<< Oct 31|        HISTORY “4” “2”DAY          |Nov 02 >>
Events, deaths, births, of 01 NOV
[For Nov 01 Julian go to Gregorian date: 1582~1699: Nov 111700s: Nov 121800s: Nov 131900~2099: Nov 14]
Shevardnadze on 03 Oct 2001On a November 01:
2001 In Tbilisi, Georgia, President Eduard Shevardnadze [03 Oct 2001 photo >] dismisses his entire Cabinet, but does not resign with them, as is being demanded by demonstrators outside the parliament, in the wake of a 30 October 2001 raid in which 30 security agents tried to search the independent Rustavi 2 television station's offices, acting on a warrant that said it had evaded taxes, and were denied entry by the company director.
2000 Yugoslavia's new democratic government joined the United Nations after eight years of U.N. ostracism under former strongman Slobodan Milosevic.
1999 Russia controls flow of refugees out of Chechnya (CNN)
1998 Regular digital TV broadcasts begin
      Broadcasters in the nation's ten largest markets officially begin broadcasting digital signals. A few stations had broadcast individual digital TV shows earlier in the year, but November 1 marked the date that the National Broadcasting Association and the Federal Communications Commission had chosen as the deadline for regular digital TV transmission. However, at the time, few people had purchased a high-definition television set capable of receiving the digital signal.
1997 It is discovered that 2^2'976'221 – 1 is a Mersenne prime (the 36th) (Mersenne prime numbers are primes of the form 2^n – 1, which requires n to be prime; and it is equivalent to [2^(n–1)]×(2^n – 1) being equal to the sum of its factors other than itself, i.e. a “perfect number”). . They can all be found (with their date of discovery) at http://www.isthe.com/chongo/tech/math/prime/mersenne.html.
1997 James Cox, cirujano estadounidense, realiza una operación de corazón con un quíntuple bypass que supone un importante avance en cirugía.
1996 Republican presidential hopeful Bob Dole accused President Clinton of taking foreign money in his bid for re-election.
1996 Michigan euthanasia advocate Dr. Jack Kevorkian is released on bond, promising not to assist in any more suicides.
1993 European Union established
      The Maastricht Treaty comes into effect, formally establishing the European Union (EU). The treaty was drafted in 1991 by delegates from the European Community meeting at Maastricht in the Netherlands and signed in 1992. The agreement called for a strengthened European parliament, the creation of a central European bank, and common foreign and security policies. The treaty also laid the groundwork for the establishment of a single European currency, to be known as the "euro." By 1993, 12 nations had ratified the Maastricht Treaty on European Union: Great Britain, France, Germany, the Irish Republic, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Greece, Denmark, Luxembourg, Belgium, and the Netherlands. Austria, Finland, and Sweden became members of the EU in 1995. After suffering through centuries of bloody conflict, the nations of Western Europe were finally united in the spirit of economic cooperation.
—      Entra en vigor el Mercado Único Europeo por el Tratado de Maastricht y, en consecuencia, la libre circulación de trabajadores y capitales por la Unión Europea.
1993 the Columbia completed a 14-day flight, the longest mission in US space-shuttle history.
1991 the Russian Congress of People's Deputies granted Boris Yeltsin sweeping powers to launch and direct radical economic reforms in Russia.
1991 El líder del Movimiento por la Democracia y el Multipartidismo, Frederick Chiluba, se convierte en el nuevo presidente de Zambia.
1991 Clarence Thomas took his place as the newest justice on the Supreme Court.
1991 The opening session of the Middle East peace conference recessed in Madrid, Spain.
1990 Last of Margaret Thatcher's original cabinet resigns, Deputy PM Sir Geoffrey Howe
1990 Iraq announced it would permit hostages' families to visit during the Christmas season, but the offer was condemned by the West as cynical. — Rhetoric escalates as Bush likens Saddam to Hitler
1990 McDonald's, under pressure from environmental groups, said it would replace plastic food containers with paper.
1989 East Germany reopened its border with Czechoslovakia, prompting tens of thousands of refugees to flee to the West.
1989 Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega carried out his threat to suspend a government cease-fire with the Contra rebels.
1989 Scandinavian Airlines System bans smoking on many flights
1986 Reagan and Gorbachev meet in Reykjavik
      Following up on their successful November 1985 summit meeting in Geneva, President Ronald Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev meet in Reykjavik, Iceland, to continue discussions about curbing their intermediate missile arsenals in Europe. Just when it appeared that agreement might be reached, the talks fell apart amid accusations and recriminations, and US-Soviet relations took a giant step backwards.
      The sticking point arose when Gorbachev requested that the talks concerning the missiles be expanded to include limitations on America's Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). Referred to as the "Star Wars" initiative by opponents, SDI was one of Reagan's pet projects. A multi-billion-dollar program, SDI was supposed to use space technology to provide a "shield" from nuclear attacks. Not surprisingly, Reagan refused to consider Gorbachev's suggestion, and the talks ended the next day, October 12, with no agreement in hand. Reagan charged the Soviet leader with bad faith in trying to expand the parameters of the talks; back in the Soviet Union, Gorbachev reported that Reagan seemed to be lying about his desire for serious negotiations concerning arms limitations. Talks on the missile issue did not resume until December 1987, when the two leaders met for a third summit in Washington, and Gorbachev dropped his insistence on including SDI in the negotiations.
1986 A warehouse fire in Basel, Switzerland, triggered massive chemical pollution of the Rhine River in Switzerland, France, West Germany and the Netherlands.
1984 La UNESCO declara "patrimonio cultural mundial" los siguientes monumentos españoles: la mezquita de Córdoba, la Alhambra y el Generalife de Granada, la catedral de Burgos, el monasterio de El Escorial y el parque Güell de Barcelona.
1981 Antigua & Barbuda gains independence from Britain (National Day)
1981 US First Class Mail raised from 18 to 20 cents for the first ounce.
1979 US Federal government made $1.5 billion loan to Chrysler
1979 Tanker Burmah Agate off Galveston Bay, Texas, spills 10.7 m gallons of oil, in US's worst oil spill disaster
1976 Gilbert Islands (Kiribati) obtains internal self-government from Britain.
1973 Following the "Saturday Night Massacre," Acting Attorney General Robert H. Bork appointed Leon Jaworski to be the new Watergate special prosecutor, succeeding Archibald Cox. .
1969 ARPANET machine installed at UC Santa Barbara
      Bolt, Beranek and Newman (BBN), a small consulting firm in Cambridge, Massachusetts, delivered an Interface Message Processor (IMP) to the University of California at Santa Barbara on this day in 1969. The IMP connected UCSB to UCLA, the Stanford Research Institute, and the University of Utah, forming the first links in the fledgling ARPANET, precursor to the Internet. ARPANET, conceived by the Pentagon's Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), was designed to provide a communications network that did not depend on a single hub to transmit messages. ARPANET evolved into the Internet in the early 1970s, when Dr. Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn were commissioned by the federal government to extend the network for military, government, and academic use.
1968 President Lyndon B. Johnson calls a halt to bombing in Vietnam, hoping this will lead to progress at the Paris peace talks
1966 Indian Haryana state created from Punjab; Chandigarh territory created
1966 El Vietcong bombardea Saigón (actual Ciudad Ho Chi Minh) con fuego de morteros.
1964 El muro de Berlín se abre para permitir el libre tránsito de personas mayores de 65 años.
1963 Revolt against the Diem regime in South Vietnam
1962 Greece enters the European Common Market
1962 La URSS lanza la primera nave espacial con destino a Marte.
1961 Violentos combates enfrentan al ejército regular y al Vietcong durante la Guerra de Vietnam.
1961 Kennedy meets with National Security Council on Vietnam
      At a meeting of the National Security Council, President John F. Kennedy is asked by his advisers to accept "as our real and ultimate objective the defeat of the Vietcong." The Joint Chiefs of Staff estimated that 40'000 US soldiers could clean up "the Vietcong threat" and another 120'000 could cope with possible North Vietnamese or Chinese Communist intervention. Kennedy wanted to prevent the fall of South Vietnam to the Communist insurgents, but decided to send General Maxwell Taylor to Vietnam to study the situation. Ultimately, Kennedy would send advisers, helicopters, and other military support to South Vietnam to aid President Ngo Dinh Diem in his fight against the Viet Cong.
1960 Benelux treaty goes into effect
1959 El líder del Movimiento Nacional Congoleño, Patrice Emery Lumumba, es detenido por fuerzas del Ejército colonial belga
1956 Delhi becomes a territory of the Indian union
1956 Indian state of Madhya Pradesh formed
1956 Indian states of Punjab, Patiala & PEPSU merge as Punjab protection
1956 Nagy government of Hungary withdraws from Warsaw Pact
1954 Algeria begins rebellion against French rule
     Les indépendantistes du Front de Libération Nationale algérien, le FLN, lancent leurs premières opérations violentes contre la présence française en Algérie. Quelques mois plus tôt, les Français se sont retirés piteusement d'Indochine et la [[!!bad link!!>>] victoire du Vietminh a encouragé les Algériens à se lancer à leur tour dans la lutte armée. Une dizaine d'attentats ont lieu dans le pays. Parmi les premières victimes figure un couple de jeunes instituteurs venus de la métropole pour instruire les enfants du bled. Ils sont extraits d'un autocar et fusillés. Guy Monnerot succombe mais sa femme survivra à ses blessures. Les attentats de ce jour ont peu de retentissement dans l'opinion française. Ils n'en marquent pas moins l'[[!!bad link!!>>] échec définitif des tentatives d'intégration des musulmans algériens dans la République française.
      L'Algérie explose dans une série d'attentats qui se produisent sur l'ensemble de son territoire . Ils sont les premiers signes du soulèvement armé d'une partie minoritaire de la population maghrébine, qui veut obtenir l'indépendance. Le ministre français de l'Intérieur, François Mitterrand déclare : "L'Algérie, c'est la France." Il ajoute : "Entre la population algérienne et la métropole, il n'est pas de sécession concevable... Jamais la France, jamais aucun parlement, jamais aucun gouvernement ne cédera sur ce principe fondamental."
1954 Viet Minh takes control of North Vietnam.
      The Viet Minh formally take over Hanoi and control of North Vietnam. The Vietnam Doc Lap Dong Minh (Vietnam Independence League), or Viet Minh as it would become known to the world, was a Communist front organization founded by Ho Chi Minh in 1941 to organize resistance against French colonial rule and occupying Japanese forces.
      With the end of the Japanese occupation in 1945, the French attempted to reimpose colonial rule. The Viet Minh launched a long and bloody guerrilla war against French colonial forces in what came to be known as the First Indochina War. Ultimately, the Viet Minh, under the leadership of General Vo Nguyen Giap, decisively defeated the French at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu in May 1954. On August 1, the armistice ending the war went into effect. The triumphant Viet Minh marched into Hanoi as the French prepared to withdraw their forces.
      Under the provisions of the agreement signed at the Geneva Conference in July, Vietnam was to be temporarily split into approximately equal halves. The two halves were to be separated by a Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) running along the 17th parallel. The northern half was to be governed by the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, which had been proclaimed by Ho Chi Minh, and the southern half would be governed by the noncommunist State of Vietnam until 1956, at which time the two zones were to be reunified following internationally supervised elections.
      Ngo Dinh Diem, who had become premier of the State of Vietnam in June, was a Catholic and staunchly anticommunist. Diem disliked the Geneva Accords and set about to consolidate his power in the south. By the middle of 1955, Diem had effectively gained control of most of South Vietnam, and in July of that year, he declared his refusal to permit the elections called for at Geneva. This announcement led to a stepped-up insurgency in the south and ultimately to the Second Indochina War, when North Vietnamese regular units were committed in the south and US forces arrived. Vietnam was not reunited until April 1975, when North Vietnamese troops captured Saigon.
1954 India takes over administration of 4 French Indian settlements.
1954 Algeria begins its rebellion against French rule.
1954 Elecciones para la presidencia en la república de Cuba; el general Batista se presenta como candidato único.
1954 El V congreso del PCE (Partido Comunista de España) se pronuncia por un frente nacional antifranquista. .
1953 Emil Zatopek logra una nueva plusmarca mundial en los 10'000 metros con un crono de 29 minutos y un segundo. [¿Es zapoteca, o lo contranio?]
1952 Egipto protesta contra el pacto de normalización suscrito por la RFA e Israel.
1952 First nuclear fusion device exploded, by the US, at Eniwetok Atoll in the Marshall Islands.—      Científicos estadounidenses hacen explotar la primera bomba de hidrógeno en el atolón de Enitewok, en el Pacífico.
1951 1st atomic explosion witnessed by troops, NM.
1950 Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán gana las elecciones celebradas en Guatemala.
1947 UN trusteeship for Nauru granted to Australia, NZ & UK
1946 West German state of Niedersachsen formed
1943 US Marines invade Bougainville, the largest of the Solomon Islands. The attack, called Operation Goodtime, was part of a larger Allied plan (Operation Cartwheel) to wipe out Rabaul, the mammoth Japanese base on the eastern end of New Britain Island. Bougainville was 200 miles away from Rabaul, close enough to provide fighter escorts for Rabaul-bound bombers. When the 1st Marine Amphibious Corps, commanded by General Alexander A. Vandegrifft, landed on Bougainville's western coast, they faced heavy Japanese artillery. Resistance dwindled quickly, though, and by nightfall about 14,000 Marines and 6,200 tons of supplies were ashore. The next night, after a day of wading through swamps, US Marines faced Japanese counter-invaders from the then-vacant beachhead. The 475 Japanese soldiers were completely wiped out. Among the participants in Operation Goodtime was a young John Fitzgerald Kennedy. Lieutenant Kennedy commanded a PT boat sent in to rescue members of a Marine patrol trapped on a Bougainville river bank. Lieutenant Orville Freeman, Kennedy's future secretary of agriculture, was also wounded in a Bougainville battle.
1942 Se libran durísimos combates en Stalingrad, donde la resistencia rusa impedirá la conquista alemana de la ciudad.
1940 En plein Périgord noir, des enfants suivent leur chien dans une faille de rocher. Ils découvrent les grottes préhistoriques du site de Lascaux.
1940 Ataque aéreo italiano sobre Salónica.
1939 1st animal conceived by artificial insemination (rabbit) displayed
1936 Il Duce calls Italy-Germany alliance "the Rome-Berlin Axis"
     During a speech in Milan, Italy, Benito Mussolini, the leader of Fascist Italy, describes the new alliance between Nazi Germany and his country as an "axis" running between Berlin and Rome [hoping that the world would revolve around it?]. One week before, Count Ciano had signed with Germany a treaty of general coordination on foreign policy. In 1939, in the last few months preceding the outbreak of full-scale war in Europe, the Axis was reinforced by a new military alliance between Germany and Italy, known as the "Pact of Steel." In 1940, Japan, which had signed a cooperative pact with Italy and Germany in late 1936, strengthened its participation in the Axis alliance with the signing of the Tripartite Pact in Berlin. From thereon, the expression "Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis" gained currency in both Allied and Axis nations.
1933 Adolf Hitler, tras ganar las elecciones, disuelve el Reichstag.
1932 Wernher von Braun named head of German liquid-fuel rocket program
1928 Graf Zeppelin sets airship distance record of 6384 km
1926 Benito Mussolini sale ileso de un atentado en Roma.
1923 Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company buys the rights to manufacture Zeppelin dirigibles.
1922 The Ottoman Empire is abolished, Turkey became a republic.— Golpe de Estado en Turquía dirigido por Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, con lo que termina el Imperio otomano. El sultán Mehmed VI es condenado al exilio.
1917 Court Martial1918 The Hapsburg monarchy's Austria-Hungary empire is dissolved. Vienna becomes the capital of Austria and Budapest the capital of Hungary.
1917 Court martial begins for 64 members of the US 24th Infantry for the 23 August 1917 murder of 17 persons and mutiny, in Houston, Texas [photo >]
1917 El emperador Guillermo II nombra canciller del Reich y primer ministro de Prusia al conde bávaro Georg Friedrich graf von Hertling [31 Aug 1843 – 04 Jan 1919]. — [and, led in fact by its military, the German empire went hurtling on to its destruction...]
1914 Paul von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg es nombrado alto comandante en jefe del frente oriental.
1914 La escuadra alemana de Maximilian graf von Spee hunde dos cruceros británicos frente a las costas chilenas.
1912 Battle of Lulé Burgas enters its fifth day, as Bulgarians try to overcome stiff Turkish resistance, subjecting the Turkish infantry to murderous artillery barrages. In two more days the Turks would be in full retreat toward the lines of Tchataldja, the last line of defense before Constantinople 30 km to the south.
1912 Grecia ocupa Samotracia, incorporándola a su territorio.
1911 Italian planes perform the first aerial bombing on Tanguira oasis in Libya.
1911 La Duma rusa acuerda, con sólo dos votos en contra, ilegalizar la censura de prensa.
1906 The Nobel Medicine Prize is announced for Camillo Golgi and Santiago Ramón y Cajal “in recognition of their work on the anatomy of the nervous system.” They are the first to share a Nobel Prize. — El médico español Santiago Ramón y Cajal obtiene el premio Nobel de Medicina, compartido con Camillo Golgi. — MORE
1900 El papa León XIII publica la encíclica De Redemptore.
1894 Vaccine for diphtheria announced by Dr. Roux of Paris
1893 Supporters of the gold standard (rather than silver) win a key victory: Congress voted to repeal the three year-old Sherman Silver Purchase Act. During its brief time in the law books, the Sherman Act helped to generate $155.9 million in Treasury notes.
1871 The NYSE seeks to seal stop information leaks by forbidding members from "dealing with" non-members in the "rooms of the Exchange." The punishment for this infraction was a suspension lasting anywhere from sixty days to one year.
1870 US Weather Bureau begins operations (24 locations)
1869 Louis Riel seizes Fort Garry, Winnipeg, during the Red River Rebellion.
1861 Lincoln replaces Union generalissimo.         ^top^
     Brevet Lieutenant General Winfield Scott, 50 year-veteran and leader of the US Army at the onset of the Civil War, retires. General George McClellan is appointed general-in-chief of the Union armies.
      President Lincoln names George Brinton McClellan general in chief of the Union armies, replacing the aged and infirm Winfield Scott. In just six months, McClellan had gone from commander of the Ohio volunteers to the head of the Union army.
      McClellan's prewar career presaged his meteoric rise to the ranking Union general in the first year of the war. The Pennsylvania native graduated from West Point second in his class in 1846. He served with distinction under General Winfield Scott in the Mexican-American War. McClellan left his successful military career in 1857 for an engineering position with the Illinois Central Railroad, and by the time the war broke out in 1861 he was president of the St. Louis, Missouri, and Cincinnati Railroad. He resigned to accept command of the Ohio volunteers with the rank of major general. During the summer of 1861, McClellan lead Union troops in a series of small battles in western Virginia that resulted in Federal control of the strategic region, and he earned a national reputation-though it is debatable just how much McClellan contributed to the achievements; in several cases, decisions by his subordinates were the main reason for the success.
      Nonetheless, he provided Northern victories when they were in scarce supply. On July 16, the US House of Representatives passed a resolution recognizing his accomplishments in Virginia. Just five days later, the main Union force, commanded by General Irwin McDowell, suffered an ignominious defeat at the First Battle of Bull Run. In the aftermath of the debacle, many turned to McClellan to save the war effort. McClellan arrived in Washington on July 26 to take command of the disorganized and demoralized Army of the Potomac. He quickly began to build a magnificent fighting force, establishing a rigorous training procedure and an efficient command structure. He also demonstrated brashness, pomposity, and arrogance for many of the nation's political leaders. He loudly complained about Scott, and he treated the president with utter contempt.
      Still, he was the only real choice to replace Scott. No other Union general had achieved much of anything to that point in the war. After alienating much of the administration by early 1862, McClellan moved the Army of the Potomac to the James Peninsula for an attack on Richmond. As a field commander, he proved to be sluggish and timid, and he retreated from the outskirts of the Confederate capital when faced with a series of attacks by General Robert E. Lee during the Seven Days' battles in June. In July, Henry W. Halleck was named general in chief, and much of McClellan's Army of the Potomac was transferred to General John Pope's Army of Virginia. After Pope was defeated at Second Bull Run in August, much of McClellan's command was restored to him. Lee invaded Virginia, and McClellan defeated him at the Battle of Antietam in September. Despite this victoriy, his refusal to pursue the retreating Confederates led to his permanent removal in November 1862. In 1864, he challenged Lincoln for the presidency as the Democratic nominee but lost decisively.
1834 1st published reference to poker (as Mississippi riverboat game)
1827 El Gobierno mexicano, ante la negativa de Fernando VII a reconocer su independencia, decreta la expulsión de los españoles por temor al colaboracionismo.
1814 Le Congrès de Vienne est ouvert officiellement, mais les rapports secrets et les intrigues n'en cessent pas pour autant. Depuis plusieurs semaines les diplomates ont entamé leurs conversations. Talleyrand a réussi a imposer sa présence pour représenter la France; Metternich est là pour l'Autriche, Nesselrode pour la Russie, Castlereagh pour l'Angleterre, pour la Prusse enfin Humboldt et Hardenberg. Ceux qui furent des alliés s'entre-déchirent. Parmi les problèmes, le sort de la Pologne, celui de la Saxe, celui des Etats italiens...
1808 El barón Clemens August von Hulshoff Droste funda la primera cooperativa alemana para el cuidado de los enfermos.
1806 Napoléon decreta el bloqueo continental contra Inglaterra.
1784 Maryland grants citizenship to Lafayette & his descendants
1776 Mission San Juan Capistrano founded in California
1765 British Parliament enacts the Stamp Act
      In the face of widespread opposition in the American colonies, Parliament enacts the Stamp Act, a taxation measure to raise revenue for a standing British army in America. The controversial act forces colonists to buy a British stamp for every official document that they obtain. The stamp itself displays an image of a Tudor rose framed by the word "America" and the motto Honi soit qui mal y pense. The colonists, who had convened the Stamp Act Congress the month before to vocalize their opposition to the impending enactment, greet the arrival of the stamps with outrage and violence. Most colonists call for a boycott of British goods and some organize attacks on the customhouses and homes of tax collectors. After four months of organized protests, and an appeal by Benjamin Franklin before the British House of Commons, Parliament would vote to repeal the Stamp Act in a major victory for the colonists.
     Defense of the American colonies in the French and Indian War (1754-63) and Pontiac's Rebellion (1763-64) were costly affairs for Great Britain, and Prime Minister George Grenville hoped to recover some of these costs by taxing the colonists. In 1764, the Sugar Act was enacted, putting a high duty on refined sugar. Although resented, the Sugar Act tax was hidden in the cost of import duties, and most colonists accepted it. The Stamp Act, however, was a direct tax on the colonists and led to an uproar in America over an issue that was to be a major cause of the Revolution: taxation without representation. Passed without debate by Parliament in March 1765, the Stamp Act was designed to force colonists to use special stamped paper in the printing of newspapers, pamphlets, almanacs, and playing cards, and to have a stamp embossed on all commercial and legal papers.
      The stamp itself displayed an image of a Tudor rose framed by the word "America" and the Latin phrase Honi soit qui mal y pense — "Shame to him who thinks evil of it." Outrage was immediate. Massachusetts politician Samuel Adams organized the secret Sons of Liberty organization to plan protests against the measure, and the Virginia legislature and other colonial assemblies passed resolutions opposing the act. In October, nine colonies sent representatives to New York to attend a Stamp Act Congress, where resolutions of "rights and grievances" were framed and sent to Parliament and King George III. Despite this opposition, the Stamp Act was enacted on November 1, 1765. The colonists greeted the arrival of the stamps with violence and economic retaliation. A general boycott of British goods began, and the Sons of Liberty staged attacks on the customhouses and homes of tax collectors in Boston. After months of protest and economic turmoil, and an appeal by Benjamin Franklin before the British House of Commons, Parliament voted to repeal the Stamp Act in March 1766. However, the same day, Parliament passed the Declaratory Acts, asserting that the British government had free and total legislative power over the colonies. Parliament would again attempt to force unpopular taxation measures on the American colonies in the late 1760s, leading to a steady deterioration in British-American relations that culminated in the outbreak of the American Revolution in 1775.
1628 Le roi entre à La Rochelle après le siège.
      En ce jour de la Toussaint, Louis XIII fait son entrée dans une ville ruinée et dépeuplée par la famine. Il est accueilli par le cardinal de Richelieu, entré trois jours plus tôt, il est en compagnie de l'archevêque de Bordeaux. Le roi a tenu à interdire le pillage accompagnant d'ordinaire la prise d'une ville longtemps assiégée. Un des Rochelais catholiques désappointés, s'exclame : "Sire, ne soyez point courtois. A ces rebelles Rochelais point de pardon : il faut tout pendre ! Vous m'avez donné la maison d'un parpaillot. S'il faut la rendre, je serai sot comme un oison."
      La Rochelle figurait parmi les places fortes concédées aux protestants par l'Edit de Nantes, 30 ans plus tôt. A la faveur des troubles consécutifs à la minorité de Louis XIII, les habitants de la ville eurent l'imprudence de se soulever contre le roi. Les Anglais en profitèrent pour débarquer sur l'île de Ré. Le siège de la ville, commandé par le cardinal de Richelieu, dura plus d'un an. Après sa victoire, le roi accorda aux rebelles la paix d'Alès. Il confirma le régime de la tolérance religieuse mais réduisit les privilèges militaires accordés aux protestants. Les protestants étaient encore trop influents dans le royaume pour que l'on put [[!!bad link!!>>] révoquer le trop généreux édit de Nantes mais beaucoup de catholiques y pensaient déjà.
1611 Shakespeare's romantic comedy "The Tempest" 1st presented
1604 William Shakespeare's tragedy "Othello" 1st presented
1414 Un concile s'ouvre à Constance, sur les bords du lac du même nom, à l'initiative de l'empereur d'Allemagne. Il va mettre fin au Grand Schisme d'Occident qui dure déjà depuis un demi-siècle et voit papes et antipapes s'entredéchirer au grand dam des croyants. — Se inicia el Concilio de Constanza, en el que se pone fin al llamado Cisma de Occidente.
1210 King John of England begins imprisoning Jews
0451 The Council of Chalcedon (located in modern Turkey) is adjourned. It began on 08 October. Its 17 sessions were attended by over 500 bishops — more than participated in any other ancient Church council. — It was the fourth and largest of the early general councils and repudiated the notion that Christ has one nature, not two.
Deaths which occurred on a November 01:
2003 Isaac Madrid, 24, not wearing a seat belt while driving his pickup truck past a red light and crashing into a passenger car which hits a rock wall and flips over without injury to its two occupants, at 23:45 (Nov 02 06:45 UT) at the intersection of Escondido and Resler in El Paso, Texas.
2003 Two US soldiers driving separate civilian cars in Mosul, Iraq, by one roadside bomb. The US soldier passenger in each car is badly injured.
2003:: 24 persons as luxury bus falls off a moutain road curve 60 meters into a gorge near Pasarni Ghat, three km from Wai, in the Satara district of Maharashtra state, India, at 23:50. This is near the hill resort Mahabaleshwar, 150 km southeast of Mumbai. 30 persons are injured. Most of the passengers were tourists from Gujarat state, headed for the pilgrim town of Alandi near Pune.
2002 At least 49 prisoners of the more than 1300 in the Sidi Moussa jail (built in 1994 for 1000), in El Jadida, Morocco, in fire which starts at 01:30. Some 90 prisoners and two guards are injured.
2002 Christopher Jenkins, 21, is never seen alive again (except possibly by secretive criminals) after shortly after midnight when, drunk, dressed as an Amerindian, he leaves alone, not being allowed to stay at a Halloween party at the Lone Tree Grill at 6th & Hennepin in downtown Minneapolis (near I-94). He was a senior and co-captain and goalie of the lacrosse team at the University of Minnesota.
2001 Hyunjung Cindy Song, 21, is never seen alive again (except possibly by secretive criminals) after a friend drops her off shortly at 03:45 at her apartment at 349 W. Clinton Avenue, Ferguson Township, Pennsylvania, after a Halloween party at Players Nite Club where she was dressed as a rabbit. She was a South Korean, a computer graphics student at the University of Pennsylvania.
2001 Juan Bosch, 92, at about 03:00, from respiratory failure, in the hospital where he was since 28 September after an August 2001 lung operation. He had won the first democratic presidential election of the Dominican Republic in December 1962 after the assassination of dictator Rafael Trujillo. He was ousted in 1963 by soldiers who accused him of being a communist. In 1965, leftist soldiers led an uprising demanding Bosch be restored. US President Lyndon Johnson, fearing a Cuban-style revolution, sent in 20'000 Marines to oppose them. US troops occupied Santo Domingo for several months until a provisional government was formed. Bosch never regained power, but helped found two of the country's three main political parties. He also wrote more than 40 books.
2000: 48 personas al estallar un avión ruso de la compañía privada Ancargo en Angola, atentado atribuido al grupo guerrillero UNITA.
1993 Severo Ochoa, who received the 1959 Nobel Medicine prize, jointly with Arthur Kornberg, “for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid” — Severo Ochoa, bioquímico español, Premio Nobel en 1959. — MORE
1994 Carol Neulander, 52, in her suburban Philadelphia home, by her husband, rabbi Fred Neulander, 53, who, after a first trial ending in a hung jury in December 2001, would, in a second trial, be convicted on 20 November 2002 of paying $30'000 to private investigator Len Jenoff and to his roommate Paul Daniels, to commit the murder, and sentenced, not to death as he could have been by a unanimous jury, but to 30 years to life in prison, with no possibility of parole for 30 years (by which time he would be 91).
1987 René Lévesque, 65, Québec premier (1976-85)
1984: Some 2000 innocent Sikhs, killed in revenge riots after Indira Gandhi assassination.
      The previous day, Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi wass shot to death by Sikh members of her own security guard while walking in the garden of her New Delhi home. Indira Gandhi, who was the only child of Jawahaelrl Nehru, the first prime minister of the Republic of India, became a national political figure in 1955 when she was elected to the executive body of the Congress party. In 1959 she served as president of the party, and in 1964 she held a top position in Lal Bahadur Shastri's ruling government. When Shastri died suddenly in 1966, Gandhi succeeded him as prime minister. India's first female head of state presided over a period of civil arrest in India during the 1970s, and in 1975 declared martial law when a conviction for a minor infraction in the 1971 election threatened to topple her administration. In 1977, Gandhi called a general election, and she was defeated. However, in 1980 she made a spectacular comeback and was able to form a new majority government. In 1982, she decided to move vigorously against the problem of Sikh nationalists in the Indian state of Punjab, ordering a rapid suppression of Sikh insurgents. In response to this aggression, several of her Sikh bodyguards conspired to end her life.
—     Indira Gandhi, Premier ministre de l’Union indienne, est assassinée par ses propres gardes du corps, des Sikhs ralliés à la cause indépendantiste.
     Indira Gandhi, the prime minister of India, is assassinated in New Delhi by two of her own bodyguards. Beant Singh and Satwant Singh, both Sikhs, emptied their guns into Gandhi as she walked to her office from an adjoining bungalow. Although the two assailants immediately surrendered, they were both shot in a subsequent scuffle, and Beant died. As Gandhi was dying from her wounds, her supporters argued-ultimately in vain-with each other over who would be able to donate blood.
      Jawaharal Nehru, the first prime minister of India, attempted to forge a unified nation out of the many religious, ethnic, and cultural factions that existed under British rule until 1949. His daughter, Indira Gandhi (no relation to Mohandas Gandhi), rose to power in 1966, fighting many of the same problems as her father had. Her own political career was a roller coaster, from the highs following India's victory over Pakistan in 1971 to the lows of being thrown out of office in 1977 after declaring a state of emergency in 1975, during which time she suspended civil liberties and jailed her political opponents. Although many criticized her for being authoritarian, the majority of the population supported her because of her extensive social programs. In 1980, Gandhi became prime minister again, enjoying fairly widespread popularity. However, in June 1984, she ordered an army raid on a Sikh temple in Punjab to flush out armed Sikh extremists, setting off a series of death threats. Due to the fear of assassination, Beant Singh, her longtime bodyguard, was to be transferred because he was a Sikh. However, Gandhi personally rescinded the transfer order because she trusted him after his many years of service. Obviously, this was a fatal mistake for both of them. Satwant Singh, who survived to stand trial, was convicted in 1985 and executed in 1989.
      Following Indira Gandhi's assassination, riots broke out in New Delhi. Nearly 2000 innocent Sikhs were killed in indiscriminate attacks over the course of two days. Many of the victims were burned alive by the rioters, yet no official intervention was implemented. Gandhi's son, Rajiv, succeeded her as prime minister.
1984 Norman Krasna writer/director, dies of a heart attack at 74
1974 Fire kills 189 in less than 25 min (Sao Paulo Brazil)
1972: Ezra Weston Loomis Pound, 87, poet, he translated The Natural Philosophy of Love, by Rémy de Gourmont .— Ezra Loomis Pound, poeta y crítico estadounidense.
1971 Gertrud von le Fort, escritora alemana.
1971 Savage, mathematician.
1968 Léopold Survage, French artist born on 31 July or 12 August 1879. — more with links to two expensive worthless images.
1970:: 142 persons in fire at a discotheque in Grenoble, France, all exits padlocked.
1963 Elsa Maxwell writer (Jack Paar Show), dies at 80
1963 Ngo Dinh Diem, South Vietnamese PM, assassinated in a military coup —    Golpe militar en Vietnam del Sur y asesinato del presidente Ngo Din-Diem.
1950 Leslie Coffelt, presidential guard, and Griselio Torresola, assassin, shooting each other
      In Washington, D.C., one policeman is mortally wounded and two others hurt during an assassination attempt on President Harry S. Truman by two radical Puerto Rican nationalists. Since 1948, President Truman and his family had been staying in the Blair-Lee mansion across the street from the White House, while workers labored to repair dangerous structural problems in the 135-year-old executive mansion. However, unlike the building across Pennsylvania Avenue, the Blair-Lee house lacked necessary security measures like the White House's iron fence and large surrounding lawns.
      When Oscar Collazo and Griselio Torresola — two members of an extremist Puerto Rican Nationalist Party headed by Pedro Campos — arrived at the Blair-Lee mansion with two pistols and more than sixty rounds of ammunition between them, only a locked screen door and eleven security guards protected the president, who was napping after a lunch with his wife. As Collazo began an assault on the front door, Torresola attempted to penetrate the basement entrance. Collazo shot one officer in his right knee, while Torresola, the deadlier shot, hit two officers three times each as he made his way into the basement entrance. Private Leslie Coffelt, who was shot in the chest, abdomen, and legs, managed to shoot Torresola in the head before losing consciousness, and the assailant died instantly. A moment later, the wounded Collazo was subdued, and the shoot-out ended with approximately thirty shots having been fired in less than three minutes. Leslie Coffelt died in a hospital less than four hours later, but the other two wounded officers recovered. President Truman, who overheard the gun-battle, was unhurt. Ironically, Truman had actually contributed to US efforts to grant Puerto Rico greater autonomy, and two years before had approved a measure allowing Puerto Ricans to manage their own internal affairs under a freely elected governor. For Truman, the aftermath of the attack was marked less by relief than a heightened sense of caution that limited his freedom and mobility.
     The news quickly spread to the financial community, where relieved traders went on a small spree that helped the Dow post a modest 0.68 gain to close the day at 225.69.
1947 Man O' War, horse.
1944 Metropolitan Andrew Sheptytsky of the Ukrainian Catholic Church dies in Lviv. He had saved hundreds of Jews during WW II.
1923 Mail clerk and 3 passengers in train robbery
      Three men blow up the mail car of a Southern Pacific train carrying passengers through southern Oregon in a botched robbery attempt. Just as the train entered a tunnel, two armed men jumped the engineer. A third man appeared with a bomb that the thieves intended to use to open the mail car. However, the explosives were too powerful and the entire mail car was blown to bits, killing the clerk inside. In the ensuing chaos, the train robbers shot three passengers on the train and fled. They left behind the detonator and some clothes, but bloodhounds were unable to track them. Southern Pacific decided to bring in Edward O. Heinrich, the "Edison of Crime Detection," to solve the crime. He immediately asked to examine the clothes that the gang had discarded at the crime scene. Within a day, Heinrich produced a profile that led to the capture of the train robbers.
      Heinrich noted that what the police had thought were grease stains were actually created by pitch from fir trees, commonly found on clothing worn by lumberjacks of the region. He also found a strand of hair that helped him peg the age of one of the robbers. Heinrich also noticed that the wear and tear on the buttons of one shirt indicated that its owner was left-handed. Most important, he found a scrap of paper that turned out to be part of a mail receipt. He tracked the mail receipt, and the identities of the three men were soon known. In March 1927, twins Ray and Roy D'Autremont and their teenage brother, Hugh, were finally brought to justice. One was found in the Philippines and the other two in Ohio. They all pleaded guilty and were sentenced to life in prison. It was only one of the estimated 2,000 cases that Edward O. Heinrich was credited with solving before his death in 1953.
1922 Thomas Nelson Page, author of The Burial of the GunsIn Ole Virginia, or, Marse Chan and Other StoriesSocial Life in Old Virginia Before the War
1921 Francisco Pradilla y Ortiz, Spanish Realist painter born on 24 July 1848. .— MORE ON PRADILLA AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to two images.
1918: 97 die in NYC subway's worst accident.
1912 John Emms, British artist born on 21 April 1843.
1903 Christian Matthias Theodor Mommsen who received the 1902 Nobel Literature Prize as “"the greatest living master of the art of historical writing, with special reference to his monumental work, A history of Rome” — MORE
1865 Alexander Beaufort Meek, poet. MEEK ONLINE: Songs and Poems of the South
1835 Thomas J. Taylor, author. THOMAS TAYLOR ONLINE: Essay on Slavery
1809 Meriwether Lewis, 35, clumsy suicide... or murder?
      The famous explorer Meriwether Lewis dies under mysterious circumstances in the early hours of the morning after stopping for the night at Grinder's Tavern along the Natchez Trace in Tennessee.
      Three years earlier, Lewis and his co-commander, William Clark, had completed their brilliant exploration of the newly acquired Louisiana Territory and the Pacific Northwest. Justly famous and celebrated throughout the nation as a result, Lewis nonetheless found his return to civilized eastern life difficult. President Thomas Jefferson appointed him as governor of Louisiana Territory, but Lewis soon discovered that the complex politics and power struggles of the territory were earning him more enemies than friends. At the same time, bureaucrats in Washington, D.C., were questioning the legitimacy of some of the purchases Lewis had made for the expedition in 1803, raising the threat of bankruptcy if he were forced to cover these costs personally.
      Finally, some three years after the end of his journey, Lewis still had failed to complete the work necessary to publish the critically important scientific and geographical information he and Clark had gathered in their journals-much to the disappointment of his close friend and mentor, Thomas Jefferson. For all these reasons, most recent historians have concluded that Lewis' death was a suicide brought on by deep depression and the heavy weight of worries he bore.
      According to the account given by Mrs. Grinder, the mistress of the tavern along the Natchez Trace where Lewis died, during his final hours Lewis began to pace in his room and talk aloud to himself "like a lawyer." She then heard a pistol shot and Lewis exclaiming, "O Lord!" After a second pistol shot, Lewis staggered from his room and called for help, reportedly saying, "O Madam! Give me some water, and heal my wounds." Strangely, Mrs. Grinder did nothing to help him; she later said that she was too afraid. The next morning servants went to his room where they reportedly found him "busily engaged in cutting himself from head to foot" with a razor. Fatally wounded in the abdomen, Lewis died shortly after sunrise.
      Based largely on Mrs. Grinder's story, most historians have argued that Lewis tried to kill himself with two pistol shots, and when death did not come quickly enough, tried to finish the job with his razor. However, in a 1962 book, Suicide or Murder? The Strange Death of Governor Meriwether Lewis, the author Vardes Fisher raised questions about the reliability of Mrs. Grinder's story and suggested that Lewis might have actually been murdered, either by Mrs. Grinder's husband or bandits. Since then a minority of historians has continued to raise challenges to the suicide thesis. But ultimately, nearly two centuries after the event, we may never be able to discover exactly what happened that night along the Natchez Trace when one of the nation's greatest heroes died at the tragically young age of 35.
1804 Anton Wilhelm Tischbein, German artist born on 01 March 1730. — link to an image.
1755 Some 60'000 people in Lisbon earthquake
      Lisbonne (235'000 habitants), est atteinte par trois secousses sismiques d'une exceptionnelle violence puis par plusieurs raz de marée. La très belle capitale du Portugal, qui doit sa prospérité à un immense empire colonial, est presque entièrement détruite par le séisme et par l'incendie qui lui fait suite. 60'000 victimes restent sous les décombres. Beaucoup d'entre elles meurent dans l'effondrement des églises, où elles assistaient à l'office de la Toussaint. Le tremblement de terre est ressenti dans toute l'Europe, entraînant des oscillations jusque dans les lochs écossais et les lacs suisses.
      Les religieux, les prédicateurs et les philosophes, tels Voltaire (Poème sur le désastre de Lisbonne) et Rousseau, y voient l'occasion de débattre de la miséricorde divine et des mérites de la civilisation urbaine. Pragmatique, le ministre marquis de Pombal, homme fort du Portugal, lance une enquête dans tout le pays sur les indices avant-coureurs du séisme. C'est la première fois que l'on tente une explication scientifique des tremblements de terre. Trois siècles plus tard, l'humanité est encore loin de les maîtriser ou même de les prédire.
1700 Carlos II, último rey español de la Casa de Habsburgo.
1670 Salomon van Ruysdael (or Ruisdael), Dutch artist born in 1600. — MORE ON RUYSDAEL AT ART “4” NOVEMBER
with links to images. 
1629 Hendrick Ter Brugghen, Dutch painter, born in 1588, one of the earliest and finest exponents of Caravaggism in northern Europe. — MORE ON TERBRUGGHEN AT ART “4” NOVEMBER
with links to images.
1546 Giulio Pippi Romano di Pietro de Gianuzzi, Italian painter and architect in the Mannerist style. He was born Giulio Pippi in Rome in 1499 — MORE ON ROMANO AT ART “4” NOVEMBER
0079 Entire population of Pompei, and many in Herculanum, in Mount Vesuvius eruption
Births which occurred on a November 01:
1993 The New European Union
      The Maastricht Treaty comes into effect, formally establishing the European Union. The treaty was drafted in 1991 by delegates from the European Community meeting at Maastricht in the Netherlands, and signed in 1992. The agreement called for greater economic integration, common foreign and security policies, and cooperation between police and other authorities on crime, terrorism, and immigration issues. The treaty also laid the groundwork for the establishment of a single European currency — the "Euro." By 1993, twelve nations had ratified the Maastricht Treaty on European Union: Great Britain, France, Germany, the Irish Republic, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Greece, Denmark, Luxembourg, Belgium, and the Netherlands. After suffering through centuries of bloody conflict, the nations of Western Europe were finally united in the spirit of economic cooperation.
1985 Q-Link begins
      Q-Link, a proprietary online service for users of Commodore's Amiga computers, starts. A newly-formed company called Quantum Computer Services, run by twenty-six-year-old Steve Case, created the service. Q-Link offered news, soap opera updates, games, and chat for $9.95 per month. Quantum later created an online system for Apple, called Applelink. When Apple abandoned the system in October 1989, Quantum decided to run the system itself under the name America Online.
1983 PC Jr is introduced by IBM. The long-awaited home computer, the PC Jr., starts at $669. The PC Jr., with its "chiclet" keyboard and limited capabilities, was doomed to a short life: the company discontinued the model in March 1985.
1952 First nuclear fusion explosion
      As part of the Operation Ivy nuclear program, the United States successfully detonates "Mike," the world's first nuclear fusion explosive device, on the Elugelab Atoll in the Eniwetok Proving Grounds in the Pacific Marshall Islands. The 10.4-megaton device is the first thermonuclear device built upon the Teller-Ulam principles of staged radiation implosion. In early 1950, in response to the explosion of the first Soviet atomic bomb, US president Harry S. Truman publicly announced the US intention to build a “hydrogen” bomb. The hydrogen bomb, also called a "superbomb," was a type of nuclear weapon theorized by scientists Edward Teller and Stanslaw Ulam that would have far greater explosive potential than the US atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima or Nagasaki. The incredible explosive force of Mike is apparent from the sheer magnitude of its mushroom cloud — within ninety seconds the mushroom cloud climbed to 17'000 m and entered the stratosphere. One minute later it reached 33'000 m, eventually stabilizing at a ceiling of 37'000 m. Half an hour after the test, the mushroom stretched 100 km across, with the base of the head joining the stem at 14'000 m.
How nuclear bombs work (ordinary hydrogen is not involved in a nuclear fusion bomb. It contains lithium deuteride, which under the heat generated by a preliminary nuclear fission explosion, releases the hydrogen isotope deuterium which becomes helium, losing a little mass and releasing a lot of energy).
1950 Munificentissimus Deus encyclical is issued by Pope Pius XII. It teaches infallibly the dogma of the Assumption: at the end of her earthly life, Jesus' mother was taken, body and soul, into heaven to be united with the risen Christ, a belief proposed by Gregory of Tours 1400 years earlier and celebrated on the feast day of the Assumption even before that.
1942 Larry Flynt, smut magazine publisher (Hustler)
1939 First jet plane, Heinkel HE-178, demonstrated to German Air Ministry .
1933 Ramón Tamames, economista y político español.
1930 A.R. Gurney, American playwright (Love Letters, The Dining Room).
1927 Ford Model A production begins
      For the first time since the Model T was introduced in 1908, the Ford Motor Company began production on a significantly redesigned automobile on this day — the Model A. The hugely successful Model T revolutionized the automobile industry, and over fifteen million copies of the "Thin Lizzy" were sold in its nineteen years of production. By 1927, the popularity of the outdated Model T was rapidly waning. Improved, but basically unchanged for its two-decade reign, it was losing ground to the more stylish and powerful motor cars offered by Ford's competitors. In May of 1927, Ford plants across the country closed, and the company began an intensive development of the more refined and modern Model A. The vastly improved Model A had elegant Lincoln-like styling on a smaller scale, and used a capable 200.5 cubic-inch four-cylinder engine that produced forty horsepower. With prices starting at $460, nearly five million Model As, in several body styles and a variety of colors, rolled onto to America's highways before production ended in early 1932.

1925 Elmore Leonard, in New Orleans, novelist.
      His father worked for General Motors, and the family moved frequently during Leonard's childhood, finally settling in Detroit. During World War II, Leonard served in the US Naval Reserve, then graduated from the University of Detroit with a degree in English in 1950. He decided to write either westerns or detective novels, whichever would generate the most income. After he sold a western for $1000, he quickly churned out eight more. One of his books, Hombre (1961), was voted one of the best 25 westerns of all time by the Western Writers of America. It was made into a film in 1967.
      Leonard married and had five children. To support the family, he worked as a copywriter at an advertising agency full time and on his novels every morning between 5 a.m. and 7 a.m. Westerns peaked in popularity in the late 1960s, so he turned to detective fiction. His first mystery, The Big Bounce (1969), was rejected by 84 publishers before it was published as an original paperback. Meanwhile, Leonard began writing educational films for Encyclopedia Britannica. In the 1980s and 90s, the quality of his writing and originality of his plots finally began to gain serious recognition among critics, who had previously dismissed his work as typical western or mystery-suspense fare. By 1983, he had written 23 novels, including Fifty-Two Pickup (1974), Swag (1976), and Stick (1983), which became a bestseller. His 1992 novel, Rum Punch, was made into the movie Jackie Brown, directed by Quentin Tarantino. His 1990 novel, Get Shorty, was made into a movie starring John Travolta in 1995. In 2000, Leonard lives in Detroit.
     Some of his other titles are: The Switch, The Hunted, The Bounty Hunters, Forty Lashes Less One, Gunsights, Pagan Babies, Swag, Mr. Majestyk, Touch , Labrava, City Primeval : High Noon in Detroit, Split Images : A Novel, The Hard Way, Killshot, Bandits, Be Cool, Cuba Libre, Valdez in Coming, Escape from Five Shadows, Last Stand at Saber River, the Law at Randado, The Tonto Woman and Other Western Stories, Maximum Bob, Riding the Rap, Pronto, Out of Sight, Cat Chaser. [at Amazon]

1924 Suleiman Demirel, político turco
1913 Mostowski, mathematician.
1911 Henri Troyat, à Moscou, romancier et académicien français.
1902 Nordahl Grieg, Norwegian lyric poet, dramatist, novelist (The Defeat). When Germany occupied Norway early in WWII, Grieg escaped to the UK with the Norwegian government-in-exile. His war poems and radio talks became the leading voice of free Norway. He died on 02 December 1943 while in an Allied plane shot down during a raid over Berlin.
1897 The Library of Congress building, the first one, opens its doors to the public.
1896 Edmund Blunden English poet/critic (Undertones of War)
1892 Alexander Alekhine Russia, world chess champion (1927-1946)
1889 Hannah Höch, German artist who died in 1978. MORE ON HÖCH AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.  
1887 Laurence Stephen Lowry, British artist who died in 1976. — more with links to images.
1886 Hermann Broch Austria, novelist (Sleepwalkers, Bewitchment)
1885 Anton Flettner, German inventor who died on 29 December 1961. He invented the rotor ship (propelled by revolving cylinders mounted vertically on the deck, the Baden-Baden arrived in New York on 09 May 1926), of a marine rudder, of a trim-tab control for aircraft. — Jacques Cousteau and his colleagues designed a ship propulsion system to save fuel and cut pollution, based on the rotor ship idea, which they called “turbosail” which they used on the Alcyone, launched in 1985.
1882 Lorenzo Viani, Italian artist who died in 1936.— Lorenzo Viani, pintor italiano. — MORE ON VIANI AT ART “4” NOVEMBER
1880 Sholem Asch, Polish-born American novelist and playwright (The Nazarene, The Mother, Three Cities)
1880 Alfred Wegener, German meteorologist and geophysicist, who died in November 1930 during his fourth expedition to Greenland (to study polar air circulation). He published the first complete continental drift hypothesis in Die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane (1915).
1880 Grantland Rice, sportswriter/poet
1878 Carlos Saavedra Lamas, Argentina, jurist. He would receive the 1936 Nobel Peace Prize for his promotion of peace as Argentina's Secretary of State, President of the Society of Nations, and Mediator in a conflict between Paraguay and Bolivia. — MORE
1871 Stephen Crane US, novelist / poet. best known for The Red Badge of Courage (1896), a Civil War novel told from the soldier's point of view.
      Crane, the youngest of 14 children, was born in 1871 and grew up in New York and New Jersey. He became a journalist in New York, working short stints for various newspapers and living in near poverty. Immersed in the hand-to-mouth life of poor New York, Crane closely observed the characters around him, and in 1893, at age 23, he self-published Maggie, a Girl of the Streets, about a poor girl's decline into prostitution and suicide. The book was a critical success but failed to sell well. He turned his attention to more popular topics and began writing The Red Badge of Courage.
      After the book's success, the same newspaper syndicate dispatched Crane to write about the West and Mexico, and in 1897 Crane headed to Cuba to cover the insurrection against Spain. On the way there, he met his future lifelong companion, Cora Howard Taylor, the proprietress of a rundown hotel where he was staying. Crane later covered the war between Greece and Turkey, and settled in England, where he befriended Joseph Conrad, H.G. Wells, and Henry James.
  • Active Service
  • Wounds in the Rain
  • The Blue Hotel
  • Maggie, a Girl of the Streets
  • The Monster, and Other Stories
  • The Red Badge of Courage
  • War is Kind, and Other Lines
  • The Black Riders, and Other Lines
  • Whilomville Stories
  • 1870 Christopher John Brennan, poet. BRENNAN ONLINE: The Burden of Tyre: Fifteen Poems, A Chant of Doom and Other Verses, Poems (1913)
    1853 José Santos Zelaya (L), ruler of Nicaragua (1893-1910)
    1853 Maurice Leloir, French artist who died on 07 October 1940.
    1844 Olga Wisinger-Florian, Austrian artist who died on 7 February 1926.
    1827 Manuel María de los Santos Acosta Castillo, médico y político liberal colombiano.
    1815 Crawford Williamson Long surgeon/pioneer (use of ether)
    1798 Benjamin Lee Guinness, Irish brewer.
    1782 Viscount Goderich (Tory), British PM (1827-28)
    1781 Joseph Karl Stieler, German artist who died on 09 April 1858. — more
    1776 San Juan Capistrano Mission, founded by Spanish Franciscan missionaries in California.
    1762 Spencer Perceval (Tory), British PM (1809-12)l, the only British prime minister to be assassinated.
    1738 Jean-Jacques-François Le Barbier, French artist who died on 07 May 1826.
    1636 Nicolas Boileau, poète et historien, auteur de L'Art poétique, aussi de Satires du sieur D***, Satires du sieur D***
    1611 The Tempest, romantic comedy by Shakespeare, is first presented at Whitehall Palace in London
    1609 Matthew Hale, author of A Discourse Touching Provision for the Poor, The History of the Common Law of England
    1607 Georg Philipp Harsdorfer Nurenberg Germany, poet (Poetischer Trichter)
    1604 Othello, tragedy by Shakespeare, is first presented at Whitehall Palace in London
    1535 Giambattista della Porta, mathematician.
    1920 Ambrose Rogers, mathematician.
    1530 Etienne de la Boétie, à Sarlat, humaniste et ami de Montaigne ("parce que c'était lui, parce que c'était moi").
    1512 The Sixtine Chapel ceiling fresco by Michelangelo, a masterpiece covering 540 square meters, is exhibited for the first time. Michelangelo had painted the ceiling from 1508 to 1512. It had been commissioned in 1508 by Pope Julius II to depict the whole story of the Bible.
         Michelangelo Buonarroti was born on March 6, 1475. He died on February 18, 1564. Michelangelo painted on the west wall of the Sistine Chapel from 1534 to 1541 the Last Judgment scene. Other parts of the Sistine chapel were painted by other artists. — MORE AT ART “4” NOVEMBER
    1500 Benvenuto Cellini, in Florence, sculptor, goldsmith, and writer, who died on 13 February 1571 — Florentine sculptor and engraver, who became one of the foremost goldsmiths of the Italian Renaissance, executing exquisitely crafted coins, jewelry, vases, and ornaments. Born in Florence, Cellini was apprenticed to a goldsmith at the age of 15. When he was 16, his fiery temper and continual dueling and brawling caused him to be exiled to Siena. Later, in Rome, he was Michelangelo's pupil for a short while. Among Cellini's most famous patrons were Pope Clement VII, Pope Paul III, Francis I of France, and the Florentine noble Cosimo I de' Medici. Francis I invited him to Paris in 1540, where he modeled the bronze reliefs of the Nymph of Fontainebleau. He also executed an elaborate gold saltcellar for Francis (1543). Compelled to leave in 1545 because of his quarrels with the king's mistress and his eccentricities, Cellini returned to Florence. There, under the patronage of Cosimo de' Medici, he executed many fine works in metal, among them a bronze portrait bust of Cosimo and the colossal bronze statue Perseus and Medusa (1554). He died in Florence. Cellini is also noted for his autobiography, written between 1558 and 1562. An embellished account of Cellini's escapades, adventures, and intrigues, this text provides a valuable portrait of daily, political, social, and ecclesiastical life in the 16th century.
    — Nato a Firenze, Benvenuto Cellini iniziò l'usuale apprendistato presso diversi maestri orafi quando aveva appena tredici anni, rivelando da subito originalità, inventiva ed una personalità particolarmente rissosa. Furono proprio le intemperanze del suo carattere che nel 1516 lo portarono al confino di sei mesi a Siena e nel 1523, sempre a causa di una rissa, al definitivo (e forzato) abbandono di Firenze per Roma. A Roma riuscì a frequentare le botteghe dei più noti maestri orafi della città e, una volta in proprio, ad accattivarsi le simpatie di papa Clemente VII, per il quale portò a termine numerosi lavori. Nel 1527, l'anno del sacco di Roma, si vantò di aver preso parte in maniera attiva alla difesa della città riuscendo ad uccidere il conestabile Carlo di Borbone e a ferire il principe d'Orange con un solo colpo di archibugio. Ma il favore di cui godeva, specialmente presso la corte papale, s'indebolì sotto i colpi del suo mai sopito carattere iroso e dell'ascesa al trono pontificio di Paolo III il quale, in seguito alle calunnie degli avversari del Cellini ed all'accusa di essere l'autore di due omicidi che pendeva sul suo capo, nel 1538 lo fece arrestare e rinchiudere a Castel Sant'Angelo. Riuscito avventurosamente ad evadere, venne ripreso nel 1539 e liberato definitivamente l'anno dopo per intercessione di Ippolito II d'Este. Il Cellini decise così di stabilirsi in Francia, presso la corte di Francesco I, per il quale portò a termine diverse opere, tra le quali molte furono di scultura. Nel 1545 fu di nuovo a Firenze, dove il duca Cosimo I de' Medici lo incaricò di scolpire il Perseo, completato nel 1549. Anche nella sua città natale, però, il Cellini continuò ad essere perseguitato dalle malelingue e, non ulteriormente accettato alla corte del duca, si ritrovò a vivere in miseria gli ultimi suoi anni, durante i quali scrisse i Trattati della oreficeria e della scultura (1565-'67) e dettò la Vita (1558-'66), nella quale descriveva, in modo per la verità non totalmente aderente ai fatti ma conforme a molte altri scritti biografici dell'epoca, gli avvenimenti della sua esistenza fino al 1562.
         Pubblicata per la prima volta a Napoli da Antonio Cocchi nel 1728, l’autobiografia di Benvenuto Cellini o Vita di Benvenuto di Maestro Giovanni Cellini fiorentino, scritta, per lui medesimo, in Firenze fu redatta inizialmente dallo stesso Cellini in un periodo di forzata inattività dovuta al poco favore di cui godeva presso il suo ultimo committente, il duca Cosimo dé Medici, ed in seguito venne dettata dall’autore ad un figlio tredicenne di Michele di Goro. La Vita, divisa in 2 libri rispettivamente di 128 e 113 brevi capitoli (il primo libro giunge fino al 1539, il secondo va dal 1540 al 1562), è tutt’altro che un’obiettiva autobiografia: al contrario, in essa il Cellini volle soprattutto celebrare quell’esaltazione dell’individuo e delle sue virtù che fu tipica della società rinascimentale e della maggior parte della letteratura biografica dell’epoca.
    — Il fut le plus grand orfèvre de la Renaisance. Il raconte sa vie dans ses passionnantes Mémoires. Ce contemporain de Léonard de Vinci et de Michel-Ange fut aussi un très grand sculpteur.
    — . CELLINI ONLINE: Vita (zipped) — (English translation): Autobiography of Benvenuto Cellini
    Holidays Algeria : Revolution Day (1954) / Antigua : State Day (1981) / Celtic : Samhain; beginning of year & most important holiday / San Marino : the Dead / Togo : Memorial Day / US : Author's Day / Vietnam : Revolution Day (1963)
    Religious Observances Ang, RC, Luth : All Saints' Day (741)
         ALL SAINTS' DAY • Dressed as Dracula or as devils, neighborhood children were happily "trick or treating" last night. But would it surprise you to know that "Halloween" started out to be a holy Christian celebration? Hallow, in Old English, means "holy" or "sacred." Therefore, "Hallows' Eve," or "Halloween" simply means "the evening of holy persons" and refers to the evening before All Saints Day, which is this day, November 1 on both Anglican and Catholic calendars. In the early years when Rome persecuted Christians, so many martyrs died for their faith, that the Church set aside special days to honor them. For example, in 607 Emperor Phocas presented to the Pope the beautiful Roman Pantheon temple. The Pope quickly removed the statues of Jupiter and the pagan gods and consecrated the Pantheon to "all saints" who had died from Roman persecution in the first three hundred years after Christ. Their bones were brought from other graves and placed in the rededicated Pantheon church. In the next century, All Saints Day was changed by Pope Gregory III to today's date — November l. In the 10th century, Abbot Odela of the Cluny monastery added the next day — November 2nd — as "All Souls" Day" to honor not just the martyrs, but all Christians who had died. People prayed for the dead, but many unchristian superstitions also were continued. Food was often offered to the dead — as it had been in pagan times. It was also believed that on these two days, souls in purgatory would take the form of witches, toads, or demons and haunt persons who had wronged them during their lifetime. As happens so often in Church history, sacred Christian festivals can absorb so many pagan customs that they lose their significance as Christian holidays. But think of it positively. Who are your favorite heroes in Christian History? Can you think of any whose example has inspired you? Why not use this All Saint's Day to think of and give thanks for as many Christians from the past that you know about, whether they are famous or not, whose lives have contributed something to yours.
         Toussaint Toussaint est un raccourci qui désigne la fête de "tous les saints". Pour qui ne le saurait pas encore malgré la promotion commerciale qui se développe autour de cet événement, les Américains d'origine irlandaise célèbrent la Veille de la Toussaint, Hallowe'en. Ces réjouissances autour de motifs macabres sont le dernier avatar d'une très ancienne fête celte dédiée au dieu des ténèbres et de l'hiver, Samain.
         Today is the day of which yesterday was the eve: “Halloween” is a contraction of “All Hallows' Eve", the day before the feast of ALL SAINTS a major feast in the Catholic calendar, because it reminds us that to be a saint means to have led a successful life on earth leading to eternal happiness in Heaven.
        One tactic of the Catholic Church to displace paganism was to place Christian feasts days at about the same time as pagan festivals: Christmas at the winter solstice, Easter at the time of spring festivals, and All Saints at the time of harvest festivals.
        Nowadays it is clear that commercial interests have taken over from the Catholic Church (and the related Churches). There were many news items related to Halloween, including a front page story in the Wall Street Journal on candy-maker Hershey's computer problems which prevented it from making deliveries in preparation for the greatest candy day of the year. But nothing about All Saints.
        Even in a country with a Catholic tradition like France, where I presume All Saints is still a national holiday, the American influence has now made Halloween an important commercialized event. Last year there was some grumbling in the French news media, but this year Halloween's victory seems to have been complete. Children in disguises (I wonder if they also get disguised for Mardi Gras, the older neo-pagan pre-Lenten tradition), Halloween decorations and items for sale in shops, pumpkin dishes in restaurants.
    Fiesta de Todos los Santos; Santos: Benigno, Cesáreo, Diego, Juliana, Marcelo y Pedro del Barco.
    OS 10 MANDAMENTOS DO PREGUIÇOSO: 1 - Viva para descansar. 2 - Ame a sua cama, ela é o seu templo. 3 - Se vir alguém descansando, ajude-o. 4 - Descanse de dia para poder dormir à noite. 5 - O trabalho é sagrado, não toque nele. 6 - Nunca faça amanhã, o que você pode fazer depois de amanhã. 7 - Trabalhe o menos possível; o que tiver para ser feito, deixe que outra pessoa faça. 8 - Calma, nunca ninguém morreu por descansar. 9 - Quando sentir desejo de trabalhar, sente-se e espere que ele passe. 10 - Não se esqueça, trabalho é saúde. Deixe o seu para os doentes.
    1995 Eubie Blake US postage stampThoughts for the day : “God gives us relatives; thank God we can choose our friends.” {but only if they also choose us}
    “If I'd known I was going to live this long, I'd have taken better care of myself.” — Eubie Blake [07 Feb 1883 – 12 Feb 1983], Black US composer of ragtime, jazz, and popular music, and lyricist.
    “God give me strength to face a fact though it slay me.”
    — Thomas Huxley, English biologist [1825-1895]. {Did He? Did it? Huxley is dead after all.}
    “God give me strength to slay the facts that face me.”
    “God give me strength to overcome the facts trying to slay me.”
    “God give me strength to fight the fat that slays me.”
    “God give me facts to throw in the face of the strength that would slay me.”
    updated Tuesday 04-Nov-2003 14:41 UT
    safe site
    site safe for children safe site