<< Nov 10|        HISTORY “4” “2”DAY         |Nov 12 >>
Events, deaths, births, of NOV 11

[For Nov 11 Julian go to Gregorian date: 1582~1699: Nov 21 1700s: Nov 22 1800s: Nov 23 1900~2099: Nov 24]
On a November 11:
2003 World chess champion Garry Kimovich Kasparov [13 April 1963-], with White, ties with computer program X3D Fritz in the first game of a match which will end in a draw with its 4th game on 18 November 2003 (13 Nov Game 2 16 Nov Game 3). {to replay the games click here and then click the Archive tab}
2002 “50 Places to See Before You Die
      They are revealed by the BBC, according to the votes of some 20'000 of its viewers:
1 The Grand CanyonGreat Barrier Reef and Whitsunday Islands 3 FloridaNZ South Island 5 Cape TownGolden TempleLas VegasSydney 9 New York 10 Taj Mahal 11 Canadian Rockies 12 Uluru 13 Chichen Itza - Mexico 14 Machu Picchu - Peru 15 Niagara Falls 16 Petra - Jordan 17 The Pyramids - Egypt 18 Venice 19 Maldives 20 Great Wall of China 21 Victoria Falls - Zimbabwe 22 Hong Kong 23 Yosemite National Park 24 Hawaii 25 Auckland - New Zealand 26 Iguassu Falls 27 Paris 28 Alaska 29 Angkor Wat - Cambodia 30 Himalayas - Nepal 31 Rio de Janeiro ~ Brazil 32 Masai Mara - Kenya 33 Galapagos Islands - Ecuador 34 Luxor - Egypt 35 Rome 36 San Francisco 37 Barcelona 38 Dubai 39 Singapore 40 La Digue - Seychelles 41 Sri Lanka 42 Bangkok 43 Barbados 44 Iceland 45 Terracotta Army - China 46 Zermatt - Switzerland 47 Angel Falls - Venezuela 48 Abu Simbel ~ Egypt 49 Bali  50 French Polynesia

2001 On the third day of its meeting in Doha, Qatar, the World Trade Organization votes to accept Taiwan as its 144th member.
2001 Lazaro Cardenas Batel, of the Partido Revolucionario Democratico (PRD) is elected governor of Michoacan.
2000 US Republicans go to court, seeking an order to block presidential election manual recounts from continuing in Florida.
2000 National elections in Bosnia.
1998 Microsoft's interactive media chief resigns
      Newspapers reported that the head of Microsoft's interactive media group had resigned. Since 1993, the company had spent hundreds of millions of dollars developing online businesses, such as Microsoft Expedia, a travel service; Microsoft CarPoint, a car sales information service; and dozens of Web sites. Despite these efforts, Microsoft failed to achieve the same success online as companies like Yahoo and America Online. The company had revised its online strategy several times. Microsoft Network launched as a proprietary online service but failed to mount a serious challenge to AOL. It shifted its focus to the Web and developed flashy Web "shows" that failed to catch on and were canceled early in 1998. The company had also launched an entertainment guide service called Sidewalk, which it transformed into an online yellow-pages service in 1998.
1997 Intel confirms Pentium defect
      Intel confirmed that its Pentium chips contained a bug that hackers could exploit to crash computers, and the company released a fix by the end of the week. The first breed of Pentium chips, released in 1994, had been plagued by a bug that produced mathematical errors. After a public uproar, Intel agreed to replace those faulty chips with no questions asked.
1996 IBM to start network computers division
      IBM announced it would form a new division focused on network computers, a new breed of scaled-down machines. With no internal storage or floppy drives, the computers were designed to run software and store files on network servers. This would save corporations money by reducing the cost of computers for simple tasks like word processing. In September, the company introduced the first Network Station computer, priced at about $700. Sun and Oracle had also introduced network computers in recent weeks.
1992 General Synod of the Church of England votes to ordain women as priests in the UK
1991 The US station- its first diplomat in Cambodia in 16 years, to help the war-ravaged nation arrange democratic elections.
1989 Jaguar becomes a subsidiary of Ford
      In 1935, British car designer William Lyons introduced the SS Jaguar 100 as a new marquee for his Swallow Sidecar Company. Swallow Sidecar had been manufacturing complete luxury cars for four years, but the SS Jaguar 100 was Lyons's first true sports car. During World War II, Lyons dropped the Swallow Sidecar name, and the politically incorrect SS initials, and Jaguar Cars Ltd. was formally established. The first significant postwar Jaguar, the XK 120, was introduced in 1948 at the London Motor Show to great acclaim. Capable of speeds in excess of 120 mph, the XK 120 was the fastest production car in the world, and is considered by many to be one of the finest sports cars ever made. Over the next three decades, Jaguar became the epitome of speed coupled with elegance, and the company flourished as its racing division racked up countless trophies. On this day in 1989, Jaguar entered a new era when the company became a subsidiary of the Ford Motor Company. The integrity of the Jaguar marquee was recognized and maintained, and throughout the 1990s the company continued to produce distinguished automobiles such as the Jaguar XK8 and the luxurious Vanden Plas.
1988 Oldest known insect fossils (390 million years) reported in Science
1987 Judge Anthony M Kennedy nominated to the Supreme Court
1987 An unidentified buyer buys Vincent Van Gogh's painting "Irises" from the estate of Joan Whitney Payson for $53.9 million at Sotheby's in New York.
1986 Sperry Rand and Burroughs merge to become Unisys. While the deal cost $15 million in "changeover" expenses, it paid immediate dividends: Unisys shot to the number-two spot on the list of the nation's biggest computer companies.
1985 Optimism about US's fiscal future
      November 11, 1985, did not have the makings of record-breaking day: the economy was, at best, in middling health and a number of financial institutions were closed for Veterans Day. However, that didn't stop traders from feeling a growing sense of optimism about the nation's fiscal future. Their good tidings spilled over into the markets, as the Dow, New Stock Exchange, and Standard and Poor's index all reached new heights. What, then, caused Wall Street to feel so confident about the otherwise unspectacular state of the economy? Many traders pinned their hopes on declining interest rates, rising productivity, and the Fed's continued ability to reign in inflation to help spark profits. There were some dissenting voices, including a chorus of analysts who warned that the markets would suffer an inevitable "correction" before making any more big gains. Yet far from retreating downward, the markets kept picking up steam, charging into a record-setting bull run that lasted well into 1987.
1982 Solidarity leader Lech Walesa is let out of jail in Poland .
1981 Stuntman Dan Goodwin scales the outside of the 100-story John Hancock Center in Chicago in nearly six hours.
1975 Angola gains independence from Portugal (National Day)
1975 Australian PM removed by crown (1st elected PM removed in 200 years)
1973 Israel and Egypt sign a cease-fire.
1972 Long Binh base turned over to South Vietnam
The massive Long Binh military base, once the largest US installation outside the continental United States, is handed over to the South Vietnamese. This logistical complex, which had been constructed on the outskirts of Bien Hoa near the outskirts of Saigon, included numerous ammunition depots, supply depots, and other logistics installations. It served as the headquarters for US Army Vietnam, 1st Logistical Command, and several other related activities. The handing-over of the base effectively marked the end — after seven years — of direct US participation in the war. After the Long Binh base was turned over, about 29,000 US soldiers remained in South Vietnam, most them advisors with South Vietnamese units, or helicopter crewmen, and maintenance, supply, and office staff.
1970 US Army Special Forces raid the Son Tay prison camp in North Vietnam but find no prisoners. The daring rescue raid lacked only one essential ingredient — POWs.
1968 Maldives (in Indian Ocean) become a republic (world's country most threatened by global warming).
1968 US attacks infiltration routes into South Vietnam
US joint-service Operation Commando Hunt is launched. This operation was designed to interdict Communist routes of infiltration along the Ho Chi Minh Trail, through Laos into South Vietnam. The aerial campaign involved a series of intensive air operations by US Air Force, Navy, and Marine Corps aircraft and lasted until April 1972. During the course of the operation, nearly 3 million tons of bombs fell on Laos. While Communist infiltration was slowed by this campaign, it was not seriously disrupted. Commando Hunt was ultimately considered a failure.
1967 US offensive in Quang Nam and Quang Tin Provinces
In Vietnam, the Americal (formerly Task Force Oregon) and 1st Cavalry Divisions combine to form Operation Wheeler/Wallowa in Quang Nam and Quang Tin Provinces, I Corps. The purpose of the operation was to relieve enemy pressure and to reinforce the III Marine Amphibious Force in the area, thus permitting Marines to be deployed further north. The operation lasted more than 12 months and resulted in 10'000 enemy casualties.
1967 Viet Cong release 3 US prisoners of war
      Three US prisoners of war, two of them African American, are released by the Viet Cong in a ceremony in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The three men were turned over to Tom Hayden, a "new left" antiwar activist. US officials in Saigon said that the released prisoners had been "brainwashed," but the State Department denied it. The Viet Cong said that the release was a response to antiwar protests in the US and a gesture towards the "courageous struggle" of blacks in the United States.
1965 Rhodesia declares independence from Britain
      The white-minority government of Rhodesia, the African country later known as Zimbabwe, unilaterally declares its independence from Britain to avoid granting power to Rhodesia's black majority. The British government strongly objects to the move, and in 1967 the United Nations opposes mandatory sanctions against Rhodesia. Over the next nine years, the white-minority regime of Prime Minister Ian Smith endures British pressure, economic sanctions, and guerilla attacks from black Rhodesian groups. Finally, in 1976, under pressure from his former supporters in South Africa, Smith agrees that majority rule will come within the next few years. In 1979, all of Rhodesia's black citizens are enfranchised. Subsequently, a black majority in the Assembly and Senate is elected, and the country's name is changed from Rhodesia to Zimbabwe Rhodesia. In 1980, Britain finally recognizes the independence of Zimbabwe, fifteen years after it was first declared.
1953 The polio virus is identified and photographed for the first time in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
1944 Private Eddie Slovik is convicted of desertion and sentenced to death for refusing to join his unit in the European Theater of Operations. The Sad Story of Private Eddie Slovik
1942 During WW II Germany completes their occupation of France, violating the terms of the armistice. — Hitler declenche l'operation "Attila". En reponse au debarquement anglo-americain en Afrique du Nord, l'armee allemande franchit la ligne de demarcation qui separe la France occupee de la France dite "libre" depuis l'armistice de 1940. A Vichy, le gouvernement du marechal Petain et de Pierre Laval est place sous le controle direct de l'occupant. Il perd la fiction de son independance.
1940 British raid aircraft carriers at Taranto
      The British Royal Navy makes the first major aircraft-carrier strike in history. The raid, originally scheduled for Trafalgar Day, 21 October, had been postponed due to a fire on a new aircraft carrier, Illustrious. This fire was not the only technical difficulty the Royal Navy had to overcome. Their carrier-based bombers, known as Swordfish, were already obsolete — far inferior to Japanese Kate planes and the US Navy's TBD Devastator Torpedo planes. When Admiral Sir Andrew Cunningham ordered the attack, he was plagued by doubts.
       On the night of 11 November (Armistice Day), twelve Swordfish from the Illustrious took off for Taranto. The first six lit up the harbor with flares and bombs, peppering cruisers, destroyers, and harbor facilities as a diversionary tactic. The other Swordfish, armed with torpedoes, headed straight for six Italian battleships, sinking two of them. The second wave of Swordfish came forty minutes later and badly damaged a third Italian ship.
      The surprise attack on Taranto was a tremendous success. The Italian fleet was forced to withdraw to the west coast of Italy, assuring British control of the Mediterranean. In fact, the attack on Taranto was successful enough to inspire Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, Commander in Chief of the Japanese Combined Fleet, to plan his attack by aircraft carriers on Pearl Harbor.
1935 Albert Anderson and Orvil Anderson set a new altitude record in South Dakota, when they float to 22'500 m in Explorer 2 balloon.
1933 Massive dust storm sweeps South Dakota
      A powerful wind strips the topsoil from desiccated farmlands in South Dakota, one of a series of disastrous windstorms that year. The drought-ridden land of the Southern Plains became known as the Dust Bowl; it was useless to farmers, and only exacerbated the economic problems of the Great Depression. Within two days, dust from the South Dakota storm had reached all the way to Albany, New York.
      Dust storms plagued the West throughout the 1930s and eventually the devastated area covered nearly 40 million hectares. Rising like ominous black clouds on the horizon, the dust storms destroyed crops, choked livestock to death, and damaged human health.
      During 1938, the worst year of the dust storms, it is estimated that 850 million tons of topsoil disappeared with the winds. The size and scope of the problem have led some historians to call the Dust Bowl the worst environmental disaster in American history.
      The cause of the Dust Bowl is still unclear. Widespread drought — which killed crops and turned the topsoil into a light powder — was undoubtedly a factor. However, some have argued that the farmers played their part by replacing native grasses with wheat and less hardy crops.
      Whatever the causes, the Roosevelt administration responded to the Dust Bowl with a billion- dollar program to aid and educate farmers in soil conservation techniques that have become standard practice. After the rains returned in 1941, the region bloomed once again. Severe droughts have occurred since, but none have been as devastating as the Dust Bowl days of the 1930s.
1925 Robert Millikan announces discovery of cosmic rays
1922 Canada's Vernon McKenzie urges to fight US propaganda with taxes on US magazines.
1918 Un armistice met fin a la Grande Guerre
      Le 11 novembre 1918, a 11 heures, dans toute la France, les cloches sonnent a la volee. Au front, les clairons bondissent sur les parapets et sonnent le "Cessez-le-Feu", "Levez-vous", "Au Drapeau". La "Marseillaise" jaillit a pleins poumons des tranchees. Meme soulagement en face, dans le camp allemand. Pour la premiere fois depuis quatre ans, Francais et Allemands peuvent se regarder sans s'entretuer.
     La guerre dure depuis plus de quatre ans. Le generalissime des armees alliees, le marechal Foch, donne cet ordre du jour : " Vous avez gagne la plus grande bataille de l'histoire et sauve la cause la plus sacree, la liberte du monde. " Clemenceau, quant à lui, en tant que president du Conseil declare à 16 heures devant la Chambre : " En cette heure terrible, grande et magnifique, mon devoir est accompli... Au nom du peuple francais, au nom de la Republique francaise, j'envoie le salut de la France, unie et indivisible, à l'Alsace et à la Lorraine retrouvees. "
      L'armistice laisse derriere elle huit millions de morts et les survivants veulent croire que cette guerre qui s'acheve restera la derniere de l'Histoire, la "der des der"... Apres l'echec de leur contre-offensive de juillet 1918 et devant l'arrivee en masse des troupes americaines, les Allemands ont compris qu'ils n'avaient plus d'espoir de vaincre. L'un apres l'autre, leurs allies de la guerre ont cesse les combats et signe des armistices. Une revolte ouvriere dans le port de Kiel, le 3 novembre, fait craindre une Revolution d'inspiration communiste dans l'ensemble du pays. Accule, l'empereur Guillaume II abdique le 9 novembre et cede la place au gouvernement republicain du chancelier Max de Bade. Son plenipotentiaire Matthias Erzberger demande et obtient l'armistice (cela lui vaudra d'etre assassine par les nationalistes allemands le 26 août 1921). L'armistice est signe dans le wagon du generalissime Foch, au carrefour de Rethondes, au milieu de la foret de Compiegne. Dans leur consternation, les citoyens allemands notent que leur pays n'a pas ete envahi et que leurs armees ne se sont pas effondrees. Apres avoir montre une extreme determination dans la guerre a outrance, Georges Clemenceau, le chef du gouvernement francais, n'a pas voulu profiter de son avantage militaire pour envahir l'Allemagne et signifier a celle-ci l'etendue de sa defaite. La demande d'armistice est elle-meme venue des representants civils et non militaires de l'Allemagne. Ces derniers echappent ainsi a l'infamie de la defaite. A Berlin, les representants de la jeune Republique accueillent les combattants en ces termes: "Soldats qui revenez invaincus,…". Deja, certains Allemands meurtris attribuent leur defaite a un "coup de poignard dans le dos", de la part des politiciens et des bourgeois cosmopolites ou juifs. En France, l'armistice reste une commemoration majeure de la vie nationale, avec depot de gerbes devant les monuments aux morts de chaque village et sur la tombe du Soldat inconnu, sous l'Arc de Triomphe de la place de l'Etoile, a Paris.
Grippe espagnole
      Les rejouissances consecutives a l'arret des combats sont, dans d'innombrables foyers, contrariees par une epidemie surprenante et tres mortelle. Pendant deux ans, en 1918 et 1919, un virus mysterieux se repand en Asie d'abord puis dans le reste du monde. Des poilus rescapes des tranchees sont tout d'un coup frappes par une fievre sans raison apparente et s'alitent pour ne plus se relever. Des familles entieres sont decimees... L'epidemie provoque au total pas moins de... 21 millions de morts, soit deux fois plus que la Grande Guerre. Les trois quarts des victimes se situent en Asie. Le virus est pudiquement appele "influenza" par les Anglo-Saxons et "grippe espagnole" par les Francais. En fait, il s'agit rien moins que d'une variante de la terrible peste noire qui a frappe l'Occident a plusieurs reprises depuis 1347. Comme l'epidemie de sida de la fin du XXe siecle, la grippe espagnole se solde par une addition de drames individuels sans repercussions notables sur la vie politique et sociale. Son souvenir s'est a peu pres completement efface des memoires et meme des livres d'Histoire.

Armistice Day-WW I ends (at 11:00 on Western Front)  
      At the 11th hour on the 11th day of the 11th month of 1918, the Great War ends. [It would have been a lot smarter to prevent it by an agreement at the 11th minute of the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month of the 11th year of the century]
      At 05:00 that morning, Germany, bereft of manpower and supplies and faced with imminent invasion, signed an armistice agreement with the Allies in a railroad car outside Compiègne, France. The First World War left nine million soldiers dead and 21 million wounded, with Germany, Russia, Austria-Hungary, France, and Great Britain each losing nearly a million or more lives. In addition, at least five million civilians died from disease, starvation, or exposure.
      On 28 June 1914, in an event that is widely regarded as sparking the outbreak of World War I, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian empire, was shot to death with his wife by Bosnian Serb Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo, Bosnia. Ferdinand had been inspecting his uncle's imperial armed forces in Bosnia and Herzegovina, despite the threat of Serbian nationalists who wanted these Austro-Hungarian possessions to join newly independent Serbia. Austria-Hungary blamed the Serbian government for the attack and hoped to use the incident as justification for settling the problem of Slavic nationalism once and for all. However, as Russia supported Serbia, an Austro-Hungarian declaration of war was delayed until its leaders received assurances from German leader Kaiser Wilhelm II that Germany would support their cause in the event of a Russian intervention.
      On 28 July 1914 Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, and the tenuous peace between Europe's great powers collapsed. On 29 July, Austro-Hungarian forces began to shell the Serbian capital, Belgrade, and Russia, Serbia's ally, ordered a troop mobilization against Austria-Hungary. France, allied with Russia, began to mobilize on 01 August 1. France and Germany declared war against each other on 03 August 3. After crossing through neutral Luxembourg, the German army invaded Belgium on the night of 03 to 04 August, prompting Great Britain, Belgium's ally, to declare war against Germany.
      For the most part, the people of Europe greeted the outbreak of war with stupid jubilation. Most patriotically assumed that their country would be victorious within months. Of the initial belligerents, Germany was most prepared for the outbreak of hostilities, and its military leaders had formatted a sophisticated military strategy known as the "Schlieffen Plan," which envisioned the conquest of France through a great arcing offensive through Belgium and into northern France. Russia, slow to mobilize, was to be kept occupied by Austro-Hungarian forces while Germany attacked France.
      The Schlieffen Plan was nearly successful, but in early September the French rallied and halted the German advance at the bloody Battle of the Marne near Paris. By the end of 1914, well over a million soldiers of various nationalities had been killed on the battlefields of Europe, and neither for the Allies nor the Central Powers was a final victory in sight. On the western front — the battle line that stretched across northern France and Belgium — the combatants settled down in the trenches for a terrible war of attrition.
      In 1915, the Allies attempted to break the stalemate with an amphibious invasion of Turkey, which had joined the Central Powers in October 1914, but after heavy bloodshed the Allies were forced to retreat in early 1916. The year 1916 saw great offensives by Germany and Britain along the western front, but neither side accomplished a decisive victory. In the east, Germany was more successful, and the disorganized Russian army suffered terrible losses, spurring the outbreak of the Russian Revolution in 1917. By the end of 1917, the Bolsheviks had seized power in Russia and immediately set about negotiating peace with Germany. In 1918, the infusion of American troops and resources into the western front finally tipped the scale in the Allies' favor. Germany signed an armistice agreement with the Allies on 11 November 1918.
      World War I was known as the "war to end all wars" because of the great slaughter and destruction it caused. Unfortunately, the peace treaty that officially ended the conflict — the Treaty of Versailles of 1919 — forced punitive terms on Germany that destabilized Europe and laid the groundwork for World War II.
1909 Construction begins on the US naval base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii.
1895 Bechuanaland becomes part of the Cape Colony
1889 Washington admitted as 42nd US state
1872 Fire engulfs Boston. The impact of the fire could be felt in New York, where nervous traders sent stocks tumbling. Although the markets made a brief comeback in December, the Boston blaze cast a pall over Wall Street that stretched well into the new year.
1864 Sherman's troops destroy Rome, Georgia
1863 Skirmish in the Fouche-le-Faix Mountains of Arkansas
1852 Louisa May Alcott publishes her first story
      The Saturday Evening Gazette publishes The Rival Painters: A Story of Rome, by Louisa May Alcott, 19, who will later write the beloved children's book Little Women (1868). Alcott, the second of four daughters, was born in Pennsylvania but spent most of her life in Concord, Massachusetts. Her father, Bronson, was close friends with Transcendentalist thinkers Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau, whose progressive attitudes toward education and social issues left a strong mark on Louisa. Her father started a school based on Transcendentalist teachings, but after six years it failed, and he was unable to support the family and, afterward, Louisa dedicated most of her life to supporting them. After the publication of her first story, she made a living off sentimental and melodramatic stories for more than two decades.
      In 1862 she went to work as a nurse for Union troops in the Civil War until typhoid fever broke her health. She turned her experiences into Hospital Sketches (1863), which earned her a reputation as a serious literary writer.
      Looking for a bestseller, a publisher asked Alcott to write a book for girls. Although reluctant at first, she poured her best talent into the work, and the first volume of the serialized (beginning 30 October 1868) novel Little Women became an instant success. She wrote a chapter a day for the second half of the book. Her subsequent children's fiction, including Little Men (1871), An Old-Fashioned Girl (1870), Eight Cousins (1875), and Jo's Boys (1886), while not as popular as Little Women, are still enjoyed today. She also wrote many short stories for adults. She became a strong supporter of women's issues and spent most of her life caring for her family's financial, emotional, and physical needs. Her father died in March 1888, and she followed him just two days later.
  • Behind a Mask: or, A Woman's Power
  • Eight Cousins
  • Eight Cousins
  • Flower Fables
  • Hospital Sketches (1863)
  • Jack and Jill
  • Little Men
  • Little Men
  • An Old-Fashioned Thanksgiving
  • Rose in Bloom
  • Rose in Bloom
  • Little Women (parts 1 and 2)
  • Little Women
  • Little Women
  • Little Women
  • Little Women (part 1, UK)
  • Good Wives (part 2 of Little Women)
  • The Mysterious Key, and What it Opened
  • An Old-Fashioned Girl
  • An Old-Fashioned Girl
  • An Old-Fashioned Girl
  • 1811 Cartagena Colombia declares independence from Spain
    1648 Dutch and French agree to divide St Maarten, Leeward Islands
    1647 Massachusetts passes 1st US compulsory school attendance law .
    1630 La "Journee des dupes" . Marie de Medicis deteste Richelieu, elle est determinee à le perdre. Au palais du Luxembourg, elle fait mander son fils Louis XIII et lui demande la disgrace du cardinal. Celui-ci apparait, elle l'injurie. Bouleverse, le roi se retire sans un regard pour son ministre. Richelieu se croit perdu. Les grands se pressent vers la reine, convaincus qu'elle vient de l'emporter. Le lendemain, le roi convoque le cardinal dans son pavillon de chasse de Versailles. Le cardinal se jette aux pieds du roi, qui le releve et le prie de rester. C'est à la reine que le roi ordonne de prendre le chemin de l'exil au chateau de Compiegne. Avant que sa mere ne parte, le roi lui dit à propos de Richelieu : "C'est le plus grand serviteur que jamais la France ait eu."
    1620 The Mayflower Compact
          Two days after sighting land, the Mayflower comes to anchor in what is today Provincetown Harbor in the Cape Cod region of Massachusetts. The same day, the Mayflower Compact is drafted and signed by the forty-one male passengers on the ship, commonly known as the pilgrims. The majority of the signatories are Puritan Separatists, who traveled to America to escape the jurisdiction of the Church of England, which they believed violated the biblical precepts for true Christians. However, other pilgrims aboard were loyal to England's church, but came to the New World for its economic opportunities. The Mayflower Compact is signed in the name of God, the Christian faith, England, and King James I — who granted the pilgrims an implicit assent to practice their religion in New England. The text of the Compact calls for the establishment of a "civil Body Politick" to enact "just and equal laws" for the governance of the first English colony in New England. In later years, the Mayflower Compact is hailed as the origin of all the democratic institutions that evolved in America, although the agreement was not a revolutionary departure from English precedent. Nevertheless, the Compact establishes the first basis for written laws in New England, and during the next month the pilgrims establish a permanent settlement at Plymouth, Massachusetts.
         Democratic in form, the Compact comprised the first written American constitution, and remained in force until 1691
    1500 Traite de Grenade, les rois Louis XII et Ferdinand d'Aragon se partagent le royaume de Naples.
    1417 La papaute refait son unite a Constance
         A Constance, un concile met fin au Grand Schisme d’Occident. Humiliee par le roi de France, un siecle plus tot, la papaute avait oublie son combat contre l'empereur allemand et les grands de ce monde pour imposer le regne de Dieu sur terre. Le pape avait quitte Rome pour s'installer a Avignon, sous la ferule du puissant roi de France. L'Eglise s'etait ensuite laissee entrainer dans des querelles de factions grotesques, au grand scandale des fideles. La revolte gronde. L'Anglais John Wyclif et le Tcheque Jan Hus appellent a une Reforme de l'Eglise et a un retour aux commandements de l'Evangile. La France, ravagee par la querelle des Armagnacs et des Bourguignons, est impuissante a agir. C'est l'empereur allemand Sigismond, excede, qui impose la reunion d'un concile sur les bords du lac de Constance. Le concile met fin a la scandaleuse divistion de la papaute. C'en est fini des papes et des anti-papes qui se sont entredechires pendant un demi-siecle, de Rome a Avignon. Le college des cardinaux revoque les trois papes du moment et en elit un et un seul. Celui-ci, Oddone Colonna, appartient a la noblesse romaine. Il n'est pas encore pretre et recoit en hate les nominations appropriees a sa nouvelle fonction. Prenant le nom de Martin V, il s'etablit definitivement a Rome. Il n'empeche que le mal a ete fait. La revolution religieuse en germe dans l'Empire allemand triomphera un siecle plus tard avec Martin Luther.
    1215 The Fourth Lateran Council (12th ecumenical council) is convened in Rome by Pope Innocent III. It was the council which first defined "transubstantiation," the Catholic belief that the bread and wine of the Eucharist change invisibly into the body and blood of Christ.
    43 avant JC: Un triumvirat pour succeder a Cesar (certaines sources donnent le 26 novembre)
          Antoine, Lepide et Octave se font nommer par le Senat romain pour exercer un gouvernement a trois. C'est le second triumvirat (tres viri reipublicae constituendae). Dominant tout le bassin mediterraneen, Rome a besoin d'institutions mieux adaptees que l'ancienne Republique. Cesar l'avait bien vu mais il a paye de sa vie son empressement a prendre le titre de roi. Les trois pretendants a sa succession cessent un moment de se combattre. Allies au sein du triumvirat, ils ordonnent des proscriptions contre le parti republicain accuse d'avoir complote contre Cesar. Ciceron et beaucoup d'autres y trouvent la mort. Puis, les triumvirs ne tardent pas a s'entredechirer dans une guerre civile qui s'achevera douze ans plus tard, apres la bataille d'Actium, par la mort d'Antoine et la victoire definitive d'Octave. Le petit-neveu de Jules Cesar, bientot denomme Auguste, va instaurer un empire de fait. La paix romaine ("pax romana") regnera pour plus de deux siecles autour de la Mediterranee.

    Ushishkin Deaths which occurred on a November 11:
    2003:: 6 Iraqis including the terrorist who was placing a bomb on the side of a street in British-occupied Basra, Iraq, and which explodes apparently prematurely, destroying a minibus. Four Iraquis are injured.
    2002:: 18 of the 29 passengers and 5 crew members aboard a Laoag International Airlines Fokker 27 commuter plane which crashes into 11-meter-deep Manila Bay 5 minutes after its 06:15 takeoff.
    2002 Nafez Meshaal, 2, Palestinian boy shot in the abdomen while playing ball at 19:00, by Israeli soldiers, in the Tul Al Sultan neighborhood of Rafah, Gaza Strip. Three Palestinians are wounded.
    2002 Mohammed Najja, 8, Palestinian boy, from being shot by Israeli soldiers on 17 October 2002 in Khan Yunis, Gaza Strip.
    2001 Aharon Usishkin, 50, [photo >] shot by Palestinian gunman in revenge for Israelis killing one of his relatives. Usishkin, the security officer in the central Israel community of Kfar Hess about 10 km north of Kfar Sava and 20 km northwest of the Palestinian city of Qalqilyah in the West Bank, was called to the entrance of the community to investigate a suspicious man. As he arrived the man opened fire on him and a vehicle containing two other people, before fleeing into the surrounding fields. The gunman had left a note behind saying that the shooting was a revenge.
    Billaud2001 Johanne Sutton of Radio France Internationale, Pierre Billaud [< photo] of RTL Radio, and Volker Handloik, a freelance reporter for Stern newsmagazine. Near Taloqan, capital of Takhar in Afghanistan, in the dark after nightfall, they were in a group of foreign correspondents being taken by the Northern Alliance to see trenches falsely said to have been abandoned by the Taliban.
    The armored personnel on top of which they were sitting comes under attack by a Taliban rocket-propelled grenade, swerves to avoid it, and the three fall off, while the vehicle escapes with its other occupants unhurt. .
    2000: 155 skiers as cable car catches fire at 09:30, 650 m inside tunnel up the Kitzsteinhorm mountain, Salzburg province, Austria. 8 persons escape alive.
    2000 Nguyen Trong Thanh, 59, from choking and severe blows to the head by Vu Truong Giang, 28, a former employee of the Vietnamese Planning and Investment Ministry, Thanh is killed at his Hanoi office after refusing to give up nude photographs of Giang's girlfriend he had taken during a five-year romantic relationship with her that lasted until 1998. The girlfriend, Vu Tra My, 27, is present. She would not be charged but, on 19 September 2001, Giang would be sentenced to 12 years in prison. Thanh achieved fame as a photographer during the Vietnam War during which he spent five years working on the Ho Chi Minh Trail.
    1976 Alexander “Sandy” Calder, US kinetic artist, painter, sculptor, and printmaker, in love with the color red, born on 22 July 1898. — MORE ON CALDER AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1962 Rene Coty, 80, President of France
    1954 Carslaw, mathematician.
    1951 Tsiang Beda, Jesuit bishop of Shanghai, in a communist prison. He had refused to head the Chinese "reform" church.
    1917 Lydia Paki Kamekeha Liliuokalani, born on 02 September 1838, Queen of the Hawaiian Islands from the 1891 death of her brother King Kalakaua until 1893, when she was imprisoned, forced to abdicate on 24 January (or else she and her supporters would be killed), and subjected to a mockery of a trial by treacherous US planters who sought annexation to the United States, which they obtained in 1898 after proclaiming the Republic of Hawaii in 1894. — LILIUOKALANI ONLINE: Hawaii's Story by Hawaii's Queen (1898) [her autobiography rather than a history of Hawaii]
    1911 Felix François Georges Philibert Ziem (or Siem), French painter, specialized in Veniscapes, born on 26 (21?) February 1821. — MORE ON ZIEM AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1908:: 360 mineros por una explosión de grisú en la mina Radbod-Hamm, en Westfalia.
    1904 Valentine Cameron Prinsep, British Pre-Raphaelite painter born on 14 February 1838 (1836?). — MORE ON PRINSEP AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.

    1887 August Spies, George Engel, Adolph Fisher, and Albert Parsons, hanged
    for "inciting" the Haymarket riot, at which they were not present. The evidence against them was their anarchist ideas and literature.
          With the noose around his neck, Fischer cried out: "Hurrah for Anarchy! This is the happiest moment of my life." Parsons said: "Will I be allowed to speak, O men of America? Let me speak, Sheriff Matson! Let the voice of the people be heard!" From inside his hood, Spies made a short statement which would be heard for decades in workingclass circles: "The time will come when our silence will be more powerful than the voices you strangle today."
         The executions aroused people all over the country. There was a funeral march of 25'000 in Chicago.
         Four labor activists accused of murdering eight Chicago police officers at the Haymarket Square Riot are executed by hanging in Illinois. On 04 May 1886, a labor rally was held in Chicago's Haymarket Square to protest the killing of four strikers by the Chicago police the day before. Midway into the demonstration, made up of mostly German-born workers, a squad of nearly two hundred policemen arrived to break up the rally. By this time the crowd had thinned out because of rain. As the police began to forcibly disperse the three hundred remaining protestors, a bomb was thrown into the advancing police by a person never positively identified. Policeman Mathias J. Degan died almost instantly, seven other officers died later, and over sixty others were wounded. In response to the bombing, the police fired wildly into the crowd, killing eight people and injuring dozens more, including a number of fellow officers.
          The Haymarket Square Riot set off a national wave of xenophobia, as hundreds of foreign-born radicals and labor leaders were rounded up in Chicago and elsewhere. A grand jury eventually indicted thirty-one suspected labor radicals in connection with the bombing, and eight men were convicted in a controversial and sensational trial. Judge Joseph E. Gary imposed the death sentence on seven of the men and the eighth was sentenced to fifteen years in prison. Samuel Fielden, Adolph Fischer, August Spies, and Albert Parson, executed by hanging, were the first labor activists to be executed in America. Of the three others sentenced to death, one committed suicide on 10 November and Illinois Governor Richard J. Oglesby commuted two of the men's sentences to life imprisonment due to widespread public doubt of their guilt. In 1893, Governor John P. Altgeld pardoned the three activists still living.
    1873 Henry Perle “Smuggler” Parker, British artist born in 1795.
    1856 John Middleton, English painter and etcher born on 09 Jan 1827 (or in 1828?).
    click for full engraving1831 Nat Turner former slave, led a revolt, hanged
         Nat Turner, the leader of a bloody slave revolt three months before, is hanged in Jerusalem, Virginia. Turner, a slave born on 02 October 1800, and educated minister, believed himself chosen by God to lead his people out of slavery. On 21 August 1831, Nat Turner initiated his slave uprising by slaughtering his owner Joseph Travis and Travis's family.
    click for full engravings     With seven followers, Turner set off across the countryside, hoping to rally hundreds of slaves to join his insurrection. Turner planned to capture the county armory at Jerusalem, Virginia, and then march 50 km to Dismal Swamp, where his rebels would be able to elude their pursuers. During the next two days and nights, Turner and 75 followers rampaged through Southampton County, killing about 60 whites. Local whites resisted the rebels, and then the state militia — consisting of some 3000 men — crushed the rebellion.
          Only a few kilometers from Jerusalem, Turner and all his followers were dispersed, captured, or killed. In the aftermath of the rebellion, over one hundred Blacks were lynched by hanging, though most of them had not participated in the revolt. Turner himself was not captured until 30 October 1831 (by Benjamin Phipps), and after confessing without regret to his role in the bloodshed, he was, on 05 November 1831, tried, convicted, and sentenced to death. On 11 November 11, he is hanged in Jerusalem. Turner's rebellion was the largest slave revolt in US history and led to a new wave of oppressive legislation prohibiting the movement, assembly, and education of slaves. — MORE
    NAT TURNER ONLINE: The Confessions of Nat Turner The Confessions of Nat Turner {published by Thomas Gray as The Confessions of Nat Turner, as fully and voluntarily made to Thomas R. Gray, two weeks after Turner was executed. Turner’s authorship and/or approval of the narrative is questionable for many reasons, one of which is his inability to read the work; another is the fact that he was already dead when the work was published.)
    1810 Johannes Josephus Zauffely “Zoffany”, German Neoclassical painter, active in England where he dies, also in Italy and in India, born on 13 March 1733. — MORE ON ZOFFANY AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1778: 40 persons, killed by Iroquois Indians led by William Butler, in NY, in Cherry Valley Massacre.
    1772 Jan Morits Quinckhardt, Dutch painter and dealer born on 28 January 1688.
    1761 Jan Ten Compe, Dutch painter, draftsman, and dealer, born on 14 February 1713. — more
    1681 (burial) Jacob Marell, German painter, active also in the northern Netherlands, born in 1614.
    1638 Cornelis Corneliszoon van Haarlem, Dutch Mannerist painter and draftsman born in 1562. — MORE ON CORNELIS AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1563 Francesco Rossi del Salviati “il Cecchino”, Italian Mannerist painter born in 1510. — MORE ON SALVIATI AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1499 Perkin Warbeck, executed, pretender to the throne. The curious career and uncertain past of Perkin Warbeck
    0537 St Silverius, Pope
    0397 Martin of Tours, founder of France's first monastery.
    Births which occurred on a November 11:
    1955 Jigme Singye Wangchuk king of Bhutan (1972- )
    1945 Daniel Ortega Saavedra President of Nicaragua (1984- )
    1928 Carlos Fuentes, Mexican novelist.
    1922 Kurt Vonnegut, American novelist (Slaughterhouse Five).
    1915 William Proxmire (Sen-D-WI) (Golden Fleece Awards)
    1911 King Hussein of Jordan.
    1911 Roberto Antonio Sebastian Matta Echauren, Chilean Surrealist painter, active mostly in France, who died on 23 November 2002. — MORE ON MATTA AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1904 Alger Hiss, US State Department official, convicted of perjury after denying having been a Communist spy, as accused (first on 03 August 1948) by Whittaker Chambers [01 April 1901 – 09 July 1961]. Hiss died on 15 November 1996. Hiss wrote two books, In the Court of Public Opinion (1957) and Recollections of a Life (1988).
    1904 Henry Whitehead, mathematician.
    1888 Johannes Itten, Swiss Expressionist painter, lithographer, textile designer, teacher, writer, and theorist, who died on 25 March 1967. — more with links to two images.
    Patton stamp, issued 53-11-111885 George Smith Patton Jr., one of the great US generals of World War II.
         Patton "Old Blood & Guts" is born in San Gabriel, California. Patton came from a family with a long history of military service. After studying at West Point, he served as a tank officer in World War I, and his experience in that conflict, along with his extensive military study, led him to become an advocate of the crucial importance of the tank in future warfare. After the US entrance into World War II, Patton was placed in command of an important US tank division and played a key role in the Allied invasion of French North Africa in 1942. In 1943, Patton led the US 7th Army in its assault on Sicily and won fame for out-commanding Montgomery during the so-called Race to Messina.
          Although Patton was one of the ablest US commanders in World War II, he was also one of the most controversial. He presented himself as a modern-day cavalryman, designed his own uniform, and was known to make eccentric claims that he was a direct descent from great military leaders of the past through reincarnation. During the Sicilian campaign, Patton generated considerable controversy when he accused a hospitalized US soldier suffering from battle fatigue of cowardice and then personally struck him across the face on 03 August 1943. The famously profane general was forced to issue a public apology and was reprimanded by General Dwight Eisenhower.
          However, when it was time for the invasion of Western Europe, Eisenhower could find no general as formidable as Patton, and the general was again granted an important military post. In 1944, Patton commanded the US Third Army in the invasion of France, and in December of that year his expertise in military movement and tank warfare helped crush the German counteroffensive in the Ardennes. On 21 December 1945, he died in a hospital in Germany from injuries sustained in an automobile accident near Mannheim.
    1884 Josef Mangold, German artist who died in 1942.
    1869 Victor Emmanuel III king of Italy (1900-46) / Ethiopia
    1868 Edouard Vuillard, French Nabi and Post-Impressionist painter, draftsman, and printmaker, who died on 21 June 1940. — MORE ON VUILLARD AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1864 Alfred Hermann Fried, Austrian journalist active in Germany, founder of Die Friedenswarte, who received the 1911 Nobel Peace Prize jointly with Tobias Michael Carel Asser (1838 - 1913). Having lost everything in the collapse of Austria-Hungary following WW I, Fried died in poverty on 05 May 1921. — MORE
    1863 Paul Signac
    , Parisian pointilliste painter, printmaker, etcher, lithographer, who died on 15 August 1935. MORE ON SIGNAC AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1845 Jules Guesde, a Paris.
          Apres la Commune, il divulgue en France la pensee de Marx et unifie les mouvements socialistes autour d'un parti revolutionnaire. A partir de 1905, au sein du mouvement socialiste, le courant marxiste orthodoxe de Jules Guesde entrera en conflit avec le courant humaniste de Jean Jaures. Apres l'assassinat du pacifiste Jaures, en 1914, Jules Guesde se ralliera a l'Union sacree contre l'Allemagne. Dans Le Cri du Peuple du 10 fevrier 1886, le socialiste revolutionnaire Jules Guesde publie un article intitule "Meurent les ouvriers francais". On peut y lire cette profession de foi: "Ils sont 800.000 ouvriers etrangers qui, travaillant a tout prix, font outrageusement baisser les salaires, quand ils ne les suppriment pas completement pour nos ouvriers expulses des usines."
    1837 Arthur Grottger, Polish draftsman and painter who died on 13 December 1867. — more
    1836 Thomas Bailey Aldrich, in Portsmouth, N.H., poet, short-story writer, and editor whose use of the surprise ending influenced the development of the short story. He drew upon his childhood experiences in New Hampshire in his popular classic The Story of a Bad Boy (1870).
          Aldrich left school at 13 to work as a merchant's clerk in New York City and soon began to contribute to various newspapers and magazines. After publication of his first book of verse, The Bells (1855), he became junior literary critic on the New York Evening Mirror and later subeditor of the Home Journal. From 1881 to 1890 he was editor of The Atlantic Monthly. His poems, which reflect the cultural atmosphere of New England and his frequent European tours, were published in such volumes as Cloth of Gold (1874), Flower and Thorn (1877), Mercedes and Later Lyrics (1884), and Wyndham Towers (1890). His best known prose is Marjorie Daw and Other People (1873), a collection of short stories. Aldrich died on 19 March 1907
  • Cloth of Gold and Other Poems
  • Judith and Holofernes
  • Later Lyrics: Selected from Mercedes, The Sisters' tragedy, Wyndham Towers and Unguarded Gates
  • Marjorie Daw, and The Cruise of the Dolphin Part 1, Part 2
  • Mercedes: A Drama in Two Acts
  • An Old Town By the Sea
  • The Poems of Thomas Bailey Aldrich
  • Ponkapog Papers
  • The Sisters' Tragedy, with Other Poems, Lyrical and Dramatic
  • The Sisters' Tragedy, with Other Poems, Lyrical and Dramatic
  • The Story of a Bad Boy
  • Unguarded Gates and Other Poems
  • Wyndham Towers
  • Wyndham Towers
  • XXXVI Lyrics and XII Sonnets
  • 1832 Philippe Jolyet, French artist who died in 1908.
    click for full portrait1821 (30 October Julian) Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky  (Ô¸äîð Ìèõàeëîâè÷ Äîñòîåâñêèe)      ^top^
    [click image for full portrait >]
          He would become a Russian novelist and short-story writer whose psychological penetration into the darkest recesses of the human heart, together with his unsurpassed moments of illumination, have had an immense influence on 20th-century fiction. Dostoevsky is usually regarded as one of the finest novelists who ever lived. Literary modernism, existentialism, and various schools of psychology, theology, and literary criticism have been profoundly shaped by his ideas. His works are often called prophetic because he so accurately predicted how Russia's revolutionaries would behave if they came to power. In his time he was also renowned for his activity as a journalist.
         His father was a doctor at Moscow's Hospital for the Poor, where he grew rich enough to buy land and serfs. After his father's death, Dostoevsky, who suffered from epilepsy, studied military engineering and became a civil servant while secretly writing novels. His first, , and his second, e, were both published in 1846 — the first was a hit, the second a failure. Dostoevsky began participating in a radical intellectual discussion group called the Petrashevsky Circle. The group was suspected of subversive activites, which led to Dostoevsky's arrest in 1849, and his sentencing to death.
          On 22 December 1849, Dostoevsky was led before the firing squad but received a last-minute reprieve and was sent to a Siberian labor camp, where he worked for four years. He was released in 1854 and worked as a soldier on the Mongolian frontier. He married a widow and finally returned to Russia in 1859. The following year, he founded a magazine and two years after that journeyed to Europe for the first time. In 1864 and 1865, his wife and his brother died, the magazine folded, and Dostoevsky found himself deeply in debt, which he exacerbated by gambling. In 1866, he published Crime and Punishment, one of his most popular works. In 1867, he married a stenographer, and the couple fled to Europe to escape his creditors. His novel The Possessed (1872) was successful, and the couple returned to St. Petersburg. He published The Brothers Karamazov in 1880 to immediate success, but he died a year later.
         From earliest childhood Dostoyevsky knew the gospels and learned Bible stories from the deacon at the hospital where his father was a doctor. As he looked back in later years, he rejoiced that as a child he was brought up in a home that knew Christ, and that his mother and father had given him something holy and precious to carry him through the rest of his life.
          As a young man, Dostoyevsky was an activist pushing the social ideals of his day. In 1849, at age 26, he was charged with conspiracy against tsar Nicholas' government and sentenced to death. Standing before a firing squad, he was reprieved at the very last moment, and sent to prison in Siberia for four years. On his way, a group of women gave him a New Testament which he treasured the rest of his life. His underlining of his New Testament emphasized two themes: persecution of the just and the coming Day of Judgment. He believed in salvation through suffering. He also believed in God's Providence. Once, when a friend remarked that his Siberian punishment had been unjust, Dostoyevsky disagreed, pointing out that God had sent him to Siberia to teach him important lessons. Dostoyevsky's best known novels — The Idiot, a , e aaa, and The Brothers Karamazov explore man's sinful soul and show that suffering has a purifying effect upon an individual's life.
          Dostoyevsky died on 09 February [28 January Julian] 1881. The epitaph on his grave is from John l2:24: "Unless a grain of wheat falls to the earth and dies, it remains by itself alone; but if it dies, it bears much fruit." .
    DOSTOEVSKY ONLINE (in Russian and in English translations):
    1. . a, ðåäaêöèÿ 1865 ã. (265 ÊÁ)
    2. e. ea a, ðåäaêöèÿ 1866 ã. (335 ÊÁ)
    3. a a
    4. a. aa
    5. ea.
    6. a .
    7. e . a
    8. a e aa. a
    9. a a a.
    10. . ae a. ae a
    11. a aa (354 ÊÁ)
    12. ae e. a
    13. . a e (280 ÊÁ)
    14. a a. ae (444 ÊÁ)
    15. .a a (757 ÊÁ)
    16. a a (633 ÊÁ)
    17. e a. aa
    18. a a
    19. a .
    20. , aa aa.
    21. aaae. a a (1150 ÊÁ)
    22. . a (310 ÊÁ)
    23. e . aa (290 ÊÁ)
  • The Brothers Karamazov
  • The Brothers Karamazov
  • Crime and Punishment (22)
  • Crime and Punishment
  • Crime and Punishment
  • Crime and Punishment
  • The Crocodile: An Extraordinary Incident (21)
  • A Gentle Spirit: A Fantastic Story
  • The Insulted and Injured (16)
  • Notes from the Underground (20)
  • Notes from the Underground
  • The Double (2)
  • The Gambler (24)
  • The Idiot
  • Poor Folk (1)
  • Selected works:
  • The Brothers Karamazov,
  • Crime & Punishment,
  • Notes from Underground,
  • The Crocodile: An Extraordinary Incident,
  • The Double,
  • A Gentle Spirit: A Fantastic Story,
  • The Insulted & The Injured,
  • The Dream of a Ridiculous Man,
  • Bobok: From Someone's Diary,
  • The Peasant Marey: From Diary of a Writer,
  • The Little Orphan
  • 1811 Ben McCulloch, future Confederate General.
          McCulloch is born near Rutherford City, Tennessee. Raised in Tennessee, McCulloch followed his friends Davy Crockett and Sam Houston to Texas in 1835. Measles kept him from joining Crockett at the Alamo, where its defenders, including Crockett, were massacred when the Mexican army overran the mission during the Texas War for Independence. McCulloch served with Houston at the decisive Battle of San Jacinto, in which Mexican General Santa Anna's army was defeated and Texas gained its independence. After the war, McCulloch served in the Texas legislature and the Texas Rangers, the primary law enforcement agency in the Republic of Texas. He fought under General Zachary Taylor during the Mexican War and served as a US marshal in the 1850s.
          When the Civil War broke out, McCulloch became a colonel in command of Texas troops. He rode to San Antonio and forced the surrender of a Federal arsenal there, while his brother, Henry, took control of Federal posts on the Texas frontier. In May 1861, Ben McCulloch became a brigadier general in the Confederate army and was assigned to defend Indian Territory. He formed alliances with several tribes in the area before moving his force to southwestern Missouri, where he played a key role in the Confederate victory at Wilson's Creek on August 10, 1861.
          McCulloch commanded a wing of the Army of the West as it approached a Union force led by General Samuel Curtis in northwestern Arkansas in March 1862. Curtis took up a defensive position around Elkhorn Tavern and waited for the Confederates to attack. On the night of March 6, McCulloch marched his troops around Curtis's right flank and prepared for an early morning assault on March 7. Curtis discovered the movement, and blocked McCulloch's advance. That day, at the Battle of Pea Ridge, Curtis held off a furious attack by McCulloch's force. McCulloch rode forward to monitor his men's progress when he emerged from some underbrush directly in front of a Union regiment. Identifiable by his trademark black velvet suit (he eschewed uniforms), a volley from the Yankees killed McCulloch instantly. His successor, General James McIntosh, was killed minutes later and the leaderless Confederates retreated. McCulloch's death was the turning point in the battle, and the Confederate defeat ensured Union domination of northern Arkansas for the rest of the war.
    1787 Jan Christianus Schotel, Dutch painter and draftsman who died on 21 December 1838. — more
    1748 Charles IV king of Spain (1788-1808)
    1738 Jean-Jacques-François Le Barbier, French Neoclassical painter, illustrator, and writer, who died on 07 May 1826 (1828?). — MORE ON LE BARBIER AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1729 Bourgainville, mathematician — L'explorateur Louis Antoine de Bougainville est ne le 11 novembre 1729.
    1579 Frans Snyders, Flemish painter who died on 19 August 1657. Antwerp-born Baroque artist who was the most noted 17th-century painter of hunting scenes and animals in combat. — MORE ON SNYDERS AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1050 Henry IV, Holy Roman emperor (1036-1106)
    Holidays Angola: Independence Day (1975) / Belgium, France, French countries: Armistice Day / Bhutan: King's Birthday / Canada: Remembrance Day-Veterans Day, 11th Hr-11th Day-11th Month / Colombia: Cartagena Day (1811) / Maldives: Republic Day (1968) / Rhodesia: Independence Day (1965) / St Maarten: Concordia Day / US : Veterans Day / Washington: Admission Day (1889)

    Religious Observances Ang, RC : Martinmas, term day in Scotland (St Martin of Tours) / Luth : Soren Kierkegaard, teacher / Saint Martin Soldat romain originaire du bassin du Danube, en garnison a Amiens, Martin partage son manteau avec un pauvre [Saint Martin et le Mendiant, par El Greco]. La nuit suivante, le Christ lui apparait en songe, revetu du meme manteau [Le Songe de Saint Martin, par Simone Martini]. Martin se convertit [Saint Martin renonce a l'epee, par Simone Martini] et fonde le monastere de Marmoutier (Bas-Rhin). Il devient eveque de Tours avant de s'eteindre en 397 a Candes, au bord de la Loire [Mort de Saint Martin, par Simone Martini]. Il est inhume a Tours. Tres populaire, Martin a fortement contribue a la diffusion du christianisme en Gaule. Beaucoup d'eglises, de lieux et de patronymes portent son nom. Autrefois, la Saint Martin etait l'occasion de faire bombance et de tuer la dinde avant le jeûne traditionnel de l'Avent, c'est-a-dire de la periode precedant Noel. Ledit jeune est tombe en desuetude et l'Eglise ne conserve que le jeune du Careme, avant Paques. Touchee par des vents du sud-ouest, la France beneficie souvent d'un redoux dans les jours qui suivent la Saint Martin. On parle a cette occasion de l'ete de la Saint Martin. De l'autre cote de l'Atlantique, des phenomenes meteorologiques differents occasionnent aussi un bref redoux en novembre connu comme l'ete indien.

    Thoughts for the day : "Fear is the tax that conscience pays to guilt."
    "A characteristic of great men who have remained great is loyalty to their subordinates."
    "A good solution applied with vigor now is better than a perfect solution applied ten minutes later."
    "You’re never beaten until you admit it."
    "Compared to war, all other forms of human endeavor shrink to insignificance." —
    "The object of war is not to die for your country, but to make the other bastard die for his." —
    "Compared to humane endeavors, all wars shrink the significance of conscience."
    " There are two kinds of statistics, the kind you look up, and the kind you make up." —
    Rex Stout [he forgot the kind that makes you throw up]
    "A religion that is small enough for our understanding would not be large enough for our needs." Arthur Balfour, the First Earl of Balfour, English statesman (1848-1930)
    updated Monday 17-Nov-2003 14:48 UT
    safe site site safe for children safe site