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Events, deaths, births, of 08 MAY
[For May 08 Julian go to Gregorian date: 1583~1699: May 181700s: May 191800s: May 201900~2099: May 21]
• Israeli teens stoned to death... • Battle of Palo Alto... • V~E Day... • Amerindians surrrender at Wounded Knee... • Mining North Vietnamese harbors... • Siege of Orléans broken... • Gauguin dies... • Flaubert dies... • Flying fox endangered... • Paramount Pictures formed... • Nixon defends Cambodia invasion... • Lee first at Spotsylvania... • Countess Cathleen opens... • Louis XVI provoque opposition... • Lavoisier guillotiné... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • Conspiration des Égaux... • Ford resigns at Ford Foundation... • Conscription Act... • Excedrin poisoner convicted... • Soviets to boycott L.A. Olympics... • Center for the deaf...
EDSN price chartOn a May 08:

2003 Edison Schools (EDSN) says that its management “may” offer to buy the company. On the NASDAQ 11 million of the 53 million EDSN shares are traded, rising from their previous close of $1.27 to an intraday high of $2.14 and close at $2.00. The had traded as low as $0.14 as recently as 10 October 2002 and as high as $21.05 on 07 January 2002, and $36.00 on 22 January 2001. [3~year price chart >] Edison Schools Inc. is the US's largest private operator of public and charter schools and has not made a profit since it was founded in 1992,
2001 Report: 2'507'606 dead in Congo civil war, Aug 1998 – Apr 2001.       ^top^
     A protracted and violent conflict has raged in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo since August 1998, involving numerous rebel groups and at least seven neighboring nations. The International Rescue Committee (IRC) has been providing assistance to those affected by war in DRC for five years. Between February 1999 and April 2001, the IRC has conducted 11 mortality surveys in the five eastern provinces of DRC, and one survey in the rebel-held area of Kasai Orientale Province. Interviews with over 2800 households have been conducted. These samples, which represent 1.3 million people in seven different areas, indicate that:
  • The rate of mortality in eastern DRC is extraordinarily high. Four of seven areas surveyed showed 8% or more of the population dying each year. Five of the seven areas visited experienced fewer births than deaths. Such findings indicate dramatically elevated mortality - these areas had experienced a population growth rate of approximately 3% per year before the onset of this conflict.

  • The level and indiscriminate nature of violence from August 1998 through April 2001 is disturbing. It is estimated that one in every eight households has experienced a violent death since the start of this war. Approximately 40% of these deaths have been women and children. Murders were attributed to soldiers on each side of this conflict at a similar rate.

  • Children have suffered a disproportionate amount of the reported mortality. The death rates among children reported by the interviewed families were shocking. In Moba and Kalemie, it is estimated that 75% of children born during this war have died or will die before their second birthday. In each of the survey areas, we found a dearth of children under two years of age. This unusual demographic profile is attributed to the extraordinary mortality experienced by the youngest children since the outbreak of fighting in August 1998.

  • War means infectious disease in eastern DRC. While only 10% of all deaths, or 14% of the excess deaths, were attributed to violence, there is a strong association (across both time and space) between higher violence rates and higher death rates from infectious diseases. Febrile illness (presumably malaria for the most part), diarrhea and malnutrition were the most commonly reported non-violent causes of death.

  • The overall rate of mortality has increased over the past year. In the three areas surveyed in 2000, and then again in 2001, two have experienced a dramatic increase in mortality while the third has remained unchanged. The number of deaths-per-month in Kalemie and Kalima (surveyed by IRC for the first time this year) indicates that mortality has increased during the recall period. The data collected during 2001 indicate a decline in the health conditions in eastern DRC.

When the findings of these surveys are considered in the context of the five eastern provinces of DRC, the investigators conclude that:

  • Between August 1998 and April 2001, approximately 2.5 million deaths have occurred because of this conflict. Using a set of assumptions stated in this report, we estimate that 3.5 million deaths have occurred among the 19.9 million residents of eastern DRC, 2.5 million more than expected during this period. It is estimated that 350'000 of these excess deaths have been from violence.
Help! They want to kill me!2001 Flying Fox desperately endangered !       ^top^
      A decision by an Australian state government to list a bat as a threatened species is being fought by the state's A$150 million (US$77 million) a year stone fruit industry.
      The New South Wales (NSW) state government plans to list the Gray Headed Flying Fox (Pteropus poliocephalus), a type of bat, as vulnerable under threatened species laws. This species of flying fox had lost 30% of its population in the past decade. But the NSW Farmers body claims that a proliferation of bats was damaging crops and that the move to list the flying fox as threatened species would make it almost impossible to protect orchards, in a statement issued today. NSW Farmers said protection of the bats could cost orchardists up to A$10 million per year. A biased survey of growers found 85% alleging crop damage from flying foxes. Farmers said alternatives to culling were not always available, with netting costing A$24,000-A$54,000 per hectare, a significant cost and not suitable for all terrain. Stone fruits, such as peaches and apricots, have a large hard seed (stone) in the center.
Citizen alert March 8, 2000: Hello, America and Canada ITS TIME FOR INTERNATIONAL HELP PLEASE HELP to stop the slaughter of grey headed flying foxes. Reasons: they are claimed to be doing some damage to exotic plants in the gardens and the apathy and intolerance of stupid humans,lack of education and Australian media's not letting the truth get in the way of a good story.
     How many flying foxes are left? Only 8000. Flying Foxes are nomadic, killing them will solve nothing The grey headed flying fox is about to be listed in the National Threatened Species list, they must act fast and we must act faster to stop the slaughter. Scientific counts have proven a population decline of 30% in 10 years. They will trap them on fly-out, those they miss they will dart.
      An animal about to be a threatened species in Queensland State NSW should also be in Victoria State and also Nationally. The Victorian Government is acting on knee jerk hysteria. Can you create some kind of international outcry from your country?

     The flying fox brain closely resembles the primate brain (See Are Flying Foxes Really Primates?) . Flying foxes pollinate trees. They are remarkable creatures. They must be saved!
2001: 68 inmates escape from Colombia's mountain prison of Caloto after the rebel Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC) blow open the front gates with dynamite. Some of the escapees, mainly petty thieves facing short sentences, after visiting their friends and family, would return by 22:00 on 11 May to take advantage of a Colombian amnesty law that forgives prison breaks if fugitives return voluntarily within 72 hours
1998 Conde Nast gets Wired       ^top^
      Conde Nast announces its intention to buy Wired magazine, launched in 1993, on this day in 1998. The deal does not include the purchase of several online publishing sites run by Wired. Wired Ventures, the magazine's parent company, had tried unsuccessfully to go public several times in recent years. Wired magazine, with its highly charged design and evangelistic approach to technology topics, had captured the spirit of the Internet in the early and mid-1990s.
1997 Salon syndication       ^top^
      Salon turns the tables on traditional newspapers by syndicating its Web content to print publications. Previously, print content had been repurposed for the Web, but very little Web content found its way into print. Salon's deal with United Feature Syndicate would distribute Salon content to newspapers around the country. In April 1998, Microsoft's online publication Slate would follow suit, striking a syndication deal with The New York Times Syndicate.
1997 Hackers attack spammer       ^top^
     Cyber Promotions, an Internet marketing firm highly criticized for its "spamming" techniques, says it has been attacked by hackers who have flooded its network.
     Cyber Promotions' policy of bulk e-mailing unsolicited marketing messages had made the company a target for a growing group of Internet users enraged by the proliferation of junk e-mail.
1996 South Africa took another step from apartheid to democracy by adopting a constitution that guaranteed equal rights for blacks and whites. — Se aprueba una Constitución en Sudáfrica que consolida definitivamente el desarrollo democrático del país.
1995 ETA (Euzkadi Ta Askatasuna) secuestra en Fuenterrabía (Guipúzcoa) al empresario de transportes José María Aldaya, de 53 años, por negarse a pagar el impuesto revolucionario.
1994 Se celebran las primeras elecciones legislativas y presidenciales en Panamá tras el derrocamiento de Noriega en 1989. Ernesto Pérez Balladares gana la presidencia con el 33% de los votos
1994 Con motivo del gran jubileo del año 2000, Juan Pablo II propone a todos los cardenales que la Iglesia Católica pida perdón al mundo por los errores cometidos en sus 20 siglos de existencia. .
1991 CIA Director William H. Webster announces his retirement; he would eventually be succeeded by Robert Gates.
1989 Problems for Prodigy       ^top^
      An early version of Prodigy's commercial online service, the company's "videotex" service began experiencing intermittent outages on 08 May 1989, as the company began rolling the service out nationally. Prodigy had introduced its services in limited markets in October 1988. About 55'000 subscribers had joined the service, a joint venture of Sears and IBM.
1988 Rodrigo Borja, de Izquierda Democrática, nuevo presidente de Ecuador.
1988 François Mitterrand es reelegido presidente de Francia.
1988 Excedrin poisoner convicted       ^top^
      Stella Nickell is convicted on two counts of murder by a Seattle, Washington, jury. She is the first person to be found guilty of violating the Consumer Products Tampering Act after putting cyanide in Excedrin capsules in an effort to kill her husband.
      Stella and Bruce Nickell married in 1982, shortly after seven people were killed in Chicago, Illinois, from poisoned Tylenol pills. According to Stella's daughter from a previous marriage, Stella had begun planning Bruce's murder almost from the honeymoon. The Chicago Tylenol incident (which was never solved) had a lasting impact on Stella, who decided that cyanide would be a good method of murder. In 1985, Stella took out a life insurance policy on Bruce that included a substantial indemnity payment for accidental death.
      A year later, Stella put cyanide in an Excedrin capsule that Bruce later took for a headache. He died in the hospital, but doctors did not detect the cyanide and ascribed the death to emphysema. Stella, who stood to lose $100'000 if his death wasn't ruled an accident, decided to alter her plan. Nickell tampered with four additional bottles of Excedrin and placed them on store shelves in the Seattle area. Six days later, Susan Snow took one of these capsules and died instantly. After her death was reported in the news, Stella called police to tell them that she thought her husband had also been poisoned.
      Nickell might still have gotten away with her devious plan if not for one crucial mistake: When investigators came to her home to pick up the Excedrin bottle, she told them that there were two bottles and that she had purchased them on different days at different places. When both turned out to contain contaminated capsules, investigators grew suspicioUS FBI detectives knew that it was an unlikely coincidence that Nickell had purchased two of four known contaminated bottles purely by chance.
      Still, hard evidence against her was hard to come by until January 1988. Cynthia Hamilton, Stella's daughter, came forward (possibly in order to obtain reward money) with her account of Stella's plan to kill her husband. She told authorities that her mother had done extensive research at the library. When detectives investigated, they found that Stella had borrowed, but never returned, a book called Human Poisoning. Her fingerprints were also found all over other books on cyanide. Nickell was given two 90-year sentences for the murders of her husband and Susan Snow. She will be eligible for parole in 2018.
1987 Javier Pérez de Cuellar, secretario general de la ONU, Premio Príncipe de Asturias de Cooperación Iberoamericana.
1984 Soviets to boycott Los Angeles Olympics       ^top^
      Citing fears for the safety of its athletes in what it considered a hostile and anti-Communist environment, the Soviet government announced that it would boycott the 1984 Summer Olympic Games to be held in Los Angeles, California. A number of other Soviet Bloc countries followed suit in boycotting the Los Angeles Games, which carried on without the presence of some of the Communist world's best athletes. Although the Soviets had cited security concerns, the boycott was more likely in answer to the US-led boycott of the 1980 Moscow Summer Olympics, called in protest of the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. In addition, East-West relations were severely strained during the early 1980s, due to US President Ronald Reagan's zealous anti-communism, which led to massive Cold War defense spending and the approval of generous US arms support for Muslim rebels fighting in Afghanistan.
1975 Escalada terrorista en Argentina sin que el Gobierno de Isabel Perón pueda contener la situación.
1974 Shultz resigns as US Secretary of the Treasury.       ^top^
      Industrial economist and labor relations expert George P. Shultz was one of the stalwart figures during Richard Nixon's often embattled tenure in the White House. Indeed, Shultz held a variety of fiscally minded posts during Nixon's terms in office: along with a stint as Secretary of Labor, Shultz also served as the first director of the Office of Management and Budget. In 1972, Nixon named Shultz to be the sixty-second secretary of the Treasury.
      Shultz had enjoyed a healthy career in academia before joining forces with Nixon: in 1949, he earned a Ph.D. in industrial economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and soon joined the school's faculty. Shultz later worked as the Dean of the University of Chicago's Graduate School of Business (1962-1968).
      But Shultz's glittery resume proved to be little help as America's once-mighty economy began to struggle through a prolonged slump during the early 1970s. Though Shultz, Nixon and other members of the cabinet tried to put the breaks to the slide, the economy refused their remedies and continued to struggle throughout the decade.
1973 Amerindian occupation of Wounded Knee ends       ^top^
      On the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota, armed members of the American Indian Movement (AIM) surrender to federal authorities, ending their seventy-one-day siege of Wounded Knee, sight of the infamous 1890 massacre of three hundred Sioux by the US Seventh Cavalry.
      In 1968, AIM was founded by Russell Means, Dennis Banks, and other Native leaders as a militant political and civil rights organization. In November of 1972, AIM members briefly occupied the Bureau of Indian Affairs in Washington DC, to protest programs controlling reservation development, and in early 1973, prepared for the more dramatic occupation at Wounded Knee.
      In additional to its historical significance, Wounded Knee was one of the poorest communities in the United States and shared with the other Pine Ridge settlements some of the country's lowest rates of life expectancy.
      On 27 February 1973, some two hundred Sioux Native Americans led by Means and Banks marched into Wounded Knee and took eleven residents of the historic Oglala Sioux settlement hostage. Within hours, local authorities and federal agents had descended on the Pine Ridge Reservation, and the next day, AIM members traded gunfire with the federal marshals surrounding the settlement and fired on any automobiles and low-flying planes that dared come within rifle range.
      AIM leader Russell Means began negotiations for the release of the hostages, demanding that the Senate launch an investigation of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and all Sioux reservations in South Dakota, and that the Senate Foreign Relations Committee hold hearings on the scores of Indian treaties broken by the US government. The Wounded Knee occupation lasted for a total of seventy-one days, during which two Sioux men were shot to death by federal agents and several more were wounded.
      On 08 May, the AIM leaders and their supporters surrendered after Senate officials promise to investigate their complaints. Russell Means and Dennis Banks were arrested, but on 16 September 1973, the charges against them were dismissed by federal judge due to the US government's unlawful handling of witnesses and evidence. Violence continued on the Pine Ridge Reservation throughout the rest of the 1970s, with some two dozen more AIM members and supporters losing their lives in confrontations with the US government. Russell Means continued to advocate Native rights at Pine Ridge and elsewhere, and in 1988 he was a presidential candidate for the Libertarian Party.
1971 Serie de atentados antibritánicos en Irlanda tras los acuerdos de las facciones del IRA.
1972 Mining of North Vietnamese harbors is announced       ^top^
      President Richard Nixon announces that he has ordered the mining of major North Vietnamese ports, as well as other measures, to prevent the flow of arms and material to the communist forces that had invaded South Vietnam in March. Nixon said that foreign ships in North Vietnamese ports would have three days to leave before the mines were activated; US Navy ships would then search or seize ships, and Allied forces would bomb rail lines from China and take whatever other measures were necessary to stem the flow of material. Nixon warned that these actions would stop only when all US prisoners of war were returned and an internationally supervised cease-fire was initiated. If these conditions were met, the United States would "stop all acts of force throughout Indochina and proceed with the complete withdrawal of all forces within four months." Nixon's action was in response to the North Vietnamese Nguyen Hue Offensive. On 30 March, the North Vietnamese had initiated a massive invasion of South Vietnam. Committing almost their entire army to the offensive, the North Vietnamese launched a three-pronged attack. In the initial attack, four North Vietnamese divisions attacked directly across the Demilitarized Zone into Quang Tri province. Following that assault, the North Vietnamese launched two more major attacks: at An Loc in Binh Long Province, 100 km north of Saigon; and at Kontum in the Central Highlands. With the three attacks, the North Vietnamese committed 500 tanks and 150'000 regular soldiers (as well as thousands of Viet Cong) supported by heavy rocket and artillery fire. The North Vietnamese, enjoying much success on the battlefield, did not respond to Nixon's demands. The announcement that North Vietnamese harbors would be mined led to a wave of antiwar demonstrations at home, which resulted in violent clashes with police and 1800 arrests on college campuses and in cities from Boston to San Jose, California. Police used wooden bullets and tear gas in Berkeley; three police officers were shot in Madison, Wisconsin; and 715 National Guardsmen were activated to quell violence in Minneapolis.
1970 Nixon defends invasion of Cambodia       ^top^
      President Nixon, at a news conference, defends the US troop movement into Cambodia, saying the operation would provide six to eight months of time for training South Vietnamese forces and thus would shorten the war for Americans. Nixon reaffirmed his promise to withdraw 150'000 US soldiers by the following spring. The announcement that US and South Vietnamese troops had invaded Cambodia resulted in a firestorm of protests and gave the antiwar movement a new rallying point. College students across the nation intensified their antiwar protests with marches, rallies, and scattered incidents of violence. About 400 schools were affected by strikes and more than 200 colleges and universities closed completely. The protests resulted in deaths at Kent State University and later at Jackson State in Mississippi. Dissent was not limited to campus confrontations. More than 250 State Department and foreign aid employees signed a letter to Secretary of State William Rogers criticizing US military involvement in Cambodia. In addition, there were a series of congressional resolutions and legislative initiatives that attempted to limit severely the executive war-making powers of the president. Senators John Sherman Cooper (R-Kentucky) and Frank Church (D-Idaho) proposed an amendment to the foreign military sales portion of a Defense Department appropriations bill that would have barred funds for future military operations in Cambodia. The bill passed in the Senate by a vote of 58 to 37, but was defeated 237 to 153 in the House. On 29 December, 1970, Congress passed a modified version of the Cooper-Church Amendment barring the introduction of US ground troops in Laos or Thailand.
1961 first practical sea water conversion plant-Freeport Texas
1959 El pintor español Joan Miró gana el premio Guggenheim. REPRODUCTIONS OF ART BY MIRO ONLINE: Aidez l'Espagne (1937 “Dans la lutte actuelle, je vois du côté fasciste les forces périmées, de l'autre côté le peuple dont les immenses ressources créatrices donneront à l'Espagne un élan qui étonnera le monde. — Miró”)
1958 VP Nixon is shoved, stoned, booed and spat upon by protesters in Peru
1958 US President Eisenhower orders National Guard out of Central HS, Little Rock
1957 El presidente estadounidense, Dwight Eisenhower, acepta la propuesta soviética de crear una zona parcialmente desmilitarizada en Europa.
1956 Ford resigns at Ford Foundation.       ^top^
      Henry Ford II resigns as chair of the Ford Foundation, created in 1936 as a tax loophole for the Ford family to escape FDR's "soak the rich" taxes. The Foundation received a ninety-five-percent equity on all non-voting Ford, stock while the family retained a five-percent equity of all voting common stock. Without the restructuring, the Ford family would have had to pay over $321 million in federal inheritance taxes. To pay, the family would have had to sell so much of their stock that they would have lost control over the company.
      In 1955, Henry Ford II had taken the Ford Motor Company public. The issue of public ownership came about as the result of the Ford Foundation's tremendous wealth. Easily the biggest private philanthropic foundation, the Ford Foundation had a major weakness: the lion's share of its assets consisted of its ninety-percent ownership of the common stock in the Ford Motor Company — nearly all of which were non-voting shares. The trustees considered it a major drawback to have all of their assets in one place. Moreover, at that time, the Ford family theoretically could have voted to plow all of the Foundation's profits back into the firm.
      Henry Ford II, however, was a major proponent of taking Ford public; accomplishing this task was perhaps his greatest achievement as the company's president. The result of the complicated maneuver was that by the end of 1955 the Foundation had disposed of $875 million of the family fortune, and had announced plans to diversify its assets by selling seven million shares of Ford stock.
      The family also benefited from the profitable sale to the public. While the family retained two-fifths, a controlling portion, of the voting stock, the new arrangement meant that sixty percent of Ford voting common stock ended up belonging to the public and to Ford chief executives. An ironic by-product of the restructuring was that Lee Iaccoca, already fired as president of Ford, became the largest single shareholder of Ford stock outside of the family.
      After Ford went public, the Ford Foundation became increasingly independent. Henry Ford II resigned as chair. In 1977, he acrimoniously resigned his title as a trustee, objecting to the Foundation's lack of respect toward the business that had created it. The Ford Foundation had increasingly become a liberal philanthropic institution, little concerned with the influence of the Ford family.
1953 Paraguay: Tomás Romero Pereira, presidente provisional de la Junta Revolucionaria y del partido Colorado, es sustituido por Alfredo Stroessner.
1951 Dacron men's suits introduced.
1945 V-E DAY: Germany's surrenders takes effect at 23:01.      ^top^
     Both Great Britain and the United States celebrate Victory in Europe Day. Cities in both nations, as well as formerly occupied cities in Western Europe, put out flags and banners, rejoicing in the defeat of the Nazi war machine. The eighth of May spelled the day when German troops throughout Europe finally laid down their arms: In Prague, Germans surrendered to their Soviet antagonists, after the latter had lost more than 8000 soldiers, and the Germans considerably more; in Copenhagen and Oslo; at Karlshorst, near Berlin; in northern Latvia; on the Channel Island of Sark — the German surrender was realized in a final cease-fire.
      More surrender documents were signed in Berlin and in eastern Germany. The main concern of many German soldiers was to elude the grasp of Soviet forces, to keep from being taken prisoner. About 1 million Germans attempted a mass exodus to the West when the fighting in Czechoslovakia ended, but were stopped by the Russians and taken captive. The Russians took approximately 2 million prisoners in the period just before and after the German surrender. Scattered fighting, surrenders of German units, and suicides by high-ranking Nazis continued in parts of Europe for another week.
      Meanwhile, more than 13'000 British POWs were released and sent back to Great Britain. Pockets of German-Soviet confrontation would continue into the next day. On 09 May, the Soviets would lose 600 more soldiers in Silesia before the Germans finally surrendered. Consequently, V-E Day was not celebrated until the ninth in Moscow, with a radio broadcast salute from Stalin himself: "The age-long struggle of the Slav nations…has ended in victory. Your courage has defeated the Nazis. The war is over."
     The previous day, in Reims, France, at 02:41 local time, German General Alfred Johl had signed the unconditional surrender of all German forces on all fronts, ending the European phase of World War II. The official German surrender, scheduled to take effect at 23:01 on 08 May, came after a frenzied week during which Nazi leader Adolf Hitler killed himself, Berlin surrendered to the Red Army, and several major German armies surrendered to British forces in Northern Europe. In the last few days before the official surrender was signed, Nazi military officials desperately attempted to negotiate a separate peace with the Western Allies, hoping to preserve German independence and the Nazi government.
      On 05 May, German Navy Admiral Hans von Friedeburg flew to Supreme Allied Commander General D. Eisenhower's headquarters at Reims, France, and submitted a proposal. Under its terms, Germany would make peace with the Anglo-Americans, the country would remain independent with the Nazi government intact, and a new a grand alliance would be formed to repel the Communist invader of Eastern Europe. On 06 May, General Alfred Jodl, head of the German general staff, traveled to Riems to join the negotiations.
      Despite the German pleas, it was the Americans themselves who had defined the unconditional surrender of Germany and Japan to be the ultimate Allied goal in World War II, and General Eisenhower flatly refused the Nazi proposal. Hearing this, General Jodl radioed Eisenhower's total surrender demand back to Admiral Karl Donitz, Hitler's chosen successor, and on 07 May, under authorization by Donitz, Jodl and von Friedeburg signed the total surrender of all German forces everywhere. US General Walter N. Smith signed for the Allied Expeditionary Force, General Ivan Susloparov signed for the Soviets, and French General Francois Sevez signed as a witness.
1942 Battle of Coral Sea ends
1941 Grecia proclama la República.
1936 León Cortés Castro, nuevo presidente de Costa Rica.
1933 Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi inicia una huelga de hambre de 3 semanas, en protesta por la represión de los parias por los ingleses.
1929 Jan Mayen island, 500 km NNE of Iceland, incorporated into Norway
1926 first flight over North Pole (Bennett and Byrd)
1919 first transatlantic flight take-off by a navy seaplane
1916 Gran Guerra: violentos ataques alemanes en ambas márgenes del Mosa.
1910 El socialista español Pablo Iglesias, diputado a Cortes.
1895 China cedes Taiwan to Japan under Treaty of Shimonoseki.
1895 George B. Selden files application for patenting the automobile, though he has not yet built one. US patent 549'160 is granted to him in 1895, when he uses it to contest the Daimler-Benz claim to the invention of the automobile.
1894 Rafael Iglesias Castro toma posesión del cargo de presidente de Costa Rica.
1893 Alexander Graham Bell and Helen Keller break ground       ^top^
      Alexander Graham Bell's invention of the telephone and other sound-transmission devices rose from a lifelong interest in working with the deaf. Bell's father had devised a system for teaching deaf people to speak, a methodology later taught by the young Alexander Graham Bell. Bell's inventions won him France's Volta Prize in 1880: The substantial cash prize financed the Volta Lab, where Bell developed a practical recording device while working with Charles Sumner Tainter and Bell's cousin Chinchester Bell. Bell's share of the royalties supported associations for the deaf. On 08 May 1893, Bell and his thirteen-year-old prodigy Helen Keller broke ground for the new Volta Bureau Building, which is now an important international information center for the deaf.
1864 Engagement at Dug Gap, Georgia.
1864 Atlanta Campaign: Severe fighting near Dalton.
1864 Lee beats Grant to Spotsylvania       ^top^
      Fighting begins as Yankee troops arrive at Spotsylvania Court House to find the Rebels already there. After the Battle of the Wilderness (May 5-6), Ulysses S. Grant's Army of the Potomac marched south in the drive to take Richmond. Grant hoped to control the strategic crossroads at Spotsylvania Court House, so he could draw Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia into open ground. Spotsylvania was important for a number of reasons. The crossroads were situated between the Wilderness and Hanover Junction, where the two railroads that supplied Lee's army met. The area also lay past Lee's left flank, so if Grant beat him there he would not only have a head start toward Richmond, but also the clearest path. Lee would then be forced to attack Grant or race him to Richmond along poor roads. Unbeknownst to Grant, Lee had received reports of Union cavalry movements to the south of the Wilderness battle lines.
      On the evening of May 7, Lee ordered James Longstreet's corps, which were under the direction of Richard Anderson after Longstreet had been shot the previous day, to march at night to Spotsylvania. Anderson's men marched the 11 miles entirely in the dark, and won the race to the crossroads, where they took refuge behind hastily constructed breastworks and waited. Now it would be up to Grant to force the Confederates from their position. The stage was set for one of the bloodiest engagements of the war.
1863 Confederación Granadina becomes Estados Unidos de Colombia
1862 Valley Campaign: Federals repulsed at Battle of McDowell, Virginia
1858 John Brown holds antislavery convention
1846 Battle of Palo Alto begins.       ^top^
      In the first major battle of the Mexican War, General Zachary Taylor defeats a detachment of the Mexican army in a two-day battle at Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma.
      Before the United States formally declared war on Mexico, General Zachary Taylor defeats a superior Mexican force in the Battle of Palo Alto north of the Rio Grande River. The drift toward war with Mexico had begun a year earlier when the US annexed the Republic of Texas as a new state. Ten years before, the Mexicans had fought an unsuccessful war with Texans to keep them from breaking away to become an independent nation. Since then, they had refused to recognize the independence of Texas or the Rio Grande River as an international boundary. In January 1946, fearing the Mexicans would respond to US annexation by asserting control over disputed territory in southwestern Texas, President James K. Polk ordered General Zachary Taylor to move a force into Texas to defend the Rio Grande border. After a last-minute effort to settle the dispute diplomatically failed, Taylor was ordered to take his forces up to the disputed borderline at the Rio Grande. The Mexican General Mariano Arista viewed this as a hostile invasion of Mexican territory, and on 25 April 1846, he took his soldiers across the river and attacked. Congress declared war on 13 May and authorized a draft to build up the US Army. Taylor, however, was in no position to await formal declaration of a war that he was already fighting. In the weeks following the initial skirmish along the Rio Grande, Taylor engaged the Mexican army in two battles. On 08 May, near Palo Alto, and the next day at Resaca de la Palma, Taylor led his 200 soldiers to victories against much larger Mexican forces. Poor training and inferior armaments undermined the Mexican army's troop advantage. Mexican gunpowder, for example, was of such poor quality that artillery barrages often sent cannonballs bouncing lazily across the battlefield, and the American soldiers merely had to step out of the way to avoid them. Following his victories at Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma, Taylor crossed the Rio Grande and took the war into Mexican territory. During the next 10 months, he won four battles and gained control over the three northeastern Mexican states. The following year, the focus of the war shifted elsewhere, and Taylor's role diminished. Other generals continued the fight, which finally ended with General Winfield Scott's occupation of Mexico City in September of 1847. Zachary Taylor emerged from the war a national hero. Americans admiringly referred to him as "Old Rough and Ready" and erroneously believed his military victories suggested he would be a good political leader. Elected president in 1848, he proved to be an unskilled politician who tended to see complex problems in overly simplistic ways. In July 1850, Taylor returned from a public ceremony and complained that he felt ill. Suffering from a recurring attack of cholera, he died several days later.
1845 At a three-day convention in Augusta, GA, the Southern Baptist Convention was formed by 300 representatives from Baptist churches in Georgia, Virginia and South Carolina.
1804 Cae el Consulado, instaurado en Francia en la Revolución Francesa, y se implanta el Imperio bajo el control de Napoleón.
Babeuf1796 Babeuf ourdit un complot contre le Directoire.       ^top^
     A general meeting of Babouvist, Jacobin, and military insurrectionary committees plans the raising of a force of 17'000 men to overthrow the Directory and to institute a return to the Constitution of 1793, which the committee members consider the document most legitimately sanctioned by popular deliberation. But on 10 May the conspirators would be arrested after an informant reveals their plans to the government. The trial would take place between 20 February and 26 May 1797. All conspirators would be acquitted except Babeuf and his companion, Augustin Alexandre Darthé (born in St Pol in 1769), both of whom would be guillotined on 27 May 1797, in Vendôme.
[< Babeuf, engraving by an unknown artist, 18th century]
     François-Noël “Gracchus” Babeuf was born on 23 November 1760 in Saint-Quentin. He was an early political journalist and agitator in Revolutionary France whose tactical strategies provided a model for left-wing movements of the 19th century and who was called Gracchus for the resemblance of his proposed agrarian reforms to those of the 2nd-century-BC Roman statesman of that name.
      The son of a fermier général, Babeuf worked in the 1780s as a land surveyor, maintaining records of dues owed and paid by the peasants to the local seigneuries. His increasing distaste for these feudal agricultural duties led him to begin an active career as a political journalist (1788–92). In 1789 he was appointed to help prepare for the States General the cahier of Roye (in Picardy), a list of grievances containing demands for the abolition of feudal rights. In 1790 he was arrested and briefly imprisoned in Paris.
      Following his release he returned to Picardy and founded a journal, Le Correspondant Picard. He advocated a program of radical agrarian reforms, including the abolition of feudal dues and the redistribution of land. During this period he served as an administrator in the Montdidier district of the Somme, but in February 1793 he returned to Paris, where, during the Reign of Terror of Maximilien Robespierre's radical-democratic régime, he was again arrested and imprisoned. After his release following Robespierre's fall in July 1794, he founded a new journal, Le Journal de la liberté de la presse (shortly thereafter renamed Le Tribun du peuple), in which he at first defended the Thermidorians and attacked the Jacobins. When he began to attack the Thermidorians, he was arrested (12 February 1795) and imprisoned at Arras.
      During this brief imprisonment, Babeuf continued to formulate his egalitarian doctrines, advocating an equal distribution of land and income, and after his release he began a career as a professional revolutionary. He quickly rose to a position of leadership in the Society of the Pantheon, which sought political and economic equality in defiance of the new French Constitution. After the society was dissolved in 1796, he founded a “secret directory of public safety” to plan an insurrection.
BABEUF François Noël, (dit Gracchus) révolutionnaire français né à Saint Quentin en 1760, qui fonda le journal Le Tribun du Peuple où il exposa ses théories communistes, et qui, en tant que chef de la conspiration des Egaux, sera condamné à mort par le tribunal de Vendôme le 26 mai 1797
     Il conspira contre le Directoire dans la "conjuration des Egaux", et, le 27 mai 1797, fut exécuté. Sa doctrine (balbouvisme) est proche du communisme par la collectivisation des terre qu'elle préconise Babeauf François Noël, révolutionnaire français (Saint Quentin le 23 novembre1760 - guillotiné à Paris le 25 mai 1797. Alors qu'il était administrateur du district de Montdidier, il écrivit sur le problème de la répartition des terres et la loi agraire. Venu à Paris (1793), il fonda le journal Le Tribun du Peuple où il exposa ses théories communistes (influencées par le Code de la Nature de Morelly) visant à l'établissement de la société des Egaux. Rallié aux positions de Robespierre* (1795), il tenta en 1796 avec ses adeptes et amis (parmi lesquels Buonarroti, Darthé et Maréchal) de renverser le Directoire (conspiration des Egaux dénoncée a Carnot). La doctrine Baboutière eut nombreux adeptes (néo-babouvisme : Dézamy, Lahautière Laponneraye)
      Son père, Claude Babeuf est né le 2 février 1712 à Monchy Lagache, canton de Ham, arrondissement de Péronne (Somme), et décédé dans la seconde moitié de 1781. Il eut 13 enfants (9 morts en bas âge), dont 2 filles, Jean Baptiste était. l’aîné
      François-Noël (Camille au début de la Révolution) Babeuf, dit Gracchus Babeuf, né le 23 novembre 1760 à St Quentin (Aisne), épouse le 13 novembre 1781 [divergence] à Daméry, Marie-Anne Victorine Langlet, âgée de 26 ans, fille d’un quincaillier d’Amiens, femme de chambre depuis 7 ans à son mariage chez Mme de Bracquemont.
      Son père né a Monchy Lagache, occupait un emploi aux Fermes du Roi et sa mère qui avait près de 30 ans de moins venait de Cerisy près de Corbie. En 1779, il entre chez Me. Hulin, notaire feudiste à Flixecourt où dès la fin de sa troisième année il recevait 3 livres de salaire. Son père mourrait un an plus tard, laissant sa mère et enfants dans la misère. Le 13/11/1782 [divergence], Babeuf épousa Marie Anne Victoire Langlet, originaire d'Amiens. En 1783 il travaille chez un arpentier. En 1784, il s'installe à Roye comme commissaire terrier (pouvant s'assimiler à un receveur de rentes) Il fut autodidacte et porta intérêt aux problèmes juridiques, historiques et sociaux. Il a travaillé à un cadastre perpétuel faisant un bilan de toutes propriétés et fiefs permettant une juste répartition de l'impôt. Son ouvrage paru en Septembre 1782 fut un échec total. Il fut un des principaux acteur de la Révolution en Picardie.

Augustin Alexandre Darthé ( Saint-Pol 1769 Vendôme 1797) administrateur du Pas de Calais, puis accusateur public, ce jeune révolutionnaire admirateur de Robespierre échappa à l’échafaud après thermidor, il se lia avec Babeuf, prit part à la conjuration de égaux et fut guillotiné avec lui le 27 mai 1797.
Philippe Buonarroti, révolutionnaire français d'origine italienne, né à Pise en 1761, décédé à Paris en 1837. Il fut avec Babeuf, un des chefs de la Conspiration des Égaux contre le Directoire. Emprisonné, puis libéré sous Napoléon, il s'installa à Genéve puis à Bruxelles, travaillant à organiser les forces révolutionnaire françaises, il y publia La Conjuration pour l'Egalité, dite de Babeuf en 1828.
Pierre Sylvain Maréchal, écrivain français né à Paris le 15 août 1750, décédé à Montrouge le 18 janvier 1803. Il participa à la conspiration de Egaux contre le Directoire. Auteur inspiré par la vogue des idylles (Bergerie, 1770), il exprima dans ses œuvres des positions athées. L'opinion d'un homme — Manifeste des Égaux — etc.
1792 US Congress passes Conscription Act       ^top^
      In the first draft of civilians in US history, Congress passed an act that would "provide for the National Defense by establishing a uniform militia throughout the United States." According to the act, every able-bodied white male citizen between the ages of eighteen and forty-five was required to enroll in their local militia and to supply himself with a gun and no fewer than twenty-four cartridges. There was no penalty for noncompliance with this act.
      Soon after English colonization of America began, a number of colonies, beginning with Massachusetts, formed militias to provide for their self-defense. In the eighteenth century many of these militias fought alongside the British in the French and Indian Wars, and later against the British in the American Revolution.
      With American independence, the US Congress hoped to expand national enrollment in state militias, but reversed its endorsement of mandatory conscription when militias proved unreliable during the War of 1812. The demand for manpower during the American Civil War brought about a resurgence in the use of militias, especially in disputed territories such as Kansas and Nebraska. After World War I, state militias were reorganized into the National Guard, and remain under state jurisdiction except in times of war or national emergency.
1790 La Asamblea Nacional Francesa encomienda a la Academia de Ciencias la formulación de un sistema decimal de pesos y medidas.
1788 Louis XVI aggrave la Fronde parlementaire      ^top^
      Louis XVI enregistre d'autorité les Edits de son garde des Sceaux (Lamoignon) qui ont subis un rejet du parlement. Pour contrer la Fronde parlementaire, le roi décide l'arrestation d'Eprémesnil et Goislard considérés comme les meneurs de la révolte parlementaire. Ces deux conseillers réussissent à échapper à la Police et trouvent refuge au Palais de Justice pour se mettre sous la protection des autres parlementaires... Mais la foule parisienne elle-même vient faire rempart autour du Palais pour le protéger d'éventuels assauts... Après une nuit, d'Eprémesnil et Goislard se rendront à l'autorité. Mais la fronde parlementaire s'étend à l'ensemble des provinces où l'on critique les Ministres du Roi. (http://www.citeweb.net/revolution/chronologie.htm)(http://www.citeweb.net/revolution/1788.htm)
1779 Declarada la Guerra contra Inglaterra en apoyo de la lucha que por la independencia libraban los ciudadanos de los Estados Unidos de Norteamérica, el entonces Coronel Don Bernardo Gálvez, Gobernador español de la Luisiana inicia desde Nueva Orleans las hostilidades contra los británicos.
1702 Holanda declara la guerra a España y a Francia por la sucesión en España.
1701 Felipe V jura las Cortes de Castilla y es proclamado Rey de España en la madrileña iglesia de San Jerónimo del Real.
1686 Isaac Newton fecha en este día el prefacio de su obra Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Matematica.
1627 Sebastián Caboto descubre el río Paraná.
1583 (28 April Julian) Doomsday does not occur. It had been predicted by Richard Harvey and other British astrologers, as resulting from the alignment of Jupiter and Saturn.
1541 Hernando de Soto descubre el Río Mississippi. — Hernando de Soto discovers Mississippi River
1521 La Dieta de Worms condena las predicaciones y escritos de Lutero.
1450 Jack Cade's Rebellion-Kentishmen revolt against King Henry VI
Joan of Arc1429 Siege of Orleans broken       ^top^
      During the Hundred Years' War, the English siege of Orleans was broken after six months, thanks in large part to the efforts of Joan of Arc, a seventeen-year-old French peasant entrusted with an army by Charles VII, the future king of France.
      Early in life, Joan began to hear "voices" of Catholic saints. Shortly after she turned sixteen, these voices told her to aid Charles in regaining the French throne and expelling the English from France. A captain in the French army arranged a meeting with Charles, and the dauphin, convinced of the validity of Joan's divine mission, furnished her with a small force of troops.
      Wearing white armor, she led her troops to Orleans, and on 29 April, as a French sortie distracted the English troops on the west side of the city, Joan entered unopposed by its eastern gate. Bringing needed supplies and troops into the besieged city, she also inspired the French to a passionate resistance, and during the next week, she led the charge during a number of skirmishes and battles. On 07 May, she was even hit by an arrow, but after dressing her wounds, she returned to the battle.
      On 08 May, the siege of Orleans was broken and the English retreated (because it was a Sunday, Joan did not allow a pursuit). Over the next five weeks, Joan led French forces into a number of stunning victories over the English, and, in July, Reims, the traditional city of coronation, was captured. On 16 July 1429, with Joan of Arc kneeling beside him, Charles VII was crowned king of France.
      On 24 May of the next year, while leading another military expedition against the foreign occupiers of France, Joan was captured by the Burgundians at Compiegne and later sold to the English. She was tried her as a heretic and witch, convicted, and on 30 May 1431, burned at the stake at Rouen. In 1920, Joan of Arc, already one of the great heroes of French history, was recognized as a Christian saint by the Roman Catholic Church.
     Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc by the Sieur Louis de Conté (her page and secretary), freely translated out of the ancient French into modern English by Mark Twain. (Chapter 22: The Orleans victory)
1373 English mystic Julian of Norwich, 31, by her own account, received a series of sixteen revelations, while in a state of ecstasy lasting five hours. Her book, The Sixteen Revelations of Divine Love, was written 20 years later as the fruit of her meditations on this experience. Little else is known of her life.
1350 Tratado de Bretigny, que pone fin al primer período de la llamada Guerra de los Cien Años, entre Francia e Inglaterra.
bus wreckDeaths which occurred on a May 08:       ^top^

2003:: 32 persons on a double-decker tourist bus from Germany, which is dragged 150 meters, torn in half, and set on fire, by the Budapest to Nagykanizsa passenger train, at 08:30 (06:35 a.m. UT), at a crossing near Siofok on the shores of Lake Balaton, Hungary's leading tourist area. The 6 survivors from the bus, which include the driver and the tour guide, are seriously injured. No one is injured on the train, except the engineer, who is critically injured. The passengers of the bus, German tour operator company Ursel-Reisen, came mainly from Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein. [photo: wreckage of the bus >]

2003 Iyad Beik, 30, at 11:30 (08:30 UT) as Israeli helicopters fire three missiles at his car in the Jabalya refugee camp just north of Gaza City. 3 bystanders are injured. Beik was former assistant to the commander of the Hamas military wing, and was responsible for securing and hiding terrorists.

2003 British Pvt. Andrew Kelly, 18, in a shooting accident at the base of the 3rd Battalion of the Parachute Regiment, in Basra, Iraq.
2001 Yossi Ishran, 14, and Kobi Mandel, 14, stoned to death.       ^top^
           The boys had skipped school and gone hiking instead, without informing their parents.  Their bodies would be found early the next day in a cave in Wadi Hariton, a dry riverbed about one kilometer from their home in Tekoa, a Jewish West Bank enclave settlement southwest of Bethlehem, on the edge of the Judean Desert.
      Their families had moved only recently to Tekoa. Kobi Mandel's family immigrated to Israel from College Park, Maryland several years earlier. Kobi's father, Seth, is a rabbi, and his mother, Sherri, is a freelance writer.
      In this same night from 08 to 09 May, about 100 goats were stolen from Tekoa, not far from the site of the killing.
      This bring the body count, in the seven months of the al-Aqsa intifada, to 437 Palestinians and 75 Israelis. Victims under the age of 18 total six Israelis and at least 106 Palestinians.
1978 James Corrowr “Duncan Grant”, English Camden Town Group painter and designer born on 21 January 1885. — MORE ON “GRANT” AT ART “4” MAY LINKSLytton StracheyLemon GatherersA Landscape near CadizDancersThe Queen of Sheba
1960 John Henry Constantine Whitehead, of a heart attack, English mathematician born on 11 November 1904. He was a topologist and differential geometer who is best remembered for his work on homotopy equivalence.
1959 Renato Caccioppoli, by shooting himself, Napolitan mathematician born on 20 January 1904. He introduced Caccioppoli sets.
1953 Benjamin Fedorovich Kagan, Russian mathematician born on 10 March 1869.
1951 Gilbert Ames Bliss, Illinois mathematician born on 09 May 1876. Bliss's main work was on the calculus of variations, on which he wrote a major book, Lectures on the Calculus of Variations (1946). As a consequence of Bliss's results a substantial simplification of the transformation theories of Clebsch [19 Jan 1833 – 07 Nov 1872] and Weierstrass [31 Oct 1815 – 19 Feb 1897] was achieved. Bliss also studied singularities of real transformations in the plane. He was the author of Mathematics for Exterior Ballistics (1944).
1936 Lorna Mary Swain, English mathematician and physicist born on 22 March 1891.
1936 Oswald Spengler, filósofo e historiador alemán.
1923 John Seymour Lucas, British painter born in 1849. — LINKSNews from the FrontAfter Culloden, Rebel Hunting _ more on the brutalizing of Scots by the English after the 16 April 1746 battle of Cullloden.
1916 Eamonn Ceannt, 34, Michael Mallin, Sean J. Heuston, and Cornelius Colbert, 27, Irish patriots, executed by British firing squad for their participation in the Easter Rising.
click for full self-portrait1903 Eugène-Henri-Paul Gauguin, in Atuona, Hiva Oa, Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia       ^top^
     Born on 07 June 1848 in Paris, Gauguin was one of the leading French painters of the Post-Impressionist period, whose development of a conceptual method of representation was a decisive step for 20th-century art.
     On 01 April 1891 painter Paul Gauguin left Marseille for Tahiti [click on image for full self~portrait >]
— Self~Portrait with Idol — Self~Portrait with Halo  — Self~Portrait with Palette — Self~Portrait with Hat — Self~Portrait 1898 — Self~Portrait with Yellow Christ — The Yellow Christ — D'où venons~nous? Que sommes~nous? Où allons~nous?  — In the Vanilla Grove, Man and Horse — Tahitian Woman and Boy  — Tahitiennes Sur la Plage — Déjeûner de Bananes — Femme au Fruit — Fête des Dieux — No te aha oe riri?  — Manaò tupapaú  — Riders on the Beach— Le Cheval Blanc — Ia Orana Maria
Another Ia Orana Maria (a preliminary sketch)
L'univers est crééL'univers est créé — Jeanne d'Arc — Breton Girl  — William Molard (reverse of Self Portrait with Hat) — Self Portrait with SpectaclesRiders on the Beach (preliminary) — Nevermore, Oh TahitiHaere mai veneziDans les vagues Ondine I _ Head and shoulders detailNafeaffaa Ipolpo329 images at Webshots26 prints at FAMSF
1902 Mt Pelée erupts, wipes out St Pierre, Martinique.
1880 Gustave Flaubert, French novelist.
      Flaubert, was born on 12 December 1821, the son of the chief surgeon of the hospital in Rouen, France. Gustave Flaubert began writing stories in his teens. At the age of 16, he completed the manuscript of Mémoires d'un fou, which recounted his devastating passion for Elisa Schlésinger, 11 years his senior and the wife of a music publisher, whom he had met in 1836.   Elisa provided the model for the character Marie Arnoux in the novel L'Education Sentimentale. Before receiving its definitive form this work was to be rewritten in two distinct intermediate versions: Novembre (1842) and L'Éducation sentimentale (1843-1845). It was expanded into a vast panorama of France under the July Monarchy, the period that preceded the coup d'état of 1851. In its final form, L'Éducation sentimentale appeared a few months before the outbreak of the Franco-German War of 1870
     In 1839 Flaubert was writing Smarh, the first product of his bold ambition to give French literature its Faust. He resumed the task in 1846-49 (La tentation de Saint-Antoine), in 1856 (La tentation de Saint-Antoine), and in 1870, and finally published the book as La tentation de Saint-Antoine in 1874. The four versions show how the author's ideas changed in the course of time. The version of 1849, influenced by Spinoza's philosophy, is nihilistic in its conclusion. In the second version the writing is less diffuse, but the substance remains the same. The third version shows a respect for religious feeling that was not present in the earlier ones, since in the interval Flaubert had read Herbert Spencer and reconciled the Spencerian notion of the Unknown with his Spinozism. He had come to believe that science and religion, instead of conflicting, are rather the two poles of thought. The published version incorporated a catalog of errors in the field of the Unknown (just as Bouvard et Pécuchet was to contain a list of errors in the field of science).
      In 1840, Flaubert went to Paris to study law but failed his exams. Three years later, he had a nervous breakdown. He retired to a small town outside Rouen to write. In 1846, he began a long, tempestuous affair with poet Louise Colet, 36, which ended bitterly in1855. Meanwhile, he traveled extensively with French writer Maxime du Camp, taking extended walking tours with him and journeying to Greece, Syria, and Egypt from 1849 to 1851 (Flaubert's journal entries of this were published posthumously as Par les champs et par les grèves).
      When Flaubert returned from the journey, he began work on Madame Bovary, which took five years to write. The book was serialized in La Revue de Paris beginning on 1 October 1856 and published in installments until 15 December 1856. The novel, about the romantic illusions of a country doctor's wife and her adulterous liaisons, scandalized French traditionalists. Flaubert was brought to trial for obscenity in January-February 1857. He was acquitted (the same tribunal found the poet Charles Baudelaire guilty on the same charge six months later). Madame Bovary became a popular success. The book's realistic, serious portrayal of humble characters and situations was a milestone of French realism.
     Eugéne Delamare was a country doctor in Normandy who died of grief after being deceived and ruined by his wife, Delphine (née Couturier). The story, in fact that of Madame Bovary, is not the only source of that novel. Another was the manuscript Mémoires de Mme Ludovica, an account of the adventures and misfortunes of Louise Pradier (née d'Arcet), the wife of the sculptor James Pradier, as dictated by herself. Apart from the suicide, it bears a strong resemblance to the story of Emma Bovary. Flaubert had continued to see Louise Pradier when the “bourgeois” were ostracizing her as a fallen woman, and she must have given him her strange document. But when asked him who served as model for his heroine, Flaubert replied, “Madame Bovary is myself.” As early as 1837 he had written Passion et vertu, a short and pointed story with a heroine, Mazza, resembling Emma Bovary. For Madame Bovary he took a commonplace story of adultery and made of it a book of profound humanity. Madame Bovary, with its unrelenting objectivity--the dispassionate recording of every trait or incident that could illuminate the psychology of the characters--marks the beginning of a new age in literature.
      After Madame Bovary, Flaubert immediately began work on Salammbô, a novel about ancient Carthage, based on the author's trip to Tunisia in 1860. In it he set his somber story of Hamilcar's daughter Salammbô, an entirely fictitious character, against the authentic historical background of the revolt of the mercenaries against Carthage in 240-237 BC. He transforms the dry record of Polybius into richly poetic prose.
      A play, Le Château des cœurs, written in 1863, was not printed until 1880. Two plays, Le Sexe faible and Le Candidat (1904) had no success, though the latter was staged for four performances in March 1874.
      Trois contes (published in 1877) contains the three short stories Un cœur simple, a tale about the drab and simple life of a faithful servant; La Légende de Saint Julien l'Hospitalier; and Hérodias. This book, through the diversity of the stories' themes, shows Flaubert's talent in all its aspects and has often been held to be his masterpiece.
      The heroes of Bouvard et Pécuchet are two clerks who receive a legacy and retire to the country together. Not knowing how to use their leisure, they busy themselves with one abortive experiment after another and plunge successively into scientific farming, archaeology, chemistry, and historiography, as well as taking an abandoned child into their care. Everything goes wrong because their futile book learning cannot compensate for their lack of judgment.
      The profound meaning of Bouvard et Pécuchet is not a denial of the value of science, but of “scientism”--i.e., the practice of taking science out of its own domain, of confusing efficient and final causes, and of convincing oneself that one understands fundamentals when one has not even grasped the superficial phenomena.
      Flaubert died suddenly of an apoplectic stroke. He left unfinished the second volume of Bouvard and Pécuchet. Tired of experimenting, they were to go back to the work of transcribing and copying that they had done as clerks: a selection of quotations, a sottisier, Flaubert's notes for which have been published.
     In the last years of his life, Flaubert enjoyed the friendship of George Sand, Ivan Sergeyevich Turgenev, and younger novelists--Émile Zola, Alphonse Daudet, and, especially, Guy de Maupassant, who regarded himself as Flaubert's disciple.
          Fils d'un chirurgien, Gustave Flaubert connut dès l'enfance la monotonie de la vie en province (à Rouen) et s'en souviendra lorsqu'il écrira Madame Bovary (1857) et Le Dictionnaire des idées reçues (1911). Il tenta de tromper son ennui en s'adonnant très tôt à la littérature. Lecteur assidu, il composa dès le lycée ses premiers textes, la plupart à dominante sombre et mélancolique. Mémoires d'un fou, écrit en 1838 et publié en 1900, à titre posthume, fut sa première tentative autobiographique.
      Il commença sans enthousiasme ni assiduité de classiques études de droit à Paris mais, atteint d'une maladie nerveuse aux environs de l'année 1844, il dut les interrompre prématurément. Cette maladie, dont il devait souffrir jusqu'à la fin de son existence, lui permit de se consacrer exclusivement à la littérature.
      Devenu un rentier précoce, il vécut dès lors retiré à Croisset, petite localité proche de Rouen où sa famille acheta une propriété. Il profita de son désœuvrement pour finir une première version de l'Éducation sentimentale. À partir de cette retraite littéraire, la légende a fait de Flaubert une sorte d'ermite ou de bénédictin de la littérature, connu pour sa grande culture, son incroyable capacité de travail et ses exigences esthétiques rigoureuses.
      Il est vrai qu'il ne quitta plus Croisset et sa table d'écrivain que pour quelques voyages, en Orient d'abord avec son ami Maxime du Camp (1849-1851), puis en Algérie et en Tunisie (1858), mais il fit aussi de longs séjours à Paris où il fréquentait les milieux littéraires. Cet isolement relatif ne l'empêchait d'ailleurs pas d'être un ami fidèle, comme l'atteste la correspondance monumentale, émouvante et spirituelle, qu'il échangea avec ses amis et ses proches, notamment avec Louise Colet — qu'il rencontra en 1846 et qui fut sa maîtresse jusqu'en 1854 —, mais aussi avec George Sand, Théophile Gautier ou Maupassant. Cette correspondance est en outre riche de nombreuses informations biographiques qui permettent d'éclairer les œuvres.
      Dans la carrière de Flaubert, les échecs de librairie n'ont pas manqué, puisque ni L'Education Sentimentale, ni La tentation de Saint-Antoine, ni Le Candidat ne trouvèrent leur public. Flaubert eut cependant un succès de scandale avec Madame Bovary; Salammbô, son récit carthaginois, reçut également un bon accueil de la part du public mais fut systématiquement dénigré par la majorité des critiques, Sainte-Beuve en tête. Gustave Flaubert mourut à Croisset.
  • Trois contes 
  • Un cœur simple
  • Smarh
  • Salammbô
  • Bouvard et Pécuchet
  • L'Education Sentimentale
  • Madame Bovary : moeurs de province
  • Madame Bovary
  • La tentation de Saint-Antoine [version de 1849]
  • La tentation de Saint-Antoine [version de 1856]
  • La tentation de Saint-Antoine [version de 1874]
  • Le Dictionnaire des idées reçues
  • 1873 John Stuart Mill, 66, great Empiricist philosopher       ^top^
  • On Liberty
  • On Liberty
  • On Liberty
  • Utilitarianism
  • Autobiography
  • Autobiography
  • The Subjection of Women
  • The Subjection of Women
  • Essays on Some Unsettled Questions of Political Economy (PDF)
  • Principles of Political Economy
  • Representative Government
  • 1828 Christian August Lorentzen, Danish artist born on 10 August 1749.
    click for complete portrait by David1794 (19 floréal an II) Antoine Laurent Lavoisier, guillotiné.       ^top^
         Il avait été condamné à mort le 5 mai. A ceux qui intervinrent pour qu'on l'épargne, le tribunal répondit:
    [click on image for portrait by David. Mme Lavoisier served as his able lab assistant and survived him by many years >]
          On 24 November 1793, the Convention voted to arrest the Farmers General and require them to surrender the accounts of the General Farm, from which it was expecting to receive a considerable amount of money. Lavoisier was not at home when the police came for him. He hid himself for several days at the Academy of Sciences, which had been abolished, then accompanied by his father-in-law, Jacques Paulze, he presented himself at the Port-Libre Prison. The pre-trial investigation lasted five months. On 05 May 1794, the Revolutionary Tribunal tried thirty-two Farmers General on charges of misappropriation of funds, excessive profits, abusive distribution of bonuses, unjustified delay in payments to the Public Treasury and, especially, for increasingits profits by introducing excessive amounts of water into tobacco, and of having used these profits in a "plot against the French people tending to favor by all possible means the success of the enemies of France." Twenty-eight among them would be condemned to the guillotine and executed on 08 May. All their property was confiscated.Lavoisier was the fourth to die.
          On the following day, his colleague Joseph Louis Lagrange (1736-1813) commented: "It took them only an instant to cut off that head, but it is unlikely that a hundred years will suffice to reproduce a similar one." The career of the chemist, biologist, financier, industrialist and economist was over. It bore witness to the liberal thought of the Enlightenment and the first hopes of the Revolution. Although his work in chemistry was revolutionary, in economics itrepresented an imperfect synthesis between the current liberal ideas and the interventionist centralism which reigned in France at the dawn of modern society. For the first centenary of his death, chemists restored Lavoisier's scientific work to its place of honor and Louis Pasteur awarded him the title of "Lawmaker of Chemistry." The bicentenary was the occasion to make better known his contribution to the economic, political and social history of France at the end of the eighteenth century.
    1794 (19 floréal an II) Condamnés à mort par la Révolution:       ^top^
    FANARD François, ex cordelier, domicilié à St Briey (Moselle), par le tribunal criminel dudit département, comme contre-révolutionnaire.
    SERRES Louis Jean, prêtre domicilié à Castelnaudary (Aude), comme réfractaire, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
    TALLET Henri, domicilié à Dunkerque, département du Nord, comme émigré, par la commission extraordinaire séante à Bayonne.
    MOUFLIN ou MOSLIN Sylvain Joseph, 20 ans, né à Wort, employé dans les charrois, à Arras
    QUIQUE André, maçon et arpenteur, domicilié à Lille (Nord), par le tribunal criminel de la Seine, comme fabricateur de faux assignats.
    Par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris:
    BARBUCE Etienne, 27 ans, né à Nismes, ouvrier en bas, domicilié à Paris, chef du dépôt des charrois militaires des armées, du Var, Pyrénées et Alpes, comme convaincu de trahison contre la liberté et la sûreté du peuple.
         ... ex fermiers généraux, comme complices d'un complot contre le peuple français, notamment en mettant dans le tabac de l'eau et des ingrédients nuisibles à la santé:
    PARSEVAL Charles René (de Frileuse), guillotiné
    BRAC Jacques Joseph, (dit la Perrière), 68 ans, né à Lyon, ex noble, domicilié à Nantes (Loire Inférieure), ... contre le peuple français, en exerçant des concussions sur lui.
    FABUR-VERNANT Denys Henri, ex noble, 47 ans, natif de Paris, commandant du bataillon de la section de Molière et la Fontaine, capitaine des chasseurs du bataillon des filles St Thomas, domicilié à Caen (Calvados), ... et comme contre-révolutionnaire.
    PERCEVAL Alexandre Philippe Pierre, 36 ans, né à Paris, domicilié à Counneville (Calvados).
    PERCEVAL Charles René (dit Frileuse), 35 ans, natif de Paris, domicilié à Mantes (Seine et Oise).
              ... domiciliés à Paris:
    COUTURIER Guillaume, 40 ans, natif d'Orléans {Loiret}.
    DELAAGE Clément, père, 70 ans, né à Sainte (Seine Inférieure).
    DEVENTES ou VENTES François Jean, 68 ans, natif de Dieppe, ex noble, ., ... en exerçant toute sorte d'exactions et de concussions sur le Peuple.
    DEVILLE Nicolas, 44 ans, ex noble, secrétaire de Capet, natif de Bresle (Mayenne et Loire), .comme révolutionnaire [sic], ... en favorisant les ennemis.
    DIDELOT Jean François, 59 ans, natif de Châlons (Marne).
    DUVAUCEL Louis Philippe, 40 ans.
    MENAGE François Marie (dit Pressigny), ex noble, 61 ans, natif de Bordeaux.
    MONTCLOUX Gilbert Georges, ex-noble, 68 ans, natif de Montaigu (Puy-de-Dôme), secrétaire de Capet.
    PARCELLE Adrien François, (dit St Cristau), 44 ans, natif de Rennes (Ille-et-Vilaine.
    PAULSE Jacques, 71 ans, natif de Montbrison (Loire).
    PREVOT Louis Adrien, 50 ans, natif d’Evreux (Eure et Loire).
    PUISSANT François, 59 ans, né à Port-l’Egalité (Morbihan).
    ROUGEOT Claude François, 68 ans, natif de Lyon (Rhône).
    SAINT-AMAND Alexandre Victor, 74 ans, natif de Marseille (Bouches du Rhône).
                   ... et nés à Paris:
    DANGE DE BAGNEUX Louis Balthazar, 55 ans, ex-noble, secrétaire de Capet, au-devant conseil supérieur de Colmar,... et comme contre-révolutionnaire... tendant à favoriser les ennemis de la France, et en exerçant toutes espèces d'exactions et concussions sur le peuple.
    BOULLOGNE Jean Baptiste, 45 ans, ex noble,. ... en exerçant toutes sortes de concussions contre le peuple.
    CUGNOT-LEPINAY Clément, ex noble, 55 ans, . ... tendant à favoriser les succès des ennemis de la France.
    DELAHAYE Etienne Marie, 36 ans.
    LEBAS-COURMOND Louis Marie, régisseur général, 52 ans, ....comme ayant exercé toutes sortes d'exactions et concussions sur le peuple francais.
    LOISEAU Jean Louis (dit Bérenger), ex noble, 62 ans.
    SALEUR Jérome François Hector, (dit Grizieu), 64 ans.
    1793 GUITTONNEAU Jacques, farinier, domicilié à Apremont (Vendée), est condamné à mort par la commission militaire séante aux Sables, comme brigand de la Vendée.
    1785 Pietro Falca I “Longhi”, Italian painter born in 1702. — MORE ON LONGHI AT ART “4” MAYLINKSA Theatrical PerformanceThe Mandolin RecitalThe Music Lesson (The Bird Cage)Bal MasquéThe ConcertThe Venetian Lady's MorningPainter in his StudioThe RidottoThe TailorThe Tooth PullerThe RhinocerosDuck Hunters on the LagoonThe SoothsayerThe Spice~vendor's shopThe Confession
    1784 Only known deaths by hailstones in US (Winnsborough SC)
    1782 Sebastião Jose de Carvalho e Melo marqués de Pombal, estadista lusitano.
    1721 Johann Georg Stuhr, German artist born in 1640.
    1693 Jan Verkolje I (or Verkolye), Dutch painter born on 09 February 1650. — MORE ON VERKOLYE AT ART “4” MAYThe Music PartyJohan de la FailleMargaretha Delff, Wife of Johan de la FailleThe Messenger
    1671 Sébastien Bourdon, French painter born on 02 February 1616. — MORE ON BOURDON AT ART “4” MAYLINKS Landscape with Shepherd Leading His FlockBacchus and Ceres with Nymphs and Satyrs The BeggarsQueen Christina of SwedenQueen Christina of Sweden on HorsebackPortrait of a ManThe Finding of MosesA Scene from Roman HistoryThe Selling of Joseph into Slavery
    1670 Jacob Weyer (or Weier), German artist born in 1620.
    1063 Ramiro I, rey de Aragón.
    0685 Saint Benedict II, Pope.
    0615 Saint Boniface IV, Pope.
    0535 John II, Pope.
    Births which occurred on a May 08:       ^top^
    1943 La FAO es creada en Hot Springs (EEUU) para combatir el hambre en el mundo.
    1940 Peter Benchley (author: Jaws, The Deep, The Island)
    1933 The first police radio system,       ^top^
    connecting headquarters to patrol cars and patrol cars to one another, was installed in Eastchester Township, New York, by Radio Engineering Laboratories of Long Island City, New York. The township contracted with the company for one transmitter of 20 watts for the headquarters and two transmitters of 4.5 volts each for the two patrol cars. Among its other uses, the police radio system became a popular prop for radio, television, and film drama. From the basic "Calling all cars!" exclamations of early radio drama to the poignant use of police radio in the 1965 film The Chase (with Marlon Brando, Robert Redford, and Robert Duvall), the police radio system became a dramatic device as essential to twentieth-century narratives, as was the royal emissary in the days of Shakespeare.
    1914 Romain Gary, French novelist, war hero and diplomat, who died on 02 December 1980.
    1914 Paramount Pictures is formed.       ^top^
          W.W. Hodkinson creates the film financing and distribution company Paramount Pictures. Hodkinson had opened one of the country's earliest cinemas in 1907 in Ogden, Utah, where he later started a film exchange with other theaters in town. Within a few years, he was soon a leading film distributor on the West Coast. In 1915, Paramount struck deals with two of the leading production studios, Adolph Zukor's Famous Players Film Company, and the Jesse L. Lasky Feature Play Company, which had released the first feature-length movie, The Squaw Man, in 1914. In 1916, Zukor and Lasky merged their companies, forming the Famous Players-Lasky Company, and the new entity absorbed another dozen production companies soon afterward. The new company then acquired Paramount and began buying movie theaters. In 1927, the company changed its name to Paramount Famous Lasky Corp., then to Paramount Publix Corp. in 1930.
          The company became one of Hollywood's most powerful studios, releasing blockbusters like The Ten Commandments (1923). The studio's stable of stars included Gloria Swanson, Rudolph Valentino, and Douglas Fairbanks. Despite the studio's success, its finances were shaky, and the company declared bankruptcy in 1933. After two years of reorganization, the company was reestablished under the name Paramount Pictures Corp. in 1935. The company continued to contract top stars, including Gary Cooper, Claudette Colbert, and Marlene Dietrich in the 1930s, and Mae West, Bing Crosby, and Bob Hope in the late '30s and early 1940s. In 1949, all studios fell on hard times: The US Supreme Court broke up their monopoly power over the industry, requiring them to sell off their theater chains. Nevertheless, Paramount continued to release hits, including Sabrina, Rear Window, Vertigo, and Psycho. In 1959, the studio introduced VistaVision, a widescreen technology meant to give movies an edge over the up-and-coming medium of television. In 1966, Gulf and Western purchased the studio, which continued to produce hits, including Love Story (1970) and The Godfather (1972), Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981) and Top Gun (1986). Gulf and Western changed its name to Paramount Communications in 1989. In 1993, former studio head Barry Diller, who had run the operation from 1975 to 1984, engaged in a hostile battle with Viacom to purchase Paramount, but lost. Viacom gained control of the studio in 1994.
    1905 Karol Borsuk, Warsaw mathematician who died on 24 January 1982.
    1899 Friedrich von Hayek, Austrian-born English economist; awarded Nobel Prize in 1974. He died on 23 March 1992.
    1899 The Countess Cathleen opens       ^top^
         The play, by William Butler Yeats, opens at the Irish Literary Theatre in Dublin, the theater's inaugural performance.
          Yeats, already an accomplished poet, had been persuaded to help launch the theater by his friend Isabella Augusta, Lady Gregory, a writer and collector of Irish folklore. Until 1907, Yeats managed the theater's business affairs and wrote numerous plays. On occasion, his experimental works sparked riots in the audience.
          Yeats was born in Dublin in 1865 but moved to London when he was two. His family returned to Dublin in 1880. His father was a former lawyer turned painter, and Yeats, too, planned to pursue art. He entered the Metropolitan School of Art in Dublin after high school but soon left to focus on poetry. His first poems appeared in 1885 in the Dublin University Review.
          In 1887, he moved to London and became a writer, devoting himself to visionary, mystic poetry. His first book of verse, The Wanderings of Oisin and Other Poems, was published in 1889, the same year he fell hopelessly in love with actress Maude Gonne, who refused to marry him. In 1891, he helped found the Rhymers Club, a society of poets. In 1898, he met Lady Gregory and spent many subsequent summers at her estate. He later purchased a nearby ruined castle, which he called The Tower, and which figures as an important symbol in his later work.
          As manager of the Irish National Theatre, Yeats became increasingly appreciated as a writer of national stature. His poetry, once ecstatic and dreamy, became tighter, sparser, and more realistic. He published Responsibilities: Poems and a Play in 1914 and The Wild Swans of Coole in 1917. Some of his best work was written after 1917, including Sailing to Byzantium and The Second Coming. In 1922, he was appointed a senator of the new Irish Free State, and the following year he won the Nobel Prize. Yeats died on 28 January 1939 in France.
    YEATS ONLINE: Michael Robartes and the Dancer, Responsibilities, and Other Poems, The Wild Swans at Coole, The Wind Among the Reeds
    1897 José María Pemán, poeta, dramaturgo y periodista español.
    1895 Fulton John Sheen. , in El Paso, Illinois.    ^top^
         He was ordained a Catholic priest on 20 September 1919, was consecrated a bishop, as auxiliary of New York, on 11 June 1951. He was US Director of the Society for Propagation of the Faith from 1950 to 1966. From 1952 to 1955 he became famous through his television program Life is Worth Living, continued as Mission to the World from 1955 to 1957. He was appointed bishop of Rochester on 21 October 1966 and retired on 06 October 1969. He died on 09 December 1979. Among Sheen's books are Peace of Soul (1949), Three to Get Married (1951), Life Is Worth Living (1953), The Priest Is Not His Own (1963), Missions and the World Crisis (1964) That Tremendous Love (1967), Treasure in Clay: The Autobiography of Fulton J. Sheen (1980).
         Bishop Sheen established a very successful niche for religious programming in U.S. television's early days with his Life Is Worth Living program. Sheen's show originally aired on the Dumont Network on Tuesday evenings in 1951 and then moved to ABC where it remained until Sheen withdrew in 1957. The shows--really half hour talks by Sheen--proved very popular and ultimately were carried on 123 ABC television stations and another 300 radio stations. Life Is Worth Living followed a simple format. Sheen would choose a topic and, with only a blackboard for a prop and his church robes for costuming, would discuss the topic for his allotted 27 minutes. He spoke in a popular style, without notes but with a sprinkling of stories and jokes, having spent up to 30 hours preparing his presentation. Because the program was sponsored by the Admiral Corporation rather than the Catholic Church, Sheen avoided polemics and presented a kind of Christian humanism. In his autobiography he noted that the show was not "a direct presentation of Christian doctrine but rather a reasoned approach to it beginning with something that was common to the audience." He covered topics as diverse as art, science, aviation, humor, communism, and philosophy.
          Like many others in its early days, Sheen had moved into television from radio. As a professor at the Catholic University of America, he began commuting from Washington DC in 1928 to broadcast on WLWL in New York. Two years later he became the first regular speaker on The Catholic Hour, a sustaining time program on NBC radio, sponsored by the National Council of Catholic Men. In 1940 he made his television debut presiding at New York City's first televised religious service.
          After several years off, Sheen attempted to come back to television a number of times, but without the success that had greeted Life Is Worth Living. He hosted a series on the life of Christ in the late 1950s; in 1964, he worked on Quo Vadis, America?; and he revived the format of Life is Worth Living, now called The Bishop Sheen Program (1961-1968). Television had changed and his lecture style no longer commanded audience loyalty. He ended his long career in broadcasting with numerous guest appearances on television talk shows during the 1960s and 1970s. Broadcasting was never Sheen's full-time occupation. He left The Catholic University of America in 1950 to become the national director of the Society for the Propagation of the Faith, a fundraising office for missionaries, a position he held until Pope Paul VI named him Bishop of Rochester, New York in 1966.
          Sheen's importance for television lies in two areas. First, he pioneered a non-sectarian style of religious programming and found commercial sponsors for his message. By doing this he both adapted to and helped to shape commercial broadcasting's attitudes toward religious shows. The need to develop audiences meant that only those programs with the widest possible appeal would find a place in mainstream or network programming. Second, Sheen provided a role model (if not an ideal) for the next generation of ministers interested in television--the televangelists. Many of the later stars of cable religious television acknowledge that the widespread acceptance of Sheen's Life Is Worth Living inspired their own forays into television. They too hoped to escape the "Sunday morning ghetto" of religious programming for a place in the mainstream.
    1895 Edmund Wilson, US essayist and literary critic who died on 12 June 1972.
    1886 Coca-Cola syrup perfected by Atlanta pharmacist John Styth Pemberton.
    1885 Thomas Costain, Canadian-born US historical novelist who died on 08 October 1965.
    1884 Harry S. Truman, near Lamar, Missouri, "Give 'em Hell" 33rd US President (D) (1945-1953). He died on 26 December 1972.
    1877 José María Salaverría, escritor español.
    1876 Ludvig Peter Karsten, Norwegian artist who died in 1926. — more
    1859 Johan Ludwig William Waldemar Jensen, Danish mathematician who died on 05 March 1925.
    1834 Antonio Ermolao Paoletti, Italian artist who died on 13 December 1912.
    1828 Jean-Henri Dunant, suizo fundador de la Cruz Roja Internacional, primer Premio Nobel de la Paz, en 1901. Murió el 30 octubre 1910. (He would eventually sign his name Henry Dunant).
    1824 William Walker, adventurer, filibuster, president of Nicaragua (1856-1857). He was executed on 12 September 1860 by the authorities of Honduras, which he had tried to invade.
    1816 The American Bible Society is organized in the Dutch Reformed Church on Garden Street in NY City. The non-profit society was instituted to promote wider circulation of the Scriptures by publishing Bibles without notes or comments.
    1794 US Post Office established.
    1786 Thomas Hancock, English inventor; helped start the British rubber industry. He died on 26 March 1865.
    1753 Miguel Hidalgo, father of Mexican independence.
    1744 (27 April Julian) Nikolay Ivanovich Novikov, Russian writer, philanthropist, social critic, and Freemason who died on 12 August (31 July Julian) 1818.

    1737 Edward Gibbon, England, historian (Decline and Fall of Roman Empire). He died on 16 January 1794. — GIBBON ONLINE: The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire — Volume I , Volume II , Volume III , Volume IV , Volume V , Volume VI
    1639 Giovanni-Battista Gaulli “Il Baciccio”, Italian artist who died on 02 April 1709. — MORE ON GAULLI AT ART “4” MAY LINKSThe Adoration of the LambPietàApotheosis of the Franciscan OrderApotheosis of St IgnatiusGian Lorenzo BerniniCardinal Leopoldo de' Medici
    1503 Michele Tosini di Ridolfo del Ghirlandaio, Italian painter who died on 28 October 1577. — MORE ON TOSINI AT ART “4” MAY LINKSMadonna and Child with the Young St. John the Baptist — a different Madonna and Child with Saint John the BaptistCharity
    Holidays Helston, England : Furry Day / Mexico : Higaldo Day / Missouri : Harry S Truman's Birthday (1884) / Norway : Liberation Day / Ribe, Denmark : Stork Day / World : V-E Day, Victory in Europe (1945) / Ireland : Feis Ceoil music festival (1897) ( Monday ) / Czechosolovakia : Liberation Day/National Holiday

    Religious Observances Orthodox : Latest possible Orthodox Easter (4/25 OS) / RC : Apparition of St Michael the Archangel / Ang : Dame Julian of Norwich
    Thought for the day:“Better three hours too soon than a minute too late.” [not for dying!]

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