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Events, deaths, births, of 09 NOV
[For Nov 09 Julian go to Gregorian date: 1582~1699: Nov 191700s: Nov 201800s: Nov 211900~2099: Nov 22]
On a November 09:
2003 General elections in Japan, the first in which the opposition Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ) had been predicted to have a chance to come out ahead of the LDP, which has ruled over Japan by itself or through coalitions since the post-WW2 period. However in the election for the 480 seats in the key Lower House of Parliament, the LDP of Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi wins more seats than the main opposition DPJ (Minshuto), led by Naoto Kan.
2001 After one week of US bombing, and attacked by Northern Alliance forces, the Taliban troops abandon Mazar-el-Sharif in northern Afghanistan.
2001 London~New York regular Supersonic Concorde flights resume after being suspended after the only Concorde crash ever on 25 July 2000. The tires and fuel tanks have been modified to reduce the risk of a similar accident. The round-trip ticket costs some $9000. The regular Paris~New York Concorde flights have resumed two days earlier.
2001 The World Trade Organisation meets in Doha, Qatar, with representatives of 142 nations in attendance.
2001 Osama bin Laden is taped gloating about the 11 September attacks on the US.
      In a conversation with two aides and a Saudi sheik, Osama bin Laden contentedly recalls the 11 September 2001 suicide attacks against the US on a videotape that would be released on 13 December 2001 by the Pentagon. Bin Laden says that the destruction exceeded his estimates and "benefited Islam greatly."
      "I was the most optimistic of them all" in calculating the possible destruction, bin Laden says. He says that he had reckoned that burning jet fuel would "melt the iron structure" of the World Trade Center twin towers, but only above the point of impact.
      The hijackings were a martyrdom operation, bin Laden says , but those who carried them out didn't know the details until just before they boarded the planes. The sheik, identified by a US official as Saudi cleric Sheik Sulayman, praises bin Laden for "a great job" and appears to suggest that additional attacks may be planned. "No doubt it is a clear victory ... and Allah will give us blessing and more victory during this holy month of Ramadan," he says. (In 2001 most US Muslims celebrate the ending of Ramadan on Sunday 16 December).
      Bin Laden, often chuckling and animated, sits with his companions on the floor near the corner of a spare room against a white wall and a light brown wall. The tape, amateurish in quality, would be released as part of a US administration effort to support claims that bin Laden was the mastermind behind the attacks that killed nearly some 3000 in New York, Washington and Pennsylvania.
      The tape would be released as US warplanes intensify bombing aimed at members of bin Laden's al-Qaida network struggling for survival in the mountainous terrain of eastern Afghanistan, Bin Laden's whereabouts then unknown, a $25 million reward having been posted for information leading to his capture.
      Weeks before the release of the tape , the US administration officials appealed to broadcasters not to air videotapes made by bin Laden, so as to silence his propaganda, and because they might contain coded messages to his followers to carry out additional attacks.
     In the tape, bin Laden discusses some of the planning that led to the attacks, and says of others listining with him to US news broadcasts on 11 September: "They were overjoyed when the first plane hit the building. So I said to them: Be patient."
     The US administration would say that the tape was found in a house in Jalalabad after anti-Taliban forces moved in. It bears a date stamp that says it was made on 09 November, the day on which the northern Afghan city of Mazar-e-Sharif fell to the rebel northern alliance.
      On the tape, shortly after bin Laden enters the room, the sheik says: "You have given us weapons, you have given us hope and we thank Allah for you. Everybody praises what you did, the great action you did, which was first and foremost by the grace of Allah. This is the guidance of Allah and the blessed fruit of Jihad."
      The sheik informed bin Laden that another cleric had delivered a sermon in Saudi Arabia on 11 September 2001. "He said that this was jihad and that those people were not innocent victims." the sheik says
     References to jihad and Allah run throughout the videotape. Bin Laden at one point expresses satisfaction that at one location in Holland, "The number of people who accepted Islam during the days that followed the operations were more than ... in the last 11 years." Moments later, he says, "This event made people think (about true Islam) which benefited Islam greatly."
      Bin Laden also goes into some detail in discussing some of the events leading up to the suicide hijackings. "We calculated in advance the number of casualties who would be killed based on the position of the tower. We calculated that the floors that would be hit would be three or four floors. I was the most optimistic of them all. ... Due to my experience in this field, I was thinking that the fire from the fuel in the plane would melt the iron structure of the building and collapse the area where the plane hit, and all the floors above it only. This is all that we had hoped for."
     Bin Laden says, "The brothers who conducted the operation, all they knew was that they have a martyrdom operation and we asked each of them to go to America, but they didn't know anything about the operation. But they were trained and we did not reveal the operation to them until they are there and just before the boarded the plane." A man identified in the transcript as Muhammad (Atta) "...was in charge of the group," the transcript quotes bin Laden as saying. In Cairo, Atta's father, Mohamed al-Amir al-Sayed Awad Atta, would angrily dispute that. He says that he had not watched the tape, but, "All this is a forgery, a fabrication!". Similarly many Islamic extremists would say that it is a Hollywood production.
2000 The world still does not know who is the winner of the US presidential election of 07 November, as it depends on a recount in Florida and possible legal challenges. Contrary to what might happen in many other countries, no one expects the military to intervene. George W. Bush's lead over Al Gore in all-or-nothing Florida slips beneath 300 votes. Democrats throw the presidential election to the courts, claiming "an injustice unparalleled in our history."
2000 Five Russian military intelligence officers are brought to trial in Moscow for the 17 October 1994 briefcase bomb murder of investigative reporter Dmitry Kholodov, 27.
2000 Siete cabecillas de la banda terrorista GRAPO (Grupos de Resistencia Antifascista Primero de Octubre) son detenidos en París en una operación conjunta de la policía francesa y la guardia civil española.
2000 Mujer con los brazos cruzados, un cuadro de la época azul de Pablo Picasso subastado en la sala Christie's, alcanza un precio de venta cercano a los 11'000 millones de pesetas.
2000 At an Impressionist and modern art sale at Sotheby's, the expected highlight of the Sotheby's sale, Manet's Jeune fille dans un jardin which the auction house had estimated could set a record at $20 million to $30 million, just managed its low estimate, going to an anonymous telephone bidder for $20'905'750 including commission. The painting of a young woman in a garden who is wearing a bright blue coat and matching hat, which is among the artist's better known works, was the evening's top lot. — MORE AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with the picture and links to other Manet images.
1999 Russia intensifies war against Chechnya (CNN)
1998 La Unión Europea decide crear un fondo de 17'000 millones de pesetas de ayuda a las víctimas del huracán Mitch que devastó el 24 Oct Centroamérica.
1998 India's government announces it will give up its monopoly on Internet service. It issues rules governing the licensing of private Internet service providers. The demand for Internet service in India had started to outstrip the ability of the state-owned Internet access service to handle the traffic, and users had complained of high prices.
1994 La primera ministra, Chandrika Kumaratunga, gana las elecciones presidenciales en Sri Lanka.
1993 Mexican Army Brigadier General José Francisco Gallardo Rodríguez, who had denounced human rights abuses by the Mexican military, after having been subjected to unjust judicial procedures and imprisonment since 1983, is arbitrarily detained and imprisoned, upon false accusations. Amnesty International would take up his case as that of a prisoner of conscience. but in vain. The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights would rule in Gallardo's favor on 15 October 1996, equally in vain.
     Pese a evidentes contradicciones de testigos de cargo y falta de pruebas inculpatorias, el 11 marzo 1997 fue injustamente sentenciado por un Consejo de Guerra a 14 años y ocho meses de prisión por los delitos de malversación en la modalidad de disposición indebida de vestuario, material y equipo, y destrucción de lo perteneciente al ejército, en la hipótesis de incineración de archivos. El 11 Apr 1998 fue sentenciado a otros 14 años, por el delito prefabricado de enriquecimiento ilícito, sumando así más de 28 años de prisión que tendrá que purgar en la cárcel. At long last, on 07 February 2002 Gallardo would be freed, Mexican President Vicente Fox having commuted his sentence to the 8 years already served, without rehabilitating him nor compensating him for the injustice done.
1993 Gore, Perot debate NAFTA
      Vice President Al Gore and presidential hopeful Ross Perot, on CNN's Larry King Live, discuss NAFTA's potential impact on the US workforce. Gore supported the legislation, reasoning that it would pave the way for a global economic structure that would boost the country's economy. Perot, meanwhile, touchéd a populist chord, warning that NAFTA would only result in the farming out of factory jobs to countries with workers who earned cheaper wages and fewer benefits. The vice president and other NAFTA supporters prevailed, and the agreement soon made its way into the law books. Labor loyalists took Gore and President Clinton to task, interpreting their support for NAFTA as a sharp break from traditional Democratic pro-union policies.
1991 Police in Hong Kong forcibly repatriated 59 Vietnamese boat people, carrying them onto a transport plane.
1990 President Bush announces DOUBLING of US forces in Persian Gulf area.
1990 Mary Robinson, política y abogada irlandesa es elegida Presidenta de la República de Irlanda, la primera mujer que accede a tal puesto en la historia del país y la primera persona que promete transformar el cargo, hasta ahora honorífico y ceremonial.
1990 Nueva Constitución para Nepal, que restaura la democracia.
1990 Willy Brandt, presidente de honor del SPD, regresa a la República Federal con 193 rehenes retenidos hasta ahora en Irak.
1989 East Germany opens the Berlin Wall
      East German officials today opened the Berlin Wall, allowing travel from East to West Berlin. The following day, celebrating Germans began to tear the wall down. One of the ugliest and most infamous symbols of the Cold War was soon reduced to rubble that was quickly snatched up by souvenir hunters. The East German action followed a decision by Hungarian officials a few weeks earlier to open the border between Hungary and Austria. This effectively ended the purpose of the Berlin Wall, since East German citizens could now circumvent it by going through Hungary, into Austria, and thence into West Germany. The decision to open the wall was also a reflection of the immense political changes taking place in East Germany, where the old communist leadership was rapidly losing power and the populace was demanding free elections and movement toward a free market system. The action also had an impact on President George Bush and his advisors.
      After watching television coverage of the delirious German crowds demolishing the wall, many in the Bush administration became more convinced than ever that Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev's statements about desiring a new relationship with the West must be taken more seriously. Unlike 1956 and 1968, when Soviet forces ruthlessly crushed protests in Hungary and Czechoslovakia, respectively, Gorbachev actually encouraged the East German action. As such, the destruction of the Berlin Wall was one of the most significant actions leading to the end of the Cold War
      Several weeks after the resignation of Erich Honecker, East Germany's Communist head of state since 1976, the East German government opens it borders to West Germany, and allows thousands of its citizens to pass freely through the Berlin Wall. The Berlin Wall was first erected in 1961 to stem the flood of East German refugees escaping to democratic West Germany via the Western occupation zone in Berlin. Berliners from both sides of the infamous Cold War division greet the opening of the Berlin Wall with jubilation, and thousands celebrate by climbing on top of the wall, painting graffiti on its face, and removing fragments as souvenirs. The next day, East German troops begin dismantling the wall, and less than a year later, East and West Germany are formally reunited.
La chute du Mur de Berlin
      Dans la nuit du 9 au 10, devant les caméras du monde entier, de jeunes Allemands de l'Est et de l'Ouest brisent le Mur de la honte qui sépare Berlin depuis le 13 Aug 1961. Ils prennent de court les dirigeants des deux bords qui ne s'attendaient pas à un enchaînement aussi rapide des évènements. Les Hongrois, touchés par la politique de glasnost (transparence) engagée depuis 1986 par le dirigeant sovietique Mikhail Gorbatchev, avaient annonce le 2 mai leur intention d'entrouvrir leur frontière avec l'Autriche. Des centaines d'Allemands de l'Est se precipitèrent alors en Hongrie dans l'espoir de bientôt passer à l'Ouest. En septembre, ils sont plusieurs milliers à s'enfuir de la sorte. En République Démocratique Allemande (RDA), à Leipzig puis dans les autres villes du pays, les opposants au communisme quittent le secret des temples luthériens et manifestent au grand jour. Le pouvoir vacille. Erich Honecker laisse la place à Egon Krenz.
      Mais rien n'arrête plus l'Histoire. Un million de manifestants à Berlin-Est entrainent la démission collective du gouvernement communiste le 7 novembre. Le soir du 09 novembre, à 22h15, des milliers de Berlinois masses près du Mur ouvrent un à un les postes frontière. En près de 30 ans, les redoutables garde-frontières est-allemands, les "vopos", ont tué 239 personnes qui tentaient de franchir le Mur. Cette fois, ils gardent l'arme au pied. Face à la politique d'ouverture engagée depuis 1986 par Mikhail Gorbatchev et à la désintegration de leur propre gouvernement, ils comprennent que leur temps est révolu. La chute du Mur (3,60 mètres de haut, 160 kilomètres de long et 300 miradors) met fin à cinquante ans de séparation et d'antagonismes entre les deux parties de l'Allemagne, la République Fédérale Allemande (RFA), sous influence occidentale, et la République Démocratique Allemande (RDA), sous domination sovietique. Les ideologies chavirent dans un enthousiasme débridé. Personne ne s'inquiète encore des lendemains difficiles de la réunification. Sans perdre de temps, le chancelier fédéral Helmut Kohl imposera une unification monétaire puis politiques des deux parties de l'Allemagne. L'unité sera officielle le 03 octobre 1990. Mais, en 1999, le vieux chancelier laissera à son successeur l'honneur d'inaugurer l'installation des pouvoirs publics à Berlin, qui fut déjà la capitale de l'Allemagne de 1871 à 1945.
Mitterrand et la réunification allemande
      Le 3 novembre, dans une conférence de presse donnée en Allemagne, le président français declare: "Je n'ai rien contre la réunification". Mais, comme tout un chacun, il songe alors à une réunification très progressive. après la chute du Mur, Francois Mitterrand cache mal son irritation et ne donne aucun signe d'encouragement à son ami Helmut Kohl. Il craint que l'avenement d'une Allemande unie et puissante au coeur de l'Europe ne marginalise la France. Debut décembre, il rencontre Mikhail Gorbatchev à Kiev. Il echoue, semble-t-il, à le convaincre de freiner les ardeurs du chancelier ouest-allemand. Le 19 decembre, comme si de rien n'était, le président français effectue aupres du gouvernement moribond de Berlin-Est un voyage officiel qui était prévu de longue date. Non content de cette maladresse, François Mitterrand exige du chancelier ouest-allemand, en préalable à la réunification, une reconnaissance formelle de la frontière germano-polonaise issue de la dernière guerre. Pour les Allemands de l'Ouest en general, et Helmut Kohl en particulier, cette attitude qui met en doute leur pacifisme est ressentie comme une provocation. Il va de soi que ces nuages sur les relations franco-allemandes ne ralentissent en rien la course à la réunification. Ils témoignent simplement du décalage entre la réalité et la diplomatie française, qu'incarnent à ce moment-là François Mitterrand et son ministre Roland Dumas.
      C'est l'année clef de cette fin de siècle. La chute du Mur liquide les séquelles de la seconde guerre mondiale. Elle annonce en même temps la mort prochaine de l'URSS et du communisme. En janvier est mort l'empereur Hiro Hito, qui a règné sur le Japon depuis 1926. C'est le dernier des grands acteurs de ce siècle. Cependant que s'écroulent les régimes communistes d'Europe les uns après les autres, au Kosovo, un certain Milosevic fait un discours retentissant devant une foule de Serbes enthousiastes... De nouvelles formes de guerres se préparent cette année-là à l'insu de l'opinion mondiale.
— El canciller alemán, Helmut Kohl, llega a Varsovia con intención de permanecer seis días, pero suspende su visita al día siguiente, debido a los acontecimientos que se producen en Alemania.
1988 Bush's electoral victory gave a boost to the dollar — for about one hour. Fears about the nation's budget and trade deficits, as well as suspicions that the central banks had "propped-up" the drooping dollar during the election season, cause the dollar to drop to its lowest level in ten months, triggering declines in stock prices.
1986 Logra la alcaldía de Lima el candidato del APRA, Jorge del Castillo, apoyado por Alan García Pérez.
1985 Gary Kimovich Kasparov [13 April 1963-] of the USSR, becomes the 13th World Chess Champion, and the youngest ever, defeating his compatriot Anatoly Evgenievich Karpov, in Moscow.
1983 IBM and Hitachi settle out of court on Hitachi having stolen software stolen from IBM. IBM allegedly possessed a videotape that would have been "painfully embarrassing" to Hitachi. Hitachi reportedly agreed to pay some $300 million. Neither company would comment on the agreement.
1981 Se celebra en Argentina la primera manifestación contra el régimen desde el golpe militar de 1976.
1979 Manuel Fraga Iribarne es elegido presidente interino de Alianza Popular (AP) de España, cargo para el que fue ratificado en el III Congreso del partido celebrado en diciembre del mismo año.
1976 The UN General Assembly approved 10 resolutions condemning apartheid in South Africa, including one characterizing the white-ruled government as "illegitimate."
1976 Patrick Hillary es nombrado presidente de Irlanda.
1970 Trial of Seattle 8 anti-war protesters begins
1970 By a 6-3 vote, the US Supreme Court refuses to hear a suit by the state of Massachusetts in defense its citizens claiming protection under a state law that allowed them to refuse military service in an undeclared war (the Vietnam war in this case).
1968 Entra en vigor el acuerdo sobre libre circulación de los trabajadores entre los países miembros de la Comunidad Económica Europea.
1965 Ferdinand Marcos Edralin es elegido presidente de Filipinas.
1965 The Great Northeast Blackout
      At dusk, the biggest power failure in history occurs as all of New York State, portions of seven neighboring states, and parts of eastern Canada are plunged into darkness. The Great Northeast Blackout begins at the height of rush hour, delaying millions of commuters, and trapping thousands of people in office buildings, elevators, trains, and subways. At 17:16, a 230-kilovolt-transmission line near Ontario, Canada, trips, causing several other heavily loaded lines to also fail, precipitating a redirection in the normal flow of electric power from its usual northerly direction, toward Toronto, to a southerly direction, toward Canada's interconnections with the United States. The resulting surge of power from Canada overwhelms the transmission lines in western New York, causing a "cascading" tripping of additional lines and resulting in the eventual breakup of the entire Northeastern transmission network. Altogether, thirty million people in eight US states and the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec are affected by the blackout. Within a few hours, power is restored to the majority of the blackout areas, and by morning, power has been restored throughout the Northeast. Nine months later the number of births in the region is significantly above average.
1964 Eisaku Sato es elegido primer ministro japonés, para sustituir a Hayato Ikeda, que ha presentado su dimisión por enfermedad.
1960 McNamara named Ford president
      In 1946, Henry Ford II, the president of the Ford Motor Company, hired ten young former intelligence officers from the Air Force, a group that the press soon dubbed the "Whiz Kids." Part of the genius of Henry Ford II, who was second only to his grandfather in business acumen, was his ability to find the most talented people in the industry and bring them into key positions in his rapidly growing postwar corporation. Robert McNamara, one of the Air Force "Whiz Kids," was one such individual. In addition to his other talents, McNamara was a financial disciplinarian who brought quantitative analysis and the science of modern management to the Ford Motor Company. Under the guidance of Henry Ford II and employees like Robert McNamara, Ford flourished during the 1950s, yielding such success stories as the Ford Thunderbird in 1954. On this day, Robert S. McNamara was named president of Ford, as Henry Ford II stepped down from the presidency and became CEO. However, McNamara would remain at the reigns of Ford for less than two months — on 01 January 1961, McNamara resigned from Ford to become secretary of defense for the new administration of President John F. Kennedy.
1955 Israel rechaza el compromiso arabe-israelí, que tiene como base las decisiones de 1947, propuestas por el primer ministro británico Anthony Eden count of Avon
1953 Cambodia (later called Kampuchea) gains independence within French Union — Se proclama la independencia de Camboya, antes protectorado francés.
1949 Se promulga la Constitución vigente de Costa Rica.
1946 ENIAC switched off for delivery
      ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) was turned off temporarily on this day in 1946 for delivery to the Army's Ballistics Research Laboratory in Aberdeen, Pennsylvania. The computer, developed at the University of Pennsylvania's Moore School, occupied a 140-square-meter room, contained nearly eighteen thousand vacuum tubes and six thousand manual switches. In order to remove the machine from the building where it had been developed, the Moore School had to knock down several walls. The Ballistics Research Laboratory had commissioned the computer in 1943 to speed the calculation of firing tables for World War II artillery. Unfortunately, by the time the computer was finished, the war had been over for three months.
1934 Pierre-Étienne Flandin forma nuevo Gobierno en Francia, después de la dimisión de Gaston Doumergue.
1933 La aviación cubana hace causa común con los rebeldes para restablecer a Carlos Manuel de Céspedes y Borja del Castillo en el poder.
1927 Giant Panda discovered, China
1925 Se fundan las Schutz Staffeln (SS) en el seno del Partido Nacionalsocialista Alemán y se constituyen en un grupo paramilitar de elite.
1923 Beer Hall Putsch — NAZIs fail to overthrow government in Germany — Fracasa en Alemania el intento de golpe de Estado, Putsch de Múnich, organizado por Adolf Hitler y Erich Ludendorff.
1922 It is announced that the Nobel Prize in Literature 1922 will go to Jacinto Benavente y Martínez, born on 12 August 1866, "for the happy manner in which he has continued the illustrious traditions of the Spanish drama.” He died on 14 July 1954. — MORE
1921 En el congreso de ingenieros civiles reunido en Francia, Henri Bresier presenta un proyecto de túnel bajo el estrecho de Gibraltar.
1918 Bavaria proclaims itself a republic
1918 After German defeat in WW I Kaiser Wilhelm II announced he would abdicate. He then fled to the Netherlands. — L'empereur allemand Guillaume II abdique et le socialiste Scheidemann proclame la [[!!bad link!!>>] République. Préoccupé par la révolution qui menace d'emporter le pays, il va demander l'armistice aux Alliés deux jours plus tard. — El emperador Guillermo II abdica tras la derrota de Alemania en la guerra. El diputado socialista Philipp Scheidemann proclama la República.
1918 El rey de España Alfonso XIII encarga a Alvaro de Figueroa y Torres conde de Romanones la formación de gabinete, pero éste declina tal ofrecimiento. Posteriormente hace lo mismo con Manuel García Prieto, marqués de Alhucemas.
1911 Arthur James count Balfour renuncia a la presidencia del Partido Conservador del Reino Unido. Lo reemplaza Andrew Bonar Law.
1906 Teddy Roosevelt travels to Panama
      On the first foreign trip by a US president in history, President Theodore Roosevelt departs the US for Panama aboard the battleship Louisiana. The visit comes three years after Roosevelt pushed the Panamanian to revolt against Colombian rule. Panamanian independence allowed US engineers to begin work on the Panama Canal project — an effort to connect the Atlantic and Pacific oceans with a US-administered canal across the Isthmus of Panama. During his four days in Panama, Roosevelt visits the project site, where construction preparations are underway. After leaving Panama, Roosevelt travels to the US territory of Puerto Rico, and then returns to the United States on 26 Novembe. {A man, a plan, a canal, Panama)
1904 First airplane flight to last more than 5 minutes
1903 The Dow-Jones Industrial Average drops to 42.15. Known as the "Rich Man's Panic," the fiscal crisis would drag on for the rest of the year, taking a severe toll on banks, as well as many steel and iron producers.
1875 US betrays Amerindians, agent calls them "hostile".
      Indian Inspector E.C. Watkins submits a report to Washington DC, stating that hundreds of Sioux and Cheyenne Indians associated with Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse are hostile to the United States. In so doing, Watkins set into motion a series of events that led to the Battle of the Little Big Born in Montana the following year. Seven years before the Watkins report, a portion of the Teton Sioux, who lived with Chief Red Cloud, made peace with the US in exchange for a large reservation in the Black Hills of the Dakotas. However, some Sioux refused the offer of confinement on a reservation, and instead united around Chief Sitting Bull and his leading warrior, Crazy Horse.
      The wisdom of their resistance seemed confirmed in 1874 when the discovery of gold in the Black Hills set off an invasion of Anglo miners into the Sioux reservation. When the US did nothing to stop this illegal violation of lands promised to the Sioux by treaty, more Indians left the reservation in disgust and joined Sitting Bull to hunt buffalo on the plains of Wyoming and Montana. In November 1875, Watkins reported that the free-roaming Indians were hostile.
      The government responded by ordering that the Indians "be informed that they must remove to a reservation before the 31st of January, 1876," and promised that if they refused, "they would be turned over to the War Department for punishment." However, by the time couriers carried the message to the Sioux it was already winter, and traveling 200 miles to the reservation across frozen ground with no grass for their ponies or food for themselves was an impossible request. When, as expected, the Sioux missed the deadline, the matter was turned over to the War Department. In March 1876, the former Civil War hero General Phillip Sheridan ordered a large force of soldiers to trap the Sioux and force them back to the reservations. Among the officers leading the force was George Armstrong Custer, who later that year lead his famous "last stand" against Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse at the Battle of the Little Bighorn.
1872 Fire destroys nearly 1000 buildings in Boston
1867 Le Japon entre dans l'ère Meiji (Lumière)
      L'ère Meiji commence, du nom de règne de l'empereur Mutsuhito. Depuis pres de quatre siècles, l'Empire du soleil levant était gouverné par une famille, les Tokugawa. Ils exercaient la fonction de shogun (ou maire du palais) tandis que l'empereur héréditaire gardait une fonction purement symbolique. Les Tokugawa maintenaient le pays dans un isolement et lui conservaient ses structures féodales. Le 8 novembre, suite à des émeutes, le dernier shogun , Yoshinibu, remet ses pouvoirs au jeune empereur Mutsuhito. Celui-ci établit la monarchie absolue. Il prend le nom de règne de Meiji (Lumière) et déplace la capitale de Kyoto à Tokyo. En quelques années, le pays s'arrache à la féodalite et rejoint le peloton des nations les plus avancées. Le miracle trouve une explication dans le très haut degré d'éducation du peuple japonais. Au XIXe siecle, le taux d'alphabétisation, de l'ordre de 50%, était déjà comparable à celui des provinces européennes les mieux eduquées.
1865 Confederate General Lee surrenders to Union General Grant at Appomattox
1862 US Grant issues orders to bar Jews from serving under him
1861 Battle of Piketon (Ivy Mountain), KY
1854 La villa de Tulancingo (del hoy Estado de Hidalgo, México), es elevada a la categoría de ciudad.
1820 Agustín de Iturbide asume el mando militar del Ejército del Sur. Las autoridades virreinales tienen como objetivo que éste combata y derrote a Vicente Guerrero y a Pedro Ascensio Alquisiras, únicos surianos que sostienen la lucha insurgente mexicana.
1799, Napoléon rentre à Paris et prend le pouvoir par le coup d'état du 18 Brumaire. Napoléon établit un nouveau gouvernement composé de trois consuls et un Sénat. Le Premier consul, Napoléon, a tous les pouvoirs. — Napoleon becomes dictator (1st consul) of France — Golpe de Estado del 18 de Brumario en Francia. Napoléon disuelve la Asamblea, deroga la Constitución y establece el Consulado.
1729 Firma del Tratado de Sevilla por el que Francia e Inglaterra garantizan a España los ducados de Toscana, Parma y Florencia.
1710 Carlos VI, Emperador de Alemania abandona Madrid y se dirige a Barcelona. Las medidas impopulares que había decretado provocaron el inicio de una contienda de guerrillas que acaba con su huida.
1526 Jews are expelled from Pressburg Hungary by Maria of Hapsburg.
Deaths which occurred on a November 09:
2003 Sgt. Nicholas A. Tomko, 24, of Pittsburgh PA.; he was the door gunner in a convoy vehicle undergoing a small arms attack in Baghdad, Irak. He was assigned to the 307th Military Police Company, U.S. Army Reserve.
2003 Muhanad al-Kaadi, head of the US-appointed municipal council in the poor, mainly Shiite, Sadr City annex to Baghdad, Iraq, shot by a US occupation soldier guarding the municipal building who stopped his car instead of letting him through. According to the US , “the driver” got out of the vehicle and attacked one of the guards, trying to grab his weapon; another soldier shot the man in the leg and he later died of his wounds. Later the US admits that the man was al-Kaadi, does not repeat the allegation that he attacked a US guard, but says that he died by his own fault for refusing “to follow instructions of the onsite security officer who was enforcing” regulations “in accordance with the rules of engagement.” Al-Kaadi, who spoke fluent English, had been trying to improve relations between the US occupiers and the 2 million residents of Sadr City.
2003: 17 Muslims, by at least two terrorist car bombs, just after midnight, in the west of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, at the B2 residential compound, which is in the Nakheel neighborhood near the Muhaya shopping center. Some 120 persons are injured. 5 of the dead and 36 of the injured are children.
2002 Israeli Sergeant-Major Madin Grifat, 23, by an explosion close to the Gaza Strip enclave settlement Netzarim, caused by Islamic Jihad to avenge Sawalhe [next].
2002 Iyad Sawalhe, 28, shot by Israeli troops early in the morning in Jenin. Sawalhe was the head of Islamic Jihad's military wing in the northern West Bank and had been the main target of Israeli military incursions in Jenin over the previous two weeks. In revenge, Islamic Jihad militants would ambush and kill twelve Jewish enclave settlers in Hebron on 15 November 2002.
2002 Joshua Guimond, 20, is never seen alive again (except perhaps by secretive criminals), after shortly past midnight when he leaves a card game in an apartment at Metton Court on the north end of Saint John's University in St.Cloud, Minnesota (near I-94), where he was a junior, a political science major.
2001 Some 235 persons in flash floods in northern Algeria.
2000 Hussein Abayat, 33, and two women bystanders, by rocket fired from Israeli helicopter, in Beit Sahur, on the outskirts of Bethlehem. Several others were wounded. Abayat, who was driving a pickup truck, was targeted as a commander of the Tanzim paramilitary group active in the al-Aqsa intifada started on 28 September 2000..
2000 Isa Tsuyev, 59, Russian-imposed Chechen mayor of Alkhan-Kala, near Grozny, Chechnya, killed by independentist guerillas.
1988 John N. Mitchell, 75, former US Attorney General, Watergate convict, heart attack in Washington
1980 Marie Germinova Toyen, Czech artist born on 21 September 1902.
1970 Charles André de Gaulle, 79, general, Free French leader, then French President .
1966 Rutherford, mathematician.
1963 Some 450 die in a coal-dust explosion and 160 die in train crash (Japan)
1953 Abdul-Aziz ibn Sa'ud , 73, founder of Saudi Arabia
1953 Dylan Thomas, 39, Scottish author-poet, in NY.
1952 Chaim Weizmann, 57, 1st President of Israel.
1947 Mariano Benlliure y Gil, escultor español.
1942 Graciano Ricalde Gamboa, en Mérida, Yucatán, profesor e ingeniero yucateco, quien a los 16 años se graduó de profesor en la Normal de su Estado. En 1910 realizó estudios sobre el cometa Haley. En 1923 hizo cálculos sobre el eclipse total de sol de ese año. Resolvió la ecuación general de 5º grado, por medio de funciones elípticas.
1940 Neville Chamberlain, UK Prime Minister of appeasement.
      Just months after he was chased (literally) out of office, Neville Chamberlain, the British Prime Minister at the outbreak of the European war, dies. He is best (or rather "worst") remembered for his rather infamous policy of appeasement toward Hitler in the pre-war years. Chamberlain met first with Hitler in private consultations at Berchtesgaden—Hitler's Bavarian mountaintop retreat. The FÚhrer, who Chamberlain described as a "gentleman," convinced the Prime Minister to support Germany's territorial demands in Czechoslovakia. Hitler wanted the Sudetenland, an area in northern Czechoslovakia where three million ethnic Germans lived. On 29 September and 30 September 1938, Chamberlain, Hitler, Premier Daladier of France, and Il Duce, Benito Mussolini, met in Munich to decide the fate of Czechoslovakia. Chamberlain convinced Daladier that joining England in support of Hitler's demands would avert war. The German army had already been mobilized, and Hitler had threatened to march into Czechoslovakia. The Munich Pact, signed by all four European leaders in attendance, created a new Czechoslovakia, stripped of the Sudetenland.
      Hitler was appeased for the moment, but the Pact left Czechoslovakia highly vulnerable for German attack. Returning to England from Munich, Chamberlain boasted the notoriously naïve claim, "I believe it is peace for our time." These words, as well as Chamberlain's umbrella, became widely recognized symbols of appeasement. When Germany invaded Poland on 01 September 1939, Chamberlain issued an ultimatum to Hitler to immediately withdraw from Poland. Hitler ignored the ultimatum, and on Sunday 03 September, Chamberlain declared war. By this point, Britain's faith in its Prime Minister was diminishing quickly. Chamberlain stayed afloat until Germany launched the Denmark and Norway campaign in May 1940. Soon thereafter, one of Chamberlain's supporters stood up in Parliament session and quoted Oliver Cromwell: "Depart, I say, and let us have done with you! In the name of God, go!" Chamberlain was driven from the House amid unanimous chants of "Go! Go! Go!" Two days later, on 10 May, King George VI asked Winston Churchill, then First Lord of the Admiralty, to succeed as Prime Minister.
1938: 91 Jews in the worst pogrom in peacetime Germany, as Nazi thugs lead a "spontaneous" campaign of terror. During the night 267 synagogues are plundered, 7500 shops are wrecked, 91 Jews are killed and 20'000 others are arrested and sent to concentration camps. It would become known as "Kristallnacht" because of the thousands of windows broken.
      All over Germany, Austria, and other Nazi-controlled areas, organized bands of Nazis destroy Jewish shops, burn synagogues, and beat, kill, or arrest thousands of Jews. The attack, known as Krystallnacht, or "Crystal Night," after all the broken glass littering the streets, comes two days after Herschel Grynszpan, a seventeen-year-old Jew living in France, shot and killed Ernst vom Rath, a member of the German embassy staff in Paris. Grynszpan was acting in retaliation for the poor treatment his father and family suffered at the hands of the Nazis in Germany. Nazi leader Adolf Hitler and Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels used the Paris shooting as an opportunity to begin a long-planned attack on Jews living in Nazi-controlled areas. Nazi troops and sympathizers destroyed and looted 7500 Jewish businesses, burned 267 synagogues, killed 91 Jews, and rounded up over 25'000 Jewish men, who are later sent to concentration camps. Three days later, the Nazi authorities declare that Jews must pay for the violence that they supposedly provoked, and they are charged one billion marks in damages for the murder of vom Rath, and six million marks to cover insurance fees for the destroyed shops. The reaction outside Germany is shock and outrage, and the US permanently removes its ambassador to Germany.
La Nuit de Cristal
      La nuit du 9 au 10 novembre 1938 reste l'un des plus tristes moments de l'histoire allemande. De premières lois antisémites avaient déjà mis à l'écart les Allemands catalogués comme juifs. D'autres mesures leur avaient succédé: enregistrement des entreprises juives, carte d'identité spéciale, privation de passeport. Un mois tout juste après les accords de Munich, le Führer Adolf Hitler franchit un nouveau pas dans la voie de l'antisémitisme. Le prétexte est vite trouvé: des juifs polonais ont fui leur pays, où sévit un régime autoritaire et antisémite, pour s'installer... en Allemagne. Repoussés par le régime hitlérien, beaucoup errent à la frontière germano-polonaise et y trouvent la mort.
      Un jeune juif fils de deux de ces victimes, Gryspan, se venge en assassinant à Paris le conseiller d'ambassade von Rath. Cela sert de prétexte à un pogrom de très grande ampleur, à l'image des émeutes antijuives qu'encourageait au XIXe siècle l'administration du tsar. A l'annonce de la mort de von Rath, dans la soirée du 9 novembre, le ministre de la propagande, Joseph Goebbels, jette ses militants dans les rues. Les sections d'assaut nazies (SA), les SS et les Jeunesses hitlériennes s'en prennent aux synagogues et aux locaux des organisations israélites, ainsi qu'aux magasins et aux biens des particuliers. Les agresseurs sont pour la plupart en tenue de ville pour laisser croire à un mouvement populaire spontané. Près d'une centaine de personnes sont tuées à l'occasion de ce gigantesque pogrom. Une centaine de synagogues sont brûlées et 7500 magasins sont pillés.
      Avec un certain cynisme, les nazis donneront à ces premières violences antisémites planifiées en Allemagne le nom poétique de Nuit de Cristal, en référence aux vitrines et à la vaisselle brisées cette nuit-là. La communauté juive sera taxée d'une énorme amende pour cause de tapage nocturne (ça ne s'invente pas). 35'000 juifs environ seront aussi arrêtés et envoyés dans des camps. Ils seront pour la plupart libérés contre rançon. L'heure de leur extermination n'est pas encore venue. Hitler, non sans habileté, se conforme à une savante gradation ajustée à l'évolution des relations internationales. Ce n'est pas sans raison que la Nuit de Cristal survient un mois tout juste après les accords de Munich qui ont signé la défaite morale des démocraties. (voir un site d'images de l'Holocauste)
1932 Some 25'000 in hurricane storm wave sweeping over Santa Cruz del Sur, Cuba
1924 Henry Cabot Lodge, co-author (with Theodore Roosevelt) of Hero Tales From American History
1923 Three policemen and 16 Nazis, whose Beer Hall Putsch is crushed.
      In Munich, armed policeman and troops loyal to Germany's democratic government crush the Beer Hall Putsch, the Nazis first attempt at seizing control of the German government by force. The previous evening, the Beer Hall Putsch began as Nazi leader Adolf Hitler took control of a beer hall where Bavarian government leaders were meeting. Threatened at gunpoint by Hitler, the Bavarian leaders reluctantly agree to support Hitler and his far-right Nazi Party as the new rulers of the German state of Bavaria. Hitler hoped that his "National révolution" would spread to the dissatisfied German army, who in turn would bring down the government in Berlin. However, in the early morning of November 9, the Bavarian leaders recount their coerced support of Hitler, and order a rapid suppression of the Nazis. At dawn, government troops surround the main Nazi force occupying the War Ministry building. A desperate Hitler responds by leading a march toward the center of Munich, in a last-ditch effort to rally support. Near the War Ministry building, three thousand Nazi marchers come face to face with a hundred armed policemen. Shots are exchanged, and after a minute, sixteen Nazis and three policemen are dead. Nazi Hermann Goering is shot in the groin and Hitler suffers a dislocated elbow, but manages to escape. Three days later, Hitler is arrested and subsequently sent to Landsberg jail, where he spends his nine months in prison writing his autobiography, Mein Kampf, and working on his oratorical skills. Upon his release, the Nazi Party is reorganized as a fanatical mass movement that gains a majority in the Reichstag by legal means in 1932, and by 1934 Hitler is the sole master of a Germany intent on war and genocide.
1915: 272 persons on Italian liner Ancona sunk by German torpedoes.
1911 Howard Pyle, born on 05 March 1853, Pyle was a US illustrator, painter, and author, best known for the children's books that he wrote and illustrated. — MORE ON PYLE AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to online books and images.
1898 Jerónimo Martínez Sánchez, grabador, fotógrafo, dibujante y pintor venezolano.
1890 César Auguste Franck, compositor belga.
1884 Henri Félix Emmanuel Philippoteaux, French artist born on 03 April 1815.
1865 Jacob Collamer, politician. COLLAMER ONLINE: Speech of Hon. J. Collamer, of Vermont, On Slavery in the Territories
1807 Augustin de Saint~Aubin, French artist born on 03 June 1736. — more with links to images.
1778 Giovanni-Battista Piranesi, Italian draftsman, printmaker, architect, and art theorist, born on 04 October 1720. — MORE ON PIRANESI AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
1677 Aart (or Aernou) van der Neer, Dutch painter specialized in landscapes, born in 1603. — MORE ON VAN DER NEER AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
1605 date sometimes given for the death of Flemish painter Lodewyk Toeput “Pozzoserrato”, while the preferred date is 14 August 1603. — MORE ON TOEPUT AT ART “4” AUGUST with links to images.
1601 Giovanni-Battista Ramenghi “Il Bagnacavallo”, Italian painter born in 1521. — more with links to images.
^ Births which occurred on a November 09:
2000 The new Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable  published. It defines words used in Britain such as: Blair babes, spin doctor, canteen culture, Harry Potter and Hogwarts, cash for questions, netiquette, London Eye and the Dome. It gives the origins of the word "business." In Old English, the word "bisignis" meant an anxiety. Over the years it grew to mean a task over which one was anxious, and now means an appointed task or commercial undertaking. Today you might call someone who was more at home in the drawing room or bedroom a "lounge lizard," rather than the 14th century alternative "carpet knight." Most people have heard of Moby Dick. But what was a Mocha Dick? Mocha Dick was a real man-eating whale from the 1840s.
1950 El camino, novela de Miguel Delibes se publica.
1935 The CIO. United Mine Workers chief John L. Lewis and a dozen fellow labor leaders announce the creation of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO). An affiliate of the American Federation of Labor (AFL), the CIO was charged with pushing the cause for industrial unionism. Under Lewis' spirited, and sometimes confrontational, leadership, the CIO quickly scored a number of victories, carrying out successful organizing efforts in the steel, auto and other major mass production industries.
1934 Carl Sagan NYC, astronomer/author/professor (Cosmos, Broca's Brain)
1934 Ingvar Carlsson PM of Sweden (1986- )
1932 Marian Christy Ridgefield CT, author (Invasions of Privacy)
Newton MA, poet (Live or Die)
1928 Anne Sexton, in Newton, Massachusetts, future psychotherapy poet..
      The daughter of moderately well-off parents, Sexton (born Anne Gray Harvey) attended prep school and spent a year at Garland Junior College before marrying Alfred Sexton. She worked briefly as a model and as a librarian, and had two daughters. For most of her life, Sexton struggled against depression and at age 28 tried the first of several suicide attempts. While she was hospitalized, her psychiatrist suggested she try writing poetry, which she did with phenomenal success. She quickly won admission to writers' colonies and to prestigious poetry workshops featuring teachers like Robert Lowell, whose confessional style suited her own. In poetry workshops, she met and befriended Sylvia Plath and Maxine Kumin, with whom she remained very close to the end of her life.
      Her first collection of poetry, To Bedlam and Part Way Back (1960), analyzed her mental breakdowns. In 1962, her collection All My Pretty Ones dealt with the death of her parents, and her 1966 book, Live or Die, won a Pulitzer Prize. During those years, her poetry won her teaching positions at Harvard and Radcliffe, as well as many poetry prizes. However, she continued to battle depression and was in and out of the hospital for both this and physical ailments. In 1974, she chose to die, by her own hand..
1926 Ricardo de la Cierva y Hoces , historiador español.
1922 Lakatos, mathematician.
1922 Lauro Olmo, dramaturgo español.
1921 El partido Nacional Fascista se funda en Alemania.
1918 Spiro Theodore Agnew (R) 39th US Vice-President (1973-77), crook, forced to resign.
1915 Sargent Shriver Dem VP candidate (1972)/directed Peace Corp
1906 Lopatynsky, mathematician.
1905 James William Fulbright (Sen-D-Mo)
1905 Abraham Albert, mathematician.
1903 Gregory Pincus, inventor (birth control pill)
1901 José Rodrigues Miguéis, narrador portugués.
1888 Jean Monnet, à Cognac. Le père de l'Europe est à maints égards le Français le plus remarquable de ce siècle. Il a mené de nombreuses actions en faveur de la paix et de l'union européenne, de 1914 à sa mort, en 1979.
1885 Hermann Weyl, mathematician.
1885 Kaluza, mathematician.
1883 Charles Demuth, US Precisionist painter, who died on 25 October 1935. — MORE ON DEMUTH AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
1877 Adolf Dietrich, Swiss artist who died on 04 June 1957. — more with links to images.
1870 Francisco Carbajal y Gual, en la ciudad de Campeche. Como Secretario de Relaciones Exteriores del usurpador Victoriano Huerta, se hará cargo de la Presidencia de la República Méxicana del 15 Jul 1914 al 13 Aug 1914. Ha de morir el 30 Sep 1932 en la ciudad de México.
1869 Snyder, mathematician.
1854 Hugo Muhlig, German artist who died on 16 February 1929.
1847 Castigliano, mathematician.
1841 Edward VII king of England (1901-10)
1836 Samuel Hill,. Christian business traveler In 1899 Hill, John Nicholson and W.J. Knights co_founded the Gideons, a Christian organization that ministers through distribution of the Scriptures. To date, the Gideons have placed over 12 million Bibles and 100 million New Testaments.
1825 Ambrose Powell Hill, in Culpeper, Virginia, Confederate general during the US Civil War who was particularly active in the fighting around Washington, D.C. His force, called the "Light Division," was considered one of the best. He was killed at the battle of Petersburg on 02 April 1865.
Turgenev 1818 (28 October Julian) Ivan Sergeyevich Turgenev, Russian novelist, poet, and playwright, whose major works include the short-story collection A Hunter's Sketches (1852) and the novels Rudin (1856), Home of the Gentry (1859), On the Eve (1860), and Fathers and Sons (1862). These works offer realistic, affectionate portrayals of the Russian peasantry and penetrating studies of the Russian intelligentsia who were attempting to move the country into a new age. Turgenev poured into his writings not only a deep concern for the future of his native land but also an integrity of craft that has ensured his place in Russian literature. He died on 03 September (22 August Julian) 1883. [biography in Russian]

Turgenev online in Russian: Asia (1858)(polnyi tekst, 60% povesti) : Rudin (1856)(Roman)

Romany: Deopyanskoe gnezdo (1859), Nakanune (1860), Ottsy i deti (1862), Dym (1867), Nov' (1877)

TURGENEV ONLINE (in English translations):
1809 Albert Taylor Bledsoe, author. BLEDSOE ONLINE: An Essay on Liberty and Slavery, Is Davis a Traitor; or, Was Secession a Constitutional Right Previous to the War of 1861?
1802 Elijah P Lovejoy American newspaper publisher/abolitionist
1801 Robert Dale Owen, utopian, author. OWEN ONLINE: A New View of Society
1731 Benjamin Banneker Ellicott MD, black mathematician / surveyor (Wash DC)
1653 Jean-Baptiste Belin (or Blin) de Fontenay, French artist who died on 12 February 1715.
Holidays Pakistan : Iqbal Day / Tunisia : Arbor Day/Tree Festival Day / Turks & Caicos Island : Peacemaker's Day

Religious Observances RC : Dedication of Church of Lateran (Basilica of Our Savior), Rome / Nuestra Señora de la Almudena; Santos Alejandro, Benigno y Orestes. / Saint Théodore, moine byzantin du monastère Saint-Sabas, en Palestine. Il est mort en prison en 842 pour avoir pris parti contre l'empereur de Constantinople qui voulait interdire le culte des icones.

Thoughts for the day: "Beauty seldom recommends one woman to another." [except perhaps in the case of deviants]
"Superiority in ANYTHING seldom recommends one person to another." [except superiority in congeniality]
“Nothing is really work, unless you would rather be doing something else.” — Peter Pan
“Something is really work, unless you would rather be doing nothing else.”
“Work is really something else, unless you would rather be doing nothing.”
“Nothing is really something else, unless you would rather be working.”
“Nothing is real, unless you would rather be somewhere else.”
“Something is real, otherwise you would be somewhere else.”
“I think charm is the ability to be truly interested in other people."
— Richard Avedon, US fashion photographer.
updated Tuesday 11-Nov-2003 1:18 UT
safe site site safe for children safe site