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Events, deaths, births, of 11 MAY
[For May 11 Julian go to Gregorian date: 1583~1699: May 211700s: May 221800s: May 231900~2099: May 24]
• Butcher of Lyon on trial... • Pompidou acts on student riots... • Bloody “Hamburger Hill”... • Fort Eben~Emael pris par les Boches... • Constantinople remplace Rome... • British Prime Minister assassinated... • Israel kills 16~year~old... • Delco and GM... • Spy Philby dies... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • Poisoned poisener exhumed... • Faulkner's Go Down, Moses... • Western writer Sandoz is born... • Computer beats human chess champ... • WordPerfect purchase approved... • More US troops to Vietnam... • The Pullman Car strike... • Allies attack the Gustav Line... • US troops land in Aleutians... • Minnesota becomes 32nd US state...
On a May 11:

Dickens daguerreotype2003 Elections in Iceland to the 63-seat parliament. The ruling coalition's majority is maintained, but reduced from 43 to 34: 12 for the Progressive Party and 22 for the conservative Independence Party of prime minister David Oddsson, 55, who will thus be able to extend his 12-year tenure. The Social Alliance gets 20 seats, the Left Green 5, and the Liberal 4.

2003 A referendum, started the previous day, ends in Lithuania with 91% of the votes approving the country's joirning the European Union.

2001 This daguerreotype of Charles Dickens sells for nearly 40'000 pounds at auction at Christie's in London. It is about 8 x 10 cm, its size here too [>] . The recently discovered picture, the work of American photographers John Jabez and Edwin Mayall, is believed to date to the 1850s when Dickens wrote the classics A Tale of Two Cities, Bleak House, and Hard Times .

1998 India sets off three underground atomic blasts, its first nuclear tests in 24 years.
After move 19^ 1997 Deep Blue beats Kasparov.
      IBM's computer, "Deep Blue," with White, after a Caro-Kann opening, beats in world chess champion Gary Kasparov who, at the 19th move, resigns Game 6, the final game in the highly publicized play-off. Not only was this the first time a computer defeated a reigning human grandmaster, but it was also the first time Kasparov ever lost a multigame championship match to any opponent. (Kasparov had won on 03 May Game 1 — lost on 04 May Game 2 — drawn on 06 May Game 3 — drawn on 07 May Game 4 — drawn on 10 May Game 5)
      This is a rematch, following a match which ended on 17 February 1996 in which Kasparov defeated Deep Blue, winning three games, losing one, and tying two.

The game:
1.e4 c6 2.d4 d5 3.Nc3 dxe4 4.Nxe4 Nd7 5.Ng5 Ngf6 6.Bd3 e6 7.N1f3 h6 8.Nxe6 Qe7 9.O-O fxe6 10.Bg6+ Kd8 11.Bf4 b5 12.a4 Bb7 13.Re1 Nd5 14.Bg3 Kc8 15.axb5 cxb5 16.Qd3 Bc6 17.Bf5 exf5 18.Rxe7 Bxe7 19.c4 . Black resigns. [final position >]
1995 The Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty is extended indefinitely. I limits the spread of nuclear material for military purposes.
El primer ministro italiano, Silvio Berlusconi, toma posesión de su cargo.
1994 Justice Department approves WordPerfect purchase.       ^top^
      The Justice Department approved Novell's plans to purchase WordPerfect Corporation on this day in 1994. Novell also bought Borland's spreadsheet business, in an attempt to create a suite of office applications to compete with Microsoft Office. Novell's ownership of WordPerfect lasted less than two years
1992 El general Fidel Ramos gana las elecciones presidenciales en Filipinas.
1991 Angola se convierte formalmente en un Estado con sistema multipartidista.
1991 US President Bush (Sr.) dispatches an amphibious task force with thousands of Marines and dozens of helicopters to help cyclone-ravaged Bangladesh with disaster relief efforts.
1988 Militares leales al presidente de Guatemala, Vinicio Cerezo Arévalo, abortan un intento golpista militar, apoyado por civiles de extrema derecha.
1987 Butcher of Lyon goes on trial       ^top^
      After four years of legal delays, the trial of Klaus Barbie, the former Nazi Gestapo chief accused of committing crimes against humanity in German-occupied France, begins in Lyons.
      As chief of Nazi Germany's secret police in the city during World War II, Barbie sent thousands of French Jews and French Resistance members to their deaths in concentration camps, while torturing, abusing, or executing many others. After the Allied liberation, he fled to Germany where under an assumed identity he joined other ex-Nazi officials in the formation of an underground anti-Communist organization.
      In 1947, the US Counter-Intelligence Corps (CIC) broke up the organization and arrested its senior members, although Barbie remained at large until the CIC offered him money and protection in exchange for his cooperation in countering Soviet espionage efforts. Barbie worked as a US agent in Germany for two years, and in 1949 was smuggled to Bolivia, where he assumed the name of "Klaus Altmann" and continued his work as a US agent. In addition to his work for the Americans, he increasingly performed services for Bolivia's various military regimes, especially that of Hugo "El Petiso" Banzer, who came to power in 1971 and became one of the country's most oppressive leaders. Barbie performed a similar type of work for Banzer as he had for the Nazis, torturing and interrogating political opponents, and dispatching many of these political prisoners to special internment camps where many were executed or died from mistreatment.
      It was at this time that Nazi hunters Serge Klarsfeld and Beatte Kunzel discovered Barbie's whereabouts, but Banzer refused to extradite him to France. In the early 1980s, a liberal regime came to power in Bolivia and agreed to extradite Barbie in exchange for French aid to the destitute nation. On 19 January 1983 Barbie was arrested, and, on 07 February, he arrived in France.
      Legal wrangling, especially between the groups representing his Jewish and French Resistance victims, delayed his trial for four years. Finally, on 11 May 1987, the "Butcher of Lyons," as he was known in France, went on trial for charges of 177 crimes against humanity. In a courtroom twist unimaginable four decades earlier, Barbie was defended by three minority lawyers — an Asian, an African, and an Arab — who made the dramatic case that the French and the Jews were as guilty of crimes against humanity as Barbie or any other Nazi. However, Barbie’s lawyers were more interested in putting France and Israel on trial than in actually proving their client’s innocence, and on 04 July 1987, he was found guilty. For his crimes against humanity, Klaus Barbie was sentenced to spend the remainder of his life in prison. Being a civilized nation, France does not have the death penalty..
      Klaus Barbie, the former Nazi Gestapo chief of German-occupied Lyon, France, goes on trial in Lyon more than four decades after the end of World War II. He was charged with 177 crimes against humanity. As chief of Nazi Germany's secret police in Lyon, Barbie sent 7500 French Jews and French Resistance partisans to concentration camps, and executed some 4000 others. Among other atrocities, Barbie personally tortured and executed many of his prisoners. In 1943, he captured Jean Moulin, the leader of the French Resistance, and had him slowly beaten to death. In 1944, Barbie rounded up 44 young Jewish children and their seven teachers hiding in a boarding house in Izieu and deported them to the Auschwitz extermination camp. Of the 51, only one teacher survived. In August 1944, as the Germans prepared to retreat from Lyon, he organized one last deportation train that took hundreds of people to the death camps. Barbie returned to Germany, and at the end of the war burned off his SS identification tattoo and assumed a new identity. With former SS officers, he engaged in underground anti-Communist activity and in June 1947 surrendered himself to the US Counter-Intelligence Corps (CIC) after the US agents offered him money and protection in exchange for his intelligence services. Barbie worked as a US agent in Germany for two years, and the US shielded him from French prosecutors trying to track him down. In 1949, Barbie and his family were smuggled by the Americans to South America. Assuming the name of Klaus Altmann, Barbie settled in Bolivia and continued his work as a US agent. He became a successful businessman and advised the military regimes of Bolivia.
      In 1971, the oppressive dictator Hugo Bánzer came to power, and Barbie helped him set up brutal internment camps for his many political opponents. During his 32 years in Bolivia, Barbie also served as an officer in the Bolivian secret police, participated in drug-running schemes, and founded a rightist death squad. He regularly traveled to Europe, and even visited France, where he had been tried in absentia in 1952 and 1954 for his war crimes and sentenced to death. In 1972, the Nazi hunters Serge Klarsfeld and Beatte Kunzel discovered Barbie's whereabouts in Bolivia, but Bánzer refused to extradite him to France.
      In the early 1980s, a liberal Bolivian regime came to power and agreed to extradite Barbie in exchange for French aid. On 19 January 1983, Barbie was arrested, and on 07 February he arrived in France. The statute of limitations had expired on his in-absentia convictions from the 1950s; he would have to be tried again. The US government formally apologized to France for its conduct in the Barbie case later that year. Legal wrangling, especially between the groups representing his victims, delayed his trial for four years. Finally, on 11 May 1987, the "Butcher of Lyon," as he was known in France, went on trial for his crimes against humanity. In a courtroom twist unimaginable four decades earlier, Barbie was defended by three minority lawyers — an Asian, an African, and an Arab — who made the dramatic case that the French and the Jews were as guilty of crimes against humanity as Barbie or any other Nazi. Barbie's lawyers seemed more intent on putting France and Israel on trial than in proving their client's innocence, and on 04 July 1987, he was found guilty. For his crimes, the 73-year-old Barbie was sentenced to spend the rest of his life in prison, France's severest punishment. He died of cancer in a prison hospital in 1991.
1983 Violentos enfrentamientos en Santiago de Chile entre manifestantes y la policía en la jornada nacional de protesta contra la dictadura de Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte: dos muertos y nueve heridos.
1981 El político español José María de Areilza y Martínez Rodas, elegido por mayoría absoluta presidente de la Asamblea Parlamentaria Europea.
1978 Fuerzas del Ejército se enfrentan a miles de manifestantes chiítas que piden el derrocamiento del sha en el mercado de Teherán.
1973 Charges against Daniel Ellsberg for his role in the Pentagon Papers case are dismissed by Judge William M. Byrne, who cites government misconduct.
1969 Paratroopers battle for “Hamburger Hill”       ^top^
      US and South Vietnamese forces battle North Vietnamese troops for Ap Bia Mountain (Hill 937), one mile east of the Laotian border. The battle was part of Operation Apache Snow, a 2800-man Allied sweep of the A Shau Valley. The purpose of the operation was to cut off North Vietnamese infiltration from Laos and enemy threats to Hue and Da Nang. US paratroopers pushing northeast found the communist forces entrenched on Ap Bia Mountain. In fierce fighting directed by Maj. Gen. Melvin Zais, the mountain came under heavy Allied air strikes, artillery barrages, and 10 infantry assaults. The communist stronghold was captured on 20 May in the 11th attack, when 1000 soldiers of the 101st Airborne Division and 400 South Vietnamese soldiers fought their way to the summit of the mountain. During the intense fighting, 597 North Vietnamese were reported killed and US casualties were 56 killed and 420 wounded. Due to the bitter fighting and the high loss of life, the battle for Ap Bia Mountain was dubbed "Hamburger Hill" by the US media.
1968 Pompidou acts on student riots.       ^top^
      Pompidou rentre d'Iran où il était parti le 02 May, alors que des étudiants révolutionnaires menés par Cohn-Bendit provoquaient de nouveaux incidents à l'université de Nanterre, où les cours étaient en conséquence suspendus. En l'absence de Pompidou, le 03 May la police fait évacuer la Sorbonne; des barricades s'élèvent au quartier Latin. Le 04 May les cours sont suspendus à la Sorbonne. Le 05 May quatre manifestants sont condamnés à 2 mois de prison ferme.Le 06 May il y a des manifestations contre les condamnations (20'000 étudiants), des bagarres (600 blessés). Les bagarres se poursuivent toute la nuit le 07 May. Entre le 10 et le 11, c'est la nuit des barricades (400 blessés, 188 véhicules endommagés ou incendiés, notamment rue Gay-Lussac). A son retour, Pompidou fait libérer les manifestants arrêtés.
1961 US President orders more troops to Vietnam       ^top^
      President Kennedy approves sending 400 Special Forces troops and 100 other US military advisers to South Vietnam. On the same day, he orders the start of clandestine warfare against North Vietnam to be conducted by South Vietnamese agents under the direction and training of the CIA and US Special Forces troops. Kennedy's orders also called for South Vietnamese forces to infiltrate Laos to locate and disrupt communist bases and supply lines there.
1960 Israeli agents capture Adolf Eichmann in Buenos Aires. — Los servicios secretos israelíes secuestran en Buenos Aires y conducen a Israel al criminal de guerra nazi Adolf Eichmann.
1950 Los ministros de Exteriores de seis países europeos occidentales aprueban el plan de Robert Schuman sobre el carbón y el acero de Alemania y Francia, primer paso hacia un mercado común europeo.
1950 Fundación del Partido Demócrata Cristiano Alemán, presidido por Konrad Adenauer.
1949 By a vote of 37-12, Israel becomes 59th member of UN
1949 Siam renames itself Thailand.
1949 Poisened poisoner exhumed       ^top^
      The body of Léon Besnard is exhumed in Loudon, France, by authorities searching for evidence of poison. For years, local residents had been suspicious of his wife Marie, as they watched nearly her entire family die untimely and mysterious deaths. Law enforcement officials finally began investigating Marie after the death of her mother earlier in the year. Marie married Léon in August 1929. The couple resented the fact that they lived relatively modestly while their families were so well off. When two of Léon's great aunts perished unexpectedly, most of their money was left to Léon's parents. Consequently, the Besnards invited Léon's parents to live with them. Shortly after moving in, Léon's father died, ostensibly from eating a bad mushroom. Three months later, his widow also died and neighbors began chatting about a Besnard family jinx. The inheritance was split between Léon and his sister, Lucie. Not so surprisingly, the newly rich Lucie died shortly thereafter, supposedly taking her own life. Becoming increasingly greedy, the Besnards began looking outside the family for their next victim. They took in the Rivets as boarders, who, under the Besnards' care, also died abruptly. No one was too surprised when the Rivets' will indicated Marie as the sole beneficiary. Pauline and Virginie Lallerone, cousins of the Besnards, were next in line. When Pauline died, Marie explained that she had mistakenly eaten a bowl of lye. Apparently, her sister Virginie didn't learn her lesson about carelessness, because when she died a week later, Marie told everyone that she too had inadvertently eaten lye.
      When Marie fell in love with another man in 1947, Léon fell victim to her poisoning as well. Traces of arsenic were found in his exhumed body, as well as in the rest of her family's corpses. But Marie didn't let a little bit of pesky evidence get in her way. She managed to get a mistrial twice after trace evidence was lost while conducting the tests for poison each time. By her third trial, there wasn't much physical evidence left. On 12 December 1961, Marie Besnard was acquitted. The "Queen of Poisoners," as the French called her, ended up getting away with 13 murders.
1948 Luigi Einaudi, elegido presidente de la República italiana.
1947 Laos accepts constitution for parliamentary democracy
1946 the first CARE packages arrived in Europe, at Le Havre, France.
1944 Allies attack the Gustav Line       ^top^
      During World War II, Allied forces launch a major offensive along Kesselring's Gustav Line at Monte Cassino, Italy, the last effective German line of defense before Rome. The attack on the line is also part of a larger plan to force the Germans to commit as many troops to Italy as possible in order to make way for an Allied cross-Channel assault-what would become D-Day. With the Eighth Army's 1000 cannons, the Fifth Army's 600, and more than 3000 aircraft, the Allied forces, which include British, French, Indian, Moroccan, and Polish corps, open fire in a barrage of artillery from Cassino to the Mediterranean Sea.
      On 08 September 1943, the unconditional surrender of Italy had been announced days after British Field Marshall Bernard Montgomery landed his Eighth Army unopposed on the Italian peninsula.
      However, the Germans were not about to allow the Allies this toehold on the continent, and resistance stiffened, culminating in the fortification of the so-called Volturno Line across the peninsula just north of Naples. For the next three months, the Allied force, made up of primarily British and American armies, but also New Zealander, Canadian, French-Moroccan, and Italian Resistance units, pounded away at the Volturno Line, eventually forcing the Germans north to the Gustav Line, which straddled the peninsula about 120 km south of Rome.
      On January 22, an Allied force landed at Anzio north of the German fortified line, but they failed to gain much more than a beachhead, and suffered through intense German air and artillery attacks for the next four months.
      Despite the fact that the Allies outnumbered the Germans by a ratio of 3 to 1, it took until May 18 for Monte Cassino, a highly strategic town, to fall to the Allies. The next day, the Polish Corps occupied the famed Benedictine abbey of Monte Cassino and the Allies stormed across the Gustav Line, and, on 23 May, Allied forces at Anzio joined in the offensive and began to break out. On 01 June, The Germans withdrew, to the Hitler Line, but that too was penetrated, then.the Germans made a mass withdrawal to a line north of Rome, and on June 4, the first units of US troops entered the former Fascist capital. The next day, Allied forces pushed through Rome in pursuit of the Germans.
1943 US forces land on occupied Alaskan islands       ^top^
      During World War II, two US amphibious divisions landed on Attu in the Aleutian Islands, US territory occupied by the Japanese since June of 1942.
      The Aleutians, a chain of rugged, volcanic islands curving west from the tip of the Alaska Peninsula to Russia, became part of the United States in 1867 with the purchase of Alaska from Russia. With the outbreak of World War II, a US naval base was established at Dutch Harbor in the Aleutians, but on June 3, 1942, the base was devastated by a Japanese bombing raid. Three days later, Japanese landing forces captured Kiska Island and the next day, Attu Island. In the spring of 1943, US forces prepared for a counterattack from bases on Adak and Amchitka, and on May 11, stormed onto Attu Island. Japanese resistance was stiff, and the island did not fall firmly into US control until May 30. In addition to battle casualties, hundreds of Americans became very ill or died from the extreme cold encountered during the campaign. In August, after intensive US bombardments, the Japanese evacuated Kiska, and the liberation the Aleutians was complete. The reconquest of the islands secured the US northern flank in the Pacific and freed American forces to join in Allied offensives underway elsewhere in the Pacific Ocean.
1941 Londres sufre el bombardeo aéreo más duro de la II Guerra Mundial.
1940 Bermuda-bound passengers on the SS President Roosevelt watch the opening ceremonies of the New York World's Fair on the first ship-to-shore television broadcast.
1940 En Belgique le fort Eben-Emael tombe.       ^top^
     Il tombe au mains des envahisseurs nazis, tandis que l'armée hollandaise tient encore. Les forces aéroportées allemandes subissent de lourdes pertes car même si les unités hollandaises sont faibles, elles sont concentrées et non dispersées sur tout le territoire. Mais elles finissent par être submergées. Pendant ce temps, les Belges se renforcent sur la ligne Dyle.
      Ce fort commandait la jonction de la Meuse et du canal Albert, point hautement stratégique. Il était considéré comme la fortification la plus imposante (encore plus que la Ligne Maginot ou la Ligne Siegfried), et comme le meilleur obstacle anti-char d'Europe. En effet, des rives escarpées et des fortins solides avec des nids de mitrailleuses entouraient le fort lui-même. Il était défendu par 1200 hommes et devait résister aux plus grosses bombes et obus d'artillerie.
     Il est pris le 11 mai 1940 en une journée et demie par 80 soldats qui avaient atterri avec 9 planeurs sur le toit, et dont les pertes totales s'élevèrent à 6 tués et 19 blessés.
     Les Allemands avaient construits pendant l'hiver 1939-1940 une réplique du fort et des ponts du canal Albert, à Hildesheim. 400 hommes se sont entraînés avec des planeurs afin de mettre au point la meilleure tactique. Trois groupes devaient s'emparer de trois ponts (Vroenhaven, Veldwezelt, Kanne), le quatrième groupe d'Eben-Emael, afin de casser la ligne de résistance du canal Albert. Ce dernier groupe atterrit sur le sommet de la forteresse et déposa dans les tourelles blindées des charges creuses spécialement préparées, qui non seulement les mirent hors d'action, mais aussi répandirent flammes et fumée dans les chambres inférieures. Ils se servirent aussi de lance-flammes portatifs en les utilisant dans les meurtrières d'observation et de tir. En une heure, les Allemands purent pénétrer dans les galeries supérieures, rendre inutilisable les canons du grand fort et les postes d'observation. L'infanterie belge tenta une contre - attaque qui échoua à cause de l'intervention des Stukas et de renforts parachutistes. Dans la matinée du 11 mai, les unités avancées de chars qui avaient traversé les deux ponts intactes au nord arrivèrent au fort et l'encerclèrent.
     Après d'autres bombardements de Stukas et des combats en corps à corps dans les galeries souterraines, les Belges se rendirent. La route de Bruxelles était alors largement ouverte.
1931 Con el advenimiento de la II República española se produce la quema de conventos en Madrid, Málaga y Cádiz.
1929 first regularly scheduled TV broadcasts (3 nights per week)
1928 Primeras emisiones regulares de Televisión en Nueva York.
1926 Airship Norge leaves Spitsbergen for first air crossing of Arctic Ocean. — Roald Engebrecht Amundsen, Lincoln Ellsworth y Umberto Nobile consiguen sobrevolar el polo Norte con el dirigible Norge.
1925 Kara-Kalpak Autonomous Region constituted in RSFSR
1924 La izquierda vence en las elecciones legislativas de Francia a los partidos que apoyaban el Gobierno de Raymond Poincaré.
1917 Primera Guerra Mundial. Se estrella con su aeroplano el as de la aviación francesa De Rosse, destacado por su bravura y pericia.
1916 Delco and GM       ^top^
      Charles Kettering and Edward Deeds agree to sell their Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company (Delco) to the United Motors Corporation, a holding company founded by William C. Durant in his attempt to regain control of General Motors.
      Deeds and Kettering had both left the National Cash Register Company — where Kettering had invented the motor that made the electric cash register possible — in order to start Delco. Originally a research and development company, Delco began manufacturing in order to meet the demand for the self-starter that Kettering invented for Durant's Cadillac Corporation. Despite the fact that Durant had spurred on Kettering to invent the self-starter, Delco would sell self-starters to anyone who ordered them.
      After Durant regained control of GM in the spring of 1916, he moved to make certain that GM would have primary availability to Delco's parts. In a dramatic restructuring which pulled together some of GM's most vital part suppliers, Durant integrated five previously independent companies under the name of the United Motors Corporation. All of these companies would later fall under the GM name. Kettering went on to play a vital role in GM's research and development over the next two decades.
1916 Einstein's Theory of General Relativity presented
1911 Revolución en México. Firma de la paz entre los revolucionarios y el presidente Porfirio Díaz, al que sustituye León de la Barra.
1909 China y Rusia firman una convención que regula la administración de los ferrocarriles de Manchuria.
1898 Guerra de Cuba. La flota estadounidense bombardea la ciudad de Cárdenas, pero fracasa en su intento de desembarco.
1896 Erwin Rousby presenta el Animatógrafo (antecedente del cinematógrafo), aparato que muestra el visionado colectivo de las imágenes en movimiento que se proyectan sobre una pantalla.
1894 The Pullman Car strike       ^top^
      Speaking at a convention of the American Railway Union in the summer of 1894, one of the strikers from the Pullman Palace Car Company plainly summarized his reasons for walking off the job. "We struck at Pullman because we were without hope." Indeed, the Pullman company had enacted a fierce, paternalistic control over its workers, forcing them to pay exorbitant rents for space in the company town. During the Depression of 1893, the company handed out a hefty round of wage cuts; though the cuts ate up 25 to 40% of workers' take-home pay, the company refused to lower its rents. In May of 1894, a group of workers implored company chief George Pullman to redress the situation. Pullman promptly fired three of the workers. Looking to strike back at the man they viewed as an "ulcer on the body politic," the rail workers enlisted the aid of labor leader Eugene Debs and his then-mighty American Railway Union (ARU).
      With considerable organizational support from the ARU, the Pullman workers called a nationwide strike that begins on this day. Though Debs was a fierce and well-organized leader — he successfully marshaled a parallel boycott of Pullman's rail cars — Pullman, with considerable aid from his fellow rail managers, proved to be a formidable foe. The rail managers won the support of Federal and state troops, which led to a long and violent skirmish in early July. The "war" between the strikers and troops left thirty-four men dead. Desperately seeking reinforcements, Debs turned to the American Federation of Labor (AFL). But, Samuel Gompers and the other AFL leaders offered scant support, which ultimately spelled doom for the strikers. Pullman and the rail managers soon prevailed over the strikers, many of whom were subsequently barred from working in the rail industry.
1867 Jefferson Davis [03 Jun 1808 – 06 Dec 1889] is released on bail from prison where, since being captured on 10 May 1865, he was awaiting a treason trial (which never would take place: the charges would be dropped on 25 December 1868) for having been President of the Confederacy during the US Civil War.
1865 Confederate sailors blow up CSS Virginia to keep it from falling into Union hands.
1864 Confederate General J.E.B. Stuart is mortally wounded as Yellow Tavern (or Spotsylvania Courthouse) battle in Virginia continues.
1864 Battle of Yellow Tavern, Virginia on Sheridan's Richmond Raid.
1862 Confederates scuttle CSS Virginia off Norfolk, Virginia.
1860 Giuseppe Garibaldi (04 Jul 1807 – 02 Jun 1882) and his Thousand land in Marsala, Sicily, to start the conquest of the kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Sicily and Naples), in the cause of Italian unification.
1858 Minnesota becomes the 32nd US state       ^top^
      Minnesota entered the Union as the thirty-second state on this day. Known as the "Land of Ten Thousand Lakes," Minnesota is the northern terminus of the Mississippi River's traffic and the westernmost point of an inland waterway that extends through the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence Seaway to the Atlantic Ocean. The Ojibwe and the Dakota were among the Native peoples who first made this land their home and white settlement of the area began in 1820 with the establishment of Fort Snelling. In 1849, Minnesota became a US territory. The building of railroads and canals brought a land boom during the 1850s, and Minnesota’s population swelled from only 6000 in 1850 to more than 150'000 by 1857. Chiefly a land of small farmers, Minnesota supported the Union in the Civil War and supplied large quantities of wheat to the Northern armies. Originally settled by migrants of British, German, and Irish extraction, Minnesota saw a major influx of Scandinavian immigrants during the nineteenth century. Minnesota’s "Twin Cities" — Minneapolis and St. Paul — grew out of Fort Snelling, the center of early US settlement.
1824 St. Regis Seminary is opened in Florissant, Missouri. It is the first Roman Catholic institution established in America for the higher education of American Indians.
1819 Una flota española sale hacia El Callao para tratar de sofocar el movimiento de independencia que surgía en las colonias de América.
1689 Battle of Bantry Bay, French and English naval battle
1682 The General Court of Massachusetts repeals two laws which had been passed two years earlier: one forbade the keeping of Christmas, and the second mandated capital punishment for Quakers who returned to the colony after being banished.
1647 Peter Stuyvesant arrives in New Amsterdam to become governor.
1544 Sale de Sanlúcar de Barrameda la expedición de Francisco de Orellana, la primera que exploró el Amazonas.
1421 Jews are expelled from Styria, Austria
0330 Constantinople remplace Rome comme capitale de l'Empire.       ^top^
      Constantinople devient la capitale de l'empire romain, en remplacement de Rome. L'empire était devenu ingouvernable et résistait mal à la pression des Barbares. Constantin cherche un site propice à une nouvelle capitale, plus proche que Rome des frontières menacées. Il jette son dévolu sur la ville grecque de Byzance, entre l'Europe de l'Asie, et lui donne son propre nom, Constantinopolis ou Constantinople. Le choix du site est judicieux. C'est un promontoire à l'entrée du Bosphore. Ce chenal ouvre sur la mer Noire, à l'est, et sur la mer de Marmara, à l'ouest. Cette mer fermée débouche elle-même sur la mer Egée et la Méditerranée. Constantinople surplombe la mer de Marmara, le Bosphore et un estuaire étroit auquel son ancienne beauté a valu d'être appelé la Corne d'Or. Le périmètre de la future ville est d'abord délimité par un sillon tracé à la charrue. Puis des dizaines de milliers de terrassiers se mettent à l'oeuvre. L'inauguration solennelle («dédicace») est conforme aux rites païens, avec un sacrifice à la déesse de la Fortune. Mais le christianisme se généralisant dans l'empire, Constantinople est dépourvue de temples païens. Mêlant avec bonheur les cultures hellénique et latine, la ville se développe très vite et surpasse bientôt Rome. Sa population atteint un million d'habitants deux siècles plus tard, sous le règne de Justinien, le bâtisseur de la basilique Sainte Sophie. Conquise par les Turcs mille ans plus tard, Constantinople sera rebaptisée Istanbul. Istanbul (ou Istamboul) est une déformation phonétique de l'expression Is Polis qu'employaient les Grecs pour dire: «je vais à la Ville».
Deaths which occurred on a May 11:
2003 Zion David, 53, Israeli from Givat Ze'ev, as his car overturns when he wounded in the head, shot from ambush, as he was driving to work, 500 meters north of enclave settlement Ofra, West Bank.
2002 Joseph Bonanno, of heart failure, in Tucson. Born in Sicily on 18 January 1905, Bonanno was the boss of the Bonanno Mafia “family” in New York from 1931 to 1968, and was never indicted during that time, though after retiring he served prison terms for obstrucion of justice and for civil contempt of court. Together with Sergio Lalli he wrote his autobiography A Man of Honor (1983).
2001 Kifah Zorob: Jewish settlers near Khan Younis unleashed their dogs on the Palestinian boy Kifah Zorob when he was returning home from school. The fierce dogs attacked Kifah and caused him very serious injuries. Kifah's father decided to defy the siege and to take his son to hospital, the Israeli occupation soldiers prevented the father from taking his son to hospital and forced him to turn back, the school boy Kifah died of his wound after a full night of pain and agony.
2001 Hussam Tafesh, 16, of Gaza City, killed by IDF gunfire near the Karni junction.
      The shooting incident occurred after young Palestinian students hurled stones at at an Israeli Defence Forces (IDF) post some 150 meters away. IDF sources said the shooting was sparked by a large, unruly gathering of Palestinian demonstrators, the throwing of Molotov cocktails, and "a pistol pulled out by one of the rioters." Al-Shifa hospital in Gaza City reported that Tafesh was killed by live ammunition. The IDF sources attested to the use of crowd-dispersal equipment such as tear gas; and they said rubber-coated metal bullets were fired at the legs of the "rioter who pulled out the pistol."
2001: 14 Russian soldiers killed by Chechen patriots in last 24-hours. Seven were killed by two land mines that blew up an armored personnel carrier and a military truck in Grozny. Two more were killed in a shootout near Vedeno. Four were killed in 21 attacks on Russian positions. Another died when Chechens fired on a military jeep in the region of Chiri-Yurt.
1999 Angélico Melotto Mazzardo, born on 20 March 1911 in Sarego, Italy, he was entered the Franciscan order (OFM) and on 19 July 1939. He served as a missionary in China, from where he had to leave when the Communists took over. He was sent to Guatemala, where he was appointed on 27 June 1959 and ordained bishop on 19 July 1959, the first bishop of the diocese of Sololá, where he served until his retirement on 05 April 1986.
1996 All 110 on board an Atlanta-bound ValuJet DC-9 which catches fire shortly after takeoff from Miami and crashes into the Florida Everglades.
1988 Kim Philby, British spy for the USSR.       ^top^
      Kim Philby, 76, a former British Secret Intelligence Service officer and double agent for the Soviet Union, dies in Moscow. Philby was perhaps the most famous of a group of British government officials who served as Russian spies from the 1930s to the 1950s. Philby came from a privileged and respected background in British society. He attended Trinity College at Cambridge University in the early 1930s, and became progressively more attracted to radical politics. In 1934, he traveled to Vienna where he met, married, and soon divorced a young woman who was a member of the Austrian Communist Party. Philby later claimed that this was when the Soviet government recruited him to do espionage work in Great Britain.
      In 1941, Philby successfully entered the ranks of the British Secret Intelligence Service—the famed M.I.6. He quickly rose through the ranks and, in an ironic turn of events, was charged with handling the Service's double agents. During the war, he worked closely with both American and Soviet espionage agencies to coordinate activities against Hitler's Germany. After the war, he continued his ascension in the Service's bureaucracy; many believed that he was slated to become its next director. While stationed in Washington in 1951, however, he risked exposure. He learned that Donald Maclean, a colleague who was also working for the Soviets and had been stationed in Washington, was under investigation by the FBI. Philby arranged for Guy Burgess, yet another colleague who was a double agent for the Soviets, to be sent back to England from his station in Washington to warn Maclean.
      Burgess and Maclean eventually fled England and later surfaced in the Soviet Union. Philby came under heavy suspicion and, although cleared of charges, he was dismissed in 1955. In 1963, new charges arose concerning Philby and his connections with Soviet espionage. This time, Philby fled and joined Burgess and Maclean in Russia. Philby, in interviews given in Russia and his 1968 memoir, My Silent War: The Soviet Master Spy's Own Story, claimed that he turned to spying for the Soviet Union during the 1930s because he did not believe the western democracies were doing enough to stop Hitler. His loyalties to Russia and the ideals of communism did not diminish with the onset of the Cold War, however. In 1988, he died in Moscow, apparently from a heart attack. The defections of Burgess, Maclean, and Philby were immense blows to British diplomacy, intelligence, and the general public morale. The fact that these three men, products of the best and brightest of British society, could turn against their country shocked the country. The Philby defection, in particular, was one of the most scandalous events of the Cold War.
1985: 52 persons as a flash fire sweeps a jam-packed soccer stadium in Bradford, England.
1982 Peter Weiss, escritor alemán de nacionalidad sueca.
1965 Some 17'000 in Bangladesh windstorm.
1960 John D Rockefeller Jr, 86, philanthropist
1955 Nikolai Mitrofanovich Krylov, Russian mathematician born on 29 November 1879.
1930 Julio Romero de Torres, pintor español.
1927 José Victoriano González “Juan Gris”, Spanish Cubist painter and sculptor born on 23 March 1887 1927. — MORE ON GRIS AT ART “4” MAY LINKSStill Life with BookPortrait of PicassoLandscape at CeretOpen WindowThe Mountain "Le Canigou"ViolinTable with a Red ClothSiphonMusician's TableGuitar and GlassesBook of MusicBlue ClothGuitar and DishGuitar and FlowersGuitar and Fruit DishGuitar and Fruit DishGuitar and Fruit DishSideboardHouses -- ParisMan in CafeFruit Dish and BookFruit Dish and BottlePainter's WindowStill Life and Open WindowView of the BayOpen Book76 images at Webshots
1923 Henry Martyn Robert, is adjourned sine die, US Army General born on 02 May 1837; author of Robert's Rules of Order, the standard for parliamentary procedure.
1916 Karl Schwarzschild, German mathematical physicist, born on 09 October 1873. He calculated the Schwarzchild radius below which, for a given mass of a star, the escape velocity is greater than the speed of light and therefore the star has become a black hole.
1881 Henri Fréderic Amiel, escritor suizo.
1871 John Frederick William Herschel, 79, cataloguer of southern hemisphere stars, mathematician, born on 07 March 1792.
1866 Franz Xaver Petter, Austrian painter specialized in Still Life, born on 22 October 1791. — MORE ON PETTER AT ART “4” MAYAn Arrangement of Flowers with a Bird's NestAn Arrangement of Flowers with Fruit
1849 Francisco Ortega, poeta y político mexicano.
1829 Scott-Pierre-Nicolas Legrand de Lérant, French artist born on 29 March 1758.
1812 Spencer Perceval, prime minister of Britain since 1809, assassinated.       ^top^
     In London, Perceval is shot to death by demented businessman John Bellingham in the lobby of the House of Commons. Bellingham, bankrupt, enraged by his failure to obtain government compensation for war debts incurred in Russia, gives himself up immediately.
      Spencer Perceval had a profitable law practice before entering the House of Commons as a Tory in 1796. Industrious and organized, he successively held the senior cabinet posts of solicitor general and attorney general beginning in 1801. In 1807, he became chancellor of the exchequer, a post he continued to hold after becoming prime minister in 1809. As prime minister, Perceval faced a financial crisis in Britain brought on by the country’s extended involvement in the costly Napoleonic Wars. He also made political enemies through his opposition to the regency of the prince of Wales, who later became King George IV. Nevertheless, the general situation was improving when he was assassinated. His assassin, though deemed insane, was executed one week later.
Condamnés à mort par la Révolution:       ^top^
1794 (22 floréal an II):

DURIG Léodogaric, domicilié à Leymen (Haut-Rhin), par le tribunal criminel dudit département comme émigré.
GANIVET Jean, maire de Chenaux, y demeurant (Dordogne), comme séditieux, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
JOUSSIN Guillaume, ex curé de Chasseneuil, domicilié à Chasseneuil (Charente), par le tribunal criminel dudit département, comme conspirateur.
LAURENT François, apothicaire, domicilié à Landrecies (Nord), par le tribunal criminel dudit département, comme chef d'émeute contre-révolutionnaire.
BALLIN Pierre François, 25 ans, né à Laventie, époux de Lecomte Antoinette, guillotiné à Arras
LAMBERT Nicolas, 44 ans, né à St Pol, brasseur, époux de Billet Valentine, guillotiné à Arras
Domiciliés dans le département du Nord, par le tribunal révolutionnaire séant à Cambray, comme traîtres à la patrie:
LECLERCQ Françoise, femme Laurent, apothicaire, domiciliée à Landrecies, ... s'étant retirée à Harpres, alors envahi par l'ennemi.
     ... domiciliés à Daves-le-Sec:
CACHERAT André, meunier — DESVIGNES Jean Philippe, arpenteur — JACQUEMERT Boniface — LADERIERE Pierre Joseph, milquinier — LEFEVRE André Joseph, marchand.
Par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris:
SAINT-GERMAIN Joseph (dit de Villeplat), ex fermier général, 66 ans, natif de Valence (Drôme), domicilié à Fontainebleau (Seine et Marne), comme complice d’une conspiration contre le peuple Français, notamment en mêlant dans le tabac des ingrédients nuisibles à la santé des citoyens qui en faisaient usage.
     ... domiciliés à Paris:
PERICARD Marie Magdeleine, veuve Ressy, 72 ans, native de Roinville (Seine et Oise), comme convaincu d’avoir entretenu des intelligences et correspondances avec les ennemis extérieurs de la république.
LECOINTRE Paul Louis François, ex chanoine du Mans,73 ans, né à Nogent-le-Rotrou, comme conspirateur.
          ... et nés à Paris:
GOYON Geneviève Barbe, couturière, 77 ans, comme complice d'un complot tendant à fanatiser le peuple, à allumer la guerre civile, et à anéantir le gouvernement républicain.
DESMARAIS Angélique, 59 ans, ex religieuse des filles St Thomas-d'Aquin, comme conspiratrice.
DESMONCAUX (DESMOUSSEAU) Antoine Louis, 37 ans, ex vicaire de St Paul, comme conspirateur.
, ex-noble, domicilié à Vallelot, canton de Montivilliers (Seine Inférieure), comme conspirateur, par le tribunal criminel du département de la Seine Inférieure.
1780 Nicolás Fernández de Moratín, escritor español.
1778 William Pitt el Viejo, político inglés.
1769 Carlo Francesco Rusca, Swiss artist born in 1696.
1702 Antonio Gherardi, Italian artist born in 1644.
1664 Salomon de Bray, Dutch artist born in 1597.
1610 Matteo Ricci, mathematician
Births which occurred on a May 11:
2000 The One-Billionth Indian: a girl selected by India's government to represent the population of India reaching one billion.
1960 French liner France launched
1942 Go Down, Moses, by William Faulkner, is published.       ^top^
      One of William Faulkner's greatest collections of short stories, Go Down, Moses, is published. The collection included The Bear, one of his most famous stories, which had previously appeared in the Saturday Evening Post. The seven stories in Go Down, Moses all take place in the fictional county of Yoknapatawpha, Mississippi, and are based on Faulkner's observations of his own native state.
      Faulkner was born near Oxford, Mississippi, where his father was the business manager of the University of Mississippi. His mother, a sensitive, literary woman, encouraged Faulkner and his three brothers to read. Faulkner was a good student but lost interest in studies during high school. He dropped out sophomore year and took a series of odd jobs while writing poetry. In 1918, his high school girlfriend, Estelle Oldham, married another man, and Faulkner left Mississippi. He joined the British Royal Flying Corps, but World War I ended before he finished his training in Canada. He returned to Mississippi and continued writing poetry.
      A neighbor funded the publication of his first book of poems, The Marble Faun (1924). His first novel, Soldiers' Pay, was published two years later. In 1929, he finally married Estelle, his high school sweetheart, who had divorced her first children and now had two children. They bought a ruined mansion near Oxford and began restoring it while Faulkner finished The Sound and the Fury, published in October 1929. The book opens with the interior monologue of a developmentally disabled mute character. His next book, As I Lay Dying (1930), featured 59 different interior monologues. Light in August (1932) and Absalom, Absalom (1936) also challenged traditional forms of fiction.
      Faulkner's difficult novels did not earn him enough money to support his family, so he supplemented his income by selling short stories to magazines and working as a Hollywood screenwriter. He wrote two critically acclaimed films, both starring Humphrey Bogart: To Have and Have Not was based on an Ernest Hemingway novel, and The Big Sleep was based on a mystery by Raymond Chandler. Faulkner's reputation received a significant boost with the publication of The Portable Faulkner (1946), which included his many stories set in Yoknapatawpha County. Three years later, in 1949, he won the Nobel Prize for Literature. His Collected Stories (1950) won the National Book Award. Throughout the rest of his life, he lectured frequently on university campuses. He died of a heart attack at age 55.
1935 Francisco Umbral, escritor español.
1933 Louis Farrakhan leader of the “Black Islam Nation”.
1933 Emmet Judge, in Brooklyn. He would become Franciscan Father Mychal Judge, a fire department chaplain, and die at the World Trade Center, New York, in the 11 September 2001 terrorist attack.
1924 Evgeniy Borisovich Dynkin, Jewish Russian US mathematician.
1916 Camilo José Cela Trulock, escritor español.
1918 Richard Feynman, US physicist and mathematician who died on 15 February 1988. He worked on the Manhattan project to develop the nuclear fission bomb. He shared the 1965 Nobel Prize in Physics with Julian Seymour Schwinger [12 Feb 1918 – 16 Jul 1994] and Sin-Itiro Tomonoga [31 Mar 1906 – 1979]. He was famous for his unusual life style, for his lectures on mathematics and physics, and for his books which include Quantum Electrodynamics (1961), The Theory of Fundamental Processes (1961), The Feynman Lectures on Physics (3 volumes, 1963-1965), The Character of Physical Law (1965), QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter (1985).
1915 Herbert Philbrick, US counterintelligence agent for the F.B.I. who died on 16 August 1993.
1912 Sergey Nikolaevich Chernikov, Russian mathematician who died in 1987.
1904 Salvador Felipe Jacinto Dalí y Domenech, Spanish Surrealist painter and printmaker who died on 23 January 1989. MORE ON DALI AT ART “4” MAY LINKS Enid HaldornDorothy Spreckels MunnAutoportrait au_Cou_de_RaphaelAutoportrait_CubisteThe Discovery of America by Christopher ColumbusMadonna of Port LligatGeopoliticus Child Watching the Birth of the New ManEndless EnigmaChrist of Saint John of the CrossThe Vision of HellDali at Age Six, When He Thought He Was a Girl, Lifting the Skin of the Water to See the Dog Sleeping in the Shade of the SeaDali from the Back Painting Gala from the Back Eternalized by Six Virtual Corneas Provisionally Reflected by Six Real MirrorsGala and the Angelus of Millet Preceding the Imminent Arrival of Conical AnamorphosesGalacidalacidesoxiribunucleicacid {sic} (Homage to Crick and Watson)L'Enfant MaladeThe Enigma of HitlerPartial Hallucination. Six Apparitions of Lenin on a PianoSlave Market with the Disappearing Bust of VoltaireMillet's Architectural AngelusGala and the Angelus of Millet Preceding the Imminent Arrival of Conical AnamorphosesPortrait of Gala or Gala's Angelus20 prints at FAMSF
1896 Antonio Marasco, Italian artist who died in 1975.
1896 Filippo de Pisis, Italian artist who died in 1956.
1896 Mari Sandoz, Western writer.       ^top^
      Mari Sandoz, the author of several histories that demonstrated sympathy for Indians that was unusual for the time, is born in Sheridan County, Nebraska. Sandoz had a difficult childhood on a Nebraska homestead. Her father, Jules, was a bitter, tyrannical man, who took out the frustrations of homesteading on his wife and children. Unusually bright and studious, Sandoz eventually escaped to the University of Nebraska, which she attended irregularly from 1922 to 1930. She never earned her degree — though the school awarded her an honorary Doctor of Letters in 1950 — but found that she enjoyed the life of the scholar. After working as a schoolteacher for a time, she gradually devoted herself to historical research and freelance writing.
      Sandoz authored a number of novels, but today she is remembered for her meticulously researched non-fiction histories. Her 1935 biography of her father, Old Jules, is a bittersweet and moving history of homesteading on the Great Plains. Even more valuable, though, were Sandoz's histories of the Plains Indians. In 1949, she published Crazy Horse, a biography of the great Sioux warrior who participated in the 1876 defeat of George Custer at the Battle of the Little Big Horn. For decades after Little Big Horn, Crazy Horse was usually portrayed as a bloodthirsty savage who helped murder a great American hero. Sandoz's biography revealed a noble and admirable man dedicated to his people and to resisting white theft of their traditional lands.
      Sandoz's 1953 book, Cheyenne Autumn, was equally unusual for its many appealing and sympathetic portraits of Indians. Painstakingly researched, the book remains valuable to this day for its thorough treatment of Indian history and folkways. Cheyenne Autumn is a moving condemnation of the brutal war waged by the US to deprive the Cheyenne of their lands and traditional ways. The book was also the inspiration behind John Ford's 1964 movie of the same name. Cheyenne Autumn was one of the first Westerns to abandon the old racist stereotypes of the Indian as a vicious savage and emphasize the tragedy of the Indian experience. Strong willed, ambitious, and dedicated to providing an accurate history, Sandoz's work marked the beginning of a movement that greatly revised how people in the US viewed the history of western settlement. The Indians were not the villains in this great historical drama, Sandoz suggested, but the victims. Mari Sandoz died in 1966, just as many people in the US were starting to embrace her more compassionate view of the Amerindan.
1891 Henry Morgenthau Jr. , US Secretary of the Treasury (1934-45). He died on 06 February 1987.
1889 Paul Nash, English Surrealist painter who died on 11 July 1946. — MORE ON NASH AT ART “4” MAYLINKSWood on the DownsNorthern AdventureWinter SeaA Howitzer FiringNight BombardmentThe Ypres Salient at NightVoidThe Menin RoadBehind the Inn
1889 Frank Ahmann, who would die on 22 March 2000.
1887 Griffith Conrad Evans, US mathematician who died on 08 December 1973. Author of Functional equations and their applications (1918), The logarithmic potential (1927), Mathematical Introduction to economics (1930).
1881 Theodore von Kármán, Hungarian US aeronautical mathematician who died on 06 May 1963.
1868 Adolphe Weisz, French artist.
1862 Charles Warren Fairbanks, US politician; vice-president under Theodore Roosevelt (1905-09). He died on 04 June 1918.
1824 Jean-Léon Gérôme, French painter and sculptor who died on 10 January 1904. — MORE ON GÉRÔME AT ART “4” MAY LINKSAutomnePrintempsÉtéHiverGarde du PalaisGladiateursLe Marché aux TapisSlave AuctionHarem PoolDuel Après un Bal Masqué _ détailL'Éminence GriseUnfolding the Holy Flag (The Standard Bearer)Almehs playing Chess in a CaféLouis XIV and Molière Pho Xai fils d'ambassadeur SiamoisThe Grief of the PashaThe Serpent CharmerThe Virgin, the Infant Jesus, and St JohnThe Reception of the Siamese Ambassadors at FontainebleauThe Pyrrhic DanceThe Dance of the AlmehLa Mort de CésarSocrates seeking Alcibiades in the House of AspasiaPetit GarçonPolice Verso (no cops! it means “thumb down” in Latin) — Napoléon et son État-Major en ÉgypteCock FightPainting Breathes Life into Sculpture version 1 — Painting Breathes Life into Sculpture version 2 — Quaerens Quem Devoret
1823 Alfred Stevens, Belgian painter who died on 24 August 1906. MORE ON STEVENS AT ART “4” MAYLINKSLe Bain The Desperate Woman, — La TricoteusePortrait of a Woman in BlueLa Douloureuse CertitudeWhat is Called Vagrancy
1815 Richard Ansdell, British painter who died on 20 April 1885. — LINKSThe Blacksmith's ShopA Ewe with Lambs and a Heron Beside a Loch
1720 Baron Munchhausen, German teller of stories which became The Adventures of Baron Munchausen. He died on 22 February 1797.
1660 Johann-Rudolf Byss, Swiss artist who died on 11 December 1738.
Holidays Laos : Constitution Day (1947) / Minnesota : Admission Day (1858) / World : International Mother's Day
Religious Observances RC : SS Philip and James the Less, apostles / Sainte Estelle: Originaire de Saintes (Charente), Estelle est convertie par l'évêque Eutrope au IIIe siècle. Elle subit le martyre comme celui-ci. Estelle a été remise à l'honneur par le poète provençal Frédéric Mistral qui en a fait la sainte patronne de son mouvement, le Félibrige, en 1854. Les 11, 12 et 13 mai, la France connaît souvent des gelées tardives et l'on parle à cette occasion des «Saints de glace». Il s'agit des anciens saints de ces jours: Mamert, Pancrace et Servais.
Thoughts for the day: “Ignorance is the mother of superstition.” — [Ignore that thought at your own risk.]
Ignorance is the mother of bigotry.”
Ignorance is the mother of prejudice.”
“Ignorance is the mother of poverty.”
“Ignorance is the mother of panic.”
“Ignorance's home is Pandora's box.”
“Ignorans teechis hur menny chillun nevvah toot ache ‘Know’ four a ansser.” —
[hum... looks like this might need a spell check. It follows, the first alternative offered being chosen in each case.]
“Ignoramus tech hurl men ny chillum Navaho toot ache ‘Know’ four a nasser.”
“Revenge is no defense.”
“The best defense is not in offensive, the best defense is inoffensive.”
[It breaks the cycle of violence.]

updated Monday 12-May-2003 21:34 UT
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