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Events, deaths, births, of
30 MAY
[For May 30 Julian go to Gregorian date: 1583~1699: Jun 091700s: Jun 101800s: Jun 111900~2099: Jun 12]
• Mass bombing of Cologne... • Biafra... • Joan of Arc burns... • Torture~murder of teacher by former student... • Swedish police torture to death harmless man... • Rubens dies... • Mathematician Zygmund dies... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • 1er numéro de La Gazette... • Voltaire dies... • Alexander Pope dies... • Adobe president rescued from kidnappers... • Confederates evacuate Corinth... • Spacecraft leaves for Mars... • Marlowe dies... • Currency Act... • Dickinson killed in duel by Andrew Jackson... • Schroeder appears in Peanuts... • Decoration Day...
On a May 30:
2002 Elections in Algeria for 389 members of the lower house of parliament. They are boycotted and disrupted by Berbers (mostly in Kabylie) and by the two main opposition parties: Front des Forces Socialistes (FFS) and the Rassemblement pour la Culture et la Democratie (RCD).
1996 The US House of Representatives calls off a contempt-of-Congress vote after President Clinton's aides turned over 1000 pages of papers and a long-sought list of documents in the travel office firings.
1992 The UN General Assembly votes to expel the "new" Yugoslavia (Serbia+Montenegro)
1992 Adobe president rescued from kidnappers       ^top^
      Charles Geschke, president of Adobe Systems, is rescued after kidnappers held him hostage for four days. Geschke's generous philanthropy had attracted the attention of two would-be kidnappers in Silicon Valley. The two abducted Geschke at gunpoint in broad daylight, blindfolded him with duct tape, and kept him chained and handcuffed in a rented house.
      The FBI nabbed one of the kidnappers during a ransom drop and rescued Geschke on 30 May 1992. Ironically, a neighbor of Geschke's had noticed a man, who later proved to be one of the kidnappers, rifling through Geschke's mail several days earlier. She had written down the license plate number; however, not knowing Geschke was missing, she never gave the number to the police until after Geschke had been returned.
1991 The US Supreme Court rules that prosecutors can be sued for the legal advice they give police and can be forced to pay damages when that advice leads to someone's rights being violated.
1990 Dow Jones Industrial average reaches a record 2878.56
1986 Presentada oficialmente en el Vaticano la quinta Encíclica del Papa Juan Pablo II, titulada Dominum et vivificantem.
1986 Communications satellite rocket destroyed
      The European Space Agency launches a rocket carrying the Intelsat V communications satellite. The unmanned rocket, however, experiences a malfunction during launch and has to be destroyed.
      Intelsat V was one of a series of communications satellites launched by the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization, established in 1964 to govern global satellite communications links. The first Intelsat satellite, also known as Early Bird, was launched in April 1965.
1984 Jordi Pujol i Soley es reelegido presidente de la Generalitat catalana.
1982 Spain becomes 16th member of NATO.
1972 El presidente estadounidense, Richard Milhous Nixon, y las primeras autoridades rusas firman en Moscú los acuerdos SALT, sobre la limitación de armas
1971 Mariner 9 departs for Mars       ^top^
      The US unmanned space probe Mariner 9 is launched on a mission to gather extensive scientific information on Mars. The 506-kg spacecraft entered the planet’s orbit on 13 November 1971, and circled Mars twice each day for almost a year, photographing the surface and analyzing the atmosphere with infrared and ultraviolet instruments. It gathered data on the atmospheric composition, density, pressure, and temperature of Mars, and also information about the surface composition, temperature, and topography of the planet.
      When Mariner 9 first arrived, Mars was almost totally obscured by dust storms, which persisted for a month. However, after the dust cleared, Mariner 9 proceeded to reveal a very different planet — one that boasted enormous volcanoes and a gigantic canyon stretching 5000 km across its surface. The spacecraft’s cameras also recorded what appeared to be dried riverbeds, suggesting the ancient presence of water and perhaps life on the planet. The first human spacecraft to orbit a planet other than earth, Mariner 9 sent back more than 7000 pictures of the "Red Planet," and succeeded in photographing the entire planet. Mariner 9 also sent back the first close-up images of the Martian moon. Its transmission ended on 27 October 1972.
1969 Entra en vigor en Gibraltar la nueva Constitución, por la que el Gobierno británico concede un Gobierno autónomo al Peñón.
1967 Republic of Biafra proclaimed       ^top^
      After suffering through seven years of suppression under Nigeria's military government, the breakaway state of Biafra proclaims its independence from Nigeria.
      In 1966, six years after Nigeria won its independence, the Muslim Hausas in northern Nigeria began massacring the Christian Igbos in the region, prompting tens of thousands of Igbos to flee to the east, where their people were the dominant ethnic group. The Igbos doubted that Nigeria's oppressive military government would allow them to develop, or even survive, so on May 30, 1967, Lieutenant Colonel Chukwuemeka Ojukwu and other Igbo and non-Igbo representatives of the area establish the Republic of Biafra, comprising the East-Central, South-Eastern, and Rivers states of Nigeria.
      After diplomatic efforts by Nigeria failed to reunite the country, war between Nigeria and Biafra broke out in July of 1967. Ojukwu's forces made some initial advances, but Nigeria's superior military gradually reduced the territory under Biafran control. The breakaway state lost its oil fields — its main source of revenue — and without the funds to import food, at least a million of its civilians died as a result of severe malnutrition. With the exception of a few African states, the international community largely ignored the plight of the Biafran people.
      On 11 January 1970, Nigerian forces captured the provincial capital of Owerri, one of the last Biafran strongholds, and Biafran leader Ojukwu was forced to flee to the Ivory Coast. On 15 January Biafra surrendered to Nigeria.
1956 Bus boycott begins in Tallahassee Florida.
1954 El atleta checo Emil Zatopek establece la plusmarca mundial de 5000 metros, al recorrerlos en 13 minutos, 17 segundos y 2 décimas.
1951 Schroeder's first time in Peanuts

      Schroeder, who idolizes Beethoven, brought classical music to the Peanuts strip.
      Reserved and usually unruffled, Schroeder reacts only when Woodstock tries to make his grand piano into a playground, or Lucy seeks to make it her courting grounds. The latter can lead to minor violence.
1948 Syngman Rhee es nombrado presidente de la Asamblea Nacional surcoreana.
1943 American forces secure the Aleutian island of Attu from the Japanese during World War II.
1943 Charles de Gaulle s'installe à Alger.
1942 Mass bombing of Cologne       ^top^
     A thousand-plane raid on the German city of Cologne is launched by Great Britain. Almost 1500 tons of bombs rain down in 90 minutes, delivering a devastating blow to the Germans' medieval city as well as its morale.
      Air Marshal A.T. (later Sir Arthur) Harris, commander in chief of the Bomber Command, planned Operation Millennium. It was his goal to prevent significant losses of Royal Air Force bombers by concentrating air attacks in massive bomber raids, overwhelming the enemy by numbers and delivering decisive, crippling blows. Harris would need to beef up the relatively small number of 416 "first line" aircraft needed, though; to those he had to add second-line and training squadron bombers, thus creating an aircraft force of 1046. On the night of 30 May Cologne was besieged: 2.4 square kilometers of the city sustained heavy damage, 45'000 Germans were left homeless and 469 were killed. The chemical and machine tool industries, the main targets of the raid, were rendered useless.
      The cost to the British: 40 bombers, or less than 4% of the total that participated. British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, who approved the raid, telegraphed President Franklin Roosevelt the next day: “I hope you were pleased with our mass air attack … there is plenty more to come.”
1940 L'évacuation de Dunkerque, commencée le 28 May, continue; el sera terminée le 03 Jun.
1940 El Gobierno de Bélgica suspende en sus funciones al rey Leopoldo III alegando conducta anticonstitucional.
1934 The two-day Barmen Synod ended in Germany. The resulting Barmen Declaration affirmed that the German Confessing Church recognized Jesus Christ to be the only authoritative voice of God, in clear contrast to all other (i.e., Nazi) powers representing divine revelation.
1929 Los laboristas ganan las elecciones en el Reino Unido.
1926 Triunfa el pronunciamiento de Braga, encabezado por el general Francisco da Costa Gomes, que dio paso a un régimen militar en Portugal.
Canonización de la heroína francesa Juana de Arco, que había sido quemada en la hoguera en Rouen en este día de 1431.
1918 Se extiende la guerra civil por Rusia: el Gobierno de los soviets pierde el control de la mayor parte del país.
1915 Expropiación de bienes, deportación y matanza de armenios en Turquía.
1913 first Balkan War ends, Treaty of London
1913 New country of Albania, formed
1912 US Marines sent to Nicaragua
1908 Currency Act and the National Monetary Commission       ^top^
     It's a banner day for financier and conservative legislator, Senator Nelson Aldrich. First, he watches as Congress passes one of his pet projects, the Aldrich-Vreeland Currency Act. One of Aldrich's typically business-friendly bills, the Currency Act was designed as a boon to struggling banks. As such, the legislation granted banks the authority to issue currency that was pegged to commercial notes and goverment bonds.
      The day holds yet another victory for Aldrich, as President Theodore Roosevelt names the Rhode Island Republican to chair the National Monetary Commision. In doing so, Roosevelt has effectively granted the arch-conservative the right to monitor and mold the nation's finances.
1908 First US federal workmen's compensation law is approved.
1906 Inauguración del túnel del Simplón en los Alpes, que facilita la comunicación entre Italia y Suiza.
1902 Nathan Stubblefield demonstrates radio broadcasting at Fairmont Park in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Stubblefield's voice is transmitted nearly 2 km via radio waves. However, Stubblefield was secretive about his invention and did not encourage its promotion abroad.
1898 Emilio Aguinaldo [23 Mar 1869 – 06 Feb 1964] desembarca en Cavite. Con ayuda estadounidense, levanta en armas a la isla de Luzón, principio del fin de la dominación española en Filipinas.
1887 Fictional date in Looking backward from 2000 to 1887       ^top^
when the narrator falls into a long sleep, only to wake up on 10 September 2000.
      This utopian novel, published in 1888, is by Edward Bellamy, who is mostly known as it's author. The novel portrays a seemingly contradictory balance between individualism and community. Bellamy argued that his vision of the future must be implemented quickly by the nationalization of railroads, telegraphs, and similar means of movement and control. Bellamy's novel is almost a fictionization of Laurence Gronlund's The Cooperative Commonwealth (1884), and also shows influences of Ismar Thiusen's The Diothas, or A Look Far Ahead (1882) and August Bebel's Woman in the Past, Present, and Future.
     Bellamy was born 26 March 1850, in Chicopee Falls, USA, and died there on 22 May, 1898. Other books of his are Six to One (1878), The Duke of Stockbridge (1879), Dr. Heidenhoff's Process (1880), Miss Ludington's Sister: a romance of immortality (1884), Equality (1897), Other Stories (1898)
— BELLAMY ONLINE: Looking Backward: 2000-1887Looking Backward: 2000-1887 Looking Backward: 2000-1887 Looking Backward: 2000-1887
1884 Se restablece el divorcio en Francia, anulado en 1816.
1868 Decoration Day.       ^top^
first widely observed. This precursor to Memorial Day was established to honor the nation's Civil War dead by decorating their graves. On May 5, 1868, General John A. Logan of the Grand Army of the Republic, an organization of former sailors and soldiers, had declared in General Order No. 11 that:
The 30th of May, 1868, is designated for the purpose of strewing with flowers, or otherwise decorating the graves of comrades who died in defense of their country during the late rebellion, and whose bodies now lie in almost every city, village, and hamlet churchyard in the land. In this observance no form of ceremony is prescribed, but posts and comrades will in their own way arrange such fitting services and testimonials of respect as circumstances may permit.
During the first celebration of Decoration Day, General James Garfield made a speech at Arlington National Cemetery, after which 5000 participants helped to decorate the graves of the more than 20'000 Union and Confederate soldiers buried in the cemetery.
      This 1868 celebration was inspired by local observances of the day in several towns throughout America that had taken place in the three years since the Civil War. In fact, several Northern and Southern cities claim to be the birthplace of Memorial Day, including Columbus, Mississippi; Macon, Georgia; Richmond, Virginia; Boalsburg, Pennsylvania; and Carbondale, Illinois.
      In 1966, the federal government, under the direction of President Lyndon Johnson, declared Waterloo, New York, the official birthplace of Memorial Day. They chose Waterloo—which had first celebrated the day on 05 May 1866—because the town had made Memorial Day an annual, community-wide event during which businesses closed and residents decorated the graves of soldiers with flowers and flags.
      By the late 1800s, many communities across the country had begun to celebrate Memorial Day and, after World War I, observances also began to honor those who had died in all of America's wars. In 1971, Congress declared Memorial Day a national holiday to be celebrated the last Monday in May. (Veterans Day, a day set aside to honor all veterans, living and dead, is celebrated each year on 11 November.)
      Today, Memorial Day is celebrated at Arlington National Cemetery with a ceremony in which a small American flag is placed on each grave. Also, it is customary for the president or vice-president to give a speech honoring the contributions of the dead and lay a wreath at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier. About 5000 persons attend the ceremony annually.
      Several Southern states continue to set aside a special day for honoring the Confederate dead, which is usually called Confederate Memorial Day:
  • Mississippi: Last Monday in April
  • Alabama: Fourth Monday in April
  • Georgia: 26 April
  • North Carolina: 10 May
  • South Carolina: 10 May
  • Louisiana: 03 June
  • Tennessee (Confederate Decoration Day): 03 June
  • Texas (Confederate Heroes Day): 19 January
  • Virginia: Last Monday in May
    — // History Channel
  • 1863 Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana continues
    1863 Siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi continues
    1862 Confederate General Beauregard evacuates Corinth, Mississippi
    1862 Confederates evacuate Corinth, Mississippi       ^top^
          The Confederates abandon the city of Corinth. After the epic struggle at Shiloh in April 1862, the Confederate army, under the command of P.T. Beauregard, concentrated at Corinth, while the Union army, under Henry Halleck, began a slow advance from the Shiloh battlefield toward the rail center at Corinth. Halleck had no intention of taking on Beauregard's army directly; he was more concerned with controlling the railroad junction. Beauregard was in a difficult position. Halleck, the commander of Union forces in the West, had at his disposal Ulysses S. Grant's Army of the Tennessee, Don Carlos Buell's Army of the Ohio, and John Pope's Army of the Mississippi. With these forces, he had a more than two-to-one advantage over Beauregard.
          Nearly a week before the evacuation, Beauregard assessed his situation with his lieutenants. Although he considered the city to be vital to the Confederacy, he also worried that his entire command could be captured or cut to pieces if a retreat was delayed. So he crafted a clever withdrawal from Corinth: His troops deployed a number of logs painted black ("Quaker guns") along his front lines to fool the Yankees into thinking they were facing substantial artillery. Meanwhile, he had his troops cook extra rations and cheer the arrival of empty boxcars to lead the Union troops to believe the Confederates were preparing for battle and receiving reinforcements. On the night of 29 May Beauregard began slipping his forces out of Corinth. On 30 May the remainder of the army left the city and burned any remaining supplies. Halleck's men entered a deserted Corinth later that day. Although an important city had been forfeited to the Union army, Beauregard's army remained intact and, with it, Confederate hopes in the West. 1861 Union troops occupy Grafton, Virginia 1864 Confederates attack at Bethesda Church, Virginia
    1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act repealed Missouri Compromise opens north slavery
    1854 Territories of Kansas and Nebraska created by the Kansas-Nebraska Act
    1831 Se fija Caracas como capital de Venezuela.
    1822 House slave betrays Denmark Vesey conspiracy (37 blacks hanged)
    1814 first Treaty of Paris, after Napoleon's first abdication
    1814 Fernando VII decreta la expulsión de España de los afrancesados.
    1808 Guerra de la Independencia española: La Coruña se levanta en armas contra los franceses.
    1793 LAHUPROYE Pierre, négociant, 48 ans, né et domicilié à Troyes (Aube), est condamné à la déportation, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme contre-révolutionnaire.
    1793 LEMUET Nicolas Pierre (dit Mauroye), négociant, 48 ans, né et domicilié à Troyes (Aube), est condamné à la déportation, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme convaincu de s'être prêté à favoriser les manœuvres et intelligences entretenues par le nommé Lahuproye avec les émigrés.
    1791 En France, Robespierre propose à l'assemblée nationale de mettre fin à la peine de mort. Le législateur doit respecter la dignité humaine. Son discours ne sera que partiellement entendu et la loi autorise encore la peine de mort pour les chefs de partis décrétés rebelles par le corps législatif.
    1631 Traité de Munich entre la France et l'électeur de Bavière.
    1588 Sale de Lisboa la española Armada Invencible, que fue vencida por los ingleses y por "los elementos", según Felipe II.
    1539 Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto lands in Florida.
    1516 El cardenal Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros proclama en Madrid rey de España al príncipe Carlos, futuro emperador de Alemania.
    1498 Cristóbal Colón parte de San Lúcar de Barrameda para realizar su tercer viaje a América.
    1108 Las tropas cristianas de Alfonso VI de León son derrotadas en la batalla de Uclés por los almorávides de Granada, Valencia y Murcia.
    Deaths which occurred on a May 30:       ^top^
    2002: 25 Berber nomads, massacred by Islamic insurgents during the night of 29 to 30 May, in their tents in the village of Sendjas, Chlef province, Algeria. A two-month-old is among the dead, 21 of which had their throat cut, two were set on fire, and two shot.
    1997 Jonathan Levin, 31, tortured and murdered by former student       ^top^
          Jonathan Levin, a popular English teacher, is stabbed and shot to death in his Upper West Side apartment in New York City. The son of Time Warner chairman Gerald Levin, Jonathan was known by many to be wealthy. When he did not show up for work, investigators searched his apartment and found his lifeless body bound to a chair with duct tape. Levin's bankcard was missing from his wallet, and $800 had been removed from his account around the time that he was killed.
          Police learned from Levin's answering machine tape that Corey Arthur, a former student in Levin's remedial English class at William H. Taft High School in the Bronx, called Levin on May 30 to arrange a meeting. Apparently, Arthur and his accomplice, Montoun Hart, tortured Levin with a kitchen knife in order to get him to tell them his debit card code. They turned on the vacuum cleaner and stereo to cover up his screams.
          Arthur, arrested a week after the murders, first claimed that he had been at Levin's apartment for a drug deal when two other men came in and killed him. However, his story lost its credibility at trial when his fingerprints were found on the duct tape. Even still, he denied being the one who pulled the trigger of the fatal shot. Arthur was found guilty of second-degree murder and received 25 years to life in prison. Hart, despite his 13-page signed confession, was acquitted after convincing jurors that the confession had been coerced out of him when he was drunk.
    1995 Osmo Vallo, 41, tortured and killed by Swedish police       ^top^
          At about 23:00 local time on 30 May 1995, police were called to investigate a disturbance. Calls for help had been heard by inhabitants of apartment blocks on Basungatan in the area of Kronoparken, in Karlstad, Sweden. According to a reconstruction of the events based on several eye- witness statements, Osmo Vallo, reportedly drunk and under the influence of drugs, was approached by two police officers. One eye-witness stated that she had heard Osmo Vallo ask the police officers, "Why are you doing this to me? Can I see your identification badge please?".
          At least two eye-witnesses say that Osmo Vallo was then kicked in the back by one of the police officers. Eye-witnesses stated that Osmo Vallo's behavior prior to being kicked had not been threatening or violent in any way. Eye-witnesses stated that, after Osmo Vallo was kicked, he started walking towards 48 Basungatan. A police dog, which up until then had been kept on a leash, was set onto Osmo Vallo by the police. The police dog bit Osmo Vallo repeatedly on his arms. Osmo Vallo managed to fend the dog off and reached the entrance of 48 Basungatan. After gaining access to the entrance hall of the apartment block, Osmo Vallo started screaming for help, knocking on doors and ringing doorbells. It would appear that the police officers, who had followed him into the entrance hall, let the dog attack Osmo Vallo again.
          Up until the time Osmo Vallo reached the entrance of 48 Basungatan, 12 persons had witnessed what was going on from their windows. Following the commotion in the entrance hall, some of them came out of their apartments and stood on the landing immediately above the entrance hall. From there, eight people saw Osmo Vallo lying on his stomach with his hands cuffed behind his back. Some of them also reported that Osmo Vallo seemed to be having difficulty in breathing. An eye-witness reported that one of the police officers kept pushing his foot into Osmo Vallo's left side and shoulder while verbally abusing him and telling him to get up. Osmo Vallo, however, remained motionless on the floor.
          According to several eye-witnesses, the same police officer then stomped his foot onto the middle of Osmo Vallo's back. As a result, at least three eye-witnesses heard a noise as if something inside Osmo Vallo's upper body had cracked. In addition, one eye-witness reported that he saw a police officer kick Osmo Vallo in the head. Several eye-witnesses have stated that they were asked by the police to keep quiet about what they had seen.
          Eye-witness accounts maintained that the two police officers dragged the seemingly unconscious Osmo Vallo — still handcuffed and face down — by lifting him by his wrists and then laid him motionless, still face down, on the grass outside the apartment block. The police officers realized that he was not breathing and called an ambulance. According to eye- witnesses, the police officers made no attempt to resuscitate him. Instead, they laid Osmo Vallo on the back seat of their car — still handcuffed and face down — and took him to hospital where, despite resuscitation attempts, he was officially pronounced dead at 00.20 on 31 May 1995.
         Five years later no one had been held accountable for Vallo's death and Amnesty International once more called attention to the apparent cover-up by Swedish authorities.
    1994 Juan Carlos Onetti, escritor uruguayo.
    1992 Karl Carstens, ex presidente de la RFA.
    Zygmund1992 Antoni Zygmund, 91, in Chicago       ^top^
         Mathematician Zygmund worked in analysis, in particular in harmonic analysis. He created one of the strongest analysis schools of the 20th Century.
         Born 19001225 in Warsaw (then in the Russian Empire), Zygmund obtained his Ph.D. from the University of Warsaw in 1923 for a dissertation written under Aleksander Rajchman's supervision. From 1922 to 1929 he taught at the Polytechnic School of Warsaw. After a year in England he took up a post at the university of Vilnius, Lithuania. He held this post until he was drafted into the Polish army at the start of the Second World War.
          In 1940 Zygmund escaped with his wife and son from German controlled Poland to the USA. After a number of posts he was appointed to the University of Chicago in 1947 and remained there until he retired in 1980. John Canu took one or more of his courses in 1948-1950.
          Zygmund was to create at Chicago a major analysis research centre. In 1986 he received the National Medal for Science for his building this research school. He supervised over 80 research students in his years at Chicago.
          Zygmund's book Trigonometric Series (1935) is a classic that, together with later editions, is still the definitive work on the subject. Other major works include Analytic functions in 1938 and Measure and integral in 1977.
          His work in harmonic analysis has application in the theory of waves and vibrations. He also did major work in Fourier analysis and its application to partial differential equations.
    1990 José Solís Ruiz, político español.
    1989 Claude Pepper, of stomach cancer. He was born on 08 September 1900. From Florida. Democrat US Senator (1936-1950), US Representative (1963-1989), advocate for the elderly. Autobiography Pepper: Eyewitness to a Century (1987)
    1981 Ziaur Rahmen presidente of Bangladesh, assassinated in a failed secessionist military coup led by general Manzur.
    1961 Rafael Leónidas Trujillo Molina, dictador dominicano.
    1960 Boris Leonidovich Pasternak, born on 10 February 1890. Russian poet and novelist, he was awarded the 1958 Nobel Prize for Literature for Doctor Zhivago. In the novel, Yuri Zhivago is the son of a rich pre-Revolutionary Russian Industrialist. An excellent physician, he studies philosophy and literature, and develops ideas of his own — his main aim being to preserve his own spiritual independence. He welcomes the Russian Revolution, enjoying its dream of universal justice. But when the Communists start telling him how to live and how to think, he rebels. He leaves Moscow for a tiny village beyond the Urals, where the main romantic theme of the novel develops. His loved one is exiled to Manchuria by the Soviet Government, and he returns to Moscow, a broken man, to die in the street of a heart attack. [Pasternak obituary in the NY Times]
    1937 Ten strikers killed by police near the Republic Steel plant in South Chicago..
    1926 Vladimir Andreevich Steklov, Russian mathematician born on 09 Jan 1864.
    1911 Arturo Faldi, Italian artist born on 27 July 1856.
    1888 Abraham Louis Buvelot, Swiss Australian painter, lithographer, and photographer, active in Brazil and Australia, born on 03 March 1814.MORE ON BUVELOT AT ART “4” MAYLINKSThe PoolAt LilydaleMan with horse and cart — Summer afternoon, Templestowe
    1883 12 persons trampled when a rumor that the recently opened Brooklyn Bridge is in imminent danger of collapsing causes a stampede.
    1855 Johann Baptist Pflug von Biberach, German artist born on 13 February 1785.
    1835 Adrian Meulemans, Dutch artist born on 24 August 1766.
    1806 Charles Dickinson, shot in duel by Andrew Jackson       ^top^
          In Logan County, Kentucky, future president Andrew Jackson participates in his first recorded duel, killing Charles Dickinson, a lawyer who was known as one of the best pistol shots in the area. The proud and volatile Jackson, a former senator and representative of Tennessee, called for the duel after his wife Rachel was slandered as a bigamist by Dickinson, who was referring to a legal error in the divorce from her first husband in 1791.
          Jackson met his foe at Harrison’s Mills on Red River in Logan, Kentucky on May 30, 1806. In accordance with dueling custom, the two stood twenty-four feet apart with pistols pointed downwards. After the signal, Dickinson fired first, grazing Jackson’s breastbone and breaking some of his ribs. However, Jackson, a former Tennessee militia leader, maintained his stance and fired back, fatally wounding his opponent. It was the first of several recorded duels Jackson was said to have participated in during his lifetime, the majority of which were called in defense of his wife's honor. In 1829, Rachel died, and Jackson was elected the seventh president of the United States.
    Condamnés à mort par la Révolution: ^top^
    1795 (11 prairial an III):
    Domiciliés à Paris, par la conseil militaire séant à Paris:
    CHAUVEL Jean Louis, serrurier, convaincu d'avoir porté au bout de sa bayonnette la tête du représentant Ferraud le 3 prairial an 3.
    CHEBRIER Nicolas Etienne, membre du comité révolutionnaire de la section de l'Arsenal, comme convaincu d'avoir harangué dans la tribune de la Convention pendant la révolte des 3 et 4 prairial.
    DUVAL Pierre François, cordonnier, comme convaincu d'avoir lu une pétition liberticide dan la convention, et pris part à la révolte des 3 et 4 prairial.
    1794 (11 prairial an II):
    ANDROUET Servais, prêtre réfractaire, domicilié à la Nouée, canton de Josselin (Morbihan), comme réfractaire à la loi, par le tribunal criminel du département des Côtes du Nord..
    PALANGIÉ François, prêtre, domicilié à St Geniès (Aveyron), comme contre-révolutionnaire, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
    VASSEUR François Alexis, graveur, domicilié à Colmar (Haut-Rhin), par le tribunal criminel dudit département comme espion, et distributeur de faux assignats.
    DELESTRE Charles Philippe, 52 ans, né à Bucquoy, arpenteur, veuf de Couppe Marie Anne Joseph, à Arras
    DRAPIER Philippe Joseph, 51 ans, marchand de bois, né et domeurant à Havrincourt, époux de Dobigny Agnès, guillotiné à Arras
    Par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris:
    FERUYANT Louis Jacques, ex trésorier de France, 37 ans, né et domicilié à la Motte-Teney (Deux-Sèvres), comme convaincu d’avoir abusé de son autorité de président du comité révolutionnaire de la Mothe-sur-Seine, ayant fait faire des dénonciations vagues et calomnieuses dont il a été le rédacteur, contre un citoyen de l’avoir fait incarcérer, en l’arrachant à sa famille et à ses fonctions.
    MORET Louis Julien, ex curé, 46 ans, né à Arcy-sur-Aube, domicilié à Premier-Fait, même département, comme complice de manœuvres pratiquées dans la commune de Premier-Fait, tendantes à armer les citoyens les uns contre les autres, et à rétablir la royauté.
    PUT Jean, marchand forain, 24 ans, né et domicilié à Aurillac (Cantal), comme s’étant soustrait à l’exécution de la loi de la réquisition, ayant été trouvé muni d’une cocarde blanche, et comme espion des despotes coalisés contre la France.
          ... comme conspirateurs:
    BEGU Louis César, 44 ans, né à Tours, ci-devant huissier, chef du premier battaillon du département d'Indre et Loire, domicilié à Toursp
    COMPIN Nicolas Marie, 64 ans, cultivateur, agent national, né et domicilié à Maltate (Saône et Loire).
    GUIBORA Jean Antoine, journalier vigneron, 24 ans, soldat du 11ème régiment d'hussards, né et domicilié à St Gemme (Marne).
    JOUSSINEAU Jean, (dit Delatour-donnois), ex noble, colonel à la suite de la cavalerie, ci-devant capitaine des carabiniers, 64 ans, né à St Wist (Corrèze), domicilié à Rodde (Puy-de-Dôme).
    LACORDRE Nicolas (dit Montpausin), ex subdélégué et juge, 65 ans, né à Mont-sur-Siom, à St Pourçain (Allier).
    LACROIX Claude, cultivateur, domicilié à Chaourse (Aube).
    LEVAL Auguste François César, ex noble, capitaine en second des grenadiers des gardes françaises, 29 ans, né et domicilié à Clermont-Ferrand (Puy-de-Dôme).
    MORILLON Pierre (dit Dubellai), marchand de draps en soie, 78 ans, né et domicilié à Poitiers (Vienne).
    BOURASSEAU René, officier municipal, domicilié à Girouard, canton des Sables (Vendée), comme chef des brigand de la Vendée, par la commission militaire séante aux Sables.
    1778 François-Marie Arouet “Voltaire”, French philosopher, historian, poet, dramatist, and novelist.
          Voltaire was born on 21 November 1694, in Paris to a treasury officer and his wife. Voltaire studied law but abandoned it to become a writer. He won success with his plays — mostly classical tragedies at first. He also wrote histories and epic poetry. His writing brought him some measure of success, and his wise investments made him wealthy in his mid-30s. However, his epic poem La Henriade, a satirical attack on politics and religion, infuriated the government and landed Voltaire in the Bastille for nearly a year in 1717. Voltaire's time in prison failed to quench his satire. In 1726, he again displeased authorities and fled to England. He returned several years later and continued to write plays. In 1734, his Lettres philosophiques criticized established religions and political institutions, and he was forced to flee once more. He retreated to the region of Champagne, where he lived with his mistress and patroness, Madame du Châtelet. In 1750, he moved to Berlin on the invitation of Frederick II of Prussia and later settled in Switzerland, where he wrote his best-known work, Candide. He died in Paris, having returned to supervise the production of one of his plays.
  • Candide
  • L'homme aux quarante écus
  • Lettres philosophiques
  • Micromégas
  • Le monde comme il va
  • La Pucelle d'Orléans (1762)
  • In English translations:
  • Candide
  • Candide (in English and French)
  • Letters on England
  • Philosophical Dictionary (selected entries)
  • 1770 François Boucher, French Rococo painter, engraver, and designer, born on 29 September 1703. MORE ON BOUCHER AT ART “4” MAYLINKS Virgin and Child Pensent-ils au Raisin? Companions of Diana — Bacchantes — Virgin and Child — Music — Vertumnus and Pomona — Christ and John the Baptist as Children — Un Polisson
    1744 Alexander Pope.      ^top^
         Born on 21 May 1688, he was a poet and satirist of the English Augustan period, best known for his poems An Essay on Criticism (1711), The The Rape of the Lock (1712–14), The Dunciad (1728), and An Essay on Man (1733–34). He is one of the most quotable of all English authors.
    POPE ONLINE: An Essay on CriticismAn Essay on CriticismAn Essay on ManAn Essay on Man, Moral Essays and SatiresThe Rape of the LockThe Rape of the LockWindsor-Forest
    The Universal Prayer
            FATHER of all! in every age, 
            In every clime adored,
            By saint, by savage, and by sage, 
            Jehovah, Jove, or Lord!
    Thou great First Cause, least understood, Who all my sense confined To know but this, that thou art good, And that myself am blind; Yet gave me, in this dark estate, To see the good from ill; And, binding nature fast in fate, Left free the human will: What conscience dictates to be done, Or warns me not to do, This, teach me more than hell to shun, That, more than heaven pursue. What blessings thy free bounty gives Let me not cast away; For God is paid when man receives, To enjoy is to obey.
            Yet not to earth's contracted span 
            Thy goodness let me bound,
            Or think thee Lord alone of man,
            When thousand worlds are round:
    Let not this weak, unknowing hand Presume thy bolts to throw, And deal damnation round the land On each I judge thy foe. If I am right, thy grace impart Still in the right to stay; If I am wrong, 0, teach my heart To find that hetter way! Save me alike from foolish pride And impious discontent At aught thy wisdom has denied, Or aught thy goodness lent
             Teach me to feel another's woe, 
            To hide the fault I see;
            That mercy I to others show, 
            That mercy show to me.
    Mean though I am, not wholly so, Since quickened by thy breath; 0, lead me wheresoe'er I go, Through this day's life or death! This day he bread and peace my lot: All else heneath the sun, Thou know'st if best bestowed or not, And let thy will be done. To thee, whose temple is all space, Whose altar, earth, sea, skies, One chorus let all Being raise, All Nature's incense rise!
    click for self-portrait1640 Pieter Pauwel Rubens, great Flemish Baroque era painter born on 28 June 1577.
    [click for 1639 self-portrait >]
    MORE ON RUBENS AT ART “4” MAYLINKS Double Portrait in a Honeysuckle BowerRender to Cesar the Tribute _ detail 1: Head of Christ (and that of an old man) detail 2: 4 Faces at leftdetail 3: 2 Faces in centerDescent from the CrossPortrait of a Young Man Cimon and PeroEntombmentSara Breyll, wife of Rogier ClarisseRogier ClarisseThe Tribute MoneyCrocodile and Hippopotamus HuntThe Equestrian Portrait of the Duke of LermaPortrait of Marchesa Brigida Spinola DoriaElevation of the Cross The Union of Earth and WaterCastor and Pollux Abduct the Daughters of LeukypposThe Battle of the AmazonsPerseus and AndromedaBathsheba at the FountainThe Fur Cloak (Helene Fourment)The Three GracesRubens, His Wife Helena Fourment, and Their Son Peter PaulThe Adoration by the Magi _ detailThe Meeting of Abraham and MelchizedekThe Landing of Marie de' Médici at MarseillesMassacre of the InnocentsThe DepositionVirgin and ChildBoy with BirdMars and Rhea Silvia _ detailThe Death of SenecaGaspard SchoppinsThe Emperor Charles VLeda and the Swan
    1593 Christopher Marlowe, 29, dramatist, stabbed.      ^top^
         Poet and playwright Christopher Marlowe, born on 6 February 1564 (two months before Shakespeare), was baptized in Canterbury on 26 February. Marlowe, the son of a Canterbury shoemaker, was a bright student. He won scholarships to prestigious schools and earned his B.A. from Cambridge in 1584. Historians believe Marlowe served as a spy for Queen Elizabeth while at Cambridge. He was nearly denied his master's degree in 1587, until the queen's advisers intervened, recommending he receive the degree and referring obliquely to his services for the state.
          While still in school, Marlowe wrote his play Tamburlaine the Great, about a 14th century shepherd who became an emperor. The blank verse drama caught on with the public, and Marlowe wrote five more plays before his death in 1593, including The Jew of Malta and Doctor Faustus. He also published a translation of Ovid's Elegies.
          On 15 May 1593, Marlowe's former roommate, playwright Thomas Kyd, was arrested and tortured on suspicion of treason. Told that heretical documents had been found in his room, Kyd wrote a letter saying the documents belonged to Christopher Marlowe. An arrest warrant was issued on 18 May, and Marlowe was arrested on 20 May. He bailed out but became involved in a fight over a tavern bill and is stabbed to death on 30 May 1593.
         Kyd was baptized on 06 November 1568. He was educated at the Merchant Taylor's School in London and raised to be a scrivener, a professional trained to draw up contracts and other business documents. Of his early work, The Spanish Tragedie (1562, it is sometimes called Hieronimo, after its protagonist)) brought him the most recognition. Some scholars believe it served as a model for Shakespeare's Hamlet. Kyd died penniless in December 1594.
  • Complete Works
  • The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus
  • The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus
  • The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus
  • Tamburlaine the Great—part I  —  part II
  • Tamburlaine the Great—part 1part 2
  • The Jew of Malta
  • The Jew of Malta
  • The Jew of Malta
  • The Jew of Malta
  • The Massacre at Paris
  • The Massacre at Paris
  • Dido, Queen of Carthage
  • Edward II
  • Hero and Leander
  • Doctor Faustus
    translator of:
  • Ovid's Elegies
  • click to enlarge1431 Joan of Arc, burned at the stake.       ^top^
          At Rouen in English-controlled Normandy, Joan of Arc, 19,
    peasant girl, Catholic mystic, and French liberation heroine, is burned at the stake following her convictions for witchcraft and heresy.
          On 24 May 1430, while leading a military expedition against the foreign occupiers of France, Joan had been captured by the Burgundians at Compiègne and later sold to the English.
          Early in life, Joan had begun to hear "voices" of Catholic saints. Shortly after she turned sixteen, these voices told her to aid Charles in regaining the French throne and expelling the English from France. A captain in the French army arranged a meeting with Charles, and the dauphin, convinced of the validity of Joan's divine mission, furnished her with a small force of troops.
          Wearing white armor, Joan led her troops to Orleans, and on 29 April 1429, as a French sortie distracted the English troops on the west side of the city, Joan entered unopposed by its eastern gate. Bringing needed supplies and troops into the besieged city, she also inspired the French to a passionate resistance, and during the next week, she led the charge during a number of skirmishes and battles. On 07 May, she was even hit by an arrow, but after dressing her wounds, she returned to the battle. On 08 May, the siege of Orleans was broken after six months and the English retreated.
          Over the next five weeks, Joan led French forces into a number of stunning victories over the English, and, in July, Reims, the traditional city of coronation, was captured. On 16 July 1429, with Joan of Arc kneeling beside him, Charles VII was crowned king of France.
          In 1920, Joan of Arc, already one of the great heroes of French history, was recognized as a Christian saint by the Roman Catholic Church.
          . Joan was born in 1412, the daughter of a tenant farmer at Domrémy, on the borders of the duchies of Bar and Lorraine. In 1415, the Hundred Years War between England and France entered a crucial phase when the young King Henry V of England invaded France and won a series of decisive victories against the forces of King Charles VI. By the time of Henry's death in August 1422, the English and their French-Burgundian allies controlled Aquitaine and most of northern France, including Paris. Charles VI, long incapacitated, died one month later, and his son, Charles, regent from 1418, prepared to take the throne. However, Reims, the traditional city of French coronation, was held by the Anglo-Burgundians, and the Dauphin (heir apparent to the French throne) remained uncrowned. Meanwhile, King Henry VI of England, the infant son of Henry V and Catherine of Valois, the daughter of Charles VI, was proclaimed king of France by the English. Joan's village of Domrémy lay on the frontier between the France of the Dauphin and that of the Anglo-Burgundians. In the midst of this unstable environment, Joan began hearing "voices" of three Christian saints — St. Michael, St. Catherine, and St. Margaret. When she was about 16, these voices exhorted her to aid the Dauphin in capturing Reims and therefore the French throne.
          In May 1428, she traveled to Vaucouleurs, a stronghold of the Dauphin, and told the captain of the garrison of her visions. Disbelieving the young peasant girl, he sent her home. In January 1429, she returned, and the captain, impressed by her piety and determination, agreed to allow her passage to the Dauphin at Chinon. Dressed in men's clothes and accompanied by six soldiers, she reached the Dauphin's castle at Chinon in February 1429 and was granted an audience. Charles hid himself among his courtiers, but Joan immediately picked him out and informed him of her divine mission. For several weeks, Charles had Joan questioned by theologians at Poitiers, who concluded that, given his desperate straits, the Dauphin would be well-advised to make use of this strange and charismatic girl. Charles furnished her with a small army, and on 27 April 1429, she set out for Orléans, besieged by the English since October 1428.
          On 29 April 1429, as a French sortie distracted the English troops on the west side of Orléans, Joan entered unopposed by its eastern gate. She brought greatly needed supplies and reinforcements and inspired the French to a passionate resistance. She personally led the charge in several battles and on May 7 was struck by an arrow. After quickly dressing her wound, she returned to the fight, and the French won the day. On 08 May the English retreated from Orléans. During the next five weeks, Joan and the French commanders led the French into a string of stunning victories over the English. On 16 July, the royal army reached Reims, which opened its gates to Joan and the Dauphin. The next day, Charles VII was crowned king of France, with Joan standing nearby holding up her standard: an image of Christ in judgment. After the ceremony, she knelt before Charles, joyously calling him king for the first time. On 08 September, the king and Joan attacked Paris. During the battle, Joan carried her standard up to the earthworks and called on the Parisians to surrender the city to the king of France. She was wounded but continued to rally the king's troops until Charles ordered an end to the unsuccessful siege. That year, she led several more small campaigns, capturing the town of Saint-Pierre-le-Moûtier. In December, Charles ennobled Joan, her parents, and her brothers.
          In May 1430, the Burgundians laid siege to Compiègne, and Joan stole into the town under the cover of darkness to aid in its defense. On 23 May, while leading a sortie against the Burgundians, she was captured. The Burgundians sold her to the English, and in March 1431 she went on trial before ecclesiastical authorities in Rouen on charges of heresy. Her most serious crime, according to the tribunal, was her rejection of church authority in favor of direct inspiration from God. After refusing to submit to the church, her sentence was read on 24 May: She was to be turned over to secular authorities and executed. Reacting with horror to the pronouncement, Joan agreed to recant and was condemned instead to perpetual imprisonment. Ordered to put on women's clothes, she obeyed, but a few days later the judges went to her cell and found her dressed again in male attire. Questioned, she told them that St. Catherine and St. Margaret had reproached her for giving in to the church against their will. She was found to be a relapsed heretic and on 29 May ordered handed over to secular officials. On 30 May, Joan, 19 years old, was burned at the stake at the Place du Vieux-Marché in Rouen. Before the pyre was lit, she instructed a priest to hold high a crucifix for her to see and to shout out prayers loud enough to be heard above the roar of the flames. As a source of military inspiration, Joan of Arc helped turn the Hundred Years War firmly in France's favor. By 1453, Charles VII had reconquered all of France except for Calais, which the English relinquished in 1558. In 1920, Joan of Arc, one of the great heroes of French history, was recognized as a Christian saint by the Roman Catholic Church. Her feast day is 30 May.

          Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc by the Sieur Louis de Conté (her page and secretary), freely translated out of the ancient French into modern English by Mark Twain. ( Chapter 3-24: Joan the Martyr)
    PAINTINGS OF JOAN OF ARC: Jeanne d'Arc Écoute Ses VoixJeanne d'Arc au Sacre de Charles VII Dans la Cathédrale de ReimsJeanne d'Arc Brandit Son ÉpéeMaud Adams as Joan of ArcJoan of Arc InspiredJeanne d'Arc en Prison
    1416 Jerome of Prague burned as a heretic by the Church
    0339 Eusebius, 74, Father of early church history. He attended the Council of Nicea in A.D. 325, and his "Historia Ecclesiastica" contains an abundance of detail on the first three centuries of the Early Church found nowhere else in ancient literature.
    Births which occurred on a May 30:       ^top^
    1943 Narcís Serra i Serra, político socialista español.
    1937 Armando Valladares, escritor estadounidense de origen cubano.
    1930 Robert Ryman, US painter and printmaker, who adds almost no value to a blank canvas or paper. — LINKSmore.
    1930 Juan Genovés, Spanish painter. MORE ON GENOVÉS AT ART “4” MAY Señales InternacionalesIda y Vuelta — Desconcierto — El Monumento — Sistema de Vigilancia — Sin títuloCuatro fases en torno a una prohibición
    1920 Antoni Maria Badía i Margarit, filólogo, profesor y académico español.
    1919 René Barrientos Ortuño, político y militar boliviano.
    1916 Dr. Joseph W Kennedy scientist (1 of 4 discoverers of plutonium)
    1912 Julius Axelrod, neuroquímico e investigador estadounidense, P. Nobel de Medicina en 1970.
    1904 Ernesto de la Guardia Jr President of Panama  (1956-60)
    1901 Cornelia Otis Skinner writer (When Our Hearts Were Young and Gay)
    1889 The brassiere is invented
    1888 James A Farley postmaster general (1932-38).
    1887 Alexander Archipenko, Ukrainian Cubist sculptor and painter who originated a new style in which the representation of the human figure was subordinated to the formal composition of voids and solids. He died on 25 February 1964. — LINKSmore.
    1879 Vanessa Bell, English painter who died on 07 April 1961. MORE ON BELL AT ART “4” MAYLINKS View of the Pond at CharlestonFrederick and Jessie Etchells PaintingStudland BeachStill Life on Corner of a MantelpieceAbstract PaintingHelen DudleyMrs St John Hutchinson — The Tub — ChrysanthemumsInterior with a Table
    1848 Rudolf Ribalz, Austrian artist who died on 12 November 1904.
    1848 The Johnson Patent-Ice cream freezer, is patented by William Young, who bought for $200 the rights of Nancy Johnson who invented it in 1846 and patented it in 1847. This William Young is not to be confused with mathematician William Henry Young [20 Oct 1863 – 07 Jul 1942].
    9-point circle1847 Alice Sophia Stopford Green Ireland, proponent of Irish independence
    1846 Peter Carl Fabergé‚ Russia, goldsmith/jeweler/egg maker
    1845 Amadeo de Saboya, Rey de España durante tres años.
    1835 Alfred Austin, Leeds England, poet laureate (not very good) of England. He died on 02 June 1913. Author of: Alfred the Great (1901) — At the Gate of the Convent (1885) — The Conversion of Winckelmann (1897) — The Door of Humility (1906) — The Golden Age (1871) — In Veronica's Garden (1895) — Interludes (1872) — Lamia's Winter-Quarters (1898) — Leszko the Bastard (1877) — Love's widowhood (1889) — Lyrical Poems (1891) — Narrative Poems (1891) — Prince Lucifer (1887) — Sacred and profane love (1908) — Savonarola (1881) — The Season (1869) — Soliloquies in Song (1882) — Songs of England (1900) — A Tale of True Love (1902) — The Tower of Babel (1874) — Victoria (1897) — The human tragedy (1891) —(Brief samples: 6 sonnetsLove's Trinity)
    1814 Eugène Charles Catalan, Belgian mathematician who died on 14 February 1894. He defined the numbers called after him, while considering the solution of the problem of dissecting a polygon into triangles by means of non-intersecting diagonals, which had already been solved by Segner [09 Oct 1704 – 05 Oct 1777] but not as elegantly as by Catalan.
    1800 Karl Feuerbach, geometer who died on 12 March 1834. In 1822 he discovered the nine point circle of a triangle, unaware that it had been discovered long before and it had been proved by Brianchon [19 Dec 1683 – 29 Apr 1864] and Poncelet [01 Jul 1788 – 22 Dec 1867] in Recherches sur la détermination d'une hyperbole équilatère, au moyen de quatres conditions donnée (1820). The 9-point circle is sometimes incorrectly called Euler circle. The 9 points are the midpoints of the sides of the triangle, and, on the perpendiculars from the vertices of the triangle to the opposite sides, their feet and the midpoints between their common intersection (the orthocenter) and the vertices. 4 additional points are those where the 9-point circle is tangent to the circles tangent to the three sides of the triangle. The 9-point circle has additional, more arcane, properties.
    1757 Henry Addington Viscount Sidmouth (C), British PM (1801-04)
    1672 Peter I (the Great) tsar of Russia (1682-1725)
    1631 La Gazette, hebdomadaire, premier numéro.       ^top^
          Sous le règne de Louis XIII, sort le premier numéro de La Gazette. Cette feuille hebdomadaire paraissant le samedi tire son nom d'une monnaie (gazetta) qui équivalait à Venise au prix d'un journal. Un autre journal, joliment intitulé Nouvelles ordinaires de divers endroits, circule depuis quelques mois déjà à Paris, à l'imitation des périodiques qui fleurissent dans les pays germaniques. Les Nouvelles sont l'oeuvre de deux libraires parisiens, Jean Martin et Louis Vendosme.
          A la différence de ces pionniers, le fondateur de La Gazette, Théophraste Renaudot (45 ans), bénéficie du soutien de Richelieu. Le cardinal, qui dirige le Conseil du roi, a permis à ce médecin de Loudun d'ouvrir à Paris un bureau d'assistance aux pauvres avant de l'aider à fonder son journal. La Gazette reçoit un privilège d'exploitation qui lui permet d'absorber son concurrent. Son succès va grandissant avec un tirage qui atteint bientôt... 800 exemplaires. Le journal compte quatre à douze pages selon les semaines. Il s'agit de communiqués officiels et de nouvelles de l'étranger. Richelieu et le roi Louis XIII lui confient des articles où ils expliquent leur politique étrangère, notamment leur alliance avec les protestants allemands dans la Guerre de Trente Ans.
          En 1762, le journal est cédé par les descendants du fondateur au ministre Choiseul qui le rebaptise La Gazette de France et lui donne un caractère ouvertement gouvernemental. Il disparaîtra dans l'indifférence pendant la première guerre mondiale.
    1623 Wallerant Vaillant, Flemish artist who died on 02 September 1677. — MORE ON VAILLANT AT ART “4” MAYLINKS Self~portrait — a different Self~portrait (or portrait of the artist's brother Andv. Vaillant) — Portrait of a Boy with a FalconBoy Seated in a Studio, a Plaster Cast of the Christ Child after Michelangelo in Front of Him
    1423 Georg Peurbach, Austrian astronomer and mathematician who died on 08 April 1461. Author of Tabulae Ecclipsium — Theoriae Novae Planetarum (Ptolemy's epicycle theory of the planets) — Algorismus.
    Holidays Channel Is, England, N Ireland, Wales : Spring Holiday / Guam, Puerto Rico, US, US Virgin Islands : Memorial Day / Lincoln City, Indiana : Nancy Hanks Lincoln Memorial Day / US : The REAL Memorial Day (Decoration Day) (1868)

    Religious Observances RC : St Felix I, pope [268-73], martyr / RC : St Ferdinand III, Spanish king/patron of engineers / Santos Fernando, rey de España; Anastasio y Basilio; santa Juana de Arco. / RC : St Jeanne d'Arc, Maid of Orleans, patroness of France / Saint Ferdinand: Ferdinand III monte sur le trône de Castille en 1217, pendant le grand siècle chrétien du Moyen Age. Poursuivant la «Reconquista», il chasse les musulmans de Séville et Cordoue. Il fonde l'Université de Salamanque et fait du castillan la langue officielle du royaume. Saint Ferdinand est pour les Espagnols l'équivalent de Saint Louis pour les Français. Les deux rois sont nés à quelques années d'écart.

    Thoughts for the day: “To save one life is better than to build a seven-story pagoda.” [especially when the life you save is your own] [but it is not likely to last as long] [yes, but you don't need a building permit]
    “To build a one-story pagoda is better than to save the lives of seven cockroaches.” [I thought you were going to say "seven lawyers"]
    “To tell seven stories about one pagoda is better than to tell one story about seven pagodas.” [as a substitute for sleeping pills?]
    “To save the life of one bettor is risky where betting encurs the death penalty.”
    “To save the life of a bettor about to jump from a seven story pagoda, is easier said than done.”
    “To save the life of one's better about to jump from a seven story pagoda, is more sad than dumb.”
    “Whether to save one life or to build a seven story pagoda, is not an alternative you have to face every day.”
    “It is impossible to enjoy idling thoroughly unless one has plenty of work to do.” —
    Jerome K. Jerome, English author and humorist (1859-1927).

    updated Friday 30-May-2003 17:14 UT
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