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Events, deaths, births, of MAR 13

[For Mar 13 Julian go to Gregorian date:
1583~1699: Mar 231700s: Mar 241800s: Mar 251900~2099: Mar 26]
• On 105th day of Soviet aggression, heroic little Finland is defeated... • Ford Motors's Sorensen resigns... • Henry Ford II resigns... • Kennedy proposes Alliance for Progress... • Henrik Ibsen's play Ghosts opens... • Texans retreat before Mexican army... • Online newspaper... • Vietnamese city falls to Communists... • Dien Bien Phu... • GM settles UAW strike... • UK bans travel with Ireland... • Terrorist kills tsar... • No one stops Kitty Genovese's murder... • Suicide of a psychoanalyst... • Massacre in the kindergarten... • Medal of Honor to a Japanese–American... • Impeachment trial of US President Johnson... • Herschel discovers Uranus... • The Monkey Trial attorney dies...
VXGN price chartOn a 13 March:
2003 The stock of Vaxgen (VXGN) had plunged recently on refutation of its claim of effectiveness for its experimental AIDS vaccine, Aidsvax. But today Vaxgen raises its forecast of 2003 earnings to $16.1 million from $13 million. On the NASDAQ 5 million of the 14.5 million VXGN shares are traded, surging from their previous close of $2.76 (their lowest since they started trading on 28 June 1999 at $16.38), to an intraday high of $4.46 and closing at $4.13. They had traded as high as $20.34 as recently as 21 January 2003 and $32.38 on 23 October 2000. [4~year price chart >]

2003 At a meeting on Elementary and Analytic Number Theory in Oberwolfach, Germany, Daniel Goldston [04 Jan 1954~], of San Jose State University, California, announced that, together with Cem Yalcin Yildirim of Bogazici University in Istanbul, he has proved that liminf (p_{n+1} - p_n)/log p_n = 0. It looks like they will be able to show that p_{n+1} - p_n is infinitely often as small as (log p_n)^{4/5}. It may be that the method can be applied also to long gaps between primes, with the prospect of possibly breaking the Erdos--Rankin order of magnitude. This is the biggest excietement that prime number theory has seen since the Bombieri-Vinogradov theorem was proved in 1966. Goldston would repeat his announcement on 28 March 2003 at workshop on Algorithmic Number Theory hosted by the American Institute of Mathematics (AIM). However, on 23 April 2003, Andrew Granville of the Université de Montréal and K. Soundararajan of the University of Michigan would find a mistake buried in one of the arguments in the preprint of Goldston and Yildrim. The main issue is that some quantities which were believed to be small error terms are actually the same order of magnitude as the main term.

2003 Daniel Goldston [04 Jan 1954~], of San Jose State University, California, discovers a flaw in the proof that liminf (p_{n+1} - p_n)/log p_n = 0, which he had announced on 13 March 2003 that he had completed together with Cem Yalcin Yildirim of Bogazici University in Istanbul. It would have been a big step towards proving the twin prime conjecture. The largest twin primes discovered so far are numbers with 51'090 digits each.
2002 “We're at war to keep the peace,” says US usurper-President George “Dubya” Bush.
2000 El grupo automovilístico estadounidense General Motors, el mayor del mundo, adquiere el 20% de las acciones del italiano Fiat por un valor de 411.000 millones de pesetas. Por su parte, el grupo italiano se hace con el 5,1% del fabricante de Estados Unidos.
1998 El presidente de Corea del Sur, Kim Dae Yung, decreta la mayor amnistía de la historia de este país: 5,5 millones de personas, entre ellos presos políticos, presos comunes, prostitutas y cientos de miles de infractores de tráfico.
1998 Sears Roebuck & Co. belatedly recalls the "J.C. Higgins Bolt Action 12-Gauge Model 10 Shotguns," made during the 1950s, due to faulty assembly of the bolt latch; which could spring off the gun and smack the user in the face. Although Sears didn’t receive any reports of injuries from the guns, they offer $160 to anyone who returned a defective bolt latch.
1998 Sgt. Maj. Gene McKinney, once Army's top enlisted man, is acquitted of pressuring military women for sex, but is convicted of trying to persuade his chief accuser to lie.
1996 World leaders, including US President Clinton, held a summit in Sharm El-Sheik, Egypt, where they vowed unequivocal support for the Mideast peace process.
1996 Internet World Expo planned       ^top^
      Newspapers announced the development of an Internet World Expo, including virtual "pavilions" featuring an electronic town hall, a government pavilion including a database of US patents and trademarks, and other educational events. The Expo, to run throughout 1996, was conceived by Internet pioneer Vinton Cerf and backed by MCI, Sun Microsystems, and Quantum Corporation.
1995 Concluye en Copenhague la I "Cumbre" Mundial sobre Desarrollo Social, con la aprobación de algunos acuerdos contra la pobreza y la marginación, para fomentar el empleo y garantizar derechos del trabajador, la mujer y el niño.
1994 33.3% of Austrians vote for ultra-right FPÖ
1994 President Mangope of Bophuthaswana deposed.
1994 Newspaper goes online       ^top^
      Prodigy starts its first online newspaper, the Atlanta Journal-Constitution. One of the earliest online newspapers, the Journal-Constitution listed local information, including Little League scores, lunch menus, and crime reports, as well as local advertising. The news service was available as a subscription service, with additional fees for bulletin board usage. Other early online newspapers included the St. Louis Dispatch and Florida Today.
1993 Triunfo de los laboristas en las elecciones legislativas de Australia, con lo que Paul John Keating sigue en el poder.
1991 Exxon Corporaation agrees to pay a $100 million criminal fine and more than $900 million in civil damages in the wake of the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The deal fell apart when the Alaska House rejected it. A new settlement was reached later.
1990 Nicholas Braithwaite is elected premier of Grenada.
1990 El presidente de EE.UU., George Bush (padre, él que fue legitimamente elegido], levanta el embargo económico impuesto a Nicaragua hace cinco años por su predecesor, Ronald Reagan.
1989 FDA orders recall of all Chilean fruit in US, after finding one contaminated grape.
1987 John Gotti is acquitted of racketeering.
1981 Pope John Paul II is wounded in assassination attempt by Mehemet Ali Agca.
1980 A jury in Winamac, Ind., finds Ford Motor Co. not guilty of reckless homicide in the fiery deaths of three young women riding in a Ford Pinto.
1980 Henry Ford II resigns       ^top^
      Henry Ford II resigned as Chairman of the Ford Motor Company after naming Philip Caldwell his successor. With Ford’s resignation the era of the Ford family as an automotive dynasty temporarily ended. Henry the Second was, like his grandfather, a tough and formidable leader. He reorganized the company and instituted a modern bookkeeping system. His father, Edsel, had been considered a dreamer by Henry I. Edsel had spent much of his energy designing cars and improving Ford’s labor relationships. He hadn’t been a hard-edged businessman and often drew his father’s criticism on those grounds. Like the archetypal ruling families of England, the Ford family followed its own generational legacy: Henry the Great, Edsel the Confessor, and Henry the Second. It sounds like Shakespeare.
1979 Gairy dictatorship in Grenada overthrown by New Jewel Movement
1979 European Monetary System is established, ECU created.
1975 North Vietnamese take key city.       ^top^
      Ban Me Thuot, capital of Darlac Province in the Central Highlands, falls to North Vietnamese troops. In late January 1975, just two years after the cease-fire established by the Paris Peace Accords, the North Vietnamese launched Campaign 275. The objective of this campaign was to capture Ban Me Thuot in the Central Highlands. The battle began on March 4 and the North Vietnamese quickly encircled the city with five main force divisions, cutting it off from outside support. As it became clear that the communists would take the city and probably the entire province, South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu decided to withdraw his forces in order to protect the more critical populous areas to the south. Accordingly, he ordered his forces in the Central Highlands to pull back from their positions. Abandoning Pleiku and Kontum, the South Vietnamese forces began to move toward the sea, but what started out as an orderly withdrawal soon turned into panic and the South Vietnamese forces rapidly fell apart. The North Vietnamese were successful in both the Central Highlands and further north at Quang Tri, Hue, and Da Nang. The South Vietnamese soon collapsed as a cogent fighting force while the North Vietnamese continued their attack all the way to Saigon. South Vietnam surrendered unconditionally to the North Vietnamese on April 30 and the war was over.
1973 Syria adopts constitution.
1972 Honeywell v. Sperry trial ends       ^top^
      Honeywell v. Sperry questioned the paternity of ENIAC, the world's first electronic, all-purpose digital computer. On March 13, 1972, the court ruled that J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly had not filed their patent applications until ENIAC was already a subject of public knowledge and thus had no claim on the invention. Ironically, Eckert and Mauchly had quit-or been fired from, depending who told the story-the Moore School at the University of Pennsylvania because they refused to sign over all rights to patents to the University.
1967 Congo sentences ex-premier Moïse Tshombe to death
1964 Turkey threatens Cyprus with armed attack.
1963 Indonesia and Netherlands reopen diplomatic relations
1962 Yugoslavia grants 1000 prisoners amnesty
1961 Kennedy proposes Alliance for Progress.       ^top^
      President John F. Kennedy proposes a 10-year, multibillion-dollar aid program for Latin America. The program came to be known as the Alliance for Progress and was designed to improve US relations with Latin America, which had been severely damaged in recent years. When Kennedy became president in 1961, US relations with Latin America were at an all-time low. The Latin American republics were disappointed with US economic assistance after World War II. They argued that they had supported America during the war by increasing their production of vital raw materials and keeping their prices low--when the United States began massive aid programs to Europe and Japan after the war, Latin American nations protested that they also deserved economic assistance. Their anger was apparent during Vice President Richard Nixon's trip through the region in 1958, when a mob attacked his car at a stop in Caracas.
      More troubling to American officials was the threat of communism in Latin America. In 1954, the Central Intelligence Agency had funded and supplied a revolution that overthrew the leftist government of Guatemala. In 1959, Fidel Castro came to power in Cuba and by 1961, the United States had severed relations with his government. In response to these developments, Kennedy made his plea for the Alliance for Progress. In requesting funds from Congress, the president stressed the need for improved literacy, land use, industrial productivity, health, and education in Latin America. The United States needed to help Latin America, where "millions of men and women suffer the daily degradations of hunger and poverty" and "discontent is growing." The United States would provide money, expertise, and technology to raise the standard of living for the people of Latin America, which would hopefully make the countries stronger and better able to resist communist influences.
     In response to Kennedy's plea, Congress voted for an initial grant of $500 million in May 1961. During the next 10 years, billions were spent on the Alliance, but its success was marginal and there were many reasons that the program was ultimately a failure. American congressmen were reluctant to provide funds for land redistribution programs in Latin America because they felt it smacked of socialism. Latin American elites directed most of the funds into pet projects that enriched themselves but did little to help the vast majority of their people. The Alliance certainly failed in its effort to bring democracy to Latin America: by the time the program faded away in the early-1970s, 13 governments in Latin America had been replaced by military rule.
1957 Bloody battles after anti-Batista demonstration in Havana Cuba
1955 Bir BSD Mahendra succeeds Tribhubana as king of Nepal
1954 French besieged at Dien Bien Phu.       ^top^
      A force of 40,000 Viet Minh with heavy artillery surround 15,000 French troops at Dien Bien Phu. French General Henri Navarre had positioned these forces 200 miles behind enemy lines in a remote area adjacent to the Laotian border. He hoped to draw the communists into a set-piece battle in which he hoped superior French firepower would destroy the enemy. He underestimated the enemy. Viet Minh General Vo Nguyen Giap entrenched artillery in the surrounding mountains and massed five divisions around the French positions. The battle began with a massive Viet Minh artillery barrage, followed by an infantry assault. Fierce fighting continued to rage until May 7, 1954, when the Viet Minh overran the last French positions. The shock of the fall of Dien Bien Phu led France, already plagued by public opposition to the war, to agree to the independence of Vietnam at the Geneva Conference in 1954.
1951 2nd Dutch government of Drees forms.
1950 General Motors reports net earnings of $656'434'232 (record)
1946 GM settles UAW strike.       ^top^
      The end of World War II, and America's concurrent shift to a peacetime economy, stirred the ever-simmering tension between labor and management. After tightening their belts, and forgoing the right to strike during the war, workers sought higher wages and a better standard of living when the war was won. Business leaders responded by looking to roll back the government and union’s respective efforts to shape post-war wages and prices. These competing desires were on full display in the United Auto Workers (UAW) strike against General Motors (GM) that stretched from November 1945 until March of 1936. The walkout was engineered by UAW chief Walter Reuther, who was not only agitating for higher pay for GM's 320'000 employees, but also looked to consolidate his power in the stratified world of the auto union. With his eyes on both these prizes, Reuther took a hard line stance at the negotiating table: he demanded that GM open its ledgers to the union, which, theoretically, would reveal that the company had prospered during the war and could easily afford a boost in wages. Leaders for the auto giant flatly refused to "open the books" and mounted a propaganda campaign aimed at branding the request as another example of labor's ever-intrusive tendencies. Finally, on March 13, 1946, the two sides quit their bickering and the 175'000 strikers agreed to head back to work. Although GM caved in and handed out a wage hike, the coming months hardly made the strike seem like a victory: business leaders in various industries proved successful in their drive for price increases, which opened the floodgates of inflation and in turn wiped out the workers' wage gains.
1946 First Japanese-American recipient of the Medal of Honor    ^top^
Sadao S. Munemori of the US Army Thirty-Fourth Infantry Division is posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for his bravery in action near Seravezza, Italy. He is the first US soldier of Japanese ancestry to receive the nation’s highest military honor, which is presented to his mother during a formal ceremony. On April 5, 1945, Munemori’s unit was pinned down by German artillery coming from entrenched mountain positions near Seravezza. After the leader of his squad was killed, Munemori took command, and taking his comrades’ grenades, he single-handedly attacked and destroyed two German machine-gun positions. While making his way back to his men under heavy fire, a German grenade bounced off his helmet and into a crater shell occupied by two of his men. Without hesitation, Munemori dove into the crater and onto the grenade, smothering its blast with his body in order to save the men. Despite the forced internment of over 100,000 Japanese Americans from 1942 to 1945, many Japanese Americans served valiantly in the US armed forces during World War II, and not one American of Japanese ancestry was ever convicted of spying for Japan.
1945 Queen Wilhelmina returns to Netherlands.
1944 UK bars travel with neutral Ireland.       ^top^
      Britain announces that all travel between Ireland and the United Kingdom is suspended, the result of the Irish government's refusal to expel Axis-power diplomats within its borders. In 1922, an independent Irish republic was established after generations of conflict between Ireland and Britain. One of the conditions of that agreement was that Britain would retain control of three naval bases along the Irish coast in order to continue Ireland's defense. But as war loomed in the late 1930s, Irish Prime Minister Eamon de Valera negotiated an agreement that ended the British occupation of those naval bases; Ireland had declared a pre-emptive state of neutrality in any European war, and the presence of the Royal Navy on independent Irish soil violated that neutrality. De Valera did not want Ireland to become an object of attacks aimed at Britain.
      De Valera was willing to bargain away Irish neutrality, though, in exchange for Northern Ireland's being returned to the Irish Republic. The British were not willing to pay that price but did agree to end conscription in Northern Ireland once De Valera denounced conscription--because it forced Irish men to fight in what De Valera believed was an English war--as an "act of aggression."
      Irish neutrality was challenged in 1941, with German air raids against Dublin. It was challenged again in 1942, when the United States landed troops in Northern Ireland, under the understanding that it was under the control of its ally, Britain. De Valera protested. President Franklin D. Roosevelt was stunned at this intransigence and applied pressure to the de Valera government, attempting to change Ireland's neutrality stance. De Valera did not relent. Finally, when the Irish prime minister refused to expel from Ireland the diplomats of the Axis powers, Britain retaliated by suspending all travel between the Irish Republic and the United Kingdom. Ireland did not flinch and, when the war ended, developed good relations with all the powers involved.
1944 Passed over, Sorensen resigns from Ford.      ^top^
      Sorensen resigned as the vice president of the Ford Motor Company on this day. Sorensen had been Henry Ford’s long-time right hand man. Tall and handsome, Sorensen became a darling of the national press corps during World War II. He was in charge of Ford’s wartime production; and the Willow Run plant that produced B-24 Liberator bombers was Sorensen’s project. Originally, Ford had been contracted to produce subassemblies for United Aircraft, but Sorensen demanded that Ford be able to produce entire planes. He promised the government 500 planes per month, a figure nearly three times as great as United Aircraft’s production potential. In return, he was rewarded with a huge contract which included $200 million for the construction of the Willow Run facility. Willow Run, after a rocky beginning, became a heroic success story, a symbol of America’s role as the "great arsenal of democracy." The plant eventually reached a production level of one bomber per hour. With Willow Run’s success came attention for Sorensen. In 1940, he appeared in Time and Newsweek and in 1942 Fortune magazine ran a long adulatory article entitled "Sorensen of the Rouge." Sorensen himself admitted that his popularity may have caused his departure from Ford, "My ability to keep out of the public eye was one reason I stayed as long as I did at Ford while others left." In 1943, Henry Ford promoted Harry Bennet, his longtime labor enforcer, to a position above Sorensen. Realizing that he had fallen from favor, the graceful Sorensen resigned from Ford.
1944 USSR recognizes Italian Badoglio government.
1943 Failed assassination attempt on Hitler during Smolensk-Rastenburg flight.
1942 Julia Flikke, Nurse Corps, becomes first woman colonel in US army.
1938 Anschluß:: Austria annexed by Nazi Germany. — Austria es anexionada al III Reich alemán.
1937 Guerra Civil española: Las tropas italianas sufren un grave revés en la contraofensiva desencadenada por los republicanos en Guadalajara.
1933 US Banks reopen after 10-day Bank Holiday (to quell panic).
1933 Josef Göbbels becomes German minister of Information and Propaganda.
1930 Clyde Tombaugh announces discovery of Pluto at Lowell Observatory.
1929 Enfrentamiento de estudiantes con la policía en Madrid. Se endurece la censura de prensa.
1925 Tennessee Governor Austin Peay signed legislation prohibiting the teaching of evolution within the state's public school system. (A violation intended to test this law result on 10 July with the Scopes Monkey Trial, argued by Clarence Darrow, who would die on 13 March 1938.)
1924 Disolución del Parlamento en Alemania.
1923 Lee de Forest demonstrates his sound-on-film moving pictures, NYC.
1921 Mongolia declares independence from China.
1920 Wolfgang Kapp's coup attempt in Berlin fails.
1902 En España dimite el Gabinete Sagasta.
1900 British troops occupy Bloemfontein, Orange-Free state.
1888 Great Blizzard of 1888 rages.
1884 Standard Time adopted in US.
1884 Siege of Khartoum Sudan begins.
1869 Arkansas legislature passes anti-Klan law
1868 Impeachment trial of US President Johnson begins    ^top^
     Under the direction of US Supreme Court Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase, the US Senate trial of President Andrew Johnson, the first president to ever be impeached, begins in Washington, D.C. At the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861,
      Andrew Johnson, a senator from Tennessee, was the only US senator from a seceding state who remained loyal to the Union. Johnson's political career was built on his defense of the interests of poor white Southerners against the landed classes; of his decision to oppose secession, he said, "Damn the negroes; I am fighting those traitorous aristocrats, their masters." For his loyalty, President Abraham Lincoln appointed him military governor of Tennessee in 1862, and in 1864 Johnson was elected vice president of the United States.
      Inaugurated after Lincoln’s assassination in April of 1865, President Johnson enacted a lenient Reconstruction policy for the defeated South, including almost total amnesty to ex-Confederates, a program of rapid restoration of US state status for the seceded states, and the approval of new, local Southern governments, which were able to legislate "Black Codes" that preserved the system of slavery in all but its name. The Republican-dominated Congress greatly opposed Johnson’s Reconstruction program and passed the "Radical Reconstruction" by repeatedly overriding the president's vetoes. Under the Radical Reconstruction, local Southern governments gave way to federal military rule, and African-American men in the South were granted the constitutional right to vote.
      On 02 March 1867, in order further to weaken Johnson's authority, Congress passed the Tenure of Office Act over his veto. The act prohibited the president from removing officials confirmed by the Senate without senatorial approval. It was designed to shield members of Johnson's Cabinet like Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton, a leading Republican radical who was appointed during the Lincoln administration. In the fall of 1867, President Johnson attempted to test the constitutionality of the act by replacing Stanton with General Ulysses S. Grant. However, the US Supreme Court refused to rule on the case and Grant turned the office back to Stanton after the Senate passed a measure refusing the dismissal.
      On 21 February 1868, Johnson decided to rid himself of Stanton once and for all and appointed General Lorenzo Thomas, an individual far less acceptable to the Congress than Grant, as secretary of war. Stanton refused to yield, barricading himself in his office, and the House of Representatives, which had already discussed impeachment after Johnson’s first dismissal of Stanton, initiated formal impeachment proceedings against the president. On 24 February, the House voted eleven impeachment articles against Johnson. Nine of the articles cited his violations of the Tenure of Office Act; one cited his opposition to the Army Appropriations Act of 1867 (designed to deprive the president of his constitutional position as commander in chief of the US Army); and one accused Johnson of bringing "into disgrace, ridicule, hatred, contempt, and reproach the Congress of the United States" through certain controversial speeches.
     On 13 March, according to the rules set out in Section 3 of Article I of the US Constitution, the impeachment trial of President Johnson began in the Senate. US Supreme Court Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase presided over the proceedings, which were described as theatrical. On 16 May and again on 26 May, the Senate voted on the charges brought against President Johnson. Both times the vote was 35 for conviction and 19 for acquittal, with seven moderate Republicans joining 12 Democrats in voting against what was a weak case for impeachment. Because both votes fell short — by one vote — of the two-thirds majority needed to convict Johnson, he was judged not guilty and remained in office. Nevertheless, he chose not to actively seek reelection on the Democratic ticket. In November, Ulysses S. Grant, who supported the Republicans' Radical Reconstruction policies, was elected president of the United States.
      In 1875, after two failed bids, Johnson won reelection to Congress as a US senator from Tennessee. He died less than four months after taking office at the age of 66. Fifty-one years later, the US Supreme Court declared the Tenure of Office Act unconstitutional in its ruling in Myers v. United States.
— Anti-Johnson Cartoon drawn by Thomas Nast on this occasion and published one year later to the day in Harper's Weekly of 13 March 1869 (after Johnson had left office). It is a parody of the “Ides of March” painting by Gérôme La Mort de César.
1865 Confederate President Jefferson Davis signs bill authorizing use of slaves as soldiers.
1862 Siege of New Madrid, Missouri continues.
1852 Uncle Sam cartoon figure debuts in NY Lantern weekly.
1848 Movimiento revolucionario en Viena, como consecuencia del cual es destituído el canciller Klemens Metternich Winneburg , tras 47 años de servicios públicos. — [Did that make him Metternich Loosaburg?]
1836 Texans retreat before Mexican army.       ^top^
      Less than a week after the disastrous defeat of Texas rebels at the Alamo, the newly commissioned Texan General Sam Houston begins a series of strategic retreats to buy time to train his ill-prepared army. Revolutionary Texans had only formally announced their independence from Mexico 11 days earlier. On 06 March 1836, the separatists chose Sam Houston to be the commander-in-chief of the revolutionary army. Houston immediately departed for Gonzales, Texas, where the main force of the revolutionary army was stationed. When he arrived, he found that the Texan army consisted of 374 poorly dressed and ill-equipped men. Most had no guns or military experience, and they had only two days of rations.
      Houston had little time to dwell on the situation, because he learned that the Mexican general Santa Anna was staging a siege of the Alamo in San Antonio. Before Houston could prepare his troops to rush to aid the defenders, however, word arrived that Santa Anna had wiped them out on March 6. Scouts reported that Santa Anna's troops were heading east toward Gonzales. Unprepared to confront the Mexican army with his poorly trained force, Houston began a series of strategic retreats designed to give him enough time to whip his army into fighting shape. Houston's decision to retreat won him little but scorn from the Texas rebels. His troops and officers were eager to engage the Mexicans, and they chafed at Houston's insistence on learning proper field maneuvers. Houston wisely continued to organize, train, and equip his troops so they would be prepared to meet Santa Anna's army. Finally, after nearly a month of falling back, Houston ordered his men to turn around and head south to meet Santa Anna's forces.
     On 21 April Houston led his 783 soldiers in an attack on Santa Anna's force of nearly twice that number near the confluence of Buffalo Bayou and the San Jacinto River. With the famous cry, "Remember the Alamo," the Texans stormed the surprised Mexican forces. After a brief attempt at defense, the Mexican soldiers broke into a disorganized retreat, allowing the Texans to isolate and slaughter them. In a stunning victory, Houston's army succeeded in killing or capturing nearly the entire Mexican force, including General Santa Anna, who was taken prisoner. Only two Texans were killed and 30 wounded. Fearful of execution, Santa Anna signed an order calling for the immediate withdrawal of all Mexican troops from Texas soil. The Mexicans never again seriously threatened the independence of the Lone Star Republic.
1835 Charles Darwin departs Valparaiso for Andes crossing.
1809 Estalla la revolución en Suecia por desacuerdo de los ministros, el ejército y el pueblo con la política anglófila de Gustavo IV, que fue depuesto.
1781 William Herschel discovers Uranus    ^top^
     The German-born astronomer William Herschel discovers Uranus, the seventh planet from the sun and the third largest planet by diameter. Herschel’s discovery of a new planet is the first to be made in modern times, and is also the first to be made by use of a telescope, which allowed Herschel to distinguish Uranus as a planet, not as a star as previous astronomers had believed it to be.
      Herschel, who is later knighted for the historic discovery, names the planet Georgium Sidus, or the "Georgian Planet," in honor of King George III of England. However, German astronomer Johann Bode later proposes the name “Uranus” for the planet in order to conform with the classical mythology-derived names of other known planets. Uranus is the ancient Greek deity of the Heavens, and a predecessor of the Olympian gods, and by the mid-nineteenth century, the accepted name of the seventh planet from the sun.
      The planet Uranus is a gas giant like Jupiter and Saturn, and is made up of hydrogen, helium, and methane. Uranus orbits the earth once every eighty-four earth-years and is the only planet to spin perpendicular to its solar orbital plane. On 24 January 1986, the unmanned US spacecraft Voyager 2 visits the planet, discovering ten additional moons to the five already known, and that the gas giant has a system of faint rings.
1759 27th recorded perihelion passage of Halley's Comet.
1735 first US Moravian bishop, David Nitschmann, consecrated in Germany
1687 Father Eusebio Kino, 42, an Italian-born Jesuit in the service of Spain, began missionary labors in the American Southwest. In all, Kino established 25 Indian missions in the area now divided between northern Mexico and Arizona.
1677 Massachusetts gains title to Maine for $6000.
1591 Battle at Tondibi: Moroccans army under Judar beats sultan Askia Ishaq II of Songhai
1569 Battle of Jarnac, Count of Anjou defeats Huguenots
1567 Battle at Oosterweel: Spanish troops destroy Geuzenleger
1560 Spanish fleet occupies Djerba, at Tripoli
1519 Cortez lands in Mexico.
1456 El papa Calixto III promulga en Roma una nueva bula, tras la publicada anteriormente el 08 Jan 1454, en la que confirma y extiende el derecho de los portugueses sobre la conquista y colonización africana.
1369 Se produce la batalla de Montiel, enfrentamiento entre las tropas del rey legítimo de Castilla, Pedro I, y las de su hermanastro Enrique de Trastámara, de la que saldrá victorioso este último
1138 German king Koenraad II von Hohenstaufen crowned
0607 12th recorded perihelion passage of Halley's Comet
0483 Saint Felix III elected Pope.
Deaths which occurred on a March 13:
Cardinal Koenig2004 Ángel Berroeta, in his bakery shop at 18 calle Martín Azpilicueta, Pamplona, Navarra, Spain, shot there at 13:30 by an off-duty policeman with whose wife he had had earlier in the day a discussion about the 11 March 2004 terrorist attacks in Madrid. .Berroeta belonged to Etxerat, the organization of relatives of jailed ETA (Euzkadi Ta Askatasuna) militants, and of the kale borroka (“street struggle”).
2004 Franz König [photo >] Austrian born on 03 August 1905, ordained a Catholic priest on 29 October 1933, consecrated bishop on 31 August 1952 (as coadjutor of Sankt Pölten), appointed Archbishop of Vienna on 10 May 1956, made a cardinal on 15 December 1958, retired on 16 September 1985. He played a key role in the Second Vatican Council (11 Oct 1962 – 08 Dec 1965). He became one of the Catholic Church's international statesmen during the Cold War, creating links with churches in Communist eastern Europe. He is said to have been instrumental in the 16 October 1978 election of Pope John Paul II [18 May 1920~].
2004 Haidar al-Qazwini, after a terrorist bomb, left in a bag, explodes in a shop in Baghdad. He was a brother-in-law of Shiite council member Ibrahim al-Jaafari, a Shiite member of the US-puppet Iraqi Governing Council.
2004 Three US soldiers of the 1st Armored Division on patrol in the evening in southeastern Baghdad, Iraq, by a roadside bomb. One soldier is wounded.
2004 Two US soldiers of the 1st Infantry Division's 1st Battalion, 18th Infantry Regiment, in Tikit, Iraq, by a roadside bomb. Three soldiers are wounded.
2004 Mohammed Haboush, 20, of Hamas, and Saed Mraesh, 20, of the Ahmed Abu al-Resh Brigades (a small Gaza terrorist group), shot by Israeli troops, in the Gaza Strip 100 meters the border fence separating Gaza from the nearby Israeli farming village of Nahal Oz, where they were crawling in the early morning, armed with 2 Kalashnikov assault rifles, 10 hand grenades and a pipe bomb.
2004 Five Yemenis (3 police officers and 2 tribesmen), in Rada'a, Yemen, in gunfight started when police tried to disarm tribesmen who had come to town to complain about a 12 March 2004 raid on their village in which police confiscated several firearms and arrested one man. Tribesmen frequently carry weapons, revolvers tucked under their belts or automatic rifles slung over their shoulders, and they use them to settle disputes. In Yemen, which suffered a civil war in 1994, there are an estimated 60 million firearms, averaging three per citizen. Parliament, in which tribal chiefs are strongly represented, has long postponed debate on a government-proposed bill to ban firearms from the streets of major cities.
2004 Five Kurds, in Qameshli, Iraq, as riot police shoots at stone-throwing demonstrators protesting the previous evening's killing of nine Kurds during disturbances before the (then cancelled) Syrian championship soccer match between the teams Al-Jihad (Kurd) and Al-Fatwa (Arab).
2003 Michael Eugene Thompson, executed in Alabama for the 10 December 1984 robbery, kidnapping, and murder of Maisie Carlene Gray at the Majik Mart convenience store in Attalla, where she was the clerk.
Yoav DoronYehuda ben-Yosef2003 Yoav Doron, 22, and Yehuda Ben-Yosef, 22, Israeli security guards, from Jerusalem and Ma'aleh Adumim respectively, at 13:00 on a road east of the Pnei Hever enclave settlement, close to the Zif Highway junction, near Hebron, West Bank, killed by Israeli soldiers, too enclined to kill first and ask questions later. One of the victims — who were in charge of guarding an army antenna on a hilltop used for research and development — had pulled over to the side of the road to make some coffee, and the other one began driving away. Israeli troops had been searching for Palestinians reported to be planning to attack an Israeli vehicle on that road. An “elite” lookout force noticed the armed security guard in the car and called for help from shooters on the ground. The soldiers would say that they called on the guard to stop. Either he stopped and got out of the car, after which he was shot dead. Or he was shot as soon as he began driving. The second security guard heard the shots, phoned that they were under attack by terrorists, and ran to the aid of his friend, which is when an Israeli Air Force helicopter fired a rocket and killed him. — Doron [< photo], from Jerusalem, was a second lieutenant on leave from the Egoz infantry unit, while awaiting reassignment, which he had received the previous day, to the Golani unit as a platoon commander. — Ben-Yosef [photo >], from Ma'aleh Adumim, was a friend of Doron; he had recently finished his army service in the Egoz unit. He was a son of extremist militant Baruch Ben-Yosef, who was one of the early members of the American Jewish Defense League in the US, and after immigration to Israel joined Kach and the Temple Mount Faithful — and was twice placed under administrative detention in Israel by a court order. [read commentary by Gideon Levy of Haaretz]
2003:: 11 persons by terrorist bomb exploding in women's compartment of fast Karjat-bound commuter train pulling in at 20:45 at platform 3 of the station at Mulund, last eastern suburb of Mumbai, India, having left the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus about an hour before. 64 are injured.
2003 Three persons after bomb explodes at 10:55 on a bus bound for Jammu, Indian-occupied Kashmir, which had just left the station in a Hindu-dominated section of Rajouri town. 13 are injured. Hindus demonstrate against lack of police protection. They are repressed by Indian police and army.
2003 Shoukat Ahmad Magray, a Harkat-ul-Mujahideen militant, killed in an encounter with Rashtriya Rifles soldiers in Khiram village of Anantnag district, Indian-occupied Kashmir.
2003 Constable Riaz Ahmed and his uncle Nasir Ahmed, who, after being abducted from their house in Sangla village of Poonch district, Indian-occupied Kashmir, are shot in a nearby forest in the wee hours.
2003 Chi Kwai Tse, 44, of SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome), in Toronto, Canada, of which he was a resident. His mother, Kwan Sui-chu, died from SARS on 05 March 2003, shortly after returning to Toronto from a visit to Hong Kong. They are the first two in Canada to die of the new disease.
2002 Lillie Mae Casey, 89, beaten to death by a 16-year-old boy in her home in the 1800 block of Alhambra Street in the Pleasant Grove neighborhood of Dallas.
2002 Israeli Lieutenant Gil Badihi, 21, of Nataf, after being shot in the head, in the morning, while standing next to his tank in Ramallah, West Bank, by a Palestinian gunman.
1999 Trece muertos en un comercio del centro de Estambul (Turquía) en un ataque con bombas caseras. Los observadores relacionan el atentado con la captura de Abdulá Öcalan, líder de los independentistas kurdos, el 16 febrero de 1999.
1999 Garson Kanin, 86, in New York, playwright.
1999 Charles Connor, 23, in an avalanche near the summit of Ben Nevis, Scotland. He was from Bangor, Northern Ireland.
1996: 16 kindergartners, their teacher, and their killer, Thomas Hamilton.    ^top^
     In a thirteenth century village on the edge of the Scottish Highlands, Thomas Hamilton, 43, bursts into the gymnasium of the Dunblane Primary School with four guns, and opens fire on a kindergarten class. Sixteen children and their teacher, Gwenne Mayor, are killed before Hamilton turns the gun on himself. Twelve other children in the class, along with one other adult, are also injured. Hamilton was a single man who lived in public housing in the nearby town of Stirling. A former Boy Scout leader, he had resigned in 1974 following allegations of improper behavior, but during the 1980s, formed his own youth athletic clubs. The shooting deeply shocks the Scottish village of 9000 people, and leads to the passage of more stringent guns ban by the British government. The Dunblane incident was Britain’s worst shooting since twenty-seven-year-old Michael Ryan, an unemployed loner and gun enthusiast, shot sixteen people, then killed himself in the quiet English town of Hungerford in 1987.
1995 Abdul Ali Mazari, shot, Afghan Shiite leader.
1995 16 Alawitish demonstrators shot dead by Istanbul police.
1994 Sandra Paretti, 59, romantic novelist.
1993 José Antonio Gabriel y Galán, escritor español.
1993:: 257 persons in a series of terrorist bombings in Mumbai, India, intended to avenge Muslim deaths in Hindu-Muslim riots.
1992 570 die in a Turkish earthquake — Quinientas personas muertas y 300 heridas en un terremoto de 6,3 grados Richter que afectó a catorce provincias de Turquía.
1990 Juan Antonio Vallejo-Nájera Botas, psiquiatra y escritor español.
1990 Bruno Bettelhelm, 86, psychoanalyst, suicide    ^top^
     Austrian- born American psychoanalyst, born in Vienna and educated at Vienna University. Bettelheim was arrested by the Nazis when Germany annexed Austria and was held for two years at camps at Dachau and Buchenwald (1938-1939). After his release he emigrated to the United States and became a research associate for the Progressive Education Association at the University of Chicago (1939-1941). He became a naturalized American citizen in 1944. He taught psychology at Rockford College in Illinois (1942-1944) and educational psychology at the University of Chicago, where he also directed its Sonia Shankman Orthogenic School for the treatment of severely disturbed children (1944-1973).
      In 1943 Bettelheim's article "Individual and Mass Behavior in Extreme Situations" attracted international attention. It was a pioneer study of the effects of inordinate stress on personality and was based on his concentration camp experiences. His best-known books reflected his interest in autistic children. These included Love Is Not Enough (1950), Truants from Life (1954), and The Empty Fortress (1967). In 1976 he published The Uses of Enchantment, on the meaning and importance of fairy tales. His last book, Freud's Vienna, appeared in 1990. His work was influential but highly controversial. Many critics objected to his methods, while others believed his claims of cures were highly inflated.
1986 Alvaro Fayad Delgado Colombian guerilla leader (M-19)
1977 Jan Patocka, in prison, Czechoslovakian philosopher
1976 Willy Alfredo [Willem Jue], 77, Dutch comedian/poet
1975 Ali Sastroamidjojo, 71, Indonesian attorney/minister/premier
1975 Ivo Andric, 82, Yugoslavian author (Nemiri-Nobel 1961)
1975 Ruth Schaumann, 75, German author/painter/sculptor
1965 George Calinescu Romanian author (Lauda Lucrorilor)
1964 Kitty Genovese, stabbed to death in Queens as 38 neighbors fail to even phone police    ^top^
The Killing of Kitty Genovese
Her public slaying in Queens becomes a symbol of the failure of people in the US to get involved
      It was just after 03:00 (08:00 UT). A red Fiat rolled slowly through the darkness into a parking space adjacent to the Long Island Rail Road station in Kew Gardens. The young woman behind the wheel emerged from the car and locked it. She began the 30-meter walk toward her apartment house at 82-70 Austin St. But then she spotted a man standing along her route. Apparently afraid, she changed direction and headed toward the intersection of Austin and Lefferts Boulevard -- where there was a police call box. Suddenly, the man overtook her and grabbed her. She screamed. Residents of nearby apartment houses turned on their lights and threw open their windows. The woman screamed again: ``Oh, my God, he stabbed me! Please help me!'' A man in a window shouted: ``Let that girl alone.'' The attacker walked away. Apartment lights went out and windows slammed shut. The victim staggered toward her apartment. But the attacker returned and stabbed her again. ``I'm dying!'' she cried. Windows opened again. The attacker entered a car and drove away. Windows closed, but the attacker soon came back again. His victim had crawled inside the front door of an apartment house at 82-62 Austin St. He found her sprawled on the floor and stabbed her still again. This time he killed her. It was not until 3:50 that morning -- March 13, 1964 -- that a neighbor of the victim called police. Officers arrived two minutes later and found the body. They identified the victim as Catherine Genovese, 28, who had been returning from her job as manager of a bar in Hollis. Neighbors knew her not as Catherine but as Kitty. Kitty Genovese: It was a name that would become symbolic in the public mind for a dark side of the national character. It would stand for Americans who were too indifferent or too frightened or too alienated or too self-absorbed to ``get involved'' in helping a fellow human being in dire trouble. A term ``the Genovese syndrome'' would be coined to describe the attitude. Detectives investigating Genovese's murder discovered that no fewer than 38 of her neighbors had witnessed at least one of her killer's three attacks but had neither come to her aid nor called the police. The one call made to the police came after Genovese was already dead. Assistant Chief Insp. Frederick Lussen, commander of Queens detectives, said that nothing in his 25 years of police work had shocked him so much as the apathy encountered on the Genovese murder. ``As we have reconstructed the crime, the assailant had three chances to kill this woman during a 35-minute period,'' Lussen said. ``If we had been called when he first attacked, this woman might not be dead now.'' Expressions of outrage cascaded not only from public officials and private citizens in the New York area but from across the country. When detectives asked Genovese's neighbors why they had not taken action, many said they had been afraid or had not wanted to get involved. But Lt. Bernard Jacobs, in charge of the investigation, asked: ``Where they are in their homes, near phones, why should they be afraid to call the police?''
      Madeline Hartmann, a native of France, was 68 at the time of the murder and lived in the building where Genovese died. On the 20th anniversary of the murder, she said in an interview she did not feel bad about failing to call the police. ``So many, many [other] times in the night, I heard screaming,'' she said. ``I'm not the police and my English speaking is not perfect.'' There was no law, police officials conceded, that required someone witnessing a crime to report it to police. But they contended that morality should oblige a witness to do so.
      Six days after the Genovese murder, police arrested a suspect -- Winston Moseley, 29, a business-machine operator who lived with his wife and two children in Ozone Park. Moseley had no criminal record. But detectives said he swiftly confessed to killing not only Genovese but also two other women. Moseley said he had ``an uncontrollable urge to kill.'' He told detectives he prowled the streets at night while his wife, Elizabeth, was at work. ``I chose women to kill because they were easier and didn't fight back,'' Moseley said. Three months after Genovese's death, Moseley went on trial for her murder in State Supreme Court in Queens. He pleaded insanity and testified in painstaking detail about how he had stalked and stabbed Genovese to satisfy his supposedly uncontrollable urge. On June 11, 1964, a jury found him guilty. The following month, he was sentenced by Justice J. Irwin Shapiro to die in the electric chair at Sing Sing prison. ``When I see this monster, I wouldn't hesitate to pull the switch myself,'' the judge said. But in 1967 the State Court of Appeals reduced the punishment to life imprisonment on the ground that Shapiro had erred in refusing to admit evidence on Moseley's mental condition at a pre-sentence hearing.
      A year later, taken from prison to a Buffalo hospital for minor surgery, Moseley struck a prison guard and escaped. He obtained a gun, held five persons hostage, raped one of them and squared off for a showdown with FBI agents in an apartment building. Neil Welch, agent in charge of the Buffalo FBI office, entered the second-floor apartment where Moseley made his stand. Welch and Moseley pointed guns at each other for half an hour as they negotiated. Finally, Moseley surrendered.
      Moseley's periodic requests for parole have repeatedly been denied. During one parole hearing in 1984, Moseley volunteered that he had written Genovese's relatives a letter ``to apologize for the inconvenience I caused.'' A parole commissioner responded acidly: ``That's a good way to say it. They were inconvenienced.'' Moseley also told the board the murder was as difficult for him as his victim. ``For a victim outside, it's a one-time or one-hour or one-minute affair,'' he said. ``But, for the person who's caught, it's forever.''
      In 1995, seeking a new trial, Moseley obtained a hearing in Brooklyn federal court. Some of Genovese's relatives, unable to bring themselves to attend the original trial, appeared at the hearing. Genovese's sister, Susan Wakeman, said outside the courtroom: ``We don't blame the people who were there that night and might have heard her crying. Only one person killed my sister, and he should die the way she did.'' The court denied Moseley's petition. He remained convict No. 64A0102 at the Great Meadow state prison in Comstock, N.Y. Over the years, there have been various scholarly studies of ``the Genovese syndrome.'' At a three-day Catherine Genovese Memorial Conference on Bad Samaritanism at Fordham University in 1984, City University of New York psychology professor Stanley Milgram capsulized the questions raised by the Genovese murder. ``The case touched on a fundamental issue of the human condition, our primordial nightmare,'' Milgram said. ``If we need help, will those around us stand around and let us be destroyed or will they come to our aid? Are those other creatures out there to help us sustain our life and values, or are we individual flecks of dust just floating around in a vacuum?''

     As she arrived home in the early morning darkness, Kitty Genovese, a decent, pretty young woman of 28, was stalked through the streets close to her Kew Gardens apartment and stabbed again and again by a man who had followed her home and who took almost a half hour to kill her. During that bloody little eternity, . . . Kitty screamed and cried repeatedly for help.... "Oh, my God!" she cried out at one point. "He stabbed me! Please help me! Someone help me !" Minutes later, before the murderer came back and attacked her for the final time, she screamed, "I'm dying! I'm dying!" The reason the murderer's actions and his victim's calls are so well documented is that police were able to find 38 of Kitty's neighbors who admitted they witnessed the awful event. They heard the screams and most understood her cry for help. Peeking out their windows, many saw enough of the killer to provide a good description of his appearance and clothing. A few saw him strike Kitty, and more saw her staggering down the sidewalk after she had been stabbed twice and was looking for a place to hide. One especially sharp-eyed person was able to report that the murderer was sucking his finger as he left the scene; he had cut himself during the attack. Another witness has the awful distinction of being the only person Kitty Genovese recognized in the audience taking in her final moments. She looked at him and called to him by name. He did not reply. No one really helped Kitty at all. Only one person shouted at the killer ("Let that girl alone!"), and the one phone call that was finally made to the police was placed after the murderer had got in his car and driven off. For the most part the witnesses, crouching in darkened windows like watchers of a Late Show, looked on until the play had passed beyond their view. Then they went back to bed.... On the scene a few days after the killer had been caught and confessed, Police Lieutenant Bernard Jacobs discussed the investigation. "The word we kept hearing from the witnesses later was 'involved,'" Jacobs said.... "People told us they just didn't want to get involved," Jacobs said to me. "They don't want to be questioned or have to go to court." He pointed to an apartment house directly across the quiet street. "They looked down at this thing," he went on, "from four different floors of that building." .... "It's a nice neighborhood, isn't it?" he went on. "Doesn't look like a jungle. Good, solid people. We don't expect anybody to come out into the street and fight this kind of bum. All we want is a phone call. We don't even need to know who's making it. "You know what this man told us after we caught him?" Jacobs asked. "He said he figured nobody would do anything to help. He heard the windows go up and saw the lights go on. He just retreated for a while and when things quieted down, he came back to finish the job." Later, in one of the apartment houses, a witness to part of Kitty Genovese's murder talked. His comments . . . indicate the price in bad conscience he and his neighbors are now paying. "I feel terrible about it," he said. "The thing keeps coming back in my mind. You just don't want to get involved. They might have picked me up as a suspect if I'd bounced right out there. I was getting ready, but my wife stopped me. She didn't want to be a hero's widow. I woke up about the third scream. I pulled the blind so hard it came off the window. The girl was on her knees struggling to get up. I didn't know if she was drunk or what. 1 never saw the man. She staggered a little when she walked, like she had a few drinks in her. I forgot the screen was there and I almost put my head through it trying to get a better look. I could see people with their heads out and hear windows going up and down all along the street." "Every time I look out here now," he said, "it's like looking out at a nightmare. How could so many of us have had the same idea that we didn't need to do anything? But that's not all that's wrong." Now he sounded betrayed and he told what was really eating him. Those 38 witnesses had, at least, talked to the police after the murder. The man pointed to a nearby building. "There are people over there who saw everything," he said. "And there hasn't been a peep out of them yet. Not one peep."
1961: 145 in landslide in USSR.
1955 Yung Deva, 48, king of Nepal.
1941 Isaak E. Babel, 46, Russian writer (Zakat, Marija), executed.
  1940 ^top^

ON DAY 105
Peace signed at night in Moscow.
Firing ceases on all fronts at 11:00.
Troops begin to retreat to new borders.
21'396 Finnish servicemen
died in the Winter War.

       The Treaty of Moscow ending the Winter War is signed in the Kremlin at 01:00 in the morning Finnish time.
      In Lapland, Soviet aircraft bomb Rovaniemi and Kemijärvi an hour or two before noon.
      The last trainload of children being evacuated to Sweden leaves Helsinki just a couple of hours before news of the peace treaty reaches the city.
      The peace treaty takes effect on all fronts at 11:00 in the morning.
      In the Taipale and Vuosalmi sectors of the front the Finnish artillery, which has played a major role in the successful defence of these sectors, finally falls silent as the fierce fighting is broken off at 11:00.
      The coming of peace interrupts the Finnish 12th Division's counteroffensive in Kollaa.
      In the north, the fighting in Juntusranta in the Suomussalmi sector, which had become bogged down in trench warfare, ends at 11:00 with a ferocious enemy artillery bombardment of the Finnish positions on the River Kellojoki.
      In Ladoga Karelia fighting continues throughout the day in the wilds on Group Talvela's southern flank. Neither side manages to get word of the peace treaty to their troops in time to stop the fighting.
      In the Salla sector in the far north, an enemy battalion in Saija attempts to get round behind Detachment Roininen. In the event, the Finnish troops manage to surround the entire Soviet battalion.
      Foreign Minister Tanner speaks over the radio at 12 noon to explain the terms of the peace treaty and the factors leading to its agreement. He praises the stamina and endurance of the army and the home front in carrying through a struggle in which Finland was left to stand or fall alone.
      The Foreign Minister also criticizes Finland's Scandinavian neighbors, who have hidden behind their declared neutrality in turning down all requests for help and even preventing Finland taking up the help proffered by the Western Allies. Without assistance Finland could no longer continue the unequal struggle, and the Government was left with no alternative but to attempt a negotiated peace. Despite the severity of the terms and the painful matter of having to cede territory, Finland has in Foreign Minister Tanner's opinion succeeded in its central aim: "Our right to self-determination has been preserved intact."
      Even after the onset of the ceasefire, the exchange of fire in Saija continues until 14:00. At 15:40 the Finnish flag is lowered from the flagpole on Viipuri Castle. The Winter War is over.
      Despite the fact that the Red Army attacked Finland without so much as a formal declaration of war, the harsh terms of the peace treaty mean Finland is forced to cede to the Soviet Union the Karelian Isthmus and areas to the north of Lake Ladoga.
      The towns of Viipuri, Sortavala and Käkisalmi are incorporated into the Soviet Union. Most of Salla in Lapland is also lost, while the south coast port of Hanko is to be leased to the Soviet Union as a naval base for 30 years. The total surface area of the ceded territories amounts to some 35'000 square kilometers. This represents one tenth of Finland's total surface area. Almost 430'000 Karelians, or 12 per cent of the country's population, lose their homes.
      According to the New York Herald Tribune the Treaty of Moscow demonstrates the inability of democratic countries to help a small freedom-loving people. The paper reserves its main ire for the United States' Congress, whose inertia and hesitation hampered the sending of aid to Finland.
      During the course of the war a total of 84,000 women took part in the work of the defence organization Lotta Svärd. Most worked in the catering corps, while some served at the front. 64 members of the Lotta Svärd gave their lives in carrying out their duties.
      Finland's total losses in the war are 21'396 dead, 1434 missing and 43'557 wounded.
      Enemy losses total about 200'000 dead and 600'000 wounded.
Statement by President Roosevelt at the End of Hostilities, March 13, 1940

        In a statement given to the press on December 1, 1939, the President said, "It is tragic to see the policy of force spreading, and to realize that wanton disregard for law is still on the march." At the same time, the President declared that all peace-loving peoples still hope for relations throughout the world on the basis of law and order and unanimously condemn resort to military force as the arbiter of international differences.

        The President also asserted that news of the Soviet naval and military bombings within Finnish territory had come as a profound shock; that to the great misfortune of the world, the present trend to force makes insecure the independent existence of small nations in every continent and jeopardizes the rights of mankind to self-government.

        The President now adds to his statement of December 1, 1939, by saying that the people of Finland, by their unexcelled valor and strong resistance in the face of overwhelming armed forces, have won the moral right to live in everlasting peace and independence in the land they have so bravely defended.

        The President reiterates that the people and Government of Finland have again increased the respect and warm regard in which they are held by the people and Government of the United States, even though it is clear that by virtue of an attack by a neighbor many times stronger they have been compelled to yield territory and to accept a material weakening of their own future defense of their independenee.

        The ending of this war does not yet clarify the inherent right of small nations to the maintenance of their integrity against attack by superior force.

Talvisotaa koskeva rauhansopimus allekirjoitetaan Talvisodan 105. päivä, 13.maaliskuuta.1940    ^top^
        Talvisotaa koskeva rauhansopimus allekirjoitetaan aamuyöllä Moskovan Kremlissä klo 01 Suomen aikaa.
      Neuvostokoneet pommittavat aamupäivällä Rovaniemeä ja Kemijärveä.
      Helsingistä lähtee viimeinen lapsia Ruotsiin kuljettava juna vain pari tuntia ennen kuin saadaan tieto rauhansopimuksen solmimisesta.
      Rauhansopimus astuu voimaan kaikilla rintamilla klo 11.00.
      Taipaleen ja Vuosalmen rintamaosuuksilla suomalaisten torjuntavoittoihin olennaisesti vaikuttanut oma tykistömme vaikenee ankarien taistelujen tauotessa klo 11.00.
      Rauha keskeyttää suomalaisen 12. Divisioonan vastahyökkäyksen Kollaalla.
      Asemasodaksi juuttuneet taistelut Suomussalmen suunnassa Juntusrannassa päättyvät vihollisen rajuun tuli-iskuun Kellojoen asemista klo 11.00.
      Ryhmä Talvelan eteläisen sivustan erämaa-alueella taistelut jatkuvatkoko päivän.
      Kumpikaan osapuoli ei kykene toimittamaan ajoissa tietoa rauhasta joukoilleen.
      Vihollispataljoona pyrkii kiertämään Saijalla Osasto Roinisen selustaan. Taisteluissa suomalaiset saartavat koko neuvostopataljoonan.
      Ulkoministeri Tanner pitää radiossa puheen klo 12, missä hän selostaa solmittua sopimusta ja rauhaan johtaneita syitä. Tanner ylistää Suomen armeijan ja kotirintaman kestävyyttä kamppailussa, jota Suomi joutui käymään yksin. Ulkoministeri moittii pohjoisia naapurimaita, jotka puolueettomuuteensa vedoten ovat torjuneet kaikki avunpyynnöt ja estäneet samalla liittoutuneiden avuntarjousten hyväksymisen. Ilman apua Suomi ei enää voinut jatkaa taistelua, joten hallitukselle ei jäänyt muuta vaihtoehtoa kuin pyrkiä rauhaan. Rauhanehtojen ankaruudesta ja tuskallisista alueluovutuksista huolimatta Suomi on ulkoministeri Tannerin mielestä onnistunuttärkeimmässä tavoitteessaan: "Maan itsemääräämisoikeus on säilynyt koskemattomana". Saijassa jatkuu laukaustenvaihto vielä tulitauon jälkeen klo 14 saakka.
      Suomen lippu lasketaan Viipurin linnan tornin salosta klo 15.40.Talvisota päättyy.
      Raskaiden rauhanehtojen mukaan Suomi joutuu luovuttamaan sen kimppuun sotaa julistamatta hyökänneelle Neuvostoliitolle Karjalan kannaksen sekä Laatokan pohjoispuoliset alueet. Viipurin, Sortavalan ja Käkisalmen kaupungit liitetään Neuvostoliittoon. Suurin osa Sallasta joutuu Neuvostoliitolle, jolle vuokrataan myös Hanko 30 vuodeksi laivastotukikohdaksi. Kaikkiaan luovutettava alue on 35'000 neliökilometriä.
      Neuvostoliitolle luovutettava alue on kymmenesosa maamme pinta-alasta. Kotinsa menettää lähes 430'000 karjalaista, joka on 12 prosenttia maan väkiluvusta.
      New York Herald Tribunen mielestä Moskovan rauha on osoitus demokraattisten valtioiden kyvyttömyydestä auttaa pientä vapautta rakastavaa kansaa. Erityisesti lehti kohdistaa syytöksensä Yhdysvaltain kongressille, jonka hitaus ja epäröinti vaikeuttivat avun toimittamista taistelevalle Suomelle.
      Talvisodassa ehtii olla lottatyössä mukana 84 000 naista. Suurin osa heistä on muonituslottia, osa toimi rintamalla. 64 lottaa menettää henkensä työnsä ääressä.
      Suomalaisten tappiot ovat 21'396 kaatunutta, 1434 kadonnutta ja 43'557 haavoittunutta.
      Vihollisen menetykset ovat 200'000 kaatuneina ja 600'000 haavoittuneina.
Fredsfördraget undertecknas Vinterkrigets 105 dag, den 13 mars 1940    ^top^
       Fredsfördraget angående vinterkriget undertecknas kl. 01 finsk tid i Kreml, Moskva.
      Sovjetplan bombar på förmiddagen Rovaniemi och Kemijärvi.
      Endast ett par timmar innan uppgiften om att fredsfördraget har slutits avgår det sista tåget med barn till Sverige från Helsingfors. Fredsfördraget träder i kraft på alla fronter kl. 11.00.
      Vårt eget artilleri, som starkt bidragit till Finlands avvärjningssegrar vid frontavsnitten i Taipale och Vuosalmi, tystnar när de blodiga striderna gör ett uppehåll kl. 11.00.
      Freden avbryter den finska 12. Divisionens motoffensiv i Kollaa.
      Striderna vid Juntusranta i riktning Suomussalmi som blivit ett ställningskrig avslutas med fiendens häftiga eldgivning från ställningarna i Kellojoki kl. 11.00.
      I ödemarken vid Grupp Talvelas södra flank fortsätter striderna hela dagen.
      Ingendera parten lyckas i tid informera sina trupper om freden.
      En fientlig bataljon försöker gå in bakom ryggen på Avdelning Roininen i Saija. I striderna lyckas finnarna omringa hela den ryska bataljonen.
      Utrikesminister Tanner håller ett radiotal kl. 12 där har redogör för freden som slutits och orsakerna som ledde till fred. Tanner lovordar den finska arméns och hemmafrontens uthållighet i en kamp som Finland var tvunget att föra ensamt. Utrikesministern kritiserar de nordiska grannländerna som hänvisande till sin neutralitet har nekat allt bistånd och samtidigt förhindrat hjälpen som erbjudits av de allierade. Utan militärt stöd hade Finland inte längre kunnat fortsätta kampen, och därför hade regeringen inget annat val än att sträva efter fred. Trots de stränga fredsvillkoren och de smärtsamma landavträdelserna har Finland enligt utrikesminister Tanner lyckats i sitt viktigaste mål: "Landets självbestämmelserätt är fortfarande okränkbar." I Saija avfyras skott ännu efter eldupphöret ända till kl. 14.
      Finlands flagga halas från tornet i Viborgs slott kl. 15.40.Vinterkriget är över.
      Enligt de tunga fredsvillkoren tvingas Finland avträda Karelska näset och områdena norr om Ladoga åt Sovjetunionen - inkräktaren som gick till attack utan krigsförklaring. Städerna Viborg, Sordavala och Käkisalmi ansluts till Sovjetunionen. Största delen av Salla går till Sovjetunionen, som också hyr Hangö som flottbas för 30 år framåt. Områdena som avträds är totalt 35'000 kvadratkilometer. De utgör en tiondedel av vårt lands yta. Nästan 430'000 karelare mister sina hem, vilket är 12 procent av landets befolkning.
      New York Herald Tribune skriver att freden i Moskva är ett bevis på de demokratiska staternas oförmåga att hjälpa ett litet frihetsälskande folk. Tidningen kritiserar speciellt USA:s kongress som med sitt långsamma och tveksamma beslutsfattande försvårade sändandet av hjälp till det stridande Finland.
      I Vinterkriget deltog 84'000 kvinnor i lottaarbetet. En stor av del av dem verkade inom provianteringen och en del arbetade vid fronten. 64 lottor miste livet.
      De finska förlusterna är 21'396 stupade, 1'434 försvunna och 43'557 sårade.
      Fiendens förluster är 200'000 stupade och 600'000 sårade.

      THE WINTER WAR, also called Russo-Finnish War (30 Nov 1939 – 12 Mar 1940), war waged by the Soviet Union against Finland at the beginning of World War II, following the conclusion of the German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact (24 Aug 1939). After Finland had refused to grant the Soviets a naval base and other concessions in the fall of 1939, Soviet troops totaling about one million men attacked Finland on several fronts.
     The heavily outnumbered Finns put up a skillful and effective defense that winter, and the Red Army made little progress. In February 1940, however, the Soviets used massive artillery bombardments to breach the Mannerheim Line (the Finns' southern defensive barrier stretching across the Karelian Isthmus), after which they streamed northward across the isthmus to the Finnish city of Viipuri (Vyborg). Unable to secure help from Britain and France, the exhausted Finns made peace on Soviet terms on March 12, 1940, agreeing to the cession of western Karelia and to the construction of a Soviet naval base on the Hanko Peninsula.
1938 Clarence S. Darrow, 80, the Monkey Trial attorney.    ^top^
     On the 13th anniversary of the law, the defenders of which he made monkeys in a famous trial, attorney Darrow dies.
      On 10 July 1925, in Dayton, Tennessee, the so-called "Monkey Trial" began with John Thomas Scopes, 24, a high school science teacher accused of teaching evolution, which was in violation of a new Tennessee law. The state law, which had taken effect on 13 March 1925, made it a misdemeanor punishable by fine to “teach any theory that denies the story of the Divine Creation of man as taught in the Bible, and to teach instead that man has descended from a lower order of animals.”
      With local businessman George Rappalyea, Scopes had conspired to get charged with this violation, and after his arrest, the two enlisted the aid of the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) to organize a defense. Hearing of this coordinated attack on Christian Fundamentalism, William Jennings Bryan, the three-time Democratic presidential candidate and a Fundamentalist hero, volunteered to assist the prosecution. Soon after, the great attorney Clarence Darrow agreed to join the ACLU in the defense, and the stage was set for one of the most famous trials in US history.
      On 10 July 1925, the Monkey Trial got underway with jury selection, and within a few days, hordes of spectators and reporters would descend on Dayton while preachers set up revival tents along the city's main street to keep the faithful stirred up. Inside the Rhea County Courthouse, the defense suffered early setbacks when Judge John Raulston ruled against their attempt to prove the law unconstitutional, and then refused to end his practice of opening each day's proceeding with prayer.
      Meanwhile, in the streets outside, the Dayton took on a carnival-like atmosphere as an exhibit featuring two chimpanzees and a supposed "missing link" opened in town, and vendors sold Bibles, toy monkeys, hot dogs, and lemonade. The missing link was in fact Jo Viens of Burlington, Vermont, a fifty-one-year-old man who was of short stature and possessed a receding forehead and a protruding jaw. One of the chimpanzees--"Joe Mendi"--wore a plaid suit, a brown fedora, and white spats, and entertained Dayton's citizens by monkeying around on the courthouse lawn.
      Back inside, Judge Raulston destroyed the defense's plan by ruling that expert scientific testimony on evolution was inadmissible--on the grounds that it was Scopes who was on trial, not the law that he had violated. The next day, Raulston ordered the trial moved to the courthouse lawn, fearing that the weight of the crowd inside was in danger of collapsing the floor.
      In front of several thousand spectators in the open air, Darrow changed his tactics, and as his sole witness called Bryan in an attempt to discredit his literal interpretation of the Bible. In a searching examination, Bryan was subjected to severe ridicule, and forced to make ignorant and contradictory statements to the amusement of the crowd. On 21 July, in his closing speech, Darrow asked the jury to return a verdict of guilty in order that the case might be appealed. Under Tennessee law, Bryan was thereby denied the opportunity to deliver a closing speech he had been preparing for weeks. After eight minutes of deliberation the jury returned with a guilty verdict, and Raulston ordered Scopes to pay a fine of $100, the minimum the law allowed.
      Although Bryan had won the case, he been publicly humiliated and his fundamentalist beliefs had been disgraced. Five days later, on 26 July, he lied down for a Sunday afternoon nap and never woke up. In 1927, the Tennessee Supreme Court overturned the Monkey Trial verdict on a technicality, but left the constitutional issues unresolved until 1968, when the US Supreme Court overturned a similar Arkansas law on the grounds that it violated the First Amendment.
1930 Mary E W Freeman, 77, US writer (Pembroke)
1928 Some 450 die in St Francisquito Valley Dam burst (Calif)
1922 Max Nonnenbruch, German artist born on 25 January 1857.
1915 Sergei J. Witte, 65, Dutch count/premier of Russia
1906 Susan Brownell Anthony, 86, US suffragist.
1903 Nicolas Beets [Hildebrand], 88, Dutch writer (Camera Obscura)
1901 Benjamin Harrison, 67, 23rd US President, in Indianapolis
1895: 402 as Spanish cruiser Reina Regente sinks off Gibraltar.
1895 Amos Gibson, Black, lynched in Monroe County, Georgia, accused of assaulting and raping a White woman.
1884 Siegfried Aronhold, mathematician
1881 (01 March Julian) Tsar Alexander II killed by terrorist bomb    ^top^
     In Russia, Czar Alexander II is killed near the Winter Palace by a hand-bomb thrown by a member of the "People’s Will," a militant wing of the Narodniki movement, which advocated socialist reform in Russia and the elimination of the central government. Ironically, on the same day, Alexander had just signed legislation granting Russia’s liberal local governments an advisory role in czarist legislation.
      Born on 10 March (26 Feb Julian) 1845, Alexander II ascended to the Russian throne in February 1856, at the death of his father Nicholas I. Alexander II responded to growing peasant unrest in the country by embarking upon a program of modernization and reform. On 19 February 1861, he emancipated Russia’s serfs but failed to establish an alternate social system, so many of the newly freed Russians were left with less than they had before. In 1864, a system of limited local self-government was introduced and reforms continued, but liberals regarded them as far too moderate. Radical activities grew among the intelligentsia, and the Narodniki movement gained numerous followers. The czar responded by arresting hundreds of students and other radicals, prompting the establishment of the People’s Will in 1869. The militant group launched an extensive program of terrorism against the state, and assassinated a number of Russian officials. On 17 February 1880, a terrorist bomb in the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg nearly took Alexander’s life. It was one of several unsuccessful attempts on the czar’s life that culminated on 13 March 1881, when a terrorist bomb hit its target, killing Czar Alexander II. He is succeeded the next day by his second son, Alexander III, who would be much more autocratic.
De jeunes anarchistes assassinent Alexandre II. Le tsar était monté sur le trône en 1855, à 37 ans. Il avait aussitôt aboli le servage, supprimé le knout (fouet), ouvert les universités au peuple,... Cependant, chez les étudiants de la petite bourgeoisie se développaient des mouvements «nihilistes» qui prônaient la destruction de l'ordre ancien. Dès 1866, un étudiant tire sur Alexandre II. Ce premier attentat contre la personne sacrée du tsar suscite la consternation dans le pays. Le souverain trouve son réconfort dans les bras de Yékatérina Dolgoroukaya, dite Katia, de 30 ans sa cadette.
      En 1878, une jeune fille tire sur le chef de la police. Son procès tourne à celui de la victime, connue pour sa brutalité. Elle est acquittée. Il s'ensuit une émulation chez les révolutionnaires. Le vieux tsar est désormais traqué. Il échappe à une bombe qui détruit son train, une autre fois à une explosion qui ravage la salle à manger de son palais. Devenu veuf, Alexandre épouse en secret Katia. Désireux de la faire couronner impératrice, il songe à une grande réforme qui lui vaudrait l'indulgence de son peuple. Il s'apprête donc à renouer avec le libéralisme de sa jeunesse en convoquant un embryon de parlement. C'est compter sans quatre comploteurs parmi lesquels Sophie Perovski, fille d'un général!
      Ce dimanche 13 mars, après la messe et la relève de la garde, le coupé impérial s'engage sur le quai du canal Catherine. Là sont postés quatre lanceurs de bombes aux ordres de Sophie Perovski. Le souverain échappe à une première bombe. Il s'avance au milieu des blessés et s'adresse au terroriste qu'ont ceinturé ses gardes. C'est alors qu'un complice lance une deuxième bombe. Celle-là est fatale à Alexandre II qui meurt peu après. Le nouveau tsar, Alexandre III, prend aussitôt le contre-pied de son père. Il abroge les réformes libérales, il russifie par la force les provinces périphériques de l’Empire, il encourage l’antisémitisme. Un vent mauvais se lève sur la Russie et l'Europe.
1879 Adolf Anderssen, 60, Chess world champion, author (Aufgabe für Schachspeiler)
1855 John James Masquerier, British artist born in October 1778.
1854 Richard-Barrett Davis, British artist born in 1782.
1833 Hecht, mathematician.
1806 Gabriel-François Doyen, French artist born on 20 May 1726.
1711 Nicolas Boileau Despréaux, poeta francés.
1654 Jan van Balen, Flemish artist born on 21 July 1611.
1653 Simon Jacobszoon de Vlieger, Dutch painter born in 1600. MORE ON DE VLIEGER  AT ART “4” MARCH with links to images.
1573 Michel de l'Hôpital, 65, chancellor of France (1560-68)
1569 Louis Condé, in battle, French prince, co-leader of Hugenots.
1516 Vladislav II Jagiello, 60, king of Bohemia (1490-1516)
1202 Mieszko III the Elder, grand duke of Poland (1173-77, 1200-02)
0859 Santos Rodrigo y Salomón.
Births which occurred on a March 13:
1974 Charles de Gaulle Airport opens near Paris France
1970 PDP-11 minicomputer introduced by Digital Equipment Corporation.
1943 Stephen Vincent Benet writer
1943 André Techine director/writer (Scene of the Crime, Rendez-Vous)
1942 José Barrionuevo Peña, político español.
1933 Paul Biya, presidente de Camerún.
1931 Rodrigo Rubio, escritor español.
1931 Wolfgang Kohlhaase Berlin, actor/director/writer (Solo Sunday)
1929 J D Slater writer
1927 Charles Sickman Corsen Dutch Antillean poet
1926 Raúl Alfonsín Argentine President (1983-89).
1925 Medardo Fraile Ruiz, escritor y profesor español.
1926 Carlos Roberto Reina, presidente de Honduras.
1922 Back to Methusaleh V, play by George Bernard Shaw, premieres in New York NY
1919 Kumi Sugaï, Japanese artist who died in 1996.
1917 Maria Vlamynck Flemish author
1913 William J. Casey, headed CIA during Iran-contra scandal (1981-87). He died on 06 May 1987.
1912 Mohammed Khider, nait à Alger.
      Il sera un dirigeant historique du FLN, un des responsables de l’Organisation Spéciale (OS) de Ben Bella, partisan de la lutte armée contre le colonialisme, arrêté le 20 août 1956 avec les cinq autres historiques dans le détournement de l’avion d’Air Maroc et emprisonné jusqu’en 1962. Trésorier du FLN. Divergences avec Ben Bella et démission en 1963. Assassiné mystérieusement en 1967 à Madrid.
1911 LaFayette Ron Hubbard sci-fi writer/Scientologist (Dianetics)
1904 The Christ of the Andes, a bronze statue of Christ located on the Argentina-Chile border, is dedicated.
1900 George Seferis, Greek Nobel Prize-winning poet, essayist and diplomat who died on 20 September 1971.
1897 Marcel Thiry Belgian poet (Statue of Fatigue)
1896 Dorothy Aldis writer.
1892 Janet Flanner, US writer and Paris correspondent for The New Yorker. She died on 07 November 1978.
1891 Ghosts, play by Henrik Ibsen, opens in London       ^top^
      Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen had written his play Ghosts: A Domestic Tragedy in Three Acts in 1881. The play, which dealt with syphilis, was swiftly and universally reviled by conventionally minded critics. However, Ibsen's works had caught on with progressive theater companies across Europe. A decade after it was written, the play opens in London, where it continued to be treated harshly by critics. Today, however, the play is one of Ibsen's most commonly performed works.
      Ibsen was born in Norway on 20 March 1828 in a small logging town. The eldest of five siblings, the young Ibsen showed an early interest in drama, performing puppet shows and magic tricks for his family and neighbors. His merchant father went bankrupt in 1835. When Ibsen was 15, he went to work as an apothecary's assistant in Oslo while studying to enter the university. However, his childhood interest in the theater overpowered his academic endeavors. He wrote his first play, Cataline, at the age of 22 and at age 23 was hired as stage manager of a theater, where he soon became director and playwright, expected to write one play a year.
      Ibsen went to Italy in 1864 and continued to live abroad for 27 years in Rome, Dresden, and Munich. His long dramatic poem Brand (1866) and his play Peer Gynt (1867) both met with great success in Norway.
      In 1879, Ibsen wrote A Doll's House, which portrayed a bleak view of a woman's disillusionment with her marriage and upset critics with its unhappy ending. Ghosts (1881) also upset critics, but Ibsen increasingly gained momentum with such plays as An Enemy of the People (1882) and The Wild Duck (1884). The plays he wrote during this period established his reputation as a world-class writer and playwright. In 1891, he returned to Norway, where he suffered a series of strokes and died in 1906.
IBSEN ONLINE: (in English translations)
  • A Doll's House
  • A Doll's House
  • An Enemy of the People
  • Ghosts: A Domestic Tragedy in Three Acts
  • The Lady From the Sea
  • Peer Gynt
  • Pillars of Society
  • Rosmersholm
  • The Wild Duck
  • 1890 Frank Thieß writer
    1887 Earmuffs are patented by Chester Greenwood of Maine.
    1884 Sir Hugh S. Walpole New Zealand, novelist/critic/dramatist (Jeremy, Maradick at 40)
    1884 Emanuel Stickelberger Swiss writer (Bluthochzeit)
    1884 Oskar Loerke German writer (Longest Day-1926)
    1881 Balthazar H Verhagen Netherlands/South African dramatist/writer.
    1871 Drach, mathematician.
    1870 William Glackens, US Ashcan School painter who died on 22 May 1938.MORE ON GLACKENS  AT ART “4” MARCH with links to images.
    1869 Ramón Menéndez Pidal, gran investigador del pasado literario e histórico de España.
    1868 Émile Chartier “Alain”, à Mortagne-au-Perche (Orne), philosophe
    1864 Alexei Jawlensky, Russian German Expressionist painter who died in 1941. — LINKSSpanish WomanMeditation (The Prayer) — Love
    1858 Maximilien Luce, French Pointillist painter who died on 06 February 1941.MORE ON LUCE  AT ART “4” MARCH with links to images.
    1855 Percival Lowell, US astronomer who helped discover Pluto and believed that there was life on Mars. He died on 12 November 1916.
    1852 “Uncle Sam” appears as a cartoon character in the New York Lantern.
    1851 Berhard Wiegandt, German artist who died on 28 March 1918.
    1846 Maria Magdalena, play by Friedrich Hebbel, premieres in Königsberg
    1839 (or 1840?) Daniel Rigway Knight, US artist who died in March 1924. — links to images.
    1825 Hans Fredrik Gude, Norwegian painter who died in 1903. MORE ON GUDE  AT ART “4” MARCH with links to images.
    1822 Moritz Grave von Strachwitz German poet.
    1815 Hermanus Koekkoek Sr., Dutch marine painter who died on 05 November (14 Mar?) 1882. — links to images.
    1793 Cotton gin is patented by Eli Whitney.
    1781 Karl F Schinkel German architect/painter/writer (Schloss Tegel)
    1781 Karl Friedrich Schinkel, German architect and painter who died on 09 October 1841. — more with links to images.
    1774 baron Pierre-Narcisse Guérin, French Neoclassical painter who died on 16 July 1833. MORE ON GUÉRIN  AT ART “4” MARCH with links to images.
    1772 Emilia Calotti, play by Gotthold Lessing, premieres in Brunswick
    1764 Charles Earl Grey, English Whig party leader and prime minister (1830-34) He died on 17 July 1845.
    1741 Jozef II, archduke of Austria, Roman Catholic German emperor (1765-90)
    1733 Joseph Priestley, England, clergyman, scientist, discovered oxygen, started organic chemistry.
    1720 Charles Bonnet, Swiss naturalist and philosophical writer who died on 20 May 1793.
    1634 Académie Française is created.
    1615 Innocent XII pope (1691-1700)
    1599 Johannes Berchmans Dutch Jesuit, saint. .
    Holidays / Cuba : Attack on the Presidental Palace / Liberia : Decoration Day / US: Good Samaritan Involvement Day

    Religious Observances Christian : St Ansovinus / Santos Nicéforo, Rodrigo y Salomón; santa Cristina. / Saint Rodrigue:: Ce prêtre andalou est dénoncé par son frère, converti à l'islam, et décapité à Cordoue, en 857. La ville est à cette époque la résidence d'un émir musulman qui gouverne la plus grande partie de la péninsule ibérique.
    Thoughts for the day: “Freiheit ist von Gott, Freiheiten vom Teufel.”
    “Liberty is from God, libertinage from the devil.”
    “He who has imagination without learning has wings but no feet.”
    “He who has feet but no wings may lack both imagination and learning.”
    “He who has learning without imagination needs to grow wings.”
    “He who has wings but no feet needs to feed on mosquitos.”
    updated Sunday 14-Mar-2004 23:06 UT
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