamar la Independencia de México en esa provincia.
    1793 La Convención Nacional francesa declara la guerra a España por su adhesión al ya ejecutado monarca Luis XVI.
    1778 Capt James Cook first sights Oregon coast, at Yaquina Bay
    1774 British close port of Boston to all commerce
    1638 Controversial colonial churchwoman Anne Hutchinson, 47, and nineteen other exiles from the Massachusetts Bay Colony settle in Rhode Island, at the site of modern Portsmouth.
    – 238 BC: The Decree of Canopus -(aka Table of Tanis) is promulgated by an assemblage of Egyptian priests in honor of Ptolemy Euergetes and his consort Berenice and provide for leap years every four years to prevent feast days from migrating from one season to another..
          Nobody would care about that decree, except that it was written in Greek, demotic, and hieroglyphs, and that two copies were discovered at Tanis (modern San al-Hajar al-Qibliyah) on 15 April 1866 by a group of German scholars, which included Professors R. Lepsius, S.L. Reinisch, E.R. Roesler, and Herr Weidenbach. . They are considered by many scholars to be second only to the Rosetta Stone (discovered in August 1799) in their value for deciphering ancient Egyptian.
    THE DECREE OF CANOPUS in English translation:
         In the ninth year of the reign of Ptolemy, son of Ptolemy and Arsinoe the Brother-and-Sister Gods, the priest of Alexander and the Brother-and Sister Gods and the Benefactor Gods"' being Apollonidas son of Moschion and the canephore ‘ll of Arsinoe Philadelphos being Menekrateia daughter of Philammon, on the seventh of the month Apellaios, the seventeenth of the Egyptians' (month) Tybi : 3 8 7 decree: the chief-priests and the prophets"' and those who enter the shrine for the adorning of the gods and the featherbearers and the sacred scribes and the other priests who come together from the temples in the country for the fifth of (the month) Dios, on which day is celebrated the birthday of the king, and for the 25th of the same month, on which day he received the kingdom from his father, (all these) having assembled together on this day in the temple of the Benefactor Gods in Canopus spoke:`
          Whereas King Ptolemy, son of Ptolemy and Arsinoe the Brother-and-Sister Gods, and Queen Berenike, his sister and wife, the Benefactor Gods, continually bestow many and great benefactions on the temples in the country and increase ever more the honors of the gods, and in all respects they exercise concern, with great expense and abundance, for Apis and for Mnevis ‘ll and for the other renowned sacred beasts of the country; and the king marched out and brought back safe to Egypt the sacred images, which had been carried out from the country by the Persians, and returned them to the temples whence each had originally been taken away;"' and he has maintained the country in a state of peace, fighting wars on its behalf against many peoples and those who rule among them; and they provide law and order for all those in the country and for the others who are ranged under their rule; and when the river once overflowed its banks insufficiently and all those in the country were terrified at this happening and were thinking upon the destruction that had taken place under some of the former kings, in whose reign those dwelling in the country met with droughts, exercising provident care over those in the temples and the others inhabiting the country, by exercising much forethought and forgoing not a little of their revenues for the sake of the safety of the people, and by sending for grain for the country from Syria and Phoenicia and Cyprus and many other places at rather high prices they saved the inhabitants of Egypt, leaving behind an immortal benefaction and the greatest record of their virtue both for contemporaries and for future generations; in return for which the gods have granted them their kingdom peacefully established and will give them all the other good things for all time; with good fortune,
          be it resolved by the priests of the country:
          To increase the already existing honors (paid) in the temples to King Ptolemy and Queen Berenike, the Benefactor Gods, and to their parents the Brother -and- Sister Gods, and to their grandparents the Savior Gods;` and for the priests in each of the temples of the country to be designated also "priests of the Benefactor Gods," and for the priesthood of the Benefactor Gods also to be written into all their documents and for it to be engraved in addition on the rings which they wear; and for there to be constituted, in addition to the now existing four tribes of the group of priests in each temple, also another (tribe), which shall be designated the fifth tribe of the Benefactor Gods, since it has happened with good fortune that the birth of King Ptolemy, son of the Brother-and-Sister Gods, also occurred on the fifth of (the month) Dios, which has also been the beginning of many good things for all men; for there to be enrolled in this tribe those who have become priests since the first year and those who are to be assigned until the month Mesore of the ninth year and their descendants for all time, but for those who were already priests prior to the first year to remain in the same tribes in which they previously were and similarly for their descendants henceforth to be enrolled in the same tribes in which their fathers are; instead of the twenty councillor priests chosen each year from the pre-existing four tribes, of whom five are taken from each tribe, for the councillor priests to be twenty-five, another five being added from the fifth tribe of the Benefactor Gods; and for those of the fifth tribe of the Benefactor Gods also to share in the ceremonies and everything else of those in the temples, and for there to be a phylarch of this (tribe), just as is the case also for the other four tribes.
          And whereas feasts of the Benefactor Gods are celebrated each month in the temples in accordance with the previously written decree, the first (day) and the ninth and the twenty-fifth, and feasts and public festivals are celebrated each year in honor of the other greatest gods, (be it resolved) for there to be held each year a public festival in the temples and throughout the whole country in honor of King Ptolemy and Queen Berenike, the Benefactor Gods, on the day on which the star of Isis"' rises, which is reckoned in the sacred writings to be the new year, and which now in the ninth year is observed on the first day of the month Pauni,11' at which time both the little Boubastia and the great Boubastia are celebrated and the gathering of the crops and the rise of the river takes place; but if, further, it happens that the rising of the star changes to another day in four years,"' for the festival not to be moved but to be held on the first of Pauni all the same, on which (day) it was originally held in the ninth year, and to celebrate it for five days with the wearing of garlands and with sacrifices and libations and what else that is fitting; and, in order also that the seasons may always do as they should, in accordance with the now existing order of the universe, and that it may not happen that some of the public feasts held in the winter are ever held in the summer, the star changing by one day every four years, and that others of those now held in the summer are held in the winter in future times as has happened in the past and as would be happening now, if the arrangement of the year remained of 360 days plus the five days later brought into usage (be it resolved) for a one-day feast of the Benefactor Gods to be added every four years to the five additional days before the new year,"" in order that all may know that the former defect in the arrangement of the seasons and the year and in the beliefs about the whole ordering of the heavens has come to be corrected and made good by the Benefactor Gods.
          And whereas it happened that the daughter born of King Ptolemy and Queen Berenike, the Benefactor Gods, and named Berenike, who was also immediately declared Princess,"' while still a maiden suddenly passed into the everlasting world, while the priests were still with the King who came to him every year from the country, who straightway made great lamentation at what had befallen and, petitioning the King and the Queen persuaded them to establish the goddess with Osiris in the temple in Canopus, which is not only among the first temples but also among those most honored by the King and by all in the country - and the sacred boat of Osiris is brought to this temple from the temple in the Herakleion every year on the 29th of Choiach, when all those from the first temples perform sacrifices on behalf of each of the first temples upon the altars built by them on both sides of the entry way - and after this they performed magnificently and with care the rites for her deification and for the conclusion of the mourning, as it is customary to do also for Apis and Mnevis, be it resolved: To perform everlasting honors to Berenike, the princess born of the Benefactor Gods, in all the temples in the country, and, since she went to the gods in the month of Tybi, the very month in which also the daughter of Helios, whom her father lovingly called sometimes his crown and sometimes his sight, in the beginning departed from life, and (since) they hold in her honor a feast and a boat procession in most of the temples of the first rank in this month, in which her apotheosis originally occurred, (be it resolved) to hold in honor of Berenike as well, the princess born of the Benefactor Gods, a feast and boat-procession in the month Tybi in all the temples in the country for four days from the seventeenth, on which day the boat-procession and the conclusion of the mourning for her originally took place; and to fashion a sacred image of her, of gold and precious stones, in each of the first- and second-rank temples and to set it up in the holy place; the prophet or (one) of those who [enter the shrine] for the adorning of the gods shall carry it in his arms, whenever there are processions or festivals of the other gods, in order that, being seen by all it may be honored and obeisance may be done to it, being called (the image) of Berenike Mistress of Maidens; and for the royal crown set upon her image, as distinct from the one set upon the images of her mother Queen Berenike, to consist of two ears of grain, in the middle of which shall be the asp-shaped insignia and behind which a commensurate papyrus-shaped scepter, such as the goddesses are wont to hold in their hands, about which the tail of the (asp-shaped) insignia shall be wound, so that the name of Berenike, in accordance with the symbol of the sacred script, will be signified by the arrangement of her royal crown; and, when the Kikellia are celebrated in the month of Choiach before the boat procession of Osiris, for the maiden daughters of the priests to fashion another image of Berenike, Mistress of Maidens, to which they shall likewise perform a sacrifice and the other rites performed at this feast; and for it to be permitted in the same way to the other maidens, who so wish, to perform the rites to the goddess; and for her to be hymned by the chosen sacred maidens who are in the service of the gods, when they have put on the individual royal crowns of the goddesses whose priestesses they are accounted as being; and, when the early sowing is at hand, for the sacred maidens to carry up ears of grain to be laid before the image of the goddess; and for the men and women singers to sing to her each day, during the feasts and festivals of the other gods, whatever hymns the sacred scribes write and give to the teacher of songs, of which also copies shall be entered in the sacred books. And whereas provisions are given to the priests from the sacred (revenues) whenever they are brought to the group (of priests in each temple), (be it resolved) for there to be given to the daughters of the priests from the day of their birth food from the sacred revenues, such as shall be determined by the councillor priests in each temple in proportion to the sacred revenues; and for the bread given to the wives of the priests to have its own particular shape and to be called the bread of Berenike. And let the appointed supervisor and chief-priest in each temple and the scribes of the temple inscribe this decree on a stone or bronze stele, in sacred characters"' and in Egyptian (characters),"' and in Greek (characters), and let them set it up in the most conspicuous place in the first- and second- and third-rank temples, in order that the priests in the country may be seen to honor the Benefactor Gods and their children, as is just.
    Deaths which occurred on a March 07:
    2003 Rabbi Eliahu Horowitz, 52, and his wife Dina Horowitz, 50; and two terrorists, of Hamas, dressed as religious Jews (who openly carry weapons), who shoot them at 20:45 and are then shot by Israeli soldiers, in enclave settlement Kiryat Arba, West Bank. The Horowitzes were both from Orthodox Jews from Silver Spring, Maryland; they had immigrated separately to Israel, where they first met. 8 Israelis are wounded.
    2003: 11 Palestinians, during an Israeli army (with tanks and helicopters, starting at 23:30 on 06 March) revenge (for the 05 March 2003 suicide bombing of a Haifa bus) attack on the Jabalaya refugee camp next to Gaza City, in order:
    Muhamed Shahada al-Bian, 61, muezzin at the al-Awda mosque, standing at the entrance of the camp, by a missile from a helicopter. — Muhsein Abu Uda, 30, policeman — Abdul Rahman Makdad, 21, unarmed — Nail Abu Sadu, 30, policeman — and at 06:00 (04:00 UT), seven persons killed by a tank shell as they tried to salvage furniture from a burning carpentry shop (Israelis say that the tank was firing at a terrorist trying to fire a rocket at them, and/or that the explosion was from a Palestinian bomb, which is contradicted by videotapes): Ta'ar Rihan, 14, Ihab Nabahan, 14, Baha Abu Varda, 18, fireman Naji Abu Jalila, 30, Hamdi Obeid, and two children. More than 80 persons are wounded, including four medics who were treating other wounded, as well as two Reuters cameramen, Ahmed Jedallah and Shamas Shama. The only Israeli casualties are two soldiers slightly wounded.
    Anita, dad, mom
    2003 Souvorachak Kayachith, 21, and his wife Melinda Athakhanh, 20,
    as their car is struck by and slides under a tractor-trailer that slid on ice and crossed the median of Interstate 94 in Wisconsin, in the pre-dawn hours. Of Laotian origin they were traveling from their Brooklyn Park, Minnesota, home to visit relatives in Georgia and Florida. Their daughter Anita Kayachith, 2, who was sleeping in the back seat, suffers hardly a scratch, wanders off across the highway and is discovered hours later, sitting in the snow in freezing weather. [< photo]

    Zanah, Krugliak, Kurtzweil2002: 14 Catholics in stampede from prayer meeting about to end when gunmen burst into it, but don't hurt anyone. They were apparently trying to capture or harm Father Ejike Mbaka, who was leading the evening prayer meeting, in the open air on the grounds of a technical college in the eastern Nigeria city of Enugu. Father Mbaka had been repeatedly harassed and sought by Enugu state government officials for questioning.
    Picar, Marcus2002 Five Israeli 18-year-olds: Asher Marcus from Jerusalem, Tal Kurtzweil from Bnei Brak, Ariel Zana from Jerusalem, Eran Picard from Jerusalem, Arik Krobiak from Beit El, and the Palestinian who shoots them at at a pre-military training academy in the Gaza Strip enclave settlement of Atzmona, late in the evening, and is shot dead after a 20-minute gunfight with soldiers and settlers. Twenty-three persons are injured, four of them seriously. [< photos >]
    2002 Kamel Salem, an UNRO nurse, Ibrahim Assad, a Red Crescent ambulance driver, late in the day, by gunfire from Israeli troops who had taken control of Tul Karm, as, in separate ambulances they were on their way to treat people wounded by the Israelis . In the same incidents, an addional nurse and doctor were wounded, as were two other Palestinian rescue workers.
    2002 Munhad Abu Halel, a member of the Fatah military wing, Hosni Naif, Tarek Abu Jimos, five armed Palestinians, and three civilian Palestinians, killed in a pre-dawn raid by Israeli troops, intending to stay two days, into the Palestinian city of Tul Karm and the two nearby refugee camps of Tul Karm and Nur A-Shams.Electricity was cut off from the entire city as heavy fighting took place around the refugee camps. People were confined to their homes as troops carried out house-to-house searches for terrorist suspects. The roads have been taken over.
    2002 Akram Muhammad Ghanayem, 27, and Yousef Muhammad Shehada, 18, by shrapnel from Israeli bombing, and Muhammad Abu Hilal, 27, by Israeli gunfire, all three Palestinians, in Tolkarem.
    2002 Mofeeda Abu Daqa, 47, Palestinian woman, by shrapnel from Israeli shelling of Abassan.
    2002 Mahdi Muhammad Suliman Qaisi, 18, Palestinian, by Israeli gunfire while he was returning to his home in Jaljulia on a bypass dirt road, because the Israeli army has interdicted the paved roads.
    2002 Sa’ed Ali Sbaih, Palestinian from Alkhader near Bethlehem, from wounds previously sustained and who was already clinically dead,
    2002 Muhammad Taysser al-Alanini, 28, Palestinian, beaten to death by Israeli soldiers searching his home in Saleef near Jenin. He was a leader of “Islamic Holy War” and had tried to shoot at the soldiers when they approached his home.
    2002 Muhammad Nafiz Fattouh, 19, Saqer Maher Al Bal, 22, Muhammad Ali Al Sous, 20, Muhammad Abu Khousa, 22, and Ismael Albardini, 27, Palestinians, by Israeli attacks in Gaza.
    2001 Steven J. Underwood, 33, Des Moines policeman, shot shortly after 01:00.
         Underwood, a six-year veteran of the force, stopped four teenagers because he recognized one as having a felony warrant out for his arrest. At night it's the policy of Des Moines police to radio for backup when making a felony stop, which the officer did, stating: "I'm getting out of my car to contact these people." When backup arrived — in this case, the officer's sergeant — he found Underwood lying on the street, shot twice. His gun was still in the holster and his blue patrol car was pulled alongside the northbound lane of Pacific Highway South at the intersection of South 222nd Street. Underwood was taken to Harborview Medical Center in Seattle, where he died at 04:47, leaving behind a wife and 2-year-old son. He had just achieved the rank of master police officer and was a field training officer. It is the first time since Des Moines incorporated in 1959 that an officer was killed in the line of duty, a sad loss for the 45-officer department.
    1986 Jacob K Javits (Sen-R-NY), in Palm Beach, Florida.
    1985 Coronel Díaz Arcocha, asesinado por ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna). Era el máximo responsable de la policía autónoma vasca.
    1981 Chester Allen Bitterman, Bible translator, from the US, “executed” by anti-government guerrillas in Colombia, who had kidnapped him and accused him of being a CIA agent.
    1981 Karen Barnes, 23, topless dancer, stabbed a dozen times in the face and throat and skull had been crushed, in her Haight-Ashbury apartment, San Francisco, by Suzan and Michael Carson who believed she was a witch. The couple would murder Clark Stephens in April 1982 and John Hellyer in January 1983, when they would be arrested. They would be sentenced to life in prison for the three murders.
    1959 Ichiro Hatoyama, 76, in Tokyo, one of Japan's most important post-World War II prime ministers, helped to found the long-ruling Liberal Democratic Party. In 1996, his grandsons Yukio Hatoyama and younger brother Kunio Hatoyama, 47 then, jointly started Sakigake opposition party which later became the Democratic Party. But in 2000 Kunio returned to the LDP and the two brothers became bitter political ennemies.
    1957 Percy Wyndham Lewis, Canadian British writer and painter, born on a yatch near Amherst, Nova Scotia, on 18 November 1882. MORE ON LEWIS AT ART “4” MARCH with links to images.
    1951 Ali Razmara, born in 1901, Prime Minister of Iran, assassinated in Tehran outside the Soltaneh Mosque by a member of the Feda'eyan-e Eslam (“Self-Sacrificers of Islam”), an extremist religious organization with close ties to the traditional merchant class and the clergy. Razmara graduated from the French military academy at Saint-Cyr in 1925. After serving in the pacification campaigns in the Kurdistan and Laristan regions of Iran under Reza Khan (later Reza Shah Pahlavi), he became director of the Tehran Military Cadet College in 1938. He wrote several books, including a military history of Persia. In 1944, during the Allied occupation of Iran, Reza Shah Pahlavi's son Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi promoted Razmara to general and ordered him to reorganize the nation's military forces. Two years later he was appointed chief of staff and was responsible for the entry of the central government forces into Iranian Azerbaijan to supervise the elections that resulted in the collapse of the Soviet-sponsored government there. In June 1950 the shah appointed Razmara prime minister. Though efficient and hardworking, he had no large personal following, and his efforts to make the rich carry more of the burden of the state earned him many powerful enemies. Despite intense pressure from populist quarters, he opposed the nationalization of Iran's oil industry on the grounds that, at the time, it would have been impossible to run the industry solely with Iranian technicians. Before the end of the month, Mohammad Mosaddeq [1880 – 05 Mar 1967] was appointed Prime Minister, and he nationalized the country's oil industry.
    1940 Day 97 of Winter War: USSR aggression against Finland.     ^top^
    More deaths due to Stalin's desire to grab Finnish territory.

    Attacking Russian force destroyed in Sintolanniemi

           Following preliminary artillery fire, the Soviet force on the Isthmus launches an assault and breaks through the Finnish backline positions in Tali, advancing thereafter in the direction of Tali village.
          The Soviet troops make several local breakthroughs, which are successfully contained.
          A new group, the Hamina Group, is formed to give added strength to the defence of Viipurinlahti bay. The command of the new group is entrusted to Major-General E. Hanell, who is to be directly responsible to Commander-in-Chief Mannerheim.
          In Taipale, an enemy battalion attacks the Terenttilä stronghold. Finnish losses on this comparatively quiet day in Taipale are 10 dead and 35 wounded.
          The attacking Russian force in the Sintolanniemi sector is completely destroyed.
          In Ladoga Karelia, Detachment Alfthan cuts the supply lines of the Soviet troops in Lavajärvi village.
          The enemy launches yet another attack in the Kollaa sector. The 69th Infantry Division nevertheless manages to hold its ground.
          In the far north, a Red Army regiment overruns the Finnish defensive positions at Nautsi in Petsamo. Nautsi's one and only house is raised in the Soviet Union's war bulletin to the status of "the town of Nautsi". Detachment Pennanen's losses in Petsamo total 33 dead, 87 wounded and 67 missing in action.
          Abroad: Finland's delegation to the Moscow peace talks arrives in the Russian capital in the early evening.
          British volunteers swear their oath to Colonel Kermit Roosevelt in the Finnish Aid office in London.

    Venäläiset hyökkääjät tuhotaan Sintolanniemen lohkolla Talvisodan 99. päivä, 07.maaliskuuta.1940    ^top^
          Neuvostojoukot aloittavat hyökkäyksen tykistön rumputulella ja tunkeutuvat taka-aseman läpi Talin kannaksella ja alkavat edetä Talin kylän suuntaan.
          Neuvostojoukot tekevät lukuisia sisäänmurtoja, jotka saadaan rajoitetuiksi.
          Viipurinlahden puolustustaistelujen tehostamiseksi perustetaan suoraan ylipäällikkö Mannerheimin johtoon uusi yhtymä, Haminan Ryhmä, jonka komentajaksi määrätään kenraalimajuri E. Hanell.
          Taipaleessa pataljoonan vahvuinen vihollinen hyökkää Terenttilän tukikohtaa vastaan. Suomalaistappiot Taipaleessa jäävät rauhallisen päivän aikana 10 kaatuneeseen ja 35 haavoittuneeseen.
          Venäläiset hyökkääjät tuhotaan Sintolanniemen lohkolla.
          Osasto Alfthan katkaisee Lavajärven kylässä olevien neuvostojoukkojen huoltoyhteydet.
          Kollaan alueella vihollinen aloittaa jälleen uuden hyökkäyksen. JR 69 kykenee pitämään asemansa.
          Neuvostoarmeijan rykmentti valtaa Nautsin puolustusasemat Petsamossa. Nautsin ainut talo korotettiin Neuvostoliiton sotatiedotuksessa "Nautsin kaupungiksi".
          Osasto Pennasen tappiot Petsamon taisteluissa ovat kaikkiaan33 miestä kaatuneina, 87 miestä haavoittuneina ja 67 miestä kadonneina.
          Suomen rauhanneuvotteluvaltuuskunta saapuu Moskovaan illansuussa.
          Ulkomailta: Brittiläiset vapaaehtoiset vannovat valansa eversti Kermit Rooseveltille Suomen Avun toimistossa Lontoossa.

    Ryska inkräktare förintas på avsnittet i Sintolanniemi Vinterkrigets 99 dag, den 07 mars 1940    ^top^
         De ryska trupperna inleder ett anfall med trumeld av artilleriet och tränger igenom den bakre ställningen på Tali näs. Därefter rycker de fram mot Tali by.
          De ryska trupperna lyckas göra flera inbrytningar, som finnarna dock lyckas begränsa.
          För att effektivera försvarsstriderna vid Viborgska viken grundas en ny grupp, Fredrikshamnsgruppen, som lyder direkt under överbefälhavare Mannerheim. Generalmajor E. Hanell utnämns till kommendör för gruppen.
          I Taipale anfaller fienden med en bataljon mot basen i Terenttilä. De egna förlusterna i Taipale är 10 stupade och 35 sårade denna lugna dag.
          Ryska inkräktare förintas på avsnittet i Sintolanniemi.
          Avdelning Alfthan skär av de ryska truppernas försörjningsförbindelse i Lavajärvi by.
          Vid Kollaa inleder fienden en ny offensiv. JR 69 lyckas hålla positionen.
          Ett regemente i den ryska armén erövrar försvarsställningen i Nautsi, Petsamo. Den enda byggnaden i Nautsi beskrivs i en rysk krigsrapport som "Nautsi stad".
          Avdelning Pennanens förluster i Petsamostriderna är inalles 33 stupade, 87 sårade och 67 försvunna soldater.
          Finlands fredsförhandlingsdelegation anländer till Moskva på kvällen.
          Utrikes: Brittiska frivilliga svär eden inför överste Kermit Roosevelt på Finlandshjälpens kontor i London.
    1938 788 hombres, en el hundimiento del crucero Baleares, durante la Guerra civil española.
    1932 Aristide Briand, estadista francés.
    1931 Theo van Doesburg, Dutch Neo-Plasticist painter born in 1883 — LINKSComposition XIComposition XXIICountercompositionSimultaneous Countercomposition
    1908 Manuel Curros Enríquez, escritor español.
    1890 Claudio Moyano Samaniego, político español.
    1868 George St. Leger Grenfel, 68, former Confederate colonel, cellmate Johnny Adare, a prison guard, and two other inmates, as they escape from the Fort Jefferson prison, off Florida's Gulf Coast, in a small fishing boat into a storm in which they disappeared forever.
    1862 Confederates General Ben McCulloch and Colonel James McIntosh, and many other soldiers at the Battle of Pea Ridge (or Elkhorn Tavern), Arkansas, on its first day.    ^top^
         On 7 and 8 March, this was a bitterly fought American Civil War battle, during which 11'000 Union troops under General Samuel Curtis defeated 16'000 attacking Confederate troops led by Generals Earl Van Dorn, Sterling Price, and Ben McCulloch. Following a fierce opening assault from the rear that almost overwhelmed Curtis' forces, the outnumbered Union troops rallied. After a desperate struggle with severe losses on both sides, Union forces counterattacked on March 8. The Confederates were forced to retreat, thus thwarting their hopes of regaining control of Arkansas.
    1826 Abraham van Stry I, Dutch painter of oils and watercolors, born on 31 December 1753. MORE ON VAN STRY AT ART “4” MARCH with links to images.
    1809 Jean-Pierre Blanchard, balloon pioneer, falls from a balloon in Paris.    ^top^
         Blanchard, along with American John Jeffries, made the first successful balloon crossing of the English Channel, dies in Paris, France, from injuries suffered after falling from a balloon during a demonstration in the Netherlands. On 07 January 1785, Blanchard and Jeffries, of Boston, Massachusetts, successfully traveled across the English Channel from Dover, England, to Calais, France, in a gas balloon. However, the two men nearly crashed into the Channel along the way as their balloon was weighed down by extraneous supplies such as anchors, a nonfunctional hand-operated propeller, and silk-covered oars with which they hoped they could row their way through the air. Just before reaching the French coast, the two balloonists were forced to throw nearly everything out of the balloon, and Blanchard even threw his trousers over the side in a desperate, but apparently successful attempt to lighten the ship. After winning fame from the world's first aerial crossing of the English Channel, Blanchard traveled Europe and North America demonstrating his hot air and gas balloons. His balloon ascents over Philadelphia in 1793 and New York City in 1796 were among the first in America, and fascinated the people of the young republic.
    1782: Amerindians massacred as Ohio Territory militiamen begin a two-day massacre of the Moravian Indian town of Gnadenhutten (modern New Philadelphia, Ohio). In all, 96 Christian Indians of the Delaware tribe are slaughtered, in retaliation for Indian raids made elsewhere in the Ohio Territory.
    1724 Inocencio XIII, Papa.
    1274 Saint Thomas Aquinas, 48, applied Aristotle's philosophy to theology. — AQUINAS ONLINE: Summa TheologicaCorpus ChristiEpistola de Modo StudendiDe Ente et EssentiaDe Principio Individuationis — (in English translations): — Summa TheologicaSumma TheologicaOf God and His Creatures (abridged Summa Contra Gentiles) — On Being and EssenceOn the Eternity of the WorldOn the Principles of Nature .
    0161 Antonino Pío
    , emperador romano.
    – 322-BC- Aristotle, 62.
         Aristotle was the greatest, or one of the three greatest of ancient Greek philosophers.
    Encarta on Aristotle.
    — ARISTOTLE ONLINE (in English translations):
  • Eudemian Ethics
  • History of Animals
  • Metaphysics
  • Metaphysics
  • Nicomachean Ethics
  • Nicomachean Ethics
  • Nicomachean Ethics (PDF)
  • Nicomachean Ethics
  • The Athenian Constitution
  • The Athenian Constitution
  • Physics
  • Poetics
  • Poetics
  • Poetics
  • Politics
  • Politics (PDF)
  • Politics
  • Posterior Analytics
  • Prior Analytics
  • Complete On-Line Works and Commentary
  • On Generation and Corruption
  • On the Heavens
  • On the Parts of Animals
  • On the Soul
  • On Youth and Old Age, On Life and Death, On Breathing
  • Rhetoric
  • Rhetoric
  • Topics
  • Cardinal TerrazalBirths which occurred on a March 07:

    1948 Juan Eslava Galán, escritor y profesor español.

    1936 Julio Terrazas Sandoval, C.SS.R., Bolivian Redemptorist ordained priest on 29 July 1962, appointed auxiliary of La Paz on 15 April 1978 and consecrated bishop on 08 June 1978; appointed bishop of Oruro on 09 January 1982 and archbishop of Santa Cruz on 06 February 1991; made cardinal on 21 February 2001.

    1933 "Monopoly" game, invented.
    Young René Gagnon Later René Gagnon 1925 René Gagnon, Manchester, NH.    ^top^

         [< young René Gagnon]

          He would be one of the six flag raisers on top of Mount Suribachi, Iwo Jima, on 23 February 1945, immortalized in the famous photo

         René Gagnon was the youngest of the three flag raisers who survived the Iwo Jima campaign. He was the man who carried the flag up Mt. Suribachi. He was the first survivor to arrive back in the US.

         René Gagnon died in Manchester NH on 12 October 1979.

     [René Gagnon in later years >]
    1923 "Stopping By Woods on a Snowy Evening" poem is published    ^top^
         The New Republic publishes Robert Frost's poem "Stopping By Woods on a Snowy Evening." The poem, beginning with the famous line "Whose woods these are, I think I know. His house is in the village though," would introduced millions of American students to poetry.
          Like most of Frost's poetry, "Stopping by Woods" adopts the tone of a simple New England farmer contemplating an everyday site. But Robert Frost was very different from the narrators he created. Long associated with New England and farming, Frost was actually born in California in 1874, where he lived until his father, a journalist, died when he was 11. His mother brought him to Massachusetts, where he graduated as co-valedictorian of his high school class. He attended Dartmouth and Harvard but didn't complete a degree at either school. Three years after high school, he married his fellow high school valedictorian, Elinor White.
          Frost tried unsuccessfully to run a New England farm, and the family, which soon included four children, struggled with poverty for two decades. Frost became more and more depressed, perhaps even suicidal, and in 1912 he moved his family to England to make a fresh start. There he concentrated on his poetry and published a collection called A Boy's Will in 1913, which won praise from English critics and helped him win a US publishing contract for his second book, North of Boston (1914). The American public took a liking to the 40-year-old Frost, who returned to the US when World War I broke out and bought another farm in New Hampshire. He continued to publish books and taught and lectured at Amherst, University of Michigan, Harvard, and Dartmouth, and read his poetry at the inauguration of President Kennedy. He also endured personal tragedy when a son committed suicide and a daughter had a mental breakdown. Although Frost never graduated from a university, he had collected 44 honorary degrees before he died in 1963.
    1916 BMW precursor company   ^top^
         The manufacturing firms of Karl Rapp and Gustav Otto merged to form the Bayerische Flugzeugwerke AG (Bavarian Aircraft Works). The company would later become the Bayerische Motor-Werke (Bavarian Motor Works or BMW). As the original name suggests, BMW began as a manufacturer of aircaft engines. In 1923 BMW built its first motorcycle. The BMW R12, a classic-looking BMW motorcycle, was the first motorcycle to have a telescopic hydraulic front fork, providing a smoother ride and better contact with the road. BMW is still the leader in motorcycle design and production in Europe. In 1929 BMW built its first car, the Dixi, in a factory in Eisenach, Germany. Prior to opening the factory in Eisenach all BMW products had been manufactured in Munich. By 1938 BMW was racing in the biggest car races in Europe. The 328 won its class at the Mille Miglia Italian road race. The outbreak of World War II saw BMW, like its US counterparts, switch production to war manufacturing. BMW facilities were destroyed by Allied bombing during World War II. After the peace, a three-year ban was imposed on BMW by the Allies for its part in the war. The BMW R24 motorcycle became, with its release in 1948, the company’s first post-war product. BMW completed its first postwar car, the 501, in 1951. BMW is still one of the world’s leading automobile manufacturers. The company is noted for its innovations in the field of ABS, Anti-Lock Breaking Systems.
    1915 Jacques Chaban-Delmas, político francés.
    1887 Helen Parkhurst, US educator, author, and lecturer who died on 01 June 1973.
    1886 Federico García Sanchiz, escritor español.
    1885 La vida alegre y muerte triste, del dramaturgo José de Echegaray Eizaguirre, se estrena.
    1876 Telephone is patented by Alexander Graham Bell    ^top^
          Alexander Graham Bell, 29, received a patent for the telephone, which he invented as a result of his work with the deaf. Three days after receiving the patent, issued for "improvements to the telegraph," Bell made the first successful telephone call, to another floor in his house. The following fall, he completed the first call over outdoor wires, from Boston to Cambridge, Massachusetts. Bell's patent was hotly contested by several lawsuits, but the courts ultimately upheld Bell's claims. He continued to improve the telephone and also invented a number of other devices, including the graphophone, an early voice recording device, in 1887; the photophone, which transmitted sound using light beams, in 1880; and various hydrofoils and other aviation devices. He founded the Bell Telephone Company in 1877.
    1875 Maurice Joseph Ravel, Cibourne, France, composer (Boléro). He died on 28 December 1937.
    1872 Pieter Cornelis Mondriaan “Piet Mondrian”, Dutch painter, who carried abstraction to its furthest limits. MORE ON MONDRIAN AT ART “4” MARCH with links to images.
    1857 Julius Wagner von Jauregg, Austrian psychiatrist and neurologist (Nobel 1927). He died on 27 September 1940.
    1850 Tomas Masaryk, founder and president of Czechoslovakia who died on 14 September 1937.
    1811 Giuseppe Ferrari, Italian historian, political philosopher, and politician who died on 02 June 1876. He is best known for his study of Roman and Italian revolutions. [He did not design, manufacture, nor race automobiles, which had not been invented. That was Enzo Ferrari (18 Feb 1898 – 14 August 1988)].
    1802 Edwin Henry Landseer, English painter specialized in animals. MORE ON LANDSEER AT ART “4” MARCH with links to images.
    1792 John Herschel    ^top^
          John Herschel, a mathematician and astronomer, studied at Cambridge with Charles Babbage, the pioneer of the electronic computer. Babbage and Herschel realized that England lagged behind other modern nations in the realm of mathematics. Along with Babbage, Herschel cofounded England's Analytical Society, which helped bring English mathematics up to date by introducing a streamlined system to denote numbers and operations. Babbage said a conversation with Herschel inspired his Difference Engine, a theoretical computer that he devoted most of his life and fortune to building. Unfortunately, he ran out of money before he could complete the project. Herschel died on 11 May 1871.
    1785 Alessandro Manzoni, in Milan, poet, playwright, novelist.    ^top^
         Italian poet and novelist whose novel I promessi sposi (1952) had immense patriotic appeal for Italians of the nationalistic Risorgimento period and is generally ranked among the masterpieces of world literature.
         Manzoni wrote (1812-1815) a series of religious poems, Inni sacri (1815), on the church feasts of Christmas, Good Friday, and Easter, and a hymn to Mary. The last, and perhaps the finest, of the series, La pentecoste, was published in 1822.
         During these years, Manzoni also produced the treatise Osservazioni sulla morale cattolica(1819); an ode on the Piedmontese revolution of 1821, Marzo 1821; and two historical tragedies influenced by Shakespeare: Il conte di Carmagnola (1820), a romantic work depicting a 15th-century conflict between Venice and Milan; and Adelchi (performed 1822), a richly poetic drama about Charlemagne's overthrow of the Lombard kingdom and conquest of Italy. Another ode, written on the death of Napoleon in 1821, Il cinque maggio (1822), was considered by Goethe, one of the first to translate it into German, as the greatest of many written to commemorate the event.
          Manzoni's masterpiece, I promessi sposi, 3 vol. (1825-1827), is a novel set in early 17th-century Lombardy during the period of the Milanese insurrection, the Thirty Years' War, and the plague. It is a sympathetic portrayal of the struggle of two peasant lovers whose wish to marry is thwarted by a vicious local tyrant and the cowardice of their parish priest. A courageous friar takes up the lovers' cause and helps them through many adventures to safety and marriage. Manzoni's resigned tolerance of the evils of life and his concept of religion as the ultimate comfort and inspiration of humanity give the novel its moral dimension, while a pleasant vein of humour in the book contributes to the reader's enjoyment. The novel brought Manzoni immediate fame and praise from all quarters, in Italy and elsewhere. Prompted by the patriotic urge to forge a language that would be accessible to a wide readership rather than a narrow elite, Manzoni decided to write his novel in an idiom as close as possible to contemporary educated Florentine speech. The final edition of I promessi sposi (1840-42), rendered in clear, expressive prose purged of all antiquated rhetorical forms, reached exactly the sort of broad audience he had aimed at, and its prose became the model for many subsequent Italian writers. Manzoni died in Milan on 22 May 1873.
    Biografia e Rittrato di Manzoni
    MANZONI ONLINE: I Promessi SposiI Promessi SposiI Promessi SposiStoria della colonna infameLe odi civiliGli inni sacriAdelchiIl Conte di CarmagnolaDel romanzo storicoLettera a Cesare Taparelli D'AzeglioLettre à Chauvet — (in English translation): I Promessi Sposi, or The Betrothed
    1765 Joseph Nicéphore Niepce, French chemist, inventor of photography together with Daguerre.
    1744 or 1752 Jean-Louis Demarne (or de Marne), French painter who died on 24 March or January 1829. MORE ON DEMARNE AT ART “4” MARCH with links to images.
    1672. Francisco Javier Solchaga, en la ciudad de Querétaro. El habrá de distinguirse como consumado teólogo, orador, filósofo, misionero y hombre de ciencia. Ha de morir en la ciudad de Puebla, el año de 1757.
    Holidays California : Burbank Day/Bird and Arbor Day (1849) / Laos : Veteran's Day.
    Ash Wednesday in 1962, 1973, 1984, 2057, 2068, 2114.
    Religious Observances Ang, Luth, RC : Ss Perpetua and her companions, martyrs / old RC, Luth : St Thomas Aquinas, confessor of the Faith, doctor of the Church. / Santas Perpetua y Felicidad; santos Teófilo, Saturnino y Pablo.
    What is the technical term for “military intelligence”? — oxymoron.
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